Free Essay

Economic Sectors

In: Other Topics

Submitted By asif25
Words 131771
Pages 528
Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017)
Economic Sectors

Volume II

Copyright © Planning Commission (Government of India) 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. First published in 2013 by SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, Phototypeset in 11/13pt Minion Pro by RECTO Graphics, Delhi and printed at Saurabh Printers, New Delhi. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available

ISBN: 978-81-321-1131-3 (PB) The SAGE Team: Rudra Narayan, Archita Mandal, Rajib Chatterjee and Dally Verghese

Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–2017)
Economic Sectors

Volume II

Planning Commission Government of India

Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me at —Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi

Bulk Sales SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk. We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand. For orders and enquiries, write to us at Marketing Department SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, Post Bag 7 New Delhi 110044, India E-mail us at

Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today to

This book is also available as an e-book.


List of Figures List of Tables List of Boxes List of Acronyms List of Annexures 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Agriculture Industry Energy Transport Communication Rural Development Urban Development Other Priority Sectors

vii viii xii xiv xxv 1 51 130 195 258 286 318 362

12.1 12.2 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 14.1 14.2 14.3 15.1 15.2 15.3 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 18.1 18.2 Growth and Fluctuations in GDP Agriculture and Allied All India Average Real Daily Wage Rate at 2011–12 Prices (` Per Day) Contribution of Manufacturing to GDP Very Low in India India and Global Manufacturing States New Approach to Industrial Policy Focus on Sectors as well as Cross-cutting Issues Strategy for Land Issues Description of Land Acquisition Process Two Connected ‘Tracks’ for Implementation and Systems’ Improvement Capability Map Exploration Blocks awarded in NELP Rounds Renewable Power Capacities, Top Five Countries, 2010 Cost of Renewable Energy Technologies Per MW Existing and Proposed Thermal Power Plants on National Waterways National Waterway-2 Kaladan Multimodal Transit Transport Project Telephone Subscribers Growth during 2007–12 Distribution of Urban and Rural Subscribers Number of Telephone and Broadband Connections Mobile Tariff Trends V/s Growth in Mobile Subscribers in India (1999–2012) Access to Household Amenities in Rural India (2001 to 2011) Households by Type of Latrine Facility in Rural India in 2001 Households by Type of Latrine Facility in Rural India in 2011 PURA Transaction Structure Institutional Structure for PURA Sources of Increase in Urban Population Key Constitutes of India’s Urban Future 2 9 52 52 55 59 81 83 101 102 172 183 185 232 234 234 259 260 260 261 303 304 304 312 314 319 324

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 Growth Rate of Agricultural and Allied Sectors Some Weather Details Averages and Standard Deviations of Annual Growth Rates of GSDP from Agriculture and Allied Sectors Growth of Output, Inputs and Productivity Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (2004–05 prices) Average Annual Growth Rates in Yields Per Hectare Public Sector Capital Formation and Subsidies to Agriculture (Centre and States) Real Prices of Agricultural Produce Demand and Supply of Food Commodities during the Twelfth Plan Expenditure on Agricultural Research and Education Outlays and Expenditure of MoA and Its Three Departments (DAC, DAHDF and DARE) Gross Budgetary Support (Department-wise) Comparison of States Outlay and Expenditure for Eleventh and Twelfth Plan Rate of Growth of GDP at Factor Cost at 2004–05 Prices (Per cent) GCF in Industry Employment by Sector Processes that Enable Learning Manufacturing Ecosystem Infrastructure Registered MSMEs—Manufacturing Definition of MSME Manufacturing GDP by Sector and Employment Projections Key Variables and Assumptions Ministry/Department-wise Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays Industry Sector Energy Intensity for Total Primary Energy* Energy Intensity Household Access (%) Trends in Supply of Primary Commercial Energy Share of Each Fuel in Total Energy Production and Consumption Installed Capacity Addition during the Eleventh Plan (in MW) Mode-wise/Sector-wise Break-up of Generation All-India Cumulative Generating Capacity (as on 31 March 2012) (in MW) Planned Manufacturing Capacity MW Per Annum Cumulative Achievement of Transmission Lines at the End of the Eleventh Plan Aggregate Technical and Commercial Los ses of State Power Utilities (within State) Viability of Major State Utilities Not Improving (Excluding Delhi and Odisha) Details of Year-wise Progress Achieved on Restructured APDRP (as on 31 March 2012) 1 3 4 6 8 10 13 17 18 30 47 50 50 53 53 54 62 62 85 85 96 105 129 130 131 132 133 134 136 137 137 139 140 141 142 142

Tables ix

14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.30 14.31 14.32 14.33 14.34 14.35 14.36 14.37 14.38 14.39 14.40 14.41 14.42 14.43 14.44 14.45 14.46 14.47 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12

Status on RGGVY Progress during the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan Outlay/Expenditure: Centre, States and UTs (` Crore) Sector-wise and Mode-wise Capacity Addition (Provisional) during the Twelfth Plan (MW) Changing Structure of Fuel for Electricity Status of Hydro Electric Potential Development Fuel Requirement during 2016–17 Transmission Line at the End of the Twelfth Plan Period Inter-Regional Flow of Power at the End of Twelfth Plan Period Details of Coal and Lignite Production Inventory of Coal and Lignite Reserves as on 1 April 2012 Accretion of Coal Reserves Coal Washing Capacity by the end of Eleventh Plan Period Financial Performance of the Coal Sector Coal Demand during the Twelfth Plan Coal Production Share of Underground Production in Total Production Price Comparison of Domestic Coal with other Countries Consumption of Petroleum Products Physical Performance of Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector Share of Overseas Hydrocarbon Production Under-Recoveries on Petroleum Products Demand of Petroleum Products Projection of Crude Oil Production in the Twelfth Plan Natural Gas Demand for Twelfth Five Year Plan Projection of Natural gas production in Twelfth Plan (BCM) Breakup of the Exploration Programme for the Twelfth Plan Likely Under-Recoveries on Petroleum* Products Projected Refining Capacity during Twelfth Plan (MMTPA) R&D Expenditure by Major Oil and Gas Companies Eleventh Plan Power Capacity Addition through Grid Interactive Renewable Power Cost of Power for Various Renewable Energy Sources Power Capacity Addition through Off Grid Renewable Power Eleventh Plan Financial Allocations and Expenditure: MNRE Indicative Twelfth Five Year Plan Outlay for the Various Ministries/Departments in the Energy Sector CO2 Emissions from Various Transport Modes Overview of Financial Position of the Indian Railways Investment in Railways during Eleventh Plan Performance of Freight Business during Eleventh Five Year Plan Performance of Passenger Business during Eleventh Five Year Plan Losses in Passenger Services Capacity Creation during Eleventh Plan Throw Forward of Infrastructure Projects as on 1 April 2012 Rolling Stock Performance during Eleventh Plan Productivity Performance Benchmarking Indian Railways with Chinese and Russian Railways Traffic Projections

143 146 146 147 148 149 150 151 160 160 161 162 165 165 166 167 167 171 172 173 174 176 176 176 177 177 178 178 180 185 186 186 187 190 196 199 200 201 201 201 202 202 203 203 204 206

x Tables

15.13 Passenger Traffic Projections for Twelfth Plan 15.14 Projection of Originating PKM for Twelfth Plan 15.15 Creation of Fixed Assets during the Twelfth Plan 15.16 Rolling Stock Requirement during the Twelfth Plan 15.17 Passenger Service Yields in some Major Economies 15.18 Freight Yields in some Major Economies 15.19 Physical Achievements under NHDP during the Eleventh Five Year Plan 15.20 Progress of NHDP up to 30 April 2012 15.21 Physical Progress of Non-NHDP NHs during Eleventh Five Year Plan 15.22 State Roads Progress during the Eleventh Plan 15.23 Physical Progress–PMGSY (as on 31 March 2012) 15.24 Financial Progress (as on 31st March, 2012) 15.25 Habitation Coverage–Bharat Nirman (as on 31 March 2012) 15.26 Cumulative Physical Progress under Bharat Nirman (up to March 2012) 15.27 Targets for the Twelfth Plan 15.28 Projected Road Freight and Passenger Traffic 15.29 Financial Performance of the Shipping Sector in the Eleventh Plan 15.30 Estimated Requirements of Additional Vessels and Investment 15.31 Eleventh Plan Projection and Achievements of Traffic and Capacity by Major Ports 15.32 Commodity Wise Capacity Creation by Major Ports during Eleventh Plan 15.33 Traffic Handled at Major and Non-Major Ports during Eleventh Plan 15.34 Trend of the Productivity Parameters during Eleventh Plan 15.35 Year-wise Awards during Eleventh Plan under PPP 15.37 Commodity wise Capacity by the end of Twelfth Plan 15.36 Major Ports wise Traffic/Capacity Projections by End of Twelfth Plan 15.38 Commodity Wise Traffic by the End of Twelfth Plan (2016–17) 15.39 Growth Projections for the Twelfth Five Year Plan: Passenger and Cargo Traffic Forecasts 15.40 Investment Requirements during the Twelfth Plan 15.41 Comparison of ATF Prices in India with Competing Hubs 15.42 Flights/Week 15.43 Ministry/Department–wise Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays for Transport Sectors 16.1 Targets and Achievements 16.2 Key Targets for the Twelfth Plan for the Electronics and IT-ITeS Industry 17.1 Overview of MGNREGA Performance, 2006–12 17.2 (A) Average Daily Wage Rates for Agricultural Labour: Male 17.2 (B) Seasonality of MGNREGA Employment Provided during 2010–11 17.3 Additional List of Permissible Works Under MGNREGA 17.4 Wage Payment Cycle under MGNREGA 17.5 Accountability Matrix for Delays in Wage Payments under MGNREGA 17.6 Phasing of the National Rural Livelihoods Mission 17.7 Investments in Rural Drinking Water, 1951–2012 17.8 Access to Household Amenities in Worst Performing States in Terms of Toilet Facilities in Rural India, 2011 (Percentage of Rural Households) 17.9 Percentage of Households with No Latrine Facilities in Rural India, 2011 17.10 Total Sanitation Campaign, Physical Progress, Eleventh Plan 17.11 Total Sanitation Campaign, Financial Progress, Eleventh Plan 17.12 Major Increase in Unit Cost Support for IHHLs during the Twelfth Plan 17.13 IAY-Financial Performance during Eleventh Plan (2007–08 to 2011–12)

207 207 209 210 213 213 215 216 217 218 219 219 220 220 223 225 227 228 237 237 238 238 238 239 239 240 243 243 245 247 251 267 268 287 289 290 291 294 295 299 300 303 304 305 305 305 307

Tables xi

17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6

Physical Performance of IAY During Eleventh Plan (2007–08 to 2011–12) Convergence of IAY with other Rural Infrastructure Scheme for Purchase of Home Site and Incentive for Additional Target under IAY Infrastructure and Amenities to be Provided, Operated and Maintained under PURA Project by Private Developer in the Twelfth Plan NSAP Progress in the Eleventh Plan Physical and Financial Progress of NSAP Components, Eleventh Plan Physical and Financial Progress under JNNURM (March 2012) Estimates of Urban Transport Investments by HPEC Requirement of CAPEX Investments under JNNURM Investment Requirement Estimates by HPEC Requirement of CAPEX as per Working Group Construction Sector-Macro Aggregates Flow of Bank Credit to Construction Sector Flow of FDI in Construction Activities (including Roads and Highways) Alternative growth scenarios of tourism Performance of Handloom Sector during the Eleventh Plan Period Performance of Handicrafts Sector during the Eleventh Plan Period

