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Ebola

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EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)1

Ebola Virus (EBOV)
Alaina White
Microbiology
11/04/2014

EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)2
Ebola Virus (EBOV)
The Ebola virus causes a serious illness, that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans and animals which, if it is not treated in time is often fatal. Diseases that are fatal like Ebola, affect the body's vascular system, which makes it hard for the blood to circulte through the body. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the first notification of the ebola virus was mentioned in the Ebola River valley in Zaire for the time of an outburst in 1976 (Olival et al., 2013). Researchers claim that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne), with 4 out of 5 subtypes that happen in animal hosts close to Africa (MacNeil et al., 2010).
Literature Review
It has been proven by scientists that the Ebola virus can be transferred from one human beng to another by means of bodily contact. The common geographic territory that ia mostly influenced by divergent subtypes of the Ebola virus is Central Africa, especially the cities of Zaire, Sudan, and Gabon (Chepurnov, Bakulina, Dadaeva, Ustinova, & Chepurnova, 2009). Ebola virus infection runs its course from 14 to 21 days. Firstly, the infection can be identified with symptoms that are uncommon for the flu, including malaise, fever, and muscles pain. With the progress of infection, patients experience acute bleeding and coagulation abnormalities such as a rash, gastrointestinal bleeding (Chepurnov, Bakulina, Dadaeva, Ustinova, & Chepurnova, 2009).
It is considered to be of RNA viruses that are named the Filoviridae and occurs in one out of two members of a family. On the whole, five determined subtypes of Ebola virus are distinguished. It is important to mention that four out of five subtypes lead to disease in human organisms only. These four subtypes are Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Bundibugyo and Ebola-Zaire. The last subtype which is called Ebola-Reston results into disease in solely non-human primates such as monkeys, gorillas, chimpanzees.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever, also known as Ebola HF, is an acute, mostly lethal disease that affects non-human and human primates, including gorillas, monkeys, and chimpanzees. The disease as well as
EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)3 the Ebola virus was firstly recognized in 1976. It is considered to be difficult to diagnose Ebola HF on its early stages, namely in those people who have been contaminated only a few days. It can be explained, since early symptoms, including red eyes and a skin rash, are not specific for the virus and can be observed in other patients with diseases that appear much more often. If a person has all the symptoms that have been mentioned, and infection with Ebola virus is suspected, it is recommended to quarantine the patient and report to the local and state health departments and the CDC (Dowell, Mukunu, Ksiazek, Khan, Rollin, & Peters, 2009).
Bodily Symptoms
Soon after people get contaminated with the Ebola virus, it begins to accumulate within the body. Ebola virus symptoms become obvious in four to six days after receiving the infection. The period between getting infected and the beginning of symptoms is named the incubation period for the virus. The incubation period for the Ebola virus can be very short, such as 2 days as well as very long, namely 21 days. It has been proven that in pregnant women, typical symptoms of the Ebola virus can involve massive vaginal bleeding and abortion (miscarriage). In most cases, death appears within the second week of the symptoms. It has been stated that sufferers of Ebola virus disease die from a heavy blood loss (Weingartl et al., 2012). The infection is recognized by the primary signs of fatigue, fever, muscle aches, exhaustion, and dizziness. With the progress of the disease, there appear massive bleeding under the skin, in inside organs, and from ears, eyes, and mouth. People who experience the acute development of the disease suffer from rapid symptoms of delirium, shock, seizures, coma, and nervous system malfunction (Peters, 2006).
Treatment & Preventative Methods
A few years ago, a protein known as cyanovirin-N was found in blue-green algae and it became connected to Ebola virus. The drug has been discovered in order to partly subdue the ability of Ebola to unite and contaminate cells, resulting in the host’s survival time expansion. Cyanovirin has been discovered in order to unite the outside cells that gave chances of inhibiting their ability to cross the
EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)4 cellular membranes. Cyanovirin appears to be a very promising drug that gives the ability to attach to sugar molecules discovered on the surface of Ebola virus. Those experiments concerning cyanovirin have been conducted by means of animal models, in which test animals were contaminated with Ebola and given injections of cyanovirin once a day. The experiment lead to a hold-up in the beginning of the disease and longer survival in those animals injected with the protein than in those that were not injected (Falco, 2012).
Conclusion
The Ebola virus can be diagnosed with the particular antigens discovered in blood samples, isolation of virus in cell cultures, or identification of IgM and IgG antibodies. ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests are frequently utilized in order to identify viruses. It should be mentioned that all tests are performed in the most rigorous laboratory conditions aiming to secure scientists and patients. There is considered to be no identified treatment for Ebola virus disease. Therefore, contaminated patients are treated by means of utilizing antiviral drugs, including ribavirin. Another method is a generally supportive therapy which restores endovenous fluids, keeps blood pressure in a good condition, and controls other bodily functions (Lovgren, 2003). The preventive methods of Ebola HF in Africa face numerous challenges. It happens, since the originality and location of the natural reservoir of Ebola virus are unexplored. Consequently, there are only few minor established initial preventive measures.
Researchers and scientists have problems when trying to develop subsidiary diagnostic tools to aid in diagnosis of Ebola HF in the early stages and undertaking ecological researches on Ebola virus and its probable reservoir. Also, the research also aims to observe areas that are suspected to ascertain the disease rates. To effectively prevent outbreaks in the future, more thorough knowledge of Ebola virus’s natural reservoir and its spread should be gained.

EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)5
References
http://www.cdc.ca/news/world/ebola-outbreak-canadians-pulled-rom-sierra-leone-as-percaution- 1.2746945 http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/ Chepurnov, A., Bakulina, L., Dadaeva, A., Ustinova, E., & Chepurnova, T. (2009). Inactivation of Ebola virus with a surfactant nanoemulsion. Transfusion, 49(Suppl.), 72-74.
Dowell, S. F., Mukunu, R., Ksiazek, T. G., Khan, A. S., Rollin, P. E., Peters, C. J. and the Commission de Lutte contreles Epidémies à Kikwit. (2009)
Falco M. (2012). Could the Ebola outbreak spread to the U.S.?
MacNeil A., Farnon E., Cannon D., Reed Z., Towner J., Nichol S., Ksiazek T., Rollin P. (2010). Proportion of Deaths and Clinical Features in Bundibugyo Ebola Virus Infection, Uganda. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/12/10-0627_article.htm
Olival K., Islam A., Anthony S., Epstein H., Daszak P. (2013). Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/2/12-0524_article.htm Report of an International Commission. (1978). Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 56(2), 271-293. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/1978/Vol56-No2/bulletin_1978_56(2)_271-293.pdf
Peters, C. (1999). An introduction to Ebola: The virus and the disease. The Journal of InfectiousDiseases
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/vhf-fvh/ebola-eng.php

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