Free Essay

Eating Disorder

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By thinonice
Words 1605
Pages 7
Eating Disorders 2 Eating Disorders: It’s Affect on adolescents For many years now, eating disorders have affected many people in our society. Young people being the main target because of the publics’ idea of a person’s size and weight. In our world, society has made people think that people have to look a certain way to fit in. Most women are judge by their appearance and some still dream of the perfect measurement 90-60-90. This disorder affects both females and males, but the female population being the most talked about. Besides the eating disorders knowing that they lose weight or stop weight gain, they don’t knowledge about what the effects are. Researchers have come together to let the truth about eating disorders and what are their health complications. Some of the questions that everyone should have the answers to are:
1.What are the main points of having an eating disorder?
2.What are the medical complications?
3.Who can be at risk?
4.What are the outcomes of an eating disorder treatment right after discharge and about three months later?
Journal of adolescent health, nutrition research and eating behaviors have dedicated their time to explain all the factors so they can be accessible to the public. The information is out there to prevent people from suffering of these disorders in the future. As a young woman I find that this topic is to be known about, so that way people know what they are about to deal with to look like some magazine model. The cost of the perfect body can cause far more damage than people think. And with this information presented by these researchers, the extra pounds don’t seem so bad after all. What are the main points of having an eating disorder? Eating Disorders 3
According to the Journal of adolescent Health (2003), eating disorders are very complex illnesses that affect many adolescents and the numbers are rising. Eating disorders is the third most chronic illness in adolescent’s females with a percentage of about five. There is three groups that make up the disorders, they are; anorexia nervosa, where there is a limited amount of food taken in the system, bulimia nervosa, where the person eats but to avoid gaining the weight they get rid of the food by inducing vomiting, by doing extreme exercise or by fasting. The other group is where neither the characteristic of bulimia or anorexia I are met, this group is also known as EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specify). Eating disorders are very common among modern society and it can also be life threatening. Anorexia it’s said to affect one percent of all children, adolescents and adults. Bulimia is found in one to nineteen percentage of the population. Eating disorders are biological, sociological and psychological problems that can cause mortality. To be able to figure out a diagnosis and treatment of an eating disorder, the person development process is taken into considerations. The diagnostic criteria for adolescents include both the height and weigh gain during puberty and the absence of menstrual period. What are the medical complications? There is no organ that is spared when someone has an eating disorder. The most common symptoms from eating disorders come from the weight loss and malnutrition that the person puts their selves to. Some of the most known symptoms are loss of dental enamel, growth retardation, puberty delay, and the predisposition to suffering from osteoporosis. Eating Disorders can cause starvation, purging behaviors, and binge eating. The disorder can cause cardiac complications. Starvation can cause cardiac muscle to be wasted and hypo tension and reduce left ventricular mass. Exercise can also be a factor because exercise should be avoided because it causes a fatal arrhythmia in a patient that has wasted heart muscle. The patient can suffer from orthostatic hypotension, because they are underweight or have lost an extreme amount of Eating Disorders 4 weight. This occurs because it lowers the metabolic rate because there are not enough calories being taken in. People that have high percentages of weight loss are at risk for decreases in renal function. It was found those four patients between ages of thirty-one and forty-three developed renal disease and they needed chronic dialyses. These patients were found out to have suffered from eating disorders about ten to twenty years before the renal disease was diagnose. If a person takes enough laxatives, his or her urine potassium level would be less that 15 meq/l because the laxatives cause the potassium to be lost. Many people that suffer from anorexia nervosa take a lot of water, so that they can feel full and also because they think that water will make the body get rid off all the waste. But they don’t know the actual cause of this; they can get hyponatremia and hypo-osmoladity, which can later on result in seizures, coma and even death. Starvation can also cause problem in the gastrointestinal, such as abnormal hormonal and neurotransmitter functions. These kind of problem, seem to decrease as the person gains weight, but they never go away completely. Starvation can also lead to cholesterol levels going up. In a study conducted, there were 66 woman that had suffered from anorexia nervosa compared with 98 regular woman, in this “there was no difference in rate of pregnancy, mean number of pregnancies per woman, or age at first pregnancy: however, more miscarriages (30% vs. 16%) and more cesarean deliveries (16%vs.3%) occurred in the eating disorder group.” “Offspring of women with anorexia nervosa may be of lower average birth weight and are more likely to be premature.” According to the Journal of adolescent health (2003) This information was made assessable to the public so that eating disorder patients can make positive changes, since some of the complications can be life threatening. Nutrition is a big deal when it comes to eating disorders because not taking in enough calcium, vitamin, proteins, and calories affect the growth development and “the attainment of peak bone mass”. It’s proven that “adolescents with eating disorders may be losing critical tissue components (such as muscle mass, body Eating Disorder 5