307 308 308 313 314 315 323 344 344 349 350 350 362 371 371 376 397 402

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 14.1 14.2 14.3 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 16.1 16.2 16.3 17.1 17.2 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Examples of Weak Domestic Standards Leading to Influx of Sub-standard Products in the Country Dwindling Indian Capital Goods Industry Strategies for Highest Overall Impact Key Recommendations for Manufacturing Key Recommendations Key Recommendations Achievements in Power Sector during the Eleventh Plan Recommendations of Task Force on Open Access Perform, Achieve and Trade Mechanism Containerisation In Railways Business Models for Passenger and Rail Freight Logistics: The JR East and Deutsche Bahn Ways Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) – A Game Change for the Indian Rail Sector New Generation Locomotives Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Railways Key Message from Reports on Railways: The Need for Organisational Reforms Financing of National Highway Development Programme (NHDP) Engineering, Procurement, Construction (EPC) Contract Innovations by some State Governments Introduction of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) Coal Transport to Farakka through Power Station – A Break through for IWT Development of Airports During the Eleventh Plan GAGAN—The Indian Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) for Air Navigation Services (ANS) Spectrum Trading Twelfth Plan Targets for the Telecommunication Sector Key Achievements (as on 31 March 2012) New Guidelines Strengthen Demand-driven Character of MGNREGA Limitations of SGSY Vision of Our Cities State of Service Delivery—Key Indicators Transforming Public Transport in Cities Harmonising the Role of Parastatals with Elected Municipal Bodies Strategic Densification—International Examples Recommendation of Isher Ahluwalia Committee on Financial Devolution to ULBs PPP in Urban Sector under JNNURM 61 68 98 99 122 125 136 145 157 207 208 209 210 212 214 216 217 223 225 233 242 244 263 264 267 293 298 320 321 324 326 330 332 333

Boxes xiii

18.8 18.9 18.10 18.11 18.12 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5

FSI and Coverage Areas Can be Combined to Increase Densities Metro—A Transformational Approach to Public Transport Reforms and Desired Outcomes Related to Water Supply and Sanitation Reforms under JNNURM Comprehensive List of Reforms in Urban Sector Major Schemes for Urban Renewal at a Glance Financing Instruments for Affordable Housing Popular Choice by Design! Twelfth Plan Interventions for Handlooms Twelfth Plan Schemes for Handicrafts Upturn in India’s Sporting Performance

338 341 348 355 358 374 399 401 404 410

2G/3G/4G AAI AAY ACA ACC ACS ADB ADC ADDA AES AI AIBP AIC AIR AIU AL AML AMM AMPC ANM AnSI AOC APL APMC APMSS APO ARPU ARR ARYA ASHA ASI ASPIRE Second Generation/Third Generation/Fourth Generation Airport Authority of India Antodaya Anna Yojana Additional Central Assistance Artisan Credit Card Average Cost of Supply Asian Development Plan Access Deficit Charges Asansol Durgapur Development Authority Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Artificial Insemination Accelerated Agriculture Benefit Programme Agricultural Insurance Corporation All India Radio Association of Indian Universities Arable Land Anti-Money Laundering Abandoned mine methane Automated Mail Processing Centre Auxiliary Nurse Midwife Anthropological Survey of India Agreement of Collaboration Above Poverty Line Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee Andhara Pradesh Mahila Samakhya Assistant Programme Officer Average Revenue Per User Average Revenue Realised Attracting & Retaining Youth in Agriculture Accredited Social Health Activist Archaeological Survey of India Agriculture Science Pursuit for Inspired Research Excellence ASSOCHAM ATC ATF ATFC ATls ATMAs ATS B.P.Ed. BAF BC BCM BDOs BE BEE BEML BFDAs BFO BHEL BIPP BIRAP BIS BLY BMPTC BORL–Bina BOT BPCL BPL BPO BPR BRCs Associated Chamber of Commerce Air Traffic Control Automatic Transmission Fluid Agriculture Technology Forecast Centre Administrative Training Institutes Agriculture Technology Management Agency Apprentice Training Scheme Bachelor of Physical Education Batch Annealing Furnace Business Correspondent Billion cubic metres Block Development Officers Budgetary Estimate Bureau of Energy Efficiency Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. Brackish water Farmers Development Agencies Business Facilitation Officer Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Biotechnology Industry Partnership Programme Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Programme Bureau of Indian Standards Bachat Lamp Yojana Building Material and Technology Promotion Council Bharat Oman Refineries Limited Build-Operate-Transfer Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Below Poverty Line Branch Post Office/ Business Process Outsourcing Business Process Re-engineering Block Resource Centres

Acronyms xv



Border Roads Organisation Bus Rapid Transit System Basic Services to the Urban Poor Billion Tonne Kilometre Billion Unit Broadband Wireless Access Comptroller & Auditor General Conservation Agriculture Commission for Agriculture Costs & Prices Comptroller and Auditor General Compound Annual Growth Rate Calorie/ kilogramme Capital expenditure Central Board of Direct Taxation Coal bed Methane Community Based Organisations Capacity Building and Reform Management Coal Conservation and Development Act Central Coalfields Limited Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Comprehensive District Agriculture Plants Centre for Development of Telematics City Development Plans Central Electricity Authority Citizen Engagement Framework Chief Electrical Inspectorate to Govt. of India Central Electricity Regulatory Commission Computer Emergency Response Team Indian Computer Emergency Response Team Common Affluent Treatment Plan Centre for Excellence in Wireless Technology Construction Federation of India Children Film Society of India Cluster Facilitation Team/ Combating of Financing of Terrorism City Gas Distribution


Cluster of Gram Panchayats Consumer Grievance Redressal Forum Methane, Carbon Monoxide Coal Handling Plants Construction Industry Development Council Confederation of Indian Industries Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme Confederation of Indian Industries Counter Magnet Area Coal mine methane Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture Compressed natural gas Central Pollution Control Board Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited Customer Premises Equipment Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Labour/Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme Chief Post Master General Captive power plants Central Public Works Department Confederation of Real Estate Developers’ Associations of India Community Resource Persons Central Road Research Institute Indian Computer Emergency Response Team Cluster Stimulation Cell/Common Services Centre Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Central Statistical Organisation/ Civil Society Organisation Corporate Social Responsibility Centrally Sponsored Scheme Central Sales Tax/Concentrating Solar Technology Coal to liquid Capacity Utilisation Factor Chief Vigilance Officer

xvi Acronyms


Centre for Wind Energy Technology Common Wealth Games Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Department of Atomic Energy Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries Disability Adjusted Life Years Di Ammonium Phosphate Department of Agricultural Research & Education Digital Addressable System Directorate of Advertisement and Visual Publicity Department of Bio-technology Dredging Corporation of India Doordarshan Department of Electronics and Information Technology Diesel-Electric Multiple Unit/ Mainline Electric Multiple Unit Dedicated Freight Corridor Directorate of Field Publicity Directorate General of Civil Aviation Director General of Hydrocarbons Differential Global Positioning System Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion Department of Posts Department of Telecommunication Development Plan District Programme Coordinator Detailed Project Reports Defence Public Sector Undertaking District Rural Development Agency Defence Research & Development Organisation Differential Rate of Interest Digital Radio Mondiale Demand side management Decision Support System Department of Science & Technology Direct Tax Code Direct to Home


Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Exploration and Production Companies Ethanol Blended Petrol Programme External Commercial Borrowing Energy Conservation Building Code Local Cable Operators Enhanced Data for Global Evolution Electronic Design and Manufacturing Cluster Electronics Delivery of Services Exclusive Economic Zone Expenditure Finance Committee Electronic Fund Management System End Implementing Agencies Engineers India Limited Entrepreneur’s Memorandum Electronics Manufacturing Cluster Electronic Media Monitoring Centre Environmental Measures and Subsidence Control scheme Electric Multiple Unit Essar Oil Ltd Engineering Procurement and Construction Enterprise resource planning Electronics System Design & Manufacturing Effluent Treatment Plant Economically Weaker Sections Export Import Fabrication Unit Food and Agriculture Organisation Floor Area Ratio Foreign Direct investment Fish Farmers Development Agencies Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry Frequency Modulation Foot & Mouth Disease Furnace oil/Low Sulphur Heavy Stock Forum of Load Dispatchers




Forum of Regulators Farmer Producer Organisation Fair Price Shop Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Rules Fuel Supply Agreement Floor Space Index Floating Storage & Regasification units Free Trade Agreement Films and Television Institute of India Five Year Plan Gas Authority of India Ltd Generation based incentive support Gross Budgetary Support Gross Capital Formation Gross calorific value Gross Domestic Product Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd Geographical Information System Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva Genetically Modified Organisms Government of India Government of India-United Nations Development Programme Ground Penetrating Radar Global Positioning System Gram Panchayats Golden Quadrilateral Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment Gross State Domestic Product Geological Survey of India Global System for Mobile Communication Goods and Services Tax Gross Tonne Gate Turn Off (Thyrister)/lnsulated Gate Bipolar Transistor GigaWatt High Definition High Definition Television Heavy Engineering Corporation Higher Educational Institutions Heavy earth moving machinery Headend In The Sky



Hardware Manufacturing Cluster Park Hindustan Mittal Energy Limited Hindustan Machine Tools Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited High Powered Expert Committee Head Post Offices High Power Transmitter Human Resource Development High Resolution Seismic Survey Herorrhagic Septicemia High Surge Impedance Loading High Temp. Low Sag High-tech Reconnaissance & Exploration Licences Housing and Urban Development Corporation Indian Institutes of Urban Management Information & Broadcasting Integrated Agro-Meteorological Advisory Service International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science & Technology for Development Integrated Action Plan Indira Awaas Yojana Indian Broadcasting Foundation India Backbone Implementation Network Indian Bureau of Mines Indian Broadcasting Foundation In Building Solutions Integrated Circuit Indian Council of Agricultural Research Inland Container Depot Integrated Coach Factory Indian Council of Medical Research Integrated Coal Resource Information System Information and Communication Technology Information, Communication Technology and Electronics International Development Association

xviii Acronyms


Internal and Extra Budgetary Resources Information Education and Communication International Film Festival of India Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme Individual Household Latrine Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme Integrated Infrastructural Development Scheme India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited Indian Institute of Handloom Technology Indian Institute of Information Technology Indian Institute of Public Administration Indian Institute of Science Indian Institute of Technology Indian Institutes of Urban Managements Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme Integrated Lignite Resource Information System Indian Meteorological Department International Mobile Equipment Identity Integrated Management Information System Inter Media Publicity Coordination Committee International Mobile Telecommunications India International Philatelic Exhibition Indian Oil Corporation Limited Intellectual Property/Internet Protocol Integrated Pest Management



Intellectual Property Rights Internet Protocol Television Internet Protocol version 4/Internet Protocol version 6 Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Integrated Rural Development Programme Indian Standard Organisation Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserve Ltd Indian Space Research Organisation Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing and Urban Poor Information Technology Information Technology Agreement-1 Indian Telephone Industries Industrial Training Institutes Information Technology-and Information Technology enabled Service Interactive Voice Response System Inland Waterways Authority of India Inland Waterways Transport Japanese Encephalitis Joint Liability Groups Joint Monitoring Programme Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission Jharia Rehabilitation and Development Authority Joint Venture Joint Working Groups Kisan Credit Card Kilogramme of Oil Equivalent/US Dollar Khadi & Village Industries Corporation Krishi Vigayan Kendra Kendriya Vidyalayas Kilo Watt Kilowatt hour Line kilometre

Acronyms xix


Least Assured Depth Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2011 Local Bodies Finance List Local Cable Operators Livestock Development Boards Land Development Corporation Light Diesel Oil Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Linke Holfmann Busch Low Income Group Laxmibai National College of Physical Education Liquefied natural gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Low Power Transmitter Land Readjustment Long Term Cooperative Credit Structure Long Term Evolution Left Wing Extremism Mergers and Acquisitions Master of Physical Education Moving Average National Institute for Agriculture Extension and Management Minimum Alternative Tax Megabits per second Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Management Devolution Index Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill, 2011 Ministry of External Affairs Minimum Economic Size Microfinance Institutions Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Merry-Go-Round Mega Hertz/Giga Hertz Management Information System Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan Million Metric British Thermal Unit


