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Easiest Way to Catch a Criminal

In: Science

Submitted By bwc99
Words 1565
Pages 7
Crimes occur every day from burglary, to killings, kidnapping, stealing, and many more. The people that commit those kind of crimes need to be caught so that they can pay their consequences which should help them realize the crime they committed was wrong. Catching a criminal is not easy so what are the most effective ways to catch a criminal? The forensic community plays an important role in helping out with this situation. Forensic scientist help law enforcements get a lead and solve a case. Forensic scientists use different devices like urine testing, DNA testing, DNA markers, and many more devices to help get a lead in a case in order to come to the decision of convicting the right person. Forensics technology has improved greatly over time
DNA
In most cases the easiest way to catch a criminal is by DNA. With DNA in a criminal case it can put you at the place of crime. There are some flaws with DNA though. There is always the possibility of people having the same DNA strands. And if a piece of hair or any other kind of DNA is found at a crime scene and that is the only evidence and two people have the same DNA strand there’s a possibility of the wrong person going to jail.
Once a crime has been committed the most important item to recover is any type of evidence left at the scene. If the suspect left any DNA at the crime scene, he could then be linked to the crime and eventually charged. A suspect’s DNA can be recovered if the suspect leaves a sample of his or her DNA at the crime scene. However, this method was not always used to track down a suspect. Not a long time ago, detectives used to use bite marks, blood stain detection, blood grouping as the primary tool to identify a suspect. DNA analysis has been the most recent technique employed by the forensic science community to identify a suspect or victim since the use of fingerprinting. Also since the introduction of this new technique it has been a large number of individual’s released or convicted of crimes based on DNA left at the crime scene. The use of this technique has played a critical role in the investigation of crimes.
DNA is a double helix molecule that contains information that is used to make up a person’s body. DNA controls every aspect of a person’s body from their eye and hair color, height, and other features. DNA’s specific and unique characteristic can be crucial when solving a crime. DNA can be used to convict a suspect or exonerate an innocent person. When DNA is found it is even more important that is handle properly to ensure proper identification and accuracy of testing.
Before the 1980s, courts relied on testimony and eyewitness accounts as a main source of evidence. But that was unreliable, these techniques have gone away to the reliability of DNA forensics. In 1984, British geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester discovered an interesting new marker in the human genome. Most DNA information is the same in every human, but the junk code between genes is unique to every person. Junk DNA used for investigative purposes can be found in blood, saliva, sexual fluid, skin tissue, bone marrow, and hair gland. By analyzing this junk code, Jeffreys found certain sequences of 10 to 100 base pairs repeated multiple times. These tandem repeats are also the same for all people, but the number of repeats is highly repeatable. Before this discovery, a drop of blood at a crime scene could only reveal a person’s blood type, plus a few proteins unique to certain people. Now DNA forensics can show a person’s gender, hair color, blood type and race.
DNA from animals and plants can also be utilized in criminal forensics. One of the most common uses of this is the analysis of pet hair from a crime scene, which often links its owner to the crime.
With living in a racist world we almost always assume the worst of somebody due to their race or gender. There have been many cases where the wrong person has gone to jail due to race or gender. And with DNA analysis it has helped many people get free from prison for crimes that they didn’t commit.
Fingerprinting
Fingerprinting is a technique to identify a criminal by. When you touch something it leaves a fingerprint on it due to sweat from your oil glands. Just like DNA it has its flaws. A fingerprint can always be smeared. And a black powder is used to pick up the print and if too much is used the print can be ruined.
Fingerprints are unique when it comes to crime detection. No two people have been found to have the same fingerprints. They are totally unique. There’s a one in 64 billion chance that your fingerprint will match up exactly with someone else’s. Fingerprints are even more unique than DNA, the genetic material in each of our cells. Although identical twins can share the same DNA, or at least most of it they can’t have the same fingerprints. Fingerprinting is one form of biometrics, a science that uses people’s physical characteristics to identify them. Fingerprints are ideal for this purpose because they are inexpensive to collect and analyze, and they never change, even as people age. Although hands and feet have many ridged area that could be used for identification, fingerprints became a popular form of biometrics because they are easy to classify and sort. Scientists look at the arrangement, shape, size and number of lines in these fingerprint patterns to distinguish one from another. They also analyze very tiny characteristics called minutiae, which can’t be seen with the naked eye. Fingerprints are made of an arrangement of ridges, called friction ridges. Each ridge contains pores, which are attached to sweat glands under the skin. You leave fingerprints on glasses, tables and just about anything else you touch because of this sweat.
When a police officer or a forensics expert takes someone’s fingerprint they can do it two ways the second one is the easiest and most common. The first one is creating an ink fingerprint. To create an ink fingerprint, the person’s finger is first cleaned with alcohol to remove any sweat and dried thoroughly. The person rolls his or her fingertips in ink to cover the entire fingerprint area. Then, each finger is rolled onto prepared cards from one side of the fingernail to the other. These are called rolled fingerprints. All fingers of each hand are placed down on the bottom of the card at a 45 degree angle to produce a set of flat impressions. These are used to verify the accuracy of the rolled impressions. The second one is through digital scanners. Digital scanners capture an image of the fingerprint. To create a digital fingerprint, a person places his or her finger on an optical or silicon reader surface and holds it there for a few seconds. The police officer or forensics expert converts the information from the scan into digital data patterns. The computer then maps the points on the fingerprints and uses those points to search for similar patterns in the database.
Law enforcement agents can analyze fingerprints they find at the scene of a crime. There are two different types of prints. One is visible prints. Visible prints which are made on a type of surface that creates an impression, like blood, dirt or clay. The second one is latent prints. Latent prints which are made when sweat, oil and other substances on the skin reproduce the ridge structure of the fingerprints on a glass, murder weapon or any other surface the perpetrator has touched. These prints can’t be seen with naked eye, but can be made visible using black powder.
I think that DNA is a better way than fingerprints to catch a criminal. One reason why I think this is fingerprint’s can get ruined or smudged and you can’t recover the whole print. But with DNA you can easily conserve it and keep it for later testings. One more reason why I think that DNA is a better way than fingerprint’s to catch a criminal is because with fingerprint’s there is only one way to identify him or her and that is with the fingerprint. But with DNA you can find the DNA in blood, bone, saliva, hair, and many more thing. One more reason why I think that DNA is a better way than fingerprint’s to catch a criminal is because you can find DNA anywhere at a crime scene. You can find it on the floor or on the wall or even on the victim. But with fingerprints they are only found on walls or objects like a gun. You can’t find a fingerprint on the victim from the criminal. And the last reason that I think that DNA is a better way to catch a criminal than fingerprint’s is because there is no way to get rid of your DNA. But with fingerprints there is an acid that can remove your fingerprints for a short period of time which is enough time to commit a crime. In conclusion I think that DNA is a better way to catch a criminal.…...

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