Free Essay

Eastern Educational Philosophies

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By lynheck
Words 2209
Pages 9
Eastern Educational Philosophies

Abstract Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism are compared for historical, ideology, and epistemology, searching for Eastern Philosophy compatible to Western Philosophy. A research for possible influences on Education of Philosophy discovered that it was impossible to bring comparisons and even difficult to separate them into the key issues. Colonialism and Nationalism brings the two philosophies together. Even though the Western mindset can appreciate the fascination concepts it may be impossible to blend East and West. However, it is possible to juxtapose the very different philosophies as it may be represented in the arts. Even Western Philosopher who have been influenced by Eastern Philosophy, it is reasonable to believe it is the philosophers attempt to interpret Eastern Philosophy. However, it is impossible to replicate it. Instead the product is a hybrid and independent of either East or West.

Eastern Educational Philosophies Eastern philosophy has a long and varied history. Asian ideas are among the oldest in the world. Great thinkers of the East have developed sophisticated cultural and political systems that have influenced other religions as well as western philosophy. This paper will examine ideological, epistemological, and historical differences in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Ways in which these philosophies have shaped higher education theory and practice are of major importance to educators.


Historical India’s earliest civilization, ca. 3000 to 1750 BCE, was in the Indus River Valley. Archeological findings conclude a preoccupation for symbols of fertility, and worship of a divinity similar to the Hindu God Shiva, an Earth Goddess, certain animals, trees, and positive symbols such as the swastika (Embree, 1988, p. 3). A second civilization appeared in the same area ca. 2000 BCE known as Endo-Europeans to which the Indian’s named “Aryans” (Embree, 1988, p. 4). The Aryans were responsible for the Vedas and Upanishads (p. 5). Many scholars believe the Bhagavad Gita and Bharata’s Natya Shāstra should also be included (Garfield, & Edelglass, 2011, p. 109).

Ideological After 1813 English reformers brought western education and customs to India. During the 19th century, higher education institutions increased. English curriculum eliminated Hindu culture. However, Sanskrit fascinated western scholars. Subsequently, Sanskrit re-entered higher education and “new dimensions were added to the ideology of Sanskrit education” (Brill, 1996, p. 389). Western educators sought to preserve Hindu tradition, which inspired the rise of Neo-Hinduism. Nationalism emerged during the 20th century. Political leaders like Gandhi popularized Sanskrit works, such as the Bhagavad Gita (Brill, 1996, p. 389). Sanskrit studies brought keen interests for, cultural, political, and spiritual revival and preservation of India’s heritage (p. 390).

Epistemological The Vedas (knowledge) and the Upanishads (secret doctrines) have a specific viewpoint toward life: an individual’s duty (dharma) is to liberate (moksha) oneself from the karmic (cause, effect) wheel of birth and death (reincarnation), and unite one’s true self with Brahman (God) or Absolute Reality. The Vedic hymns called for Aryanization: “to make people noble, to educate them, and to inculcate higher virtues and values in them” (Nigel, p. 14). The term Upanishad: “to sit down near” (Egenes, & Reddys, 2004, p. xv). Egenes et al suggest that everyone wants to sit next to the Vedas. They bring out one’s true Self (Ātmā) (p. xv). Hinduism is a dualistic system based on “differences in nature and origin, spirit and matter, or purusha and praruti” (Embree, 1988, p. 297). Mysticism is prevalent, which claims that Brahman or Absolute Reality can be obtained only through spiritual experience. Meditation, which links one to the spiritual world, is practiced daily.


Historical Gautama Buddha (ca. 560 – 480 BCE) lived his young life as a Hindu prince. As all noble boys, he was sent to study with famous religious teachers. After mastering the Brahman teachings, he believed his learning did not permanently end suffering. Subsequently, Gautama elected to give up his right to the throne and became an ascetic. Severe abuse and self-deprivation forced him to leave his penitent life and seek enlightenment another way. Gautama journeyed to Bodh, India. There, he sat under a Bodhi tree, meditated, and awakened. Gautama was transformed. He became the Buddha, enlightened. Buddha eliminated elements of Hinduism. He rejected the Vedas and ritual sacrifice. He challenged the priesthood and denied spiritual values based on birth (Singh, 2008).