Fat, and bone minerals).” Eating disorders affect an adolescent adjustment to their puberty development and the task needed to become a “healthy functioning Adult”. When an adolescent is going to be treated for an eating disorder their home situation such as the “role of the family” is taken into consideration when planning out a treatment. Eating disorders also affect the person mentally in the future. For example, there is evidence in the journal that 30% to 50%, of both bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from depression. BN and AN patients are the 30% to 65% of people that suffer from anxiety disorders. This causes all patients to be carefully evaluated for a “psychiatric conditions”. Who can be at Risk? According to this research by Yueching Wong, from the Chungshan Medical University, its reported in the nutrition research that beauticians are at high risk to develop eating disorders. The reason is there “work environment, pressure to be fashionable, and the unattainable images of female perfection promoted in modern commercial culture and the mass media may influence how woman evaluate their weight.” “Since the beauticians job was to emphasis beauty on others they might be at a grater risk to feel discomfort with their own body weight and shape.” The information was acquired from a study done between beauticians and non-beauticians in Taiwan. The study was designed to ‘compare self-perceptions of weight, body satisfaction, weight loss experiences, and weight –loss methods between two types of people.” The study was done in Taichung all the subjects were females. There was a group of non-beauticians from ages 20 to 45 randomly selected from six communities. The beauticians were randomly selected from the city’s Beauticians association also from the ages 20 to 45 years old. The information was collected by giving out written questionnaires, with question about heir body weight, intentional body weight loss and some eating behaviors. Some sample questions were like “ What do you think of your weight category?” with possible answers from “severely underweight” to “obese” on a Eating Disorder 6 five point scale. “ Do you have intentional weight loss Experiences?” The answers were “yes” or “no”. After the questionnaire was done, the researchers took their height and weight measurements to “compare the body weight perception and weight loss method performed among subjects in different weight categories, subjects were classified according to five categories: severely underweight, underweight, acceptable, overweight and obese.” When the results were in the comparison was made, both groups perceived their body weight to be more than what it actually was except for those people that were actually obese. The study founded that only 50% of beauticians were underweight or severely underweight and only 22.3% of non-beauticians were in the same place. From the underweight group 70%of the beauticians thought they were overweight or obese while only 50% of the non-beauticians thought the same. Out of the 70%, only 8.8% were actually overweight. When they were asked about their desire weight 78.8% of beauticians said weights that were actually underweight or below, while only 39.3% of non-beauticians thought the same. 50.1% of beauticians were to be losing weight intentionally compare to the 23.7% of non-beauticians. The medication use to lose weight is four times more use by beauticians than by non-beauticians. And beautician are twice more likely to induce vomiting to lose weight than non-beauticians.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Body Fat and Eating Disorders 5/18/2014 Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Eating disorders are also an epidemic in the United States. Obesity and eating disorders can cause health problems in a person. There are many factors that influence the obesity epidemic. Body composition can be described as the proportions of lean tissue and fat that makes up the body. There are risks with having too much body fat. The risks include raising the risk of developing a health issue. High blood pressure, heart disease and sleep disorders are all illnesses a person can have occur because of excess body fat. Diabetes, respiratory problems, and the increased chance of cancer are linked to obesity. Gallbladder issues, arthritis, and menstrual issues are also a concern of those who are obese. An obese person is also at risk infection, poor healing, and surgical complications. The more body fat a person has the greater the health risk is. The longer a person has the excess body fat the risks are greater. A person who gain weight excessively as a child and remains gaining weight also face great health risks. Obesity is a growing problem in the United States and is causing health care expenses to rise as the number of obese people rise (Grosvenor & Smolin, 2012). Several factors influence the obesity epidemic in the United States. The first factor is Americans are eating more and burning fewer calories. Appetites are stimulated by smells and the......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...The Gender Differences in Eating Disorders: An Analysis Abstract This paper will provide a critical analysis of the issue of eating disorders in the two genders. It has provided a history of the eating disorders, and how they came to be known. Furthermore, the paper has focused on the issue of eating disorders through an analysis of a number of studies. The studies have focused on providing vital information regarding what influences the different genders to have eating disorders. The females are most likely to suffer from anorexia nervosa, while the males suffer from bulimia. A brief summary of all the key points has also been provided. Thereafter, some important recommendations regarding research in some key areas involving eating disorders has been provided as well. Keywords: Anorexia, Bulimia, Females, Males, Study, Eating Disorders, Gender, Media Introduction Eating disorders have now become part of the current culture people live in. In fact, the eating disorders tend to affect different people regardless of their genders and socioeconomic classes. There is even an overall prevalence that is estimated to be about five percent among the population. Many people have a desire to become thin since it is an issue that is always being highlighted by the media. Some of the popular sources of media that influence individuals to become thin include movies, television shows, and magazines, among others. It is such a pity that the prevailing culture, and specifically......

