Premium Essay

Eastern Asian Enterprise Structures-

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ahyoussef
Words 12884
Pages 52
Eastern Asian Enterprise Structures and tlie Comparative Analysis of Forms of Business Organization
Richard D. Whitley

Abstract Richard D. Whitley Manchester Business School, Manchester, U.K.

The economic success of different forms of business organization in East Asian countries emphasizes the variety of viable enterprise structures and suggests the need for a comparative analysis of how they develop and operate in different societal contexts. Major differences between East Asian business 'recipes' include the range of activities that are authoritatively coordinated, their pattems of development, the ways in which they are organized and controlled and the organization of inter enterprise relations. These differences suggest eight major dimensions on which dominant enterprise structures in different societies can be compared and how their development can be linked to major social institutions.

Introduction

Organization Studies 1990,11/1:047-074 © 1990 EGOS 0170-8406/90 0011-0003 $1.00

The economic success of Japanese firms over the past 40 years has emphasized the viability of alternatives to United States management structures and practices, as well as highlighting the limited generality of the business strategy-structure relationships identified by Chandler (Alford 1976; Kagono et al. 1985: 99-110; Maurice et al. 1986). Whereas it may have seemed reasonable in the 1960s and 1970s to regard Japanese organizational practices and forms as temporary stepping stones on the path to 'modern', i.e. U.S., practices, their continuation and growing success in U.S. and European markets render such dismissal increasingly untenable. The failure of competitive pressures to generate isomorphic management structures and practices throughout successful firms in world markets (cf. DiMaggio and Powell 1983) is further emphasized by the distinctive nature of firms in...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Interview

...Business source complete Great Eastern Life Assurance this week became the first Asian insurance company outside Australia or Japan to sell a subordinated bond. The Singaporean borrower raised S$400m ($310.5m) in a deal that bankers hope will encourage regulators across Asia to let insurers turn to the debt markets to shore up their capital positions. Singapore is rare among Asian countries in having explicit capital regulations for insurance companies that allow the use of various forms of debt, as well as equities, to function as capital. But no issuer had tested the regulations before, and the lead managers held long discussions with the Monetary Authority of Singapore while they were structuring the deal. One of the points under discussion was whether the coupons needed to be deferrable -- something that would strengthen the bond's function as capital, but would have made the deal a tougher sell to investors. "It was more investor friendly to make coupons non-deferrable and we had to debate that point a bit with the MAS," Tony Cheong, group chief financial officer at Great Eastern Life Assurance told EuroWeek Asia. "But this is a common structure for banks. You will likely see the capital requirements of banks and insurance companies move closer and closer together, so it made sense." The issuer and its bankers won that argument, allowing Great Eastern to sell a S$400m 15 year non-call 10 bond with non-deferrable coupons. The bond got around S$1.2bn of demand,......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Wcoa Report

...Global perspectives on governance: lessons from east and west While the core principles of governance are the same throughout the world, the Asian model places particular emphasis on trust and relationships. This paper discusses the key differences between the western and Asian approaches to help business leaders explore the best aspects of both. Conclusions 1. The corporate governance model that’s familiar in Asia, Africa and most developing nations places strong emphasis on trust and relationships. This can be beneficial for stakeholders: the typical pattern of ownership in businesses means that there can be a longer-term view of an organisation’s success compared with that in a western company. But the system is potentially vulnerable to corruption and cronyism. It can also be difficult to implement basic control procedures. 2. The prestige of what can be broadly termed the western governance model has diminished in the aftermath of the financial crisis. This model has driven globalisation and has emphasised a combination of legislation and standards as well as transparency, with a focus on developing appropriate structures, processes and frameworks. This is widely understood and helps to create a level playing field. But major financial failures over the past two years, such as that of Lehman Brothers, have shown that there are limits to what can be done to tighten checks and balances. A new emphasis on the behavioural aspects of governance is......