Mini Mission III Mission Mode Project Million Metric Standard Cubic Metre Per Day Million Metric Tonnes Million tones oil equivalent Million Metric Tonne Per Annum Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Coal Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Ministry of Power Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Roads Transport & Highways Ministry of Statistics & Plan Implementation Multi-organisation Team/ Muriate of Potash Memorandum of Understanding Ministry of Urban development Metropolitan Planning Committees Maximum Retail Price Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited Motor spirit Cluster Development Programme of the M/o MSME Micro & Small Enterprise Facilitation Councils Modified Special Incentive Programme Scheme Micro, Small & Medium Enterprise MSME Development Act, 2006 Minimum Support Price Million Tonnes Mid-term Appraisal Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency Million tons of oil equivalent Medium Wave/Megawatt Megawatt electrical

xx Acronyms


Megawatt Peak National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NABARD Financial Services Non Agricultural use of Land National Anti-Doping Agency National Agricultural Insurance Scheme National Action Plan on Climate Change National Agriculture Research System National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project National Audio-Visual Archives News Broadcasters Association/ Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan National Bio Energy Corporation of India Non-Banking Finance Companies Nutrient Based Subsidy National Cadet Corps National Competition Policy National Capital Region National Council of Teacher Education National Dairy Development Boards National Dairy Plant National Dope Test Laboratory North East National Electricity Fund National e-Governance Plan North Eastern Region Urban Development Programme New Exploration Licensing Policy North Eastern Region National Frequency Allocation Plan National Family Benefit Scheme National Fisheries Development Board National Film Development Corporation National Food Security Act National Food Security Bill National Food Security Mission Next Generation Network Non-Governmental Organisation Nirmal Gram Puraskar


National Gender Resources Centre in Agriculture National Geophysical Research Institute National Highway Authority of India National Horticulture Board/ National Housing Bank National Highway Development Programme National Horticulture Mission Net irrigated area National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture National Investment and Manufacturing Zone National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research National Institute of Sports National Institute of Sports Coaching National Institute of Sports Science and Sports Medicine National Institute of Urban Affairs National Knowledge Network Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources Natural Language Processing National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture National Mission on Sustainable Habitat Non-Motorised Transport Nagarjuna Oil Corporation Limited National Optical Fibre Network National Programme for Bovine Breeding National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy National Project for Cattle & Buffalo Breeding National Playfields Association of India

Acronyms xxi



National Physical Fitness Programme Nitrogen Phosphorous & Potash Non-Pesticidal Management of Pests National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility New Pension Scheme/ New Pricing Scheme National Programme for Youth and Adolescent Development National Rained Area Authority National Rural Drinking Water Programme National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Numaligarh Refinery Limited National Rural Livelihood Mission National Social Assistance Programme National School of Drama National Skill Development Corporation National Skill Development Fund National Sports Federation National Small Industry Corporation Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports National Sample Survey/National Service Scheme National Sample Survey Office/ National Sample Survey Organisation National Urban Sanitation Policy National Transport Development Policy Committee Net Tonne Kilometre National Telecom Policy National Thermal Power Corporation National Institute of Sports National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy National Urban Livelihood’s Mission National Urban Rail Transit Authority



National Voluntary Guidelines on Soc., Env., & Eco Responsibility for Business Navodaya Vidyalayas National Youth Corps Nehru Yuva Kendras Operation & Maintenance Oil and oil equivalent gas Other Backward Classes Open Defecation Free Ordinance Factory Board Oil India Limited Oil Marketing Companies Output per man shift Operate-Maintain-Transfer Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited ONGC Videsh Ltd Year on Year Average Primary Agriculture Cooperative Society Pan African Postal Union Perform, Achieve & Trade Perform, Achieve and Trade Mechanism Pollution Control Board Policy Coherence Unit Pension Distribution Agencies Peer Experience and Reflective and Reflective Learning Peak Hour Peak Direction Traffic Public Information Bureau Public Information Campaign Passenger Kilometre Public Land Banks Postal Life Insurance Pradhan Mantri Employment Guarantee Programme Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna Piped natural gas Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Petroleum, Oil and Lubricant Post Office Life Insurance Fund Post Offices Power System Operation Corporation Limited

xxii Acronyms


Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell PPAs Power purchase agreement PPP Public–Private Partnership PPPP People Private–Public Partnership PPPIAD Public–Private Partnership for Integrated Agricultural Development PPVFRA Protection of Plant Variety & Farmers Rights Authority PRGF Partial Risk Guarantee Fund PRIs Panchayati Raj Institutions Provi. Provisional PSB Public Service Broadcaster PSCs Production Sharing Contracts PSUs Public Sector Undertakings PTA Preferential Trade Agreement PURA Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas PWD Public Works Department PWSS Piped Water Supply System PYD Programme for Youth Development PYKKA Panchayati Yuva Khel aur Krida Abhiyan R&D Research and Development R&M AND LE Renovation & Modernisation and Life Extension R&R Rehabilitation and Resettlement R/P ratios Reserves-to-Production ratio R–ABDRP Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme RAY Rajiv Awas Yojana RBCs Rural Building Centres RCUES Regional Centres of Urban and Environment Studies RDF Rural Development Flexi-fund RDSO Research Design and Standards Organisation RE bonds Renewable Energy bonds RE Revised Expenditure READY Rural Entrepreneurship & Awareness Development Yojana REC Renewable Energy Certificate RFD Result Framework Document RFID Radio Frequency Identification RGGVY Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana



Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development Rural Housing Fund Regulatory Impact Analysis Rural Infrastructure Development Fund Reliance Industries Limited Reliance Industries Limited-Krishna Godavari Basin River Information System Rail India Techno Economic Services Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Road Over Bridge/ Road Under Bridge Right of Way Rural Postal Life Insurance Renewable Purchase Obligation Rural Post Office Life Insurance Fund Regional Rapid Transit System Right to Education Rural Development and SelfEmployment Training Institutes Song and Drama Division Standards and Labelling Special Additional Duty Goaf edge supports State Agriculture Management Extension & Training Institutions Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for the North East Sports Authority of India Social Audit Unit/State Agricultural Universities Standard bid documents Singareni Collieries Company Limited Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Sub-Plan Standard Developing Organisations Standard Definition Television State Electricity Board Security & Exchange Board of India Socio-Economic and Caste Census




Contribution to State Energy Conservation Fund Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium State Finance Commission Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana State Housing Boards Self-Help Groups Small Industry Business Research Initiatives Scheme for Integrated Textile Park Swarna Jayanti Sahari Rozgaar Yojana Superior Kerosene Oil State-Level Nodal Agency State Level Sanctioning Committee Small and Medium Enterprise Soil Organic Carbon State Owned Enterprise Standard Operating Producer Schedule of Rates State Pesticide Testing Laboratory Special Purpose Vehicle Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute System of Rice Intensification Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Set Top Box Short term liabilities Short-Term Open Access Scheduled Tribes State Transmission Utilities/Central Transmission Utility Short Wave State Wide Area Network Trillion cubic feet Telecommunications Consultants India Ltd Telecom Centres of Excellence Technology Development Board Transfer of Development Rights Tradable Development Rights Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal Telecom Engineering Centre Total Factor Productivity Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited


Technology Mission for North Eastern Region Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund Time of Day Terrestrial Observation & Prediction System Targeted Public Distribution System Town Planning Schemes Total Quality Management Total Sanitation Campaign Telecom Standards Development Organisation Telecom Service Provider/Tribal Sub-Plan Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme Utilization Certificate Underground Coal Gasification University Grants Commission Useful heat value Unique Identification Unique Identification—AADHAR Urban Infrastructure Development for Small & Medium Towns Urban Infrastructure and Governance United Kingdom Urban Local Bodies Unit Linked Insurance Plan Ultra Mega Power Projects Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority United Nations Children’s Fund Universal Postal Union United States of America United States Environment Protection Agency Urban Statistics for HR Assessment Urban Sport Infrastructure Universal Service Obligation Fund Urban Transport Value Added Services Value Added Tax Venture Capital Fund for Energy Efficiency Visual Effects Viability Gap Funding

xxiv Acronyms


Visionary Leadership for Manufacturing Very Low Power Transmitter Voice Over Internet Protocol Vehicle Units Village Water and Sanitation Committee Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network


World Health Organisation Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Warehouse Regulatory & Development Authority Weavers’ Service Centres World Trade Organisation Next Generation Gigabit Passive Optical Network

13.1 13.2 13.3 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 16.1 Manufacturing GDP by Sector and Employment Projections Sector-wise Recommendations Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays (GBS) for Industry Sector Eleventh Plan Physical Progress of RGGVY Projects under Implementation Sectoral Coal Demand/Off-take for Annual Plan 2012–13 Annual Plan 2012–13—Company-wise Production—Ministry of Coal Physical Targets of Renewable Programme for the Twelfth Plan Central Road Sector Outlay and Expenditure-At Current Price for Eleventh Plan Plan-wise Addition to NH Length Achievement on National Highways National Highways Development Project Phase I to VII Physical Performance of Air India Limited during Eleventh Plan Period Financial Performance of Air India Ltd. during the Eleventh Plan Period Financial Performance of Airports Authority of India during Eleventh Plan Period Financial Performance of Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. during Eleventh Plan Period Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays for the Ministry of Communications and IT and Ministry of Information and Broadcasting 105 106 129 191 192 193 194 252 254 254 255 256 256 257 257 285

12.1. Although agriculture now accounts for only 14 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), it is still the main source of livelihood for the majority of the rural population. As such rapid growth of agriculture is critical for inclusiveness. Important structural changes are taking place within the sector and there are definite signs of improved performance. Agricultural growth has accelerated compared to the Tenth Plan and diversification is proceeding (Table 12.1). The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) data brings out that rural labourers are shifting to non-agricultural work, tightening the labour market in agriculture and putting pressure on farm wages. However, dependence on agriculture remains unchanged among the rural self-employed whose average farm size continues to decline with population growth. This is also an ageing, more feminised population, whose educated young members are less likely to want to stay in farming. The viability of farm enterprise, mostly small farms, must therefore be a special area of Plan focus in the Twelfth Plan. The Plan must also focus on other priorities such as resource-use efficiency and technology to ensure sustainability of natural resources, adaptation to climate change and improvements in total factor productivity.

12.2. The average of annual growth rates of GDP in agriculture and allied sectors during the Eleventh

TABLE 12.1 Growth Rate of Agricultural and Allied Sectors (in percentage) Plan Share of Agriculture in the Economy 23.4 19.0 16.8 15.8 14.7 14.5 14.0 15.2 Growth Rate of Agriculture and Allied Sectors 2.5 2.4 5.8 0.1 1.0 7.0 2.8 3.3 Growth Rate of Total Economy 5.7 7.6 9.3 6.7 8.4 8.4 6.5 7.9

(All Figures based on 2004–05 prices) Ninth Five Year Plan Tenth Five Year Plan Eleventh Plan (2007–08 to 2011–12) 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 (Quick Est.) 2011–12 (Rev Est.) Eleventh Plan Average


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Five Year Plan is now placed at 3.3 per cent. This is short of the target of 4 per cent but is significantly better than the achievement of 2.4 per cent in the Tenth Plan. Failure to reach the target growth is one reason for the high inflation in prices of food and other primary commodities that persist despite the recent slowdown in overall GDP growth. Consequently, although the overall GDP growth target of the Twelfth Plan has been revised down since the Approach Paper, the growth target for agriculture is maintained at 4 per cent. 12.3. A natural question which arises is whether the target of 4 per cent is attainable in view of past shortfalls. Although growth trends and targets are subject to high errors due to weather variability (for example, the Eleventh Plan average was pulled down by two successive bad harvests in 2008–09 and 2009– 10), there is reason for cautious optimism because the turn-around that began after 2004 appears to be maintaining its momentum. Figure 12.1 plots averages and standard deviations of annual growth rates over moving five-year periods, a trend of the growth averages and also annualised five-year growth rates based on five-year moving averages. All these show growth still trending up and variability reducing. The Eleventh Plan growth rate based on five-year moving averages is at 3.6 per cent, the highest for any

five-year period ever and, significantly, growth variability has also reduced to lowest ever. 12.4. The reduction in variability is important since claims of acceleration or deceleration make sense only when variability is low. Also, it is a measure of how well the system is able to cope with inevitable bouts of aberrant weather and yet maintain the growth momentum. It should be noted that agricultural growth was positive in 2009–10 despite the worst drought in nearly 40 years. More generally, whereas earlier periods saw at least one and normally two years of negative growth in every five year, there has not been a single year of negative growth of agriculture and allied sectors after 2002–03. 12.5. The magnitude of secular decline in growth variability over the last 30 years is also important. This is now less than a third of its peak. A major role must have been played by the increase in irrigation from about 20 per cent of arable area in 1981 to 35 per cent today, based mainly on groundwater. However, since water tables have fallen and temperatures risen, the extent of variability decline is surprisingly large. Even assuming zero variability on irrigated land, this implies that variability on rain-fed land must have reduced very substantially. Clearly factors such as a more diversified agriculture,

6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1981–82 1986–87 1991–92 1976–77 1996–97 2001–02 2006–07 2011–12

12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0

Average of annual growth rates

5 yr MA

Std dev of annual growth rates (axis 2)

FIGURE 12.1: Growth and Fluctuations in GDP Agriculture and Allied

Agriculture 3

extended information reach and investments both on-farm and in watershed development, appear to have enabled better responses to depleting natural resources and weather risk. Although there is considerable scope to improve each of these factors further, it is a matter of satisfaction that developments in these areas are having a positive effect.