Words: 3465 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...Cheryl L. Mclean WAOL Intro to Psychology Eating Disorders Chapters 12 and 13 February 18—24 Eating Disorders Have you ever known anyone personally who has had an eating disorder? Is this a disorder that only affects teenagers? I’m a soon to be 47 year old who can say in my life time at least one in every 10 of my friends have suffered from some sort of eating disorder. I can also say that a few of my friends who have had an eating disorder did not grow out of it by their adult years. It is sad to say but I have even witnessed how one of my girlfriends behavior even affected her 8 year old daughter. One morning when the child woke up, she complained about be very bloated and fat. This child did not have an ounce of fat on her. I remember at that time worrying that if this child is concerned about her weight at age eight how will she view her self image in her teenage years and will she result to the extreme measures that her mother has taken to remain slim. There are several types of eating disorders but the two most dangerous ones are Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa. Anorexia People with anorexia have an extreme fear of weight gain and a distorted view of their body size and shape. As a result, they can't maintain a normal body weight. Some people with anorexia restrict their food intake by dieting, fasting, or excessive exercise. They hardly eat at all — and the small amount of food they do eat becomes an obsession......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders BEH/225 Stephanie Copp July 9, 2014 Julie Bruno Most people think that hunger is all in one’s stomach; however, research shows that this is not the case. Hunger is controlled by a complicated system of chemicals that transmit signals between one’s brain and the body. “The cells in the hypothalamus communicate with cells in other parts of the brain to coordinate the release and uptake of chemicals that help regulate how much and what you eat” (Kirby, Jane RD., 2014). Motivation seems to be the role of the primary drive for hunger, and motives is a category that has been identified as biological or primary; hunger and the managing of food intake. The hypothalamus is a small; however important, part of the brain. It controls motivation and emotion, such as hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, sleep, and body temperature. In the 1940s the Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation was widely used in explaining motivation, which states that the force behind motivation was the reduction of drives; hunger being an example of a drive. However this theory is not used much in today’s world. External and internal motivations both play a part in one’s eating habits, and they can affect one positively or negatively; internal motivations being one’s emotions and external motivations being our environment and culture. Negative effects such as over eating, not eating enough, or just poor eating habits can lead to eating disorders. Even though there is no one single...