Words: 6676 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

China Wine Market

...Weaknesses--The confusion wine market, how to make our brand become a well-known   brands, how to open the sale channel Opportunities--Huge market demand, purchasing power &private consumption growth, Traditional viniculture present, the right distribution partners, the good advertising partners Threats--Aggressive producers, Domestic product, Consumer acceptance 1.2 China wine market general introduction As we all know, Asia market now is a new develop market, it is still confusion (the wine law, the regulation).So, we choice the focus market in Asia--China to enter, this will reduce the trouble of our market development. We should be aware that the Asian market, 95% wine consumption is face to the civilian population, only 5% high-end products sells to truly rich wine collector. Of course, with the further development of Asian economies, which 5% people will continue to expand. For the past few years, the maximum annual production of Chinese wine was about 30 million tons; it was less than 2% of beer output and 6% of Chinese liquor production, also it was only 1% of the world wine production, and the consumption per head was equivalent to France, Italy, Spain and other developed countries by 0.5%. China’s demand for wine will be reaching 600,000 tons by 2010, thus, the wine industry in China has a tremendous growth space and good market prospects. [2] However, it is very incompatible that the space of Chinese wine production and consumption has not been opened......

Words: 4074 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Summary of Chapter

...Chapter 1: The business systems of Asia Variety in the regional and general features Civilizational traditions • Confucianism • Taoism • Buddhism • Islam • Catholicism Historical external influences • Colonies • India establishing trading connections, mostly in South East Asia • Chinese who left China and settled as business people in the countries around the rim of the South China sea Periods: 1. 1945-1975 After the retreat of colonial powers, countries needed to reestablish their identity and political structures → hostility + Maoist experiments in China 2. 1975-1997 Relative calm period, stable growth, export to foreign countries, rise in FDI a. Mao’s death: collapse of communism → socialist market economy b. Japanese miracle c. Impressive growth of the South-Korean economy 3. Ersatz capitalism → Asian crisis in 1997: inefficient use of capital was covered up by the availability of easy money from governments, optimistic foreign investors lured by the emerging markets. The system could not keep up the pretence as it became sensitive to a downturn in the economic cycle which hit the region in 1997. → End of easy money and beginnings of reforms. 4. After 1997, reforms: • Improvements to accountability and disclosure in the financing of industry • Reduction of favoritism and corruption during control of licenses and capital • Opening of markets to foreign competition • Adoption of international standards in accounting, trading, IPR • General......

Words: 9679 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Accounting

...ISSUES IN ACCOUNTING EDUCATION Vol. 22, No. 4 November 2007 pp. 685–708 China Eastern Airlines: People’s Republic of China Accounting Standards, International Financial Reporting Standards, or U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles? John L. Haverty ABSTRACT: China Eastern Airlines, headquartered in the People’s Republic of China, has been listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange since 1997. In its 2005 annual report, China Eastern Airlines presents two sets of financial statements: one prepared under People’s Republic of China accounting regulations, and a second set prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards. In addition, as a listed company on the New York Stock Exchange, China Eastern Airlines files Form 20-F with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. This filing includes a limited reconciliation of net income and net assets from International Financial Reporting Standards to United States’ generally accepted accounting principles. Your job is to examine these financial statements, explore any differences noted between each of the financial statements and U.S. GAAP, and highlight some issues to be included in a financial analysis of China Eastern Airlines for possible inclusion in an investment portfolio. W INTRODUCTION alt Gregory is a junior portfolio analyst at Chartgood, a portfolio manager for several major mutual funds. Susan Bedell, the portfolio manager, just informed Walt that one of the funds she managed, the......

Words: 9328 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Case Study

...of Contents v Executive Brief 3 Decision Tree 4 Company Overview Product Mix & Global Presence Current Business Model Value Chain Competitive Advantages Growth Imperative 5 6 7 8 9 Country Analysis – China Economic Overview CAGE Analysis Target Consumers Institutional Voids 10 11 12 13 Industry Analysis – Multi-Unit Restaurants Porter’s Five Forces Market Attractiveness Industry Trends Competitor Analysis 14 15 16 17 Recommendations 18 v Executive Brief v To reap the profits derived from possessing a strong brand image, quality customer service, and consistent company practices across its global operations, Levendary Café must enter China as a wholly owned enterprise, focus initially on an aggregation-arbitrage strategy, and reroute its Levendary China operations to a new arm of its managerial hierarchy. Thus far, Levendary China has suffered from a scattered brand reputation. In a rush to open as many stores as possible, Levendary Café in China has relied upon a pure adaptation strategy, which has fragmented its carefully curated company image. If the company wants to regain full control of its branding, it should only consider establishing wholly-owned operations to avoid losing further control. By turning to an aggregation-arbitrage strategy, Levendary Café can turn also around its profitability by creating economies of scale among its stores and taking advantage of Chinese......