Even the coolest year (2008) during these five years was the thirteenth warmest in the last 110 years.

State-wise performance
12.7. The Mid-term Appraisal of the Eleventh Plan (MTA) had noted that the recovery in agriculture after 2004 was associated with clear signs of renewed dynamism in rain-fed areas. Table 12.3, presents state-wise averages and standard deviations of annual growth rates of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) from agriculture and allied activities for four separate periods since 1981–82. It clearly shows the following: 1. The all-States average and median growth rates of GSDP recovered beyond levels before mid1990s, to reach near 4 per cent in the period after 2004–05, this also happened individually in many states, particularly those with large rainfed areas. The states with best performance were Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, all with above 5 per cent growth. 2. Despite more difficult weather conditions, all except few hill states managed substantial reduction of growth variability (measured by standard deviation of annual growth rates) during 2005– 12 as compared to the past.

The Climate Challenge
12.6. The climate challenge facing agriculture needs to be taken seriously. Table 12.2 shows a distinct trend towards both drier and warmer weather, particularly during the last three Plan periods. Rainfall in context of agriculture has traditionally been discussed in terms of the monsoon (that is, June– September) but annual precipitation is probably much more relevant now since the dominance of Kharif crops has reduced. Viewed in this perspective, it is noteworthy that each of the last three Plan periods has recorded lower mean rainfall and higher rainfall variability compared to the immediately previous period. Three (2008, 2009 and 2011) of the five Eleventh Plan years had annual rainfall below 95 per cent of long period average, as compared to only five in the previous 15 years. Temperature conditions have deteriorated even more. Periods prior to 1997 can be considered normal, but warming has increased at an accelerating pace since then. The Eleventh Plan period contained the two warmest years (2010 and 2009) ever recorded since 1900.

TABLE 12.2 Some Weather Details 1951/52 to 1967/68 Annual Rainfall (cm) Mean Standard Deviation Monsoon Rainfall (cm) Mean Standard Deviation Mean Standard Deviation 91.9 10.1 0.04 0.28 88.8 9.6 –0.03 0.24 88.8 11.0 0.09 0.03 90.0 6.5 0.19 0.10 87.8 5.5 0.34 0.22 83.9 7.9 0.56 0.11 86.6 9.7 0.65 0.26 122.5 12.5 118.7 10.2 120.1 11.5 121.0 7.2 118.5 8.3 113.7 9.4 111.7 10.0 1968/69 to 1980/81 1981/82 to 1990/91 1991/92 to 1996/97 1997/98 to 2001/02 2002/03 to 2006/07 2007/08 to 2011/12

Annual Temperature anomaly from normal (°C)

Source: Climate bulletins and other publications of the India Meteorological Department.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 12.3 Averages and Standard Deviations of Annual Growth Rates of GSDP from Agriculture and Allied Sectors Average of Annual Growth Rates 1981–82 to 1993–94 Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamilnadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Sum of GSDP of: All above states High irrigation states Medium irrigation states Low irrigation states High productivity states Mid productivity states Low productivity states Across States: Median Standard deviation 3.9 9.3 2.5 1.1 4.9 8.8 4.5 2.8 1.3 1.1 4.5 3.2 4.9 5.7 2.8 1.1 1994–95 to 1999–00 2.8 –0.8 0.2 3.1 –2.1 5.2 2.1 0.3 5.2 4.3 4.1 1.9 1.6 3.1 2.1 7.2 2000–01 to 2004–05 4.7 1.6 –0.1 7.4 4.6 9.1 2.7 8.0 3.6 5.0 –2.9 1.7 2.2 1.6 5.8 4.8 0.1 14.1 3.5 1.8 10.9 6.5 –0.5 4.0 1.0 3.3 2.4 2.1 (1.7) 1.7 3.1 1.5 2.5 2.1 2.5 3.5 3.7 2005–06 to 2011–12 5.0 5.0 4.1 3.3 7.3 5.5 4.2 1.5 0.7 8.0 5.1 –0.2 4.4 5.3 5.9 3.3 5.7 2.5 3.1 1.8 5.5 3.4 4.6 5.7 2.8 2.0 2.6 3.8 (3.7) 2.7 4.2 4.5 2.1 3.7 5.1 4.2 1.9 Standard Deviation of Annual Growth Rates 1981–82 to 1993–94 10.0 9.7 4.8 12.9 10.5 53.5 12.2 12.4 11.2 12.9 8.7 6.4 10.5 17.3 3.6 11.2 1994–95 to 1999–00 13.8 8.5 2.7 22.7 10.5 27.0 7.0 2.1 5.7 7.2 5.7 4.9 3.4 10.1 6.2 6.2 2000–01 to 2004–05 9.7 7.2 1.4 24.1 35.3 24.2 3.5 6.2 3.8 19.6 15.1 2.4 27.1 6.9 6.9 2.1 4.8 9.7 16.4 2.6 44.9 1.0 14.0 11.4 1.8 4.9 4.0 6.5 (6.1) 2.1 8.5 9.1 2.2 4.5 16.7 6.9 2005–06 to 2011–12 6.5 7.8 2.2 11.9 9.1 10.4 5.7 9.7 2.9 5.1 6.8 3.4 4.7 11.5 4.4 2.2 5.9 2.3 2.5 1.6 10.1 2.4 7.0 5.6 1.4 4.3 3.4 2.8 (2.5) 0.9 3.0 5.3 0.8 2.3 5.4 5.1

2.6 4.9 5.9 5.8 2.5 2.8 2.8 5.3 3.4 (3.4) 3.8 2.9 3.6 4.1 3.0 3.6 3.6 2.2

0.0 2.5 5.5 –1.2 1.8 3.7 3.5 2.4 4.1 2.5 (3.3) 3.2 1.8 2.8 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.3

18.6 4.6 26.5 12.7 7.1 3.2 3.2 9.2 5.8 (5.1) 3.1 9.8 5.6 3.9 4.0 11.0 10.5

11.0 4.4 14.4 11.1 9.6 5.7 5.2 3.5 4.3 5.2 (4.6) 3.8 9.1 4.7 3.1 6.6 6.4 6.2

Note: Figures in brackets use corresponding national GDP agriculture and allied (2004–05 prices) data. High irrigation refers to the GSDP sum over Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Net irrigated area (NIA)/Arable land (AL) > 55 per cent in 2008–09). Low irrigation (NIA/AL < 30 per cent) refers to Assam and North-East, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand. Medium refers to the rest. High productivity states (present GSDP/AL > `70,000/hectare at 2004–05 prices) are Tripura, West Bengal, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, J&K and Haryana. Low productivity (GSDP/AL < `35,000) states are Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Gujarat. The rest are Middle productivity. The 1980–81 series gives data only for undivided Bihar, MP and UP; these have been split using 1993–94 ratios to get GSDP for new States.

Agriculture 5

3. The variation in performance across States suggests that State-level responses and implementation play a very significant role in determining agricultural performance. However, to the extent that available technology limits potential growth, it will be difficult to maintain high growth rates where productivity has increased close to potential levels. This is relevant because the Eleventh Plan strategy gave much greater flexibility to States and focused more on yield gaps within existing technology, rather than emphasising new technologies and supporting these. The growth acceleration since 2005 has therefore been much stronger in states with lower productivity and less irrigation. This suggests that the strategy may be correcting the past relative neglect which caused rain-fed farming, covering over 60 per cent of arable land, to perform well below potential. 12.8. It is a matter of concern that the recent growth revival has been weak in areas with high land productivity, not only in relatively more irrigated states such as Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal that had green revolution success, but also in less irrigated states such as Kerala, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir where high productivity reflects a high-value cropping pattern based on horticulture. These States together contribute about 35 per cent of national agricultural output from 20 per cent of arable land, but none of them have been able to surpass growth rates achieved in the past. Even Gujarat, a low productivity state that sustained near 10 per cent growth for almost a decade through better water use and rapid adoption of Bt cotton hybrids, slowed down perceptibly in the Eleventh Plan as Bt adoption saturated and yields reached a plateau. Clearly, growth is more difficult to accelerate at higher productivity levels without new technology, particularly if past patterns of growth have taken a toll on natural resources.

encourage initiatives at State and lower levels. Third, aware of low public investment and food security needs, it increased Centre’s spending on these, particularly in disadvantaged regions. Fourth, noting farmer distress, it tried to focus not just on production but also on farm incomes, stressing service delivery and suggesting encouragement of group activity with land and tenancy reforms put back on the agenda. Compared to the original green revolution that built on the best, this strategy sought to deliver faster growth, that is, more inclusive, more stable and less concentrated spatially. Nonetheless, there is a wide demand for a ‘second green revolution’ with more irrigation and better crop-specific technologies, with some even claiming that Bt cotton has been the only recent success. The Twelfth Plan accepts the proposition that a greater technical thrust is needed, and the strategy for agriculture should take this into account 12.10. In order to provide a snapshot of the Eleventh Plan performance and give indication of what the Twelfth Plan should do differently, long-run data on growth of output by sub-sector and also rates of growth of input use and productivity are presented in Table 12.4. Since performance is almost invariably discussed in the context of well-defined policy periods, those chosen for this table are same as in the Eleventh Plan document: (i) Pre-Green Revolution (1951–52 to 1967–68); (ii) Green Revolution proper (1968–69 to 1980–81); (iii) Wider technology coverage (1981–82 to 1990–91) when focus shifted from intensification of Green Revolution in best areas to its spread to new areas; (iv) Early liberalisation period (1991–92 to 1996–97) when relative prices became an additional focus, both because agriculture was expected to gain from reduced trade protection to industry and also with Minimum Support Prices (MSP) used for active growth promotion rather than just passive price support. The other three periods in the table are subsequent Plan periods: (v) Ninth Plan (1997–98 to 2001–02); (vi) Tenth Plan (2002–03 to 2006–07) and (vii) Eleventh Plan (2007–08 to 2011– 12). For each of these periods, the average of annual growth rates is presented for each variable chosen. 12.11. As noted above, growth of agricultural GDP at 3.3 per cent was short of the 4 per cent target for

12.9. The Eleventh Plan had made four conscious choices. First, with technology fatigue evident, it funded research better but emphasised on getting more from existing technology. Second, since one size does not fit all, it decentralised plan funds to


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 12.4 Growth of Output, Inputs and Productivity (period averages of annual growth rates) Pre-Green Revolution 1951/52 to 1967/68 Green Revolution 1968/69 to 1980/81 Wider Coverage 1981/82 to 1990/91 3.5 3.4 7.4 4.2 5.3 3.0 3.1 3.0 4.8 3.3 5.7 0.3 3.0 2.3 0.1 0.7 8.7 8.7 12.9 2.2 5.4 0.1 2.1 Early Liberalisation 1991/92 to 1996/97 2.4 0.8 4.4 2.4 6.5 2.1 5.7 3.1 4.0 3.3 7.1 0.3 3.1 1.6 0.9 0.5 2.0 4.3 14.4 1.9 6.5 0.3 1.9 Ninth Plan 1997/98 to 2001/02 1.5 0.3 –2.5 9.4 –5.6 1.7 3.8 2.3 3.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.6 –0.6 3.9 1.6 3.9 5.1 –4.1 3.0 2.7 2.6 3.0 Tenth Plan 2002/03 to 2006/07 1.0 1.8 7.4 1.7 15.1 2.1 2.6 2.1 3.6 2.5 3.3 1.3 2.4 1.4 0.7 2.9 4.8 5.1 2.6 2.5 1.5 1.3 2.4 Eleventh Plan 2007/08 to 2011/12 3.0 4.2 4.5 2.2 10.7 2.8 4.7 3.4 4.8 3.8 3.6 2.3 3.6 4.1 3.3 3.3 6.7 5.8 8.0 4.4 3.5 2.3 4.3