Ideological Buddhist monasteries were grand with separate rooms for dinning, bathing, sleeping, and studying. Monasteries were used not only for religious purposes but also as centers for arts, crafts, paintings, etc. (Singh, p. 71). One major contribution of Buddhism was a number of magnificent universities. The most famous, University of Nālanda, was built during the 5th century. It attracted students from Tibet, China, Greece, and Persia. According to eyewitness account, its library was renown. A huge wall surrounded 10 monasteries, sacred groves, sitting on a bluff. The University thrived until ca. 1200, the Muslim invasion (Sharif, 2012 para. 2). Buddhist ideology spread as a religious and political system to China, Korea, Sri Lanka, Japan, and many other countries. Wright (2008) believes that Buddhism is an empire unto itself. He argues that Qianlong constituted the Chinese “Qing Empire (1644-1911) by furthering the religious-political and cultural ideologies with [Buddhist] ideology” (p. 4).

Epistemological Buddha focused problems of suffering, which he perceived as the cause of “attraction and aversion, and that the root cause of attraction and aversion is confusion regarding the fundamental nature of reality” (Garfield & Edelglass, 2011, p. 187). He offered a remedy to end suffering. His first doctrine was the Four Noble Truths: (1) Life is sorrowful (2) because of craving. (3) Cravings stopped. (4) Cure: Eight Fold Path: includes discipline, moral conduct, concentration, and meditation, led by a Buddhist monk. These four truths are the fundamental laws of morality, common to all Buddhism schools (Embree, 1988, p. 95). Some important concepts: all things transitory, no permanence, and no individuality. All things are classified into five combinations: form and matter, sensations, perceptions, psychic constructions, and consciousness. Achieving Nirvana can stop transmigration, rebirth. Without understanding Buddha’s truths, one will not find salvation (Embree, 1988, p. 95).


Historical The Confucian School was an intellectual, religious, and political movement founded by Confucius (551-478 BCE), in the 5th century BCE. He and his disciples considered themselves ru ji (scholarly tradition) He sought to reform government for the benefit of the people as well as developing virtue, particularly government officials. Confucianism supported respect for one’s elders, those in authority, traditional values, all ritual traditions, familial bonds, and education (Van Doan & Shen, 1991). The Analects a sacred text compiled by Confucius’ disciples after his death, is the best source for understanding Confucius philosophy. Ren (benevolence) is an idea introduced in the text. Confucius described ren as characteristics that all humans should realize. However, he believed this action was unending. Rituals were detailed ceremonies for performances of music and dance, greeting friends, eating, dressing, ancestors, and funerals. Rituals were devotional. It focused on reverence rather than on oneself and ultimately virtue (Riegel, 2012).

Ideological In the 4th century BCE, Mencius, a follower of Confucius, said that “those who used their minds ruled, and those who used their muscles were ruled” (Yi-tsi, 1987, p. 11). Mencius was not only referring to the “mind.” He was indicating “moral feelings” and intellect. Mencius expressed a traditional Confusion ideology, domination, and subordination. However, rather than separating the two aspects, Confucius connected them. The civil service examination, a scholar’s path to the hierarchical ruling class, required mastery of Confucian ideology. The scholar was connected to the state and served as an advisor. For centuries, a highly privileged scholarly elite attached to state ideology dominated Chinese society (Yi-tsi, 1988). The distinguishing characteristic of Confucianism was connecting the individual to the state, which defined politics “from the center of his moral being” (Yi-tsi, 1988, p. 12). Aspiring to become an elite moral being with a personal commitment to the state fortified Confucianism as an ideology that sustained the longest continued political system in history.