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders Research Paper | | | Eating disorders are sweeping this country and are rampant on junior high, high school, and college campuses. These disorders are often referred to as the Deadly Diet, but are often known by their more popular names: anorexia or bulimia. They affect more than 20% of females between the age of thirteen and forty. It is very rare for a young female not to know of someone with an eating disorder. Statistics show that at least one in five young women have a serious problem with eating and weight (Bruch, 25). The Deadly Diet appears to be a mostly female problem. Eating disorders are most common in the middle to upper middle class families. Currently, the incidence is much lower in females from the "blue collar" families. The Deadly Diet can begin anywhere from the ages of ten to thirty. The peak age for the beginning of the Deadly Diet in females is eleven to fifteen; the peak for males is between fifteen and eighteen (Bauer, 89). Most of the information on the Deadly Diet says that it is a problem of teenage girls, but as clinics have found, most of the people who come to get therapy are in their twenties and thirties. This may be because younger people are less likely to seek professional help. Most often it is the parent who brings the patient for help. Adults who have left home and had to deal with managing their lives usually tend to realize more clearly the need to seek help and make changes. Everywhere one looks......

Words: 1941 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...Body Fat and Eating Disorders Johhnny DOe SCI /241 April 12, 2013 Angela Hattaway Body Fat and Eating Disorders Health problems associated with dietary medical conditions have become a serious problem in the United States today. These conditions include both eating disorders and the obesity epidemic. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the point that it may adversely affect a person’s health. Medically, obesity is defined as having a body weight exceeding 20% above their normal weight. Body composition is the percentage of fat, muscle, and bone that make up the human body. The excess of fat associated with obesity carries many health risks to the body. Obesity has been found to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke, among many other dangerous medical conditions. As a result, obesity has been linked to a severe decrease in life expectancy (on average, six to seven years), and ranks as one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. Obesity is caused by a person taking in more calories than they physically use throughout the day. Other factors can aid in this imbalance. As people get older, the body becomes less able to metabolize food efficiently. Women have a lower resting metabolic rate than men and are therefore more prone to being overweight. People also tend to be less active in today's lifestyle than in the past. Eating disorders also severely affect a person’s health. Anorexia nervosa...

Words: 461 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders Christine Elaine Garrison BEH/225 June 27, 2014 University of Phoenix Eating Disorders Eating disorders are very common in our culture many people have them or know someone who does. With our cultures unrealistic views on what is beautiful the supper skinny models that woman see everywhere makes many people think that they have to live up to those standards. Some people feel if they cannot be up to these standards that they are not good enough and this causes them to do things that a person in their normal state of mind would never do. When people starve themselves to like in anorexia they end up developing many different psychological problems and find excuses to keep up with their destructive habits. There are also people who are addicted to eating they use eating as a way to feel a void that they feel like they have. They lean to use eating as a cooping tool in turn they become obese then they use eating to deal with their depression which works as a double edged sword. What they love is what is destroying them physically as well as mentally. This can also be considered emotional eating this is eating when you’re angry, sad, or even anxious. Many cultures have different views as what is considered attractive these variables play a large part in what peoples diet habits are this can be seen in the magazines and television from the area to show what they culture is expecting people to look like and what they are expected to eat. Women have been......

Words: 547 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...Analysis of Eating Disorders [Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institution] Analysis of Eating Disorders Introduction Eating disorders are fairly common these days because the subjects are so overly concerned about their shape and size of the body that they tend to sacrifice their health in trying to make themselves look good. Furthermore, the societal requirements and benchmarks of appearances and the needs to be accepted also trigger the negative thoughts that lead to such disorders. This paper talks about the different types of eating disorders. It also mentions the medical and behavioral symptoms that the subjects experience and the medical problems that they may result to suffer as a consequence of the behaviors which result from such disorders. Furthermore, it also talks about the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. It also discusses the efficiency of CBT; the techniques used by it to counter the problems of the subjects and also mention the advantages and disadvantages of using this method of therapy. Eating disorder: With the growing influence of social media and the trends of selfies, people are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearances. The body weight has always been a major concern of women but with the increased exposure is a relevant reason for the increased concern. Furthermore, the concept of fast food is also leading to certain habits that may cause eating disorders. The concept where the simple act of eating can lead to......