I. Value of Output (2004–05 prices) Cereals 4.2 3.4 Pulses 3.0 0.7 Oilseeds 3.2 1.8 Sugars 3.3 4.1 Fibres 4.4 2.5 Non-horticulture crops 3.2 2.7 Horticulture 2.6 4.2 All Crops 3.0 3.0 Livestock 1.0 3.3 Crops and Livestock 2.5 3.0 Fishing 4.7 3.1 Forestry 1.7 –0.2 Agriculture and allied 2.3 2.4 II. Value of Intermediate Inputs (2004–05 prices) Seed 1.5 1.1 Feed of livestock 1.9 4.0 Organic manure 0.0 1.3 Fertilisers and pesticides 18.2 9.3 Diesel oil 26.0 13.1 Electricity 18.5 15.2 All inputs crops and 2.4 4.5 livestock Inputs for fishing 4.6 3.3 Inputs for forestry 1.7 –0.2 All inputs Agriculture and 2.3 3.9 allied III. Gross Value Added (2004–05 prices) Crops and Livestock 2.7 2.7 Fishing 4.7 3.0 Forestry 1.7 –0.2 Agriculture and allied 2.5 2.4 IV. Factor Inputs into Agriculture Land (Gross cropped area) 1.3 0.4 Labour 1.8 1.1 Net Fixed Capital Stock 2.3 3.6 Of which: Public Private V. Partial Factor Productivities (2004–05 prices) Land productivity 1.2 2.0 Labour productivity 0.7 1.4 Capital productivity 0.2 –1.1

3.7 5.8 0.4 3.5 0.8 0.5 2.8 3.9 1.4 2.7 3.0 0.7

3.7 7.2 0.3 3.7 0.3 2.3 3.1 2.0 4.3 3.3 1.4 0.6

2.5 2.7 2.8 2.5 –0.1 0.3 3.4 1.4 5.1 2.6 2.2 –0.9

2.5 3.6 1.3 2.4 0.6 0.5 4.7 2.3 6.6 1.8 1.8 –2.4

3.5 3.7 2.3 3.3 0.3 –1.5 6.0 3.6 7.5 3.1 4.8 –2.7

Note: Cropped Area from Ministry of Agriculture, Land use statistics; Labour is agricultural employment from Census till 1971 and NSSO (weekly status) from 1972–73; all other data are from Central Statistical Organisation (CSO): National Accounts 2004–05 prices.

Agriculture 7

agricultural GDP but was faster than that in the Tenth or the Ninth Plan, though lower than the period from 1981–82 to 1996–97. The growth rates for individual crops shown in Table 12.4 are for gross value of output and not value added, but they present a valid basis for inter-period comparisons. 1. Growth of total value of output in agriculture proper (crops and livestock) during the Eleventh Plan averaged 3.8 per cent per year which was the highest among all seven periods considered. 2. Total non-horticulture crop output grew marginally faster than target (2.8 per cent against 2.7 per cent target) mainly because of foodgrains (3.1 per cent actual against 2.3 per cent target), oilseeds (4.5 per cent against 4 per cent) and fibres (10.7 per cent against 5 per cent). 3. Horticulture at 4.7 per cent was only marginally short of the 5 per cent target. 4. Growth of output from livestock (4.8 per cent) was again highest amongst all the periods considered but this performance, and even more, so for fishing (3.6 per cent), fell short of the ambitious 6 per cent target set for these two sub-sectors. 5. Growth of forestry was expectedly slower, pulling down the growth of total value of output in agriculture and allied to 3.6 per cent, but this too was the highest among all the seven periods considered. 12.12. Growth in intermediate inputs has accelerated steadily reaching 4.3 per cent per annum during the Eleventh Plan, which was much higher than growth of output and over twice the growth rate of intermediate input use during 1981–97. The more rapid growth in input use explains why despite the faster growth of the gross value of output during the Eleventh Plan at 3.6 per cent than in the period 1981–82 to 1996–97 (about 3.0 per cent), GDP in agriculture (which is a value added concept) grew more slowly. In other words, agricultural growth became more input intensive in the Eleventh Plan. This suggests the need to re-look policies relating to inputs, especially fertiliser and power. 12.13. Policies towards input use need to distinguish between traditional inputs such as seed, feed and

organic manure and modern inputs such as chemical fertiliser, pesticides and farm power. With low seed replacement, underfed farm animals and soils short of organic carbon, projections by working groups for the Twelfth Plan suggest that past growth of these traditional inputs should be improved upon. However, these working groups also project lower growth of ‘modern’ inputs than observed during the Eleventh Plan. For example, 2016–17 requirements of chemical fertiliser and farm power are placed at levels that imply annual growth for both fertilisers and ‘modern’ energy at about 4.5 per cent. These exceed corresponding the Eleventh Plan projections but are much less than the Eleventh Plan actual. Reduced fertiliser and fuel subsidies would be consistent with the desired moderation in trend of these inputs. Restraint is also needed on pesticides use which rose sharply in the Eleventh Plan after years of being subdued. 12.14. In parallel with high growth of intermediate inputs, there was acceleration in growth of the net capital stock in agriculture and allied sectors during the Eleventh Plan. As shown in Table 12.4 (item IV), Net Fixed Capital Stock in agriculture expanded at 6.0 per cent per year, much faster than in the previous two Plans. The public component of capital stock increased by 3.6 per cent while the private component increased at 7.5 per cent per year, both showing acceleration compared to the previous two Plans. However, public investment in agriculture, which was stepped up very substantially in the last three years of the Tenth Plan, stagnated in the Eleventh Plan (Table 12.5). This was mainly because of a large shortfall in planned investment in irrigation. As a result a key part of the Eleventh Plan strategy to achieve 4 per cent agricultural growth which was to increase public investment in agriculture to 4 per cent of agricultural GDP and thereby achieve growth of public sector capital stock in agriculture at least equal to the required 4 per cent growth of total capital stock has not fructified. Clearly, to attain 4 per cent agricultural growth in the Twelfth Plan will require firmer commitment to ensure realisation of this unattained the Eleventh Plan objective. 12.15. Private investment in agriculture has accelerated over the past three Plans. Private investment


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 12.5 Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (2004–05 prices) Year GDP from Agriculture and Allied 2004–05 Prices 2 5,17,559 5,64,391 5,65,426 5,94,487 6,19,190 6,55,080 6,55,689 6,62,509 7,09,103 GCF in Agriculture and Allied at 2004–05 Prices Public Sector 3 10,299 12,683 16,187 19,940 22,987 23,257 20,572 22,719 21,500 Private Sector 4 63,215 57,238 59,909 66,664 69,070 82,484 1,06,555 1,08,420 1,20,754 Total 5 73,514 69,921 76,096 86,604 92,057 1,05,741 1,27,127 1,31,139 1,42,254 GCF in Agriculture as Per Cent of GDP from Agriculture Public Sector 6 2.0 2.3 2.9 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.0 Private Sector 7 12.2 10.1 10.6 11.2 11.2 12.6 16.3 16.4 17.0 Total 8 14.2 12.4 13.4 14.6 14.9 16.1 19.4 19.8 20.1

1 Tenth Plan 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 Eleventh Plan 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11

Source: Central Statistical Organisation National Accounts Division.

averaged 15.6 per cent of agricultural GDP in the first four years of the Eleventh Plan as against expected 12 per cent. The main driver of this was a large relative price shift in favour of agriculture, showing that farmers respond to price incentives. If calculated in current price terms rather than constant, private investment averaged 13 per cent of agricultural GDP—only slightly higher than expected. Nonetheless, total capital stock in agriculture grew more than expected. While private investment in irrigation and water-saving devices did increase, the largest increase was in labour-saving mechanisation. This was a natural response to growing labour scarcity which is reflected in rising wages. 12.16. Table 12.4 also shows growth rates of the two other factors of production in agriculture: land and labour. Not unexpectedly, while capital stock has grown quite rapidly throughout, the other two factors have not. As far as labour is concerned, the measure shown is employment in agriculture by usual status estimates of the National Sample Survey (NSS), which is available almost annually since 1987–88 but requires interpolation for earlier years. Combined with Census data, these show continuous increase of

agricultural employment till 1994, although at varying rates of growth and at a particularly sharp rise in early 1990s when there was slow-down in rural nonagricultural employment. Agricultural employment fluctuated in the next decade, but has clearly declined after 2004–05. NSS employment data for 2007–08 and 2009–10 show clear evidence of an accelerated shift of rural labourers to non-agricultural work, which in itself is not an undesirable development. For land, the measure shown is gross cropped area which, despite the loss of nearly 3 million hectares of arable land to non-agricultural uses since 1990–91, has increased in all periods excepting a slight dip in the Ninth Plan. This is because cropping intensity has increased almost continuously. However, cropped area growth which averaged 0.9 per cent per annum till 1990–91 has averaged only 0.2 per cent subsequently. 12.17. Table 12.4 also shows growth rates of partial productivity of land, labour and capital taking GDP agriculture and allied as numerator. Labour productivity growth has historically been low, averaging 2 per cent per annum or less except during 1981–90 when it reached 3 per cent. Labour productivity

Agriculture 9

160.00 150.00
` per day

Average Real Daily Wage Rage at 2011–12 Price (` per day)

140.00 130.00 120.00 110.00 100.00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12

Year FIGURE 12.2: All India Average Real Daily Wage Rate at 2011–12 Prices (` Per Day)

jumped to nearly 5 per cent during the Eleventh Plan. The accelerated shift of rural labour to non-agriculture caused real wages to rise at about 5 per cent annually between 2004–05 and 2009–10, according to the NSS, and latest reports of the Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) suggest even faster growth of real wages in the last three years of the Eleventh Plan at almost 8 per cent per year. The trend in real wages in 2011–12 prices, as estimated by CACP, is shown in Figure 12.2. 12.18. Labour saving mechanisation, a significant contributor to the sharp increase of private investment in the Eleventh Plan period, was a natural response to tighter labour markets and rising wages. But, while mechanisation helped farmers to cope with labour scarcity, it exacerbated a decline in capital productivity. Private capital stock in agriculture has increased twice as fast as agricultural GDP since the Ninth Plan and, although mitigated by terms of trade gains and a debt write-off, continued investment with declining capital productivity may not be sustainable. 12.19. While greater private investment in farming is desirable where it reflects both an ability to invest and a desire to increase farm productivity, the same phenomenon can become a source of distress if farmers keep investing to cope with shrinking natural resources, more frequent adverse weather and less assured labour supply, and do not get adequate

returns for this investment. The Eleventh Plan had tried to address this in two ways: first, increase public investment to lessen the private burden and add economies of scale; and second, rework architecture of the Plan spending on agriculture to make it more decentralised and flexible but also more coordinated locally to improve total productivity of private resources by better service delivery in all areas from extension to input supply and marketing. However, as noted earlier, public investment did not increase. And, although combined Plan expenditure of Centre and States in agriculture did increase from 1.9 per cent of agricultural GDP in the Tenth Plan to 2.9 per cent in the Eleventh, this was relatively small and left research, education and extension under-funded, leaving much to be desired in the quality of service delivery. 12.20. Nonetheless, growth of land productivity did increase significantly (Tables 12.4 and 12.6). Having climbed from about 1 per cent per annum before Green Revolution to over 3 per cent during 1991–97, land productivity growth had decelerated to below 2 per cent. This rebounded to over 3 per cent during the Eleventh Plan. 12.21. Total factor productivity (TFP) improved during the Eleventh Plan. Individual factor productivity data in Table 12.4, weighted by a range of factor shares suggest that TFP growth during the Eleventh Plan was back to around 1980s level. For example,


Twelfth Five Year Plan

applying factor shares of 30 per cent land, 40 per cent labour and 30 per cent capital give the following averages of annual TFP growth: 0.7 per cent in preGreen Revolution period, 0.8 per cent during Green Revolution period, 2.2 per cent during the wider coverage period, 1.8 per cent during early liberalisation, 1.4 per cent during the Ninth Plan, 0.6 per cent during the Tenth Plan and 2.0 per cent in the Eleventh Plan. Although these estimates must be treated as tentative since data on factor shares is not robust, it does suggest that the deceleration of TFP in agriculture observed in the previous two Plans, which had caused widespread apprehension, may have been reversed in the Eleventh Plan. In other words, the Eleventh Plan architecture, with the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) as core, appears to have delivered despite adverse weather, a public investment shortfall and implementation gaps. The strategy of spreading known technology wider had paid.