Epistemological Confucius believed that the role of the teacher was vital. He describes the responsibilities of the teacher: “To love him means not to let him indulge in comfort; to be loyal to him means to teach him” (Analects, 1994, p. 254). A teacher is “the sort of person who can be so diligent that he forgets his meals, so happy that he forgets his worries, and is even unaware of approaching old age” (p. 115). Confucius teaching “ritual” is not just teaching formal ritual, he is also revealing the spirit behind the ritual. Recognizing spirit is the basic core of Confucian education (Kapur & Kapur, 2008, p. 429). The sage is the model for Confucianism. The Analects stress the relationship between the gentleman and the sage. “I cannot expect to see a sage, but it is enough for me to see a gentleman” (Analects, 1994, p. 119). A sage is like a god in western terms. A human being can become a gentleman by perfecting the values and actions of a sage. A sage understands the Tao, the order of the universe, and natural phenomenon. Understanding natural phenomenon allows one to deal with human affairs. Knowledge establishes and maintains social order.

How Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism Shaped Higher Education

Theory and Practice Eastern Philosophy asserts that human nature is unpredictable. It is continually changing based on one’s environment and education. The fundamental goal of the student “is merging the essential self with the real Self” (Embree, 1988, p. 33). There are relationships between the personal and spiritual. The West is secular and concrete. The two do not appear compatible, unless, one observes Nationalism. Nationalism, at the beginning of the 20th century in India, developed a unified national economy. Nationalism included Western higher education. Consequently, Eastern Philosophy Western Education of Philosophy collided. Western scholars quickly recognized the sophistication of the Eastern mindset, its Sanskrit language as well as its ancient texts. With the help of Western educated scholars born in the East, Western academics translated Eastern Philosophy (Chakrabarty, p. 2). Eastern Philosophy entered Western higher education in India, Europe, the United States and other developing countries, as a focus of study. Eastern philosophical influences are noted in the visual and performing arts and across all Western educational disciplines. Since, Colonization, Philosophy of Education has been greatly influenced by the East.

Conclusion Hinduism has no boundaries between the sacred and non-sacred. Buddhism may be considered a continuation of Hinduism. Confucianism emphasized that knowing and acting should harmonize. There is a one-on-one relationship between the teacher and the student. The student lives with the teacher in a religious community. The teacher takes care of the student in a fatherly way. The student serves the teacher to show his respect. Confucian emphasizes education and teaching, especially through teaching rituals. In sum, Eastern Philosophy emphasizes harmony. There is less emphasis on controlling reality and more emphasis being a part of reality. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism are religions, cultures, and a way of life. Eastern Philosophy focuses on mysticism and the spiritual. Western Philosophy focuses on secularism. Western Philosophy and Eastern Philosophy are not compatible. However, Western Philosophy can place Eastern Philosophy beside one another. It can represent forms of Eastern thought in aesthetics juxtaposed to each other. However, the catalyst is revealed in Colonialism and Nationalism, where Western Philosophy moves into an environment, steeped in Eastern Philosophy, and they in effect share ideas.


Confucianism. (2012). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from
Cromwell, C. S. (1982). Evolution of Hindu Ethical Ideals. Minoa, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Chakrabarty, B. (2008). Indian Politics and Society since Independence: Events, Processes and Ideology. New, NY: Routledge. de Bary, T., Chan, W. T., Watson, B. (1960). Sources of Chinese Tradition. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Egenes. T., Reddy, K. (2004). Eternal stories from the Upanishads. (Trans. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi). Delhi, India: Smriti Books.
Embree, T. A. (1988). Sources of Indian traditions. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Garfield, J. L., & Edelglass, W. (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of world philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Kapur, P., Kapur, T. B. (2008). Value Education: Based On All The Religions Of The World (In Two Volumes). Delhi, India: Kalpaz Publications.
Narayanan, V. (2009). Hinduism. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
Nigel, G. S. (1986). Axiological Approach to the Vedas. New Delhi, India: Northern book Centre.Riegel, J. (2012). Confucius. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Edward N. Zalta (Ed.), Retrieved from
Nithiyanandam, V. ( 2004). Buddhist System Of Education. Delhi, India: Global Vision Publishing House.
Nigel, G. S. (1986). Axiological Approach to the Vedas. New Delhi, India: Northern book Centre.Singndam, V. ( 2004). Buddhist System Of Education. Delhi, India: Global Vision Publishing House.
Sharma, A. P. (2010). Indian & western educational philosophy. New Delhi, India: Unicorn Books.
Sharma, C. (1997). A critical survey of Indian philosophy, Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass
Sharma. G. R. (2003). Trends In contemporary Indian philosophy of education: A critical evaluation. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers and Distributers.
Wright, J. D. (2008). The weaving of a Buddhist empire: Mandalas and Manjusri in the reign of Qianlong. [Master’s Thesis]. University of Colorado. UMI 1455158
Yi-tsi, F. (1988). Ideology, power, text: Self-Representation and the peasant 'other' in modern Chinese literature. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast “so Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans by Baca& “American Dream” by Schwarnegger