Words: 3369 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Introduction in Hrm

...INTRODUCTION Human resource management (HRM) is universal in terms of strategies, policies and processes. The term has gradually replaced personnel management. Managing and developing human resources in the international (global) setting is increasingly recognized as a central challenge, particularly to multinational enterprises (MNEs). Human resource management is both academic theory and a business practice that addresses the theoretical and practice techniques of managing a workforce. While the theoretical aspects of the discipline may also be universal, the same cannot be said of its practice. The paper defines human resource management, the theoretical basis of the discipline, business practice and global or international human resource management. Thereafter, the paper concentrates on global perspective or issues in international human resource management practice. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human resource management is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” (HRM) and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. Human resource management can also be defined as the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of,......

Words: 2242 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Case

...HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) IN THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: THEORY AND PRACTICE. BY UKERTOR GABRIEL MOTI (P.hD.) Department of Public Administration UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA INTRODUCTION Human resource management (HRM) is universal in terms of strategies, policies and processes. The term has gradually replaced personnel management. Managing and developing human resources in the international (global) setting is increasingly recognized as a central challenge, particularly to multinational enterprises (MNEs). Human resource management is both academic theory and a business practice that addresses the theoretical and practice techniques of managing a workforce. While the theoretical aspects of the discipline may also be universal, the same cannot be said of its practice. The paper defines human resource management, the theoretical basis of the discipline, business practice and global or international human resource management. Thereafter, the paper concentrates on global perspective or issues in international human resource management practice. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human resource management is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” (HRM) and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel......

Words: 2266 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Corporate Governance in Malaysia: the Effect of Corporate Reforms and State Business Relation in Malaysia

...Asian Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, 23–34, January 2007 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN MALAYSIA: THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE REFORMS AND STATE BUSINESS RELATION IN MALAYSIA Nor Azizah Zainal Abidin 1 and Halimah @ Nasibah Ahmad2 1 Faculty of Public Management and Law, 2 Faculty of Accountancy Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia ABSTRACT The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 not only introduced the term of corporate governance but also drew attention of the public about the weaknesses of Malaysian corporate governance practice. After 1998, Malaysian government decided to adopt corporate reform that could enhance the quality of good corporate management practice. This reform is clearly stated in the code and rules of corporate governance. The purpose of this research is to study the significance of implementing the code and rules of corporate governance since the public already realize the close relationship between business and politics. Three companies were chosen as indicators for this study. As a result, it was found that companies which are involved in corporate malpractice but have good relationship with states will always be excluded from the legal corporate action. Keywords: corporate governance, corporate reforms, political economy, state business relation INTRODUCTION Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 not only introduced the term of corporate governance but also drew attention of the public about the weaknesses of Malaysian......

Words: 4860 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Pestle Singapore

...Laser Diagnostic Instruments (LDI) is an Estonian company, operating in the area of research, development, manufacturing and application of laser-based instrumentation. By the decision of a group of scientists in 1991 to apply their knowledge of lasers and electro-optics to practical commerce solutions, LDI offers analytical sensors to address environmental, industrial, and bio-medical issues, together with a range of software products that control measurements and handle data. LDI main products and services are based on novel laser, electro-optical and photonics technologies aimed at the real-time data assessment. Company developments and products quickly received worldwide recognition and the scientists' achievements have been acknowledged by prestigious international awards. The principal applications of LDI products and services are based on different technologies for each segments: o Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is the technology that provides users with the tools to conduct broad and accurate environmental surveys of both water and ground in stressed environmental zones, which makes LID products specially suitable for oil spill response operations and others, like pipeline monitoring and leak detection. o Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is a very sensitive and selective tool to monitor many industrial processes on site and in real time, especially to ensure that products and processes start safe, meet standards, and remain safe at critical points......

Words: 2897 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Emerging Economies

...research is some of the most widely cited in the management discipline, with leading journals dedicated to its study and well-recognized conferences supporting its development. The methods employed and the theory foundations used in entrepreneurship today are consistent with mainstream management research. However, entrepreneurship research can still be critiqued as almost exclusively focused on North American and European research sites. The exploration of domains outside of these two developed economic regions remains extremely limited. In particular, little is known of entrepreneurship in emerging economies: economies that are increasingly moving to market orientation and seeking to rapidly advance economically. To illustrate, several East Asian economies with large ethnic Chinese populations are considered emerging. These...