hectare of important individual crops. There has been gradual but sustained shift in cropping pattern away from coarse cereals and pulses towards other crops over the last four decades. Area under coarse cereals had declined by 18 million hectares and that under pulses by nearly 2 million hectares from earlier peaks to end of the Tenth Plan. During the Eleventh Plan, there was further decline of 2 million hectares in area under coarse cereals but area under pulses reversed earlier decline to reach a new peak in 2010–11. Noting, that technology and price policy had neglected pulses earlier despite their importance as source of protein, special attention was given to pulses in both the National Food Security Mission (NFSM) and RKVY, the two major schemes launched during the Eleventh Plan. Cotton gained most area, followed by fruits and vegetables, with rice area steady, an increase in wheat area and decline in area under oilseeds and sugarcane. 12.23. Although area under coarse cereals and oilseeds declined during the Eleventh Plan, both these crop groups averaged over 4 per cent output growth. This was because growth of yields per hectare accelerated across almost all crop groups, especially those mainly rain-fed (Table 12.6). Not only did coarse cereals and oilseeds yields increase faster during the

12.22. In addition to above, two indicators worth highlighting in the crop sector are the pace and pattern of crop area diversification and trends in yields/

TABLE 12.6 Average Annual Growth Rates in Yields Per Hectare Pre-Green Revolution 1951/52 to 1967/68 Wheat Rice Jowar Bajra Maize Coarse cereals Pulses Oilseeds Cotton Sugarcane 3.7 3.2 3.4 2.6 4.8 2.6 2.3 1.3 3.0 1.6 Green Revolution 1968/69 to 1980/81 3.3 2.7 2.9 6.3 1.7 1.5 –0.2 0.8 2.6 3.1 Wider Coverage 1981/82 to 1990/91 3.6 3.0 3.2 8.8 4.1 3.1 2.3 4.8 5.3 1.3 Early Liberalisation 1991/92 to 1996/97 2.8 1.4 1.3 6.2 2.6 4.3 1.9 3.3 3.1 0.4 Eleventh Plan 2007/08 to 2011/12 3.0 2.2 3.1 8.4 6.5 7.3 2.7 5.4 3.9 0.5

Ninth Plan 1997/98 to 2001/02 0.7 2.1 0.2 4.9 3.1 1.3 –0.3 0.4 –6.2 0.3

Tenth Plan 2002/03 to 2006/07 –0.3 1.2 2.1 7.3 –0.2 1.7 0.6 3.5 19.4 0.7

Note: Data is up to fourth advance estimate for 2011–12, Ministry of Agriculture.

Agriculture 11

Eleventh Plan than in any of the earlier periods, so did pulses yields. Apart from hybrids in case of maize, and to less extent in bajra, these yield increases came mainly from better seed quality, higher seed replacement and better practice rather than from new crop technology or more irrigation. 12.24. Yield growth of cotton, another largely rainfed crop, was also respectable although it was down sharply from a spectacular performance during the Tenth Plan following adoption of Bt hybrids. With more than 90 per cent of cotton area now under Bt hybrids, and cotton yields more than doubling over the last decade, there is no doubt either about general farmer acceptance or its being a clear case of technological transformation unlike other rainfed crops. But disagreements continue about the extent to which Bt contributed to this yield increase and on wisdom of India’s total dependence on Bt hybrids rather than the Bt varieties used in the rest of the world. There are also legitimate complaints of non-availability of non-Bt seeds, for example in Vidharbha. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) therefore remain controversial, as was evident in case of Bt Brinjal. Nonetheless, since significant breakthroughs in production technologies are required to cope with increasing stress, particularly for rainfed crops, it is necessary to remain abreast with latest advances in biotechnology. It is, therefore, time to put in place scientifically impeccable operational protocols and a regulatory mechanism to permit GMOs when they meet rigorous tests that can outweigh misgivings, while simultaneously noting that many feasible advances in biotechnology do not in fact involve GMOs. 12.25. Moreover, the Eleventh Plan experience is that continuous less-visible efforts by farmers to adapt and improve can be made effective. The NFSM, which aimed to reduce gaps between potential and actual yields, was designed to aid farmers in their own efforts by demonstrating and supporting a wide range of interventions. This seems to have worked. For example, growth in wheat yields nationally was negligible during the Ninth and the Tenth Plans but increased to 3 per cent in the Eleventh Plan. Even in Punjab, where it was believed that wheat yields

had reached a plateau below 4.5 tonnes per hectare, yields increased steadily during the Eleventh Plan to reach 4.9 tonnes, accompanied by wider use of conservation practices such as laser levelling, zero tillage and raised beds. Rice yield growth was also higher in the Eleventh Plan than in any period after 1991, with Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, East Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal contributing 80 per cent of this, again with growing awareness of conservation practices. For example, many States are now using RKVY to mainstream the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) that was not officially accepted till 2004 and was only small part of NFSM.

Livestock and Fishery
12.26. Livestock contributes 25 per cent of gross value added in the agriculture sector and provides self-employment to about 21 million people. Rapid growth of this sector can be even more egalitarian and inclusive than growth of the crop sector because those engaged in it are mainly small holders and the landless. Growth of livestock output averaged 4.8 per cent per annum during the Eleventh Plan recovering from an average of 3.6 per cent in the Ninth and the Tenth Plans. 12.27. Growth, of dairying, which is the main constituent of livestock sector though slightly higher than the 4 per cent averaged since 1990, was short of demand. With over 75 per cent of cattle located in rain-fed areas, the major issue is access to feed, fodder and drinking water which is becoming increasingly scarce. The problems of the sector are compounded by growing numbers of unproductive male cattle. Developing a strong fodder base needs intensive effort and innovation in institutional aspects of pasture protection and management and usufruct sharing. There is little concerted effort in this area at present as it is too fragmented across various departments to be able to provide the technical inputs, institutional designs and adequate investments to make a meaningful impact. Richer farmers with access to groundwater irrigation can grow irrigated fodder and increase herd size. Poorer livestock owners, dependent mainly on commons and agriculture residues, end up underfeeding the animals. This problem raises questions about the present breeding strategy


Twelfth Five Year Plan

that focuses almost exclusively on induction of breeds that are high yielding, but are much less tolerant to adverse conditions in extensive livestock systems. 12.28. These issues, which also affect owners of small ruminants, poultry and even those involved in inland fishery, came to the fore during the Eleventh Plan following the drought of 2009. The consequent high inflation in feed and fodder, that also led to high inflation in prices of livestock products, revealed a need for much greater coordination not only between agencies responsible for livestock and those responsible for crops that sustain livestock, but also with other policies, for example, trade policies that influence feed and livestock product prices. RKVY provided a window which cut across departments to allow States to focus on fodder shortages and restored growth of livestock output much quicker than in earlier droughts. Nonetheless, underlying problems remain, as does so called protein inflation. The Twelfth Plan must address these problems by involving dairy cooperatives in breed and feed issues, revisit breeding strategies and make fodder development higher priority in both animal husbandry and crop programmes. 12.29. India produces about 65 billion eggs annually and production growth has accelerated from around 4 per cent per annum during the 1990s to over 5 per cent during the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan. This acceleration has been achieved despite new challenges such as periodic outbreaks of avian influenza and the biofuels effect on international prices of maize, the main poultry feed, which has now transmit into the domestic economy. One reason for this vitality has been the growth of a large and vibrant commercial poultry sector with adequate economies of scale and fairly good backward and forward linkages. Besides eggs, this commercial poultry sector also produces over 2 million tonnes of broiler meat which is an increasing part of total meat production of about 5 million tonnes. Meat, with production growth at over 5.5 per cent per annum during the Eleventh Plan, is the fastest growing segment in the livestock sector. 12.30. The performance of the fisheries sub-sector has been impressive on the whole, with growth

more than 5 per cent per annum during the 1980s and 1990s, but growth in this sub-sector has been decelerating since mid-1990s. The main reason for this has been stagnation of marine fishery, a phenomenon which is expected to continue. The major growth in fisheries in recent years has come from the inland fisheries, with particularly rapid development of brackish water aquaculture. This has been linked to prawn cultivation for export, although there is also strongly growing domestic demand for fresh water fish. Fish prices more than doubled during the Eleventh Plan, a higher inflation than either crops or any other livestock segment, despite a small acceleration in production growth compared to the Tenth Plan. A problem in this sector is that although a National Fisheries Development Board was set up, responsibilities are still not clearly defined between this and the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. This has in particular meant an inability to realise the vast potential of inland fresh water fishery. Fish production can be enhanced 2 to 4 times in rain-fed water bodies, whether irrigation reservoirs, natural wetlands or ponds and tanks created by watershed development or Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). If fully harnessed, these can secure over 6 per cent fishery growth in the Twelfth Plan.

12.31. Although the discussion so far suggests that agricultural performance did improve during the Eleventh Plan, experience of the Eleventh Plan also points to emerging imbalances in agriculture which call for a long-term strategic reorientation.

Subsidies vs Public Investment
12.32. The Eleventh Plan document had highlighted that public investment in agriculture as per cent of agricultural GDP had halved between the 1980s and in the end of the Ninth Plan while, simultaneously, budgetary subsidies to agriculture had doubled as proportion of agricultural GDP. The tendency for subsidies to increase much faster than public investment was checked to some extent during the Tenth Plan, but it reappeared again during the Eleventh Plan (Table 12.7). Budgetary subsidies to agriculture (excluding food subsidy, which should be treated as

Agriculture 13

a consumer subsidy) increased from an average of 4.1 per cent of agricultural GDP during the Tenth Plan to average 8.2 per cent in the first four years of the Eleventh Plan. Actual subsidies to agriculture were higher in both periods since CSO books budgeted subsidy on domestic urea manufacture entirely to industry and because part of the power subsidy received by agriculture is not budgeted but borne by utilities. Compared to these numbers, public investment in agriculture averaged only about 3 per cent of agricultural GDP during both Plan periods. 12.33. The imbalance between subsidy expenditure and expenditure on public investment raises the issue whether a shift away from subsidies and towards greater public investment would not be beneficial. The usual argument for reducing subsidies is that it will improve the fiscal deficit, but that is not the relevant point in this context, there is a need to shift from subsidies to public investment aimed at increasing land productivity on the grounds that

this would produce better agricultural outcomes and would also be more inclusive. This is particularly important in the context of strategies for combating the effect of climate change where public investment in conservation and management of water resources will be crucial. 12.34. There are also other uses of resources in agriculture which could be promoted if agricultural subsidies are restrained. The Eleventh Plan document had pointed to trade-offs that subsidies might have with other non-Plan revenue expenditures, particularly staffing of essential farm support systems such as extension. Moreover, capacity and skill shortages have made upgrading agricultural universities an urgent need. The Eleventh Plan had aimed to increase spending on agricultural education and research from 0.6 to 1 per cent of agricultural GDP, but this remains less than 0.7 per cent—a large gap in a very important area that is miniscule in relation to subsidies.