Words: 2688 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders The two main eating disorders faced are Anorexia and Bulimia. Anorexia Nervosa, commonly called Anorexia, is an eating disorder in which the person loses more weight than what is considered healthy. This may be through a lack of eating, extreme “dieting,” or excessive exercise. Bulimia Nervosa, or Bulimia, is when someone purges on food and in feeling guilty about it, makes their self throw up. This is a personal matter because I have seen what eating disorders do to people and I have had personal experience with Bulimia Nervosa. This is a public matter because 30 million men and women suffer from eating disorders. Out of these 30 million, only one in ten people is able to get help. Eighty-six percent of students report an onset of an eating disorder by age twenty. However, this can strike at any time. Forty to Sixty percent of elementary school girls are concerned about becoming fat. Some say it may just be a stage. However, another study was taken in college. Out of 185 female students, fifty-eight percent felt pressure to be a certain weight. With so much pressure to look a certain way or weigh a certain number, along with the pressure of fitting in and finding friends how can one person continue to be stable? This pressure may cause teens and adults to be unsocial. Most of the time, it makes them feel as if they aren’t good enough. Anorexia and Bulimia are mostly caused by insecurity. Because of their insecurity, they constantly push themselves......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Eating Disorder

...fast food intake, and too much television watching for long periods of time and not enough physical activity, and the portion size of foods being bought (Brantley 2005). What are some health problems associated with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder? Anorexia nervosa can cause osteoporosis, brittle nails and hair, yellow and dry skin, muscle weakness, constipation, low blood pressure, brain damage, and organ failure and body weakness. People who become anorexic believe that they are over-weight ("What Are Eating Disorders?", 2011). Bulimia nervosa can cause sore throat, swollen glands, tooth decay and acid reflux, intestinal issues from laxative abuse, dehydration and heart attack. People who become bulimic fear becoming over-weight ("What Are Eating Disorders?", 2011). Binge-eating disorder can cause cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. People who binge- eats lose control over their eating and are often obese or over-weight ("What Are Eating Disorders?", 2011). Explain, from a physiological standpoint, how eating disorders may lead to health problems. Provide at least three examples to support your answer. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, “An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as...

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Eating Disorder

...“Eating disorders are one of the many unspoken secrets that affect many families.” (Grohol, 2009) The author of this article, John Grohol, wanted to educate readers of the different types of eating disorders. He also wanted to inform his readers about the dangers of eating disorders and who all eating disorders affect. Eating disorders may be important to the author because eating disorders are becoming very relevant in today’s society. “Millions of Americans are afflicted with this disorder every year, and most of them, up to 90 percent, are adolescent and young women.” (Grohol, 2009) The targeted groups subjected to eating disorders are typically women. The types of eating disorders are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. Anorexia is the name for simply starving yourself because you are convinced you are overweight. Bulimia is characterized by excessive eating, and then ridding yourself of the food by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Ridding yourself of food is also called purging. Binge eating is when one overly eats, often when that person is not hungry. The person also often eats alone because they are shamed about their excessive eating habits. Eating disorders should be taken very seriously. Most people with eating disorders do not admit to have a serious problem. A lot of the time people who have eating disorders think that something is wrong with their appearance. They are not happy with the way that they look,......

Words: 251 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders When people think of disorders the usually tend to think of mental or physical disorders, but eating disorders go right along with these disorders also. Eating disorders are characterized by a compulsive fixation with food, body weight, or self-image. This disorder is becoming more and more prevalent in the United States partially due to the media’s portrayal of what might be considered attractive. But the images of unrealistic “skinny” women that is shown on television, in magazines and across the Internet is only a small part of the contributing factors to eating disorders. Other contributing factors include “…low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation” (Sue, Sue & Sue, 2009, p.445). Eating disorders not only affect adolescents but adults also. Both men a and women suffer from eating disorders, however women and girls are more likely to have a negative self image and engage in disordered eating patterns. Even though the population of the United States is becoming heavier, women are increasingly putting an emphasis on being thinner. Men also affected by distorted eating patterns, however with male adolescents and college-aged boys weight dissatisfaction revolves around being heavier and more muscular. When a person has a distorted eating pattern it could lead to other serious disorders like bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, or binge eating. Anorexia nervosa is an “eating disorder characterized by low body weight, an intense......

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating disorders are medical illnesses that involve critical disturbances in eating behavior. It can cause heart and kidney problems and even death. In these situations, a person eats or refuses to eat in an attempt to satisfy a psychological need rather than a physical need. Eating disorders are often characterized by a preoccupation with food and weight. There are three types of eating disorders, which are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating, also known as compulsive over-eating, but the most two common types are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia and bulimia are also common in industrialized nations where society encourages low calorie diets and thinness. Many people believe that only females have eating disorder (myth), but approximately five to ten percent of eating disorders occur in males. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight, an obsessive fear of gaining weight, and an unrealistic perception of current body weight. Anorexia can cause menstruation to stop, and often leads to bone loss, loss of skin integrity. It can stress the heart, increasing the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems. Also, some typical changes are digestive problems, extreme sensitivity to cold, mental confusion, injuries to nerves and tendons, anemia, and abnormalities of immune function, etc. Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of all psychosomatic illness today. One myth about anorexia nervosa is...

Words: 771 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Eating Disorders

...would say, from what I have learned in my abnormal psychology class, your daughter might have something called bulimia, which is a type of eating disorder. A person with bulimia eats a lot of food in a short amount of time which is binging and then tries to prevent weight gain by purging or getting rid of the food. Purging might be done by: * Making yourself throw up * Taking laxatives, which you have found in her room. Laxatives can pills or liquids and speed up the movement of food through your body to produce a bowel movement more quickly, making it an easy and appealing way to lose weight. * Exercise excessively, as you have described People with bulimia often fall within the normal range for their age and weight. But their weak points are that they: * Fear gaining weight * Want desperately to lose weight * Are very unhappy with their body size and shape A person with bulimia may be thin, overweight, or have a normal weight. A person with bulimia is often very private so they can do things such as throwing up because the person with bulimia feels shame or disgust. This makes it hard to know if someone has bulimia. The warning signs to look out for are extreme weight loss through: * Using diet pills, or taking pills to urinate or have a bowel movement * Going to the bathroom all the time after eating (to throw up) * Exercising a lot, even in bad weather or when hurt or tired You may be able to recognize the signs of frequent......

Words: 1607 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Eating Disorders

...Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Abby looks at herself in the mirror, she turns around and takes a good look at herself, she is thinking “How can I be so fat and everyone else is so skinny?” To top it off Abby is a high school student everyday her situation gets worse and worse. Not only does she feel guilty when she eats, but she also purges it up after she’s done eating. This can be the beginning of an eating disorder called Bulimia Nervosa. Many teens around this age feel insecure about their changing bodies because our society is obsessed with being thin which makes teens want to be thin so they can begin to feel loved and valued. Many times it can also be that they want to look like their favorite actor but the ones who think that need to realize that every individual is different, we all have our different style and taste which makes us have our own unique look. Eating disorders are amongst the most common psychiatric syndromes, this leads to impatient hospitalization and suicide attempts for morality. According to recent studies both anorexia and bulimia are most common in the United States. This research paper will point out the importance of eating disorders: bulimia and anorexia, how the theory “Social comparison” can be used for this topic when comparing the US to other countries that are the opposite of bulimia and anorexia such as force-feeding and will also state how different it is in a little town in Africa called Mauritania and a......

Words: 2420 - Pages: 10