Words: 7364 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

B Law

...Facts About and Impacts of FDI on China and the World Economy Yuqing Xing China: An International Journal, Volume 8, Number 2, September 2010, pp. 309-327 (Article) Published by NUS Press Pte Ltd DOI: 10.1353/chn.2010.0002 For additional information about this article http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/chn/summary/v008/8.2.xing.html Access Provided by Hamline University at 06/25/12 7:34PM GMT Facts About and Impacts of FDI on China and the World Economy Yuqing XING This paper provides a comprehensive review of foreign direct investment in China over the last three decades. It reviews the growth, sources and distribution of FDI in China and analyses factors determining FDI inflows. It summarises the contributions of FDI to the Chinese economy in terms of economic growth, total factor productivity, exports and technology progress. Finally, the paper discusses potential impacts of FDI in China on the rest of the world in terms of FDI-competing countries and FDI source countries. (FDI) among all developing countries, China received a cumulative total of USD854 billion in FDI from 1979 to 2008 and benefitted tremendously from both tangible and intangible assets associated with FDI inflows. In fact, in the modern history of economic development, no other country has ever benefitted, and continues to benefit, from FDI as much as China. There is a consensus among academic scholars specialising in the Chinese economy that, over the last three decades, FDI has been a......

Words: 6877 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

European Business Management, Germany Car Study

...European Business Issues | | | | Analysing the Competitive Strengths and Weaknesses of Germany with the TOWS Matrix Analysing the Competitive Strengths and Weaknesses of Germany with the TOWS Matrix Author: Student Name: Student No: Tutor: Adrian Pryce * Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Porter's Determinants of National Advantage 2 3. Gaining Competitive Advantage with the TOWS Matrix Conceptual Model 3 4. Germany's Internal Weaknesses 4 5. Germany's Internal Strengths, Social Factors 5 6. Germany's Internal Strengths, Political and Economic factors 6 7. Threats from European Union Countries, North America and Asia 7 8. Opportunities within the European Union, North America, and Asia 9 9. Government Policy and Business Strategy 10 10. Conclusion 12 11. References 13 1. Introduction All nations are attentive to compete efficiently in the international market. Competitiveness doesn't depend simply on the value of individual firms, but also on the socioeconomic system and the industries of a nation. The rapidly changeable situations of the free world markets transcribe that nations fully utilize their comparative advantages to become or remain thriving in the future (Farr, 1990). Economic and political leaders must estimate the opportunities and threats from the foreign environments so as to put up convenient domestic strategies that shore up the weaknesses of their nations and take advantages......

Words: 4270 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

The Rat

...The Financial Crises in Russia and East Asia: How the World Bank can Help. 1 - Overview of Asian financial crisis On July 2, 1997, the Government of Thailand abandoned its efforts to maintain a fixed- exchange rate – the Baht had been pegged to a basket of currencies dominated by the U.S. dollar – and allowed the Baht to float. This Baht quickly depreciated, falling 18% on the first day alone. The collapse of the Thai Baht was followed by speculative attacks on other countries’ currencies (including the Indonesian Rupiah, the Malaysia Ringitt, the Philippine Peso, and the Korean Won) and to a further round of forced devaluations. The collapse of fixed exchange rates was accompanied by a series of more general financial sector crises in several of these countries. Although the precise details vary, the immediate cause appears to be a mismatch between assets and liabilities in the corporate and banking sectors (in both currency and term length) and a sharp decline in asset values. These immediate problems were exacerbated by general financial sector weakness due to inadequate supervision and rampant insider lending. In many ways the crises in Asia were somewhat different than previously observed exchange rate crises. Corsetti, Pesenti and Roubini (1998) note that several of the usual indicators of a pending financial crisis – slow growth, large fiscal deficits, high rates of inflation and low savings and investment rates – were not observed in......

Words: 2247 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Bank

...RETHINKING THE EAST ASIAN MIRACLE JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ AND SHAHID YUSUF Editors RETHINKING THE EAST ASIA MIRACLE JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ AND SHAHID YUSUF Editors A copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press i Oxford University Press Oxford • New York • Athens • Auckland • Bangkok • Bogotá • Buenos Aires • Calcutta • Cape Town • Chennai • Dar es Salaam • Delhi • Florence • Hong Kong • Istanbul • Karachi • Kuala Lumpur • Madrid • Melbourne • Mexico City • Mumbai • Nairobi • Paris • São Paulo • Singapore • Taipei • Tokyo • Toronto • Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin • Ibadan © 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Cover design and interior design by Naylor Design, Washington, D.C. Manufactured in the United States of America First printing June 2001 1 2 3 4 04 03 02 01 The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this study are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated......

Words: 190305 - Pages: 762