TABLE 12.7 Public Sector Capital Formation and Subsidies to Agriculture (Centre and States) (in ` crore and as per cent to GDP from agriculture and allied at current prices) Public GCF Agriculture and Allied Tenth Plan 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005-06 2006–07 Eleventh Plan 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 27,638 26,692 33,237 34,548 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.7 85,698 1,56,823 1,39,248 1,50,170 10.2 16.6 12.9 11.8 31,328 43,751 58,443 63,844 3.7 4.6 5.4 5.0 32,490 76,603 61,264 62,301 3.9 8.1 5.7 4.9 12,950 17,969 17,580 15,081 1.5 1.9 1.6 1.2 34,830 54,438 37,121 39,106 4.2 5.8 3.4 3.1 9,563 12,218 16,187 20,739 25,606 2.0 2.2 2.9 3.3 3.5 43,597 43,765 47,655 51,065 59,510 9.0 8.0 8.4 8.0 8.2 24,176 25,181 25,798 23,077 24,014 5.0 4.6 4.6 3.6 3.3 11,015 11,847 15,879 18,460 26,222 2.3 2.2 2.8 2.9 3.6 7,790 8,521 10,243 10,653 12,650 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 16,196 15,258 16,221 20,181 21,924 3.3 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.0 Budgetary Subsidies (CSO) Food Subsidy Total Fertiliser Subsidy Subsidy on Indigenous Urea All other Agriculture Subsidies

Note: Public sector agricultural GCF and GDP are from CSO, National Accounts Division; budgetary subsidies, are also from CSO and are based on the economic and purpose classification of Government expenditure. Food and Fertiliser subsidies are from budget documents of the Central Government. ‘All other agriculture subsidies’ in the table are defined as budgetary subsidies (CSO) plus subsidy on indigenous urea minus food subsidy. This is because CSO classifies food subsidy as subsidy to agriculture but classifies subsidies on indigenous urea as subsidy to industry.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

12.35. Another, very important reason why subsidies should be rationalised and restrained is that some of these subsidies could actually be doing harm. A case for subsidies exists if there is clear evidence that some input is being underused. Conversely, when with there is clear evidence of overuse of a subsidised input, there is a case to reduce or even eliminate the subsidy. Today, there is clear evidence of overuse. Data from all over India, especially from the prime green revolution areas, show that high use of chemical fertilisers and power is causing excessive mining of other soil nutrients and of groundwater, and that this is also leading to loss of quality of both soil and water. There is of course about 20–25 per cent of the country’s arable area, located largely in North-East, East and Central India, where use of these inputs is so low that further intensification is desirable per se. But with nearly 90 per cent of fertilisers and 95 per cent of farm electricity currently being used outside this area, there can be no doubt that the present subsidies are actually encouraging practices that need to be discouraged. 12.36. Any proposal for reducing subsidies will be opposed by farmers on the grounds that output will fall if the subsidy cut reduces input use. This is true unless other investments are made simultaneously but such investments would indeed be facilitated by the resources released. Efforts were made in the Eleventh Plan to encourage more efficient practices without actually reducing the quantum of subsidy. For example, many States have undertaken separation of feeders so that electricity supply for agricultural use can be treated differently from that for rural non-agricultural use, and stricter scheduling imposed on the former while maintaining its lower price. Similarly, the Centre introduced a new scheme, the ‘National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility’ (NPMSH&F) to promote soil testing and issue of soil health cards to farmers, aimed particularly to spread awareness of micronutrient deficiencies resulting from excessive and unbalanced fertiliser use and to encourage balanced and judicious use of chemical fertilisers in conjunction with organic manures to maintain soil health and fertility. Moreover, in order to rationalise fertiliser subsidies, a nutrient-based subsidy (NBS) system was adopted

to subsidise fertiliser products uniformly on basis of nutrient content, rather than set product-wise subsidies and separate maximum retail prices (MRPs) for each product. The objective was to reduce deadweight of the fertiliser control order, set nutrientspecific subsidies that maintain desirable NPK balance, and evolve a subsidy protocol to encourage both development of new complex fertiliser products (including micronutrients) and more investment in the sector. 12.37. These initiatives have had some success in particular regions, but they do not as yet show up in national data in terms of higher additional output per unit additional use of these inputs. Moreover, NBS roll-out was seriously flawed since urea was kept out of its ambit. Urea prices remain controlled with only a 10 per cent rise at the time of adoption of the NBS in 2010. Meanwhile prices of decontrolled products doubled. The fixity of the urea price naturally worsened the NPK balance. Also, there has been very little product innovation. The subsidy bill has increased because resulting higher urea demand has been met entirely by imports at a unit subsidy twice that on domestic output, with little incentive to expand domestic capacity. The NBS as rolled out has been counterproductive because urea has not been included. 12.38. As may be seen from Table 12.6, the fertiliser subsidy is now much higher than all other subsidies to agriculture put together. While this is partly because fertiliser consumption rose over 30 per cent during the Eleventh Plan, the main reason is that world prices of all fertilisers and feedstock have doubled since 2006. With world fertiliser prices very sensitive to demand from India, which is not only the world’s largest importer of fertilisers but also dependent almost entirely on imports for feedstock, improving efficiency of fertiliser use must be a the Twelfth Plan focus, almost as important as the issue of water use efficiency taken up in another chapter.
A New Road Map for Fertiliser Policy 12.39. A broad idea of what is necessary is evident from a few key indicators about the price of urea, the most important and politically sensitive fertiliser

Agriculture 15

in India. At the world level, urea prices had averaged about 80 per cent of world wheat price during the 25 years before 2005. Since then, they have been fluctuating wildly at much higher levels and world urea prices are now over 150 per cent of world wheat price. In comparison, the price of urea in India has been declining continuously in relation to wheat MSP—from over 150 per cent during the 1980s, to 75 per cent in 2005, to only 41 per cent currently. While MSP of wheat for 2012 was 90 per cent of April–June average of world reference price of wheat, the MRP for urea was only 21 per cent of world reference price of urea. 12.40. Similarly, achieving the recommended national 4:2:1 NPK balance has proved elusive, again partly because urea (main source of N) is priced cheap relative to other fertilisers. World prices of DAP (main source of P) and MOP (main source of K) have fluctuated around 150 per cent and 100 per cent of world urea price over the last 30 years with no obvious trend. Relative prices of P to N were similar in India as globally, and K much cheaper, till decontrol in 1992 made these more expensive. The MRP for DAP and MOP in India were 194 per cent and 92 per cent of urea MRP before NBS, after which these have risen sharply again. Voluntary MRP for these are now 380 per cent and 230 per cent of urea MRP. Unless corrected soon, this large distortion in NPK prices is bound to reduce crop productivity. 12.41. One way out of the present conundrum is to bring urea into NBS and decontrol its prices. But this has not been possible so far and fertiliser decontrol both in 1992 and again in 2010 excluded urea with counterproductive effect. The reason for this is not just opposition to rise in urea prices, but also issues related to domestic urea industry. For example, subsidy provided to N for decontrolled fertilisers in the present NBS formula is based on the weighted average of subsidies on imported (around $320/ tonne) and indigenous (around $160/tonne) urea. Three consequences would follow if urea prices were decontrolled fully with the subsidy on both imported and domestic urea equated to this (around $200/tonne). First, the domestic urea industry as a whole would get a windfall gain, and there may

be consequent audit objections, since average unit subsidy on domestic urea is presently half that on imported. Second, notwithstanding this, that part of urea industry which uses feedstock other than gas would complain that they could become unviable since their present subsidy is more than the weighted subsidy. Third, since post-subsidy price of urea would tend to settle at import cost less the weighted subsidy; this would, with world urea prices now about $420/tonne, not only double from the present MRP of `5,310 per tonne but also be subject to the very large fluctuations in world urea prices that have been evident since 2005. 12.42. Although political opposition to decontrol is mainly on the third point above, the other points, which relate to differences in costs of production between different Indian producers and between Indian costs and world prices, have historically been at least equally important impediments to reform in this sector. This is unfortunate since India’s fertiliser industry, although at disadvantage on feedstock, is largely efficient and can play a key role both in ensuring future nutrient supply and in the effort to increase fertiliser-use efficiency. However, with more than half of its revenues coming from subsidies and with Government also allocating scarce feedstock cheaply, industry effort currently is more to meet pre-set requirements and lobby, rather than to either secure long-term feedstock sources or develop new products and services for its customer base. This needs to change, and one way that this can be done is by reducing industry’s dependence on Central subsidies, allowing greater space for it to set prices. The industry’s present cost structure is such that no subsidy would be required on over 70 per cent of domestic urea production if urea MRP was allowed to rise to MSP for wheat or paddy. This level of urea MRP would reduce subsidy by about `15,000 crore annually and bring domestic NPK price parities in line with corresponding world parities while still leaving absolute fertiliser prices in India at about half international levels. 12.43. Of course, if this were all, urea prices would more than double with all its negative consequences. It would be politically unpopular even with the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

5–10 per cent extra increase in MSP that would be required to compensate increases in cost of production. There would definitely be some loss of output as result of lower urea use and farmers unable to avail MSP increase would suffer loss of income. But these negatives can be neutralised and a win-win outcome ensured if the saving in subsidy is ploughed back to develop suitable location and crop-specific packages with adequate price incentives so that farmers do not suffer income loss and yet are encouraged to use appropriate combinations not only of NPK but also organic matter and required micronutrients. 12.44. However, for this, the architecture for public intervention will need to go well beyond NBS. Designing and contracting suitable packages will require stability in prices of basic NPK in relation to crop MSPs and also considerable location-specific input, both scientific and operational. The Centre will need to ensure some insulation of domestic prices of straight fertilisers from their large world price fluctuations and devolve many functions and most of the savings from reduced urea subsidy to States. States, in turn, will need to involve universities and local bodies to design suitable local packages of products and subsidies and then contract directly with industry.

12.46. The rapid accretion of stocks between 2006–07 and 2008–09 was because cereals output responded quickly to policy, both NFSM and MSP, rising from 203 million tonnes in 2006–07 to 220 million tonnes, accompanied by even larger increase in procurement, from 36 million tonnes to 59 million tonnes, while off-take from public stocks rose only from 37 to 39 million tonnes. Consequently, market availability declined during this period, increasing grain prices, the dominant source of food inflation till 2009–10 (Table 12.8). Availability contracted further in 2009–10 because of drought which caused output to fall back to 203 million tonnes. Rice and wheat relative prices eased somewhat in the subsequent two years because output increased even more rapidly than during 2006–09 to reach 240 million tonnes in 2011–12 and because this time rise in procurement (to nearly 73 million tonnes) was less than output and off-take increase (to 56 million tonne) was relatively much more. Nonetheless, procurement exceeded off-take throughout the Eleventh Plan, even during 2009 drought, and present stocks are clearly too high. Costing about `5 per kg per year to store, these are tying up huge resources that could have been put to better use. 12.47. One important point to emerge is that although food inflation is usually ascribed to production shortfalls, policy decisions on MSP and on pricing and quantum of PDS and open market sales can be even more important. This is of course true of rice and wheat prices that are directly affected by such policies, but there are indirect effects as well. For example, milk, eggs, fish and meat had almost no effect on food inflation from 2004–05 till 2008–09, but have contributed most to food inflation subsequently (Table 12.8). As discussed earlier, much of this was due to feed and fodder shortages that the 2009 drought exacerbated. But the high build-up of rice and wheat stocks may in this context have contributed additionally. Substitution effects from lower availability of rice and wheat appear to have pushed up real prices of coarse grain to levels that compare with and most likely influenced inflation in livestock products. To maintain rapid agricultural growth, it will be necessary to continuously assess both MSP and trade policy in light of domestic production

Cereals Production and Build up of Stocks
12.45. Another major imbalance that emerged during the Eleventh Plan was between production and consumption of cereals, particularly rice and wheat on the one hand which led to rising stocks and rising consumption of edible oils and pulses which led to imports. Cereals production increased by 37 million tonnes (8 million tonnes coarse cereals, 11 million tonnes rice and 18 million tonnes wheat) between 2006–07 and 2011–12. This was the result of several factors, including the NFSM, an Eleventh Plan initiative to increase production, combined with remunerative prices and an expanding and effective procurement machinery in Madhya Pradesh for wheat and Chhattisgarh for paddy. However, although NFSM exceeded targets and per capita production has bounced back beyond earlier highs, much of the increase has been absorbed by increase in Government stocks. There are lessons that need to be learnt from this for the Twelfth Plan.

Agriculture 17

TABLE 12.8 Real Prices of Agricultural Produce (WPI commodity/WPI all commodities, 2004–05 base) 2004–05 Rice Wheat Coarse Cereals Pulses Vegetables Fruits Milk Eggs, Fish and Meat Oilseeds Sugarcane Fibres All Agriculture 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2005–06 101 101 107 108 109 99 97 102 86 96 92 99 2006–07 99 112 110 134 103 99 98 101 85 91 91 101 2007–08 105 115 115 124 118 98 98 100 97 87 96 104 2008–09 112 117 113 124 113 102 98 99 104 80 109 106 2009–10 121 127 123 146 124 104 112 116 103 81 107 115 2010–11 117 120 122 137 128 114 123 133 99 109 138 123 2011–12 110 108 136 129 115 119 124 137 102 107 140 122

Note: All agriculture comprises food and non-food primary articles.

trends, paying attention to such wider linkages, so as to minimise undue production imbalance and the inflationary pressures resulting from these. 12.48. Another important and related issue is the likely future demand for food. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Crop Husbandry, Demand and Supply Projections, Agricultural Inputs and Agricultural Statistics has made projections for foodgrains and other food items by the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan, that is, 2016–17 (Table 12.9) which would suggest that present levels of cereals production already exceed likely demand at the end of the Twelfth Plan. These projections are based on actual past patterns of observed demand and the fact that cereals consumption per capita has declined since at least mid-1990s. However, it is also the case that India has very high levels of malnutrition and, although there are many reasons for this, deficiencies in calorie intake remain one of the most important. With cereals supplying over 50 per cent of total calorie intake even now, falling cereals consumption is the main reason why per capita calorie intake has not increased despite rising incomes. It is not just that the share of cereals in total food expenditure is falling; even poor people are reducing the share of income spent on all foods in order to meet other non-food

needs. In such a situation, where there is a disjunction between such a basic element of human development as nutrition and other demands in an increasingly consumerist society, there is need to ensure that minimum nutrition requirements are actually met. This is the goal of the proposed National Food Security Act (NFSA) under which a majority of the population will be entitled to some very cheap cereals. This is likely to increase cereals demand from those projected in Table 12.9, but nonetheless cereals demand is unlikely to rise much faster than population. 12.49. This means that agricultural production must diversify during Twelfth Plan so as to satisfy both tastes and nutrition. In particular, MSP policy should be more restrained for rice and wheat and made more effective in case of pulses and oilseeds where India is a net importer. Although MSP for pulses and oilseeds have been increased substantially in recent years, farmers are still not encouraged enough to put in the effort and resources required to substitute for current imports of these commodities. This is primarily because procurement efforts in these commodities, which are currently not part of Public Distribution, simply do not offer farmers the certainty that they have from procurement effort in rice and wheat.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 12.9 Demand and Supply of Food Commodities during the Twelfth Plan (in million tonnes) Crop/Group of Crops Projected Demand (million tonnes) 2016–17 Rice Wheat Maize Coarse Cereals Cereals Pulses Foodgrains Oilseeds/Edible oils Sugarcane/Sugar Vegetables Fruits Milk Fish Meat, other than poultry Poultry Meat 110 89 19 36 235 22 257 59 279 161 97 141 11 3.7 3.3 2020–21 117 98 22 38 253 25 277 71 312 189 124 173 14 5.0 4.3 42–48 240–251 18–21 258–272 33–41 365–411 Projected Supply (million tonnes) 2016–17 98–106 93–104 Actual Production (million tonnes) 2006–07 93 76 15 34 203 14 217 24 355 116 59 103 6.9 2.3 2011–12 104* 94* 22* 42* 240* 17* 257* 30* 358* 147** 75** 122** 8.3** 2.7** 2.2@

Source: Twelfth Plan Working Group on Crop Husbandry, Demand and Supply Projections, Agricultural Inputs and Agricultural Statistics; *4th advance estimate for 2011–12; **Production for the year 2010–11; @Production 2010–11 for only commercial poultry meat.

Public Distribution System
12.50. The Eleventh Plan period witnessed significant improvements in administration of the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). A nine-point action plan has been useful in elimination of large number of ghost ration cards, reduction in leakages and greater transparency in the conduct of TPDS operations. While carrying forward these initiatives with greater vigour, there is a need for rejuvenated approach towards the TPDS during the Twelfth Plan period. The foremost amongst those is the move towards facilitating rights-based approach under TPDS by enacting the National Food Security Bill (NFSB). The Bill has been introduced in the Parliament and is expected to provide food and nutritional security, in human life-cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity. This would require strengthening of existing infrastructure and taking up new initiatives

and schemes. Reforms in the TPDS would be crucial as it would bring about more efficiency in the system with enhanced transparency and accountability. Entitlements of foodgrains are expected to shift from per household basis to per capita basis. One of the important challenges for implementation of NFSB would be proper identification of beneficiaries which may be based on the ongoing Socio-economic and Caste Census. Another important initiative required during the Twelfth Plan is the end-to-end computerisation of the TPDS operations with the help of a comprehensive Plan scheme. This shouldnot only address current challenges but also facilitate proper tracking foodgrains and lifting by consumers using Aadhaar numbers or adopting innovative methods like smart cards. 12.51. The up-scaling of the TPDS for proper implementation of NFSA is an opportunity to expand PDS coverage to include coarse cereals, pulses and edible

Agriculture 19

oils and thereby bring scale and certainty to their procurement. However, given that consumption and production patterns vary greatly from state to state, this is probably something that can be done better by the States themselves than by any Central agency. Nonetheless, as part of PDS reform, the Central Government could moot the idea not only of decentralised procurement but also the innovative methods of transferring food subsidy. One option could be that, while the Centre continues to bear responsibility for delivering adequate quantities of cereals to every State, these may be priced close to market and food subsidy transferred to the States as recommended by the High Level Committee on Long Term Grain policy in 2002. Alternatively, subsidy could be credited directly to the bank accounts of the beneficiaries or the FPS dealers using authentication mechanism of Aadhaar numbers. Other option could be to have a comprehensive electronic benefit transfer system whereby subsidy is loaded on to a smart card and consumers have a choice of commodities or fair price shops. These initiatives are expected to bring down leakages significantly as there would be little incentive left for intermediaries to divert the PDS foodgrains into the open market. While implementing these measures, it would be pertinent to address the issue of viability of FPS and improve their functioning. The Gross Budgetary Support for the Department of Food and Public Distribution is `1,523 crore for the Twelfth Five Year Plan.

Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act. There is also a need to conceptualise a National Policy for Quality Infrastructure covering standardisation, testing and legal metrology so as to provide the infrastructure for development of definitive standards, systems of legal metrology and conformity assessment. The commodity futures markets need to be strengthened to enable it to serve the dual purpose of price discovery and risk management. Besides, a structured system of information, counselling and mediation need to be put in place with emphasis on rural consumers. The data analysis and price monitoring also need to be more comprehensive and structured so as to make informed decisions on market intervention. The Gross Budgetary Support for the Department of Consumer Affairs is `1,260 crore for the Twelfth Five Year Plan.

12.53. The main lesson from the performance in the Eleventh Plan is that while there has been a welcome turn-around from the deceleration that was evident in the decade to 2005, and while several indicators have shown marked improvement and potential to build upon, several policy imbalances exist that can prove to be major handicaps. There are also other formidable challenges, for example, a shrinking land base, dwindling water resources, the adverse impact of climate change, shortage of farm labour, and increasing costs and uncertainties associated with volatility in international markets. The Twelfth Plan will need to face these challenges boldly. 12.54. The key drivers of growth will remain: 1. viability of farm enterprise and returns to investment that depend on scale, market access, prices and risk; 2. availability and dissemination of appropriate technologies that depend on quality of research and extent of skill development; 3. Plan expenditure on agriculture and in infrastructure which together with policy must aim to improve functioning of markets and more efficient use of natural resources; and

Consumer Welfare and Protection
12.52. Consumer welfare has been one of the core concerns of the Government since the post-Independence period. Policies have been designed and legislations enacted to protect the interests of consumers and grant them the rights of choice, safety, information and redressal. For the Twelfth Plan period, it would be apposite to expedite formulation of a comprehensive National Consumer Policy in conformity with the UN guidelines on consumer protection. Secondly, there would be a need to revisit existing legislations administered by the Department of Consumer Affairs so as to bring the provisions in line with the changes in the economy, trade, business and consumer expectations. This, inter alia, includes amendments in Bureau of Indian Standards Act and


Twelfth Five Year Plan

4. governance in terms of institutions that make possible better delivery of services like credit, animal health and of quality inputs like seeds, fertilisers, pesticides and farm machinery. 12.55. In addition, certain regional imbalances must be clearly addressed. A national priority from view of both food security and sustainability is to fully extend Green Revolution to areas of low productivity in the eastern region where there is ample ground water, and thereby help reduce water stress elsewhere. Rain-fed areas continue to be at a disadvantage, and their development still requires some mindset changes.

holdings and 41 per cent of area. No agricultural development Plan can be credible unless it is relevant to this vast majority of farmers. Also, 12 per cent of rural households are now female headed with even smaller holding, and the feminisation of agriculture poses special problem. 12.58. An important step that would help small and marginal farmers is to reform the tenancy laws. These were originally meant to help small and marginal farmers but now operate against them. Even limited legalisation of agricultural tenancy and freeing the land lease market with proper record of ownership and tenancy status will help such farmers. Some small farmers may lease out land to shift to other occupations, provided they were assured that they could resume the land if they wished. Some large farms may lease in land and even employ the small owner on his own farm to grow specific crops under supervision. Moreover, a stark reality of India’s farm situation today is that while land hunger continues unabated amongst the poor and uneducated, especially female, educated young men in richer households are leaving agriculture. The rapid rise of wages for rural casual labour during the Eleventh Plan period has further increased the relative cost of cultivating with hired labour. Many large and absentee owners are leaving land under-cultivated which could be leased out if they were assured of retaining ownership. 12.59. The Eleventh Plan had set out in detail the key elements necessary to make land policy effective for equity and efficiency. These are: 1. Modernisation of land records must be both time-bound and comprehensive. Full digitisation of land records, including GIS maps, should be completed with required survey/settlement by end of the Twelfth Plan, during which pilots should also be initiated to enable movement towards a Torrens system in the Thirteenth Plan. 2. Although there is no strong case to change existing ceiling laws, there are several pending implementation issues that can and should be addressed as land records are modernised. 3. Land issues in tribal areas require urgent and special attention.

12.56. Farm profitability is central to achieving rapid and inclusive agricultural growth. Improved agricultural prices (Table 12.8) were an important driver in success of the Eleventh Plan. But slower growth of demand in some major sub-sectors (Table 12.9), combined with higher input costs due to world price trends, could cause this driver to be more muted in Twelfth Plan unless offset by increase in productivity. The reports of the Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices show low net farm revenue for many crops, particularly rain-fed. Diversification towards higher value crops and livestock remains the best way not only to improve farm incomes and accelerate growth, but also to reduce stress on natural resources which form farmers’ production base. This needs better infrastructure and emphasis on integrated farming systems, combining crops and livestock, including small ruminants, for different location-specific endowments. This also requires innovative institutional and contractual arrangements so that smallholders have the requisite technology and market access.

(A) The Centrality of Smallholdings
12.57. Small farms typify Indian agriculture and this predominance continues to increase. Agriculture Census 2005–06 reported the average size of an operational holding at only 1.23 hectare, with farms less than 2 hectares comprising 83 per cent of all

Agriculture 21

4. Although no major new redistribution of agricultural land is likely, it is possible to ensure that all rural households have at least homesteadcum-garden plots. 5. Tenancy should be legalised in a ‘limited’ manner. Prescribed rents, if any, should allow a band wide enough for rents to be contracted mutually over contract periods long enough to encourage investment by tenants while protecting ownership rights so that landowners have incentive to lease out land rather than keep this underutilised or fallow. 6. Small and marginal farmers, particularly women, lack adequate access to credit, extension, insurance and markets. While every effort should be made to strengthen delivery of public services in their favour, the intervention likely to be most potent is support to group action by farmers themselves. It was suggested that subsidies in Government schemes give preference to group activity. 12.60. Most of these issues, as well as the associated matter of consolidating fragmented holdings in course of survey/settlement, are in the State domain and progress is uneven. Ongoing efforts of Ministry of Rural Development (particularly, Department of Land Resources) and Ministry of Tribal Affairs also address some of these issues, although not necessarily related directly to agriculture. However, there was little progress during the Eleventh Plan on the suggestion to redesign schemes so that subsidies favour group activity among small and marginal farmers. In fact, a criticism of the Eleventh Plan schemes has been that these diluted earlier specific support for such farmers. 12.61. Almost all the Twelfth Plan working groups set up by the Agriculture Division of Planning Commission have strongly recommended that the Twelfth Plan should put special focus on building capacity that encourages group formation and collective effort by small, marginal and women farmers, rather than simply provide additional subsidy to individuals in these categories. Existing group activity takes many forms depending on purpose. From lower tiers of formal cooperative structures in credit,

marketing, dairy and fishery, extending to self-help groups (SHGs), farmer clubs, joint liability groups (JLGs) and, more recently, to producer companies. For simplicity, these can all be termed Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs). 12.62. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Disadvantaged Farmers, including women has provided evidence-based