...“So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans “by Jimmy Santiago Baca, the narrator explains in immigrants come to America and try to take make living for their families but society discriminate against them because they are different .American Dream” by Arnold Schwarnegger is an interview with Schwarzenegger detailing how a man tries to pursuit his dreams as a bodybuilder, never giving up no matter what. Even when he placed second times in competitions, he became successful in America. In other words, these two narrators give examples of how immigrants come from other countries, trying to pursuit dreams in another land, making better living for their children, and becoming leaders in many different ways. Society discriminates against them due to look. The optimistic tone of schwarnegger’s interview is in stark contrast to Baca’s poem, underlining American society’s preference for immigrants to European versus Latin-American descent. First, some people successfully sneak across the border but do not mean they will successful once they get to America. “So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans” by Baca gives a mental picture of where a lot of immigrants are coming from, and gives an understanding as to why they would choose to risk their lives coming to America. “The rifles I hear sound in the night are white farmers shooting blacks and browns whose ribs I see jutting out and starving children” reflects the bitterness he has towards Americans for the violence that occurs with......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Kogi State University Anyigba, P.M.B 1008 Faculty: Arts and Humanity, Department: Philosophy and Religious Studies. Name: HASSAN YAHAYA Matric No.: 12PR 1294 Course Code: Phil 410 Course Title: Oriental Philosophy Assignment Question: Discuss the basic tenets of Confucianism. In which ways has it Contributed to the Chinese society? Lecturer: Dr. John I. Ebeh Introduction: Confucianism is the traditional philosophy of the Chinese people and also a religion, mainly an ethical system or moral philosophy, named after its founder, Confucius (K’ung-Fu-Tzu), who was born in 551 B.C and died 479 B.C. it is not based on any metaphysical concept like the Taoism; it is the least metaphysical and the more practical of the Eastern philosophies considered. Confucius was a contemporary philosopher and also a contemporary Buddha. Below are the basic tenets of Confucianism; 1. Confucius never aimed at teaching anything new or founding anything new to the system; his aim was to simply give a re-interpretation and transmit to posterity the wisdom of the ancients. Thus he says and I quotes; “I communicate and do not invent. I have faith in antiquity and consecrate all my efforts to its cause”. The center of Confucius teaching is the concept of Jen, which has variously translated as human-heartedness (Derk Bodde, Fung Yu-lan), that by which a man is to be a man(Chan), the virtue of perfect humanity (Wei), compassion (Lin Yutang), and man – to – manness (E.R. Hughes). Jen is that......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Eastern Philosophy Comparison

...A Comparison of Eastern Philosophy Asia, the world’s largest continent, consists of over one third of Earths total land are and approximately 60% of the world’s population. Further, a large percentage of Asia’s 4.3 billion people live in the countries of China, Japan, and India (Exploredia, 2011). Out of these densely populated countries three eastern schools of philosophy were born between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, and it is these same ancient philosophies that flourish throughout Asia today. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism are three major schools of thought that significantly have impacted the political, social and religious views of Asian culture. Confucianism, which was inspired by Confucius, has been followed by the Chinese people for more than two thousand years (Confucianism, 2012, pp.1). Because Confucianism is described as a way of life, it is sometimes viewed as a philosophy and sometimes viewed as a religion, although it does not share the aspect of organization that most other religions share. The idea behind Confucianism is that wisdom and knowledge can be obtained through study, ritual practices, and learning from experiences. Humans are perfectible by wisdom and the ultimate goal is to reach a state of superior wisdom. The first principle Confucius taught is called the principle of mean, which is the importance of seeking balance and moderation in life. Any circumstance of extreme should be avoided. The second principle......

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Eastern Matrix

...Eastern Matrix nene monroe PHL/215 February 26, 2014 Field | Definition | Historical Developments | Schools Of Thought | Key Contributors | Principal Issues | Eastern | Eastern philosophy includes the various philosophies of ancient China and India, but can also include Islamic, Jewish, and Persian philosophies | Frederick Streng: ways of defining religion.Mary Daly: religion reflects patriarchy | The problem of evilArguments of godFaith and resounding | Saint AnselmGauniloSt. Thomas Aquinas | What is religion?Is there true evidence of a god?Is there a heaven and hell? | | | | | | | Eastern and Western philosophy are similar but different in many ways. Eastern philosophy includes the various philosophies of ancient China and India, but can also include Islamic, Jewish, and Persian philosophies. Western philosophy refers to the philosophies developed by the ancient Greeks and Indians. There are many differences between Eastern and Western philosophy. One is the east uses concepts by intuition while the west uses concepts by postulations. Another is the west wants logical concrete proof while according to the east reality is known by intuition. The eastern philosophers are primarily practical while the western philosophers are primarily theoretical. The west is concerned basically with the modern world while the east is concerned with the ancient and past world. Lastly eastern philosophy relationship with religion is integration while western philosophy......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Eastern Philosophy vs. Western Philosphy

...EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHY The subject of philosophy has always been divided along two lines of thinking – the eastern and the western. Though each line is concerned with finding the right path to follow, the methodology and teachings of the philosophers from either line of thinking has been distinct and different. This paper aims to examine the ideas of one eastern and one western philosopher – Confucius and Socrates respectively and compare the two for similarities and differences. One of the greatest philosophers from the eastern school of philosophy, Confucius was a just and righteous man, who adhered to ancient Chinese customs, ideals and conformed to the principles pre-laid by ancient sages. Because of his fame as a man of ideals, his counsel was often sought upon by kings. In his advice to emperors, Confucius stressed on the importance of examples. He believed if the emperor lead his subjects by leading an exemplary life, his subjects would follow and the state would be harmonious and prosper. His virtue of ethics was based on a simple rule – do not what you do not wish to be done to yourself. This is a powerful statement that underlines the aim of following virtuous acts – bad is something which you do not want for yourself, good actions are the ones which you wish to be returned to you. Through this statement, people could contemplate the impact of their actions on others and for themselves, decide upon what was right and what was wrong. In his advice to......

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

My Homework

...|AED/200 Version 5 | | |Contemporary Issues in American Education | Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2006 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description This course provides an overview of the teaching profession. It introduces the student to the various issues affecting teachers. Its primary focus will be on contemporary issues teachers and educators face in today’s schools. Throughout the course, all aspects of the teaching profession will be incorporated from the diversity of students in the classroom, to school organization and governance, to teaching philosophies and instruction. This course provides a foundation for understanding the education profession. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: • University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. • Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course......

Words: 1954 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Term Paper for Social Change

...Standard 1: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community. The effective administrator: 1.1 Uses research about best professional practice. Cooperative Learning       "Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students         work together to maximize their own and each other's learning." WHAT IS IT? Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. WHY USE IT? Documented results include improved academic achievement, improved behavior and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, and increased liking of school and classmates. Cooperative learning is also relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive. HOW DOES IT WORK? Here are some typical strategies that can be used with any subject, in almost any grade, and without a special curriculum: Group Investigations are structured to emphasize higher-order thinking skills such as analysis and evaluation. Students work to produce a group project, which they may have a......

Words: 52057 - Pages: 209

Free Essay

Problem Statements not have the tools or strategies for hiring administrators that are a good fit for their district or schools. Therefore, more time and money is spent on continuing the hiring process. Frequent turnover of administration at a school site reduces consistency and direction for the staff and students and ultimately affects student learning. Current testing instruments such as the Praxis Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision Examination are effective as summative assessment of the candidate’s attainment of certain skills but an ineffective detector of how the candidate will perform as a leader (Clifford, 2012). This qualitative study will compare and contrast the hiring practices of elementary school districts. This study aims to identify common strengths effective school administrators possess as well as current tools and strategies used by effective hiring committees. This study will focus on the hiring process of elementary principals within school districts located in central California. The data, tools and strategies gathered in this study will provide educational leaders with an easy follow format to create their own hiring process. Quantitative problem statement Online education offers students an anytime and anywhere method of receiving an advanced education. Online education provides convenience and flexibility for students (Li, & Irby, 2008). Online students have the ability to continue with their everyday...

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosopher's Matrix and Analysis

...|PHILOSOPHERS |John Locke |John Dewey |Confucius |Maria Montessori | | | | | |(1870-1952) | | |(1632-1704) |(1859-1952) |(551-479 BC) | | |Classroom Engagement |Aptitude and knowledge are |Students would have a deeper |Character can be enhanced |Adjust the child’s | | |achieved by examples and |connection to the content |through education, |environment to allow the | | |rehearsals or repeating of |taught if they could relate |observation, and meditative|child to explore and to be | | |information. |it to prior knowledge. |thoughts. |creative. | |Teaching and Learning |Reading, writing, and math |Lessons should be interactive|Repetition and |No textbooks. Students | | |are not the only subjects |and meaningful. They should |memorization. |learning by interaction | | ...

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...| “To what extent if at all, does the Education Act of 1988 cater for the educated person?” Discuss. | PBL1012 – Education Law | 1/15/2014 | Malta’s state school is based on the British educational system, due to its colonial past. The law regulating Education in Malta (Act XXIV of 1988) defines the rights and obligations of students, parents, the State and Non-Governmental Organizations in the sphere of Education. There are various objectives the Act purports to achieve to cater for the educated person. These include holistic education and life-long education which are vital and fundamental to the whole purpose of the re-established Act of 1988. Holistic Education The Act caters for the “full development of the whole personality including the ability of every person to work”. This is what is called holistic education which is based on the principle that students find their identity and purpose in life by connecting to the community, nature and humanitarian values. The purpose of holistic education is not only to prepare students for academic success, but it also brings about a passionate love for learning and an intrinsic reverence of life. Indeed, they learn about themselves, healthy relationships, social responsibility, and compassion amongst other things. Moreover, it tends to eliminate the general and prevalent idea that attending classes/conferences/information meetings is merely done out of obligation. Rather, holistically educated people do so......

Words: 1648 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ese 633 Week 3 Dq 1 Concerns of the General Educator in the Co-Teaching Environment

...ESE 633 Week 3 DQ 1 Concerns of the General Educator in the Co-Teaching Environment To Buy This material Click below link This discussion is your opportunity to demonstrate mastery of the objective analyze ways to create a collaborative school culture to promote professional growth and leadership and analyze the value of co-teaching as an inclusion model of instructional delivery. The discussion represents your mastery of the Course Learning Outcomes 1 & 2 and MAED Program Learning Outcome 8 and reinforces your competency with the MAED Program Learning Outcome 7.  Before the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004, schools were implementing inclusion, but it was not necessarily the ‘norm’; instead, children with a disability were educated in a self-contained classroom within the general school population. Included with the most updated changes was a closer alignment with NCLB (No Child Left Behind) requirement for data-based decisions, more rigorous standards and highly qualified teachers (No Child Left Behind, 2013). Teachers new to the field of education are being taught during their coursework how to implement inclusive, co-teaching practices and are therefore unfamiliar with past teaching practices. On the other hand, teachers who have been practicing for more than 10 years have experiences in both education environments. While it is clear that...

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organizational Management

...effectively support and encourage learning. Our existing administrative structures—often organized in a bureaucratic and hierarchical configuration, our value systems, and our professional training programs are often in conflict with the kind of systemic change that the times demand. Teachers are isolated, without opportunities to collaboratively solve problems, share information, learn together, and plan for improving student achievement. Too often, students are not provided with work that is engaging, that meets high academic standards, and that is challenging and satisfying. Time is not always utilized effectively, and technologies that could enhance teaching and learning are either not available or not fully utilized. And our educational leadership preparation programs have not prepared their graduates to identify, address, and resolve these issues. My finding articles “Sculpting the learning community: New forms of working and organization” by Karen E. Watkins and Victoria J. Marsick, talk about how “school are communities in which learning is supposed to take place, but they do not always function well as learning communities. The important of this article is that it gives one version of targets, key aspect of learning organizations as the basis for self-examination. As the learner read the article, I automatically began to ask myself, how does this apply to my place of employment? How does our own company stack up? There is a set of question and/or direct......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The East vs. the West

...cultural factors that might influence how intelligence is perceived within each culture, and explain how intelligence might be measured in each culture. The Western culture are individuals that have characteristics that make them distinctive and unique. They like to be in control of their own behavior and feel more empowered when they are in control their own actions. They are goal-oriented and success-driven (Nisbett 2004), and relationships can sometimes interfere with attaining success. Personal success and feeling positive about oneself are important for the sense of well-being. People in Western cultures, tend to view intelligence as a means for individuals to devise categories and to engage in rational debate (Nisbett, 2004). The Eastern culture are individuals that are less concerned with personal success; they are far more group driven (Nisbett 2004). Their sense of well-being is related to their being in harmony with those around them. Rules that apply to relationships are not universal, instead relationships are dictated by the context and are unique to the roles each holds in that context. Another...

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ancient Chinese Empire

...Chinese Empire The history of Chinese empire traces back to thousands of years. Some of the ancient dynasties of China include Shang dynasty, Western Zhou dynasty and Eastern Zhou dynasty. The Shang dynasty emerged in 1766 BC and disappeared when the Western Zhou dynasty defeated the last king of the Shang dynasty in 1122 BC (Pines, p. 12). The Eastern Zhou dynasty emerged in 771 BC, which underwent two traditional phases known as ‘Warring States’ and ‘Spring and Autumn’. Ancient China had a well-developed agricultural and irrigation system and was home to several plant and animal species. The most important of all is the period of Confucianism in which Confucius transformed the Chinese by formulating the ethics of public and family interactions (Pines, p. 17). He also set educational standards in the ancient Chinese empire by focusing on the six art forms of archery, computation, calligraphy, music, ritual and chariot-driving (Pines, p. 27). Confucianism became the most important influential philosophy during the reign of Han, Song and Tang dynasties. Chinese calligraphy and literature became the most renowned written language across the world. The rich tradition of the country is visible in its dramatic visual arts. Chinese drama, including music became a significant literary form and was mostly a derivation from the philosophical works of Confucius, which continues even today (Pines, p. 185). Ancient Chinese produced novels and poetry at a very early period. Chinese......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...individual moral development and for creating a harmonious, orderly society. During the early twentieth century, Confucianism lost its dominance in the political and educational systems of China. Throughout the modern era, the moral teachings that form the heart of Confucianism have continued to shape the attitudes and behaviors of millions of people worldwide.(Coogan, 1998) The contemporary issues can be understood by examining the common characteristics of Confucianism and other eastern religions, analyzing the interactions between the modern world and Confucianism, and studying how those interactions influence Confucianism and the modern world. Common Characteristics Among Eastern Religions Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are three religions that make up the essence of traditional, Chinese culture. While all three religions have differences, the religions also share fundamental elements such as purpose, principle, and teachings that have created a strong and long lasting way of life for the Chinese culture. When comparing religions a person can deduce that all religions have a purpose and follow a specific set of rules, guidelines, and traditions. The vessel that leads each individual to their ultimate purpose can be different, as well as where the instructions originate from. The similar purpose of these Eastern religions is for the attainment of inner harmony with self and nature.(Coogan, 1998) This purpose can be achieved by living by a set of principles. The......

Words: 2341 - Pages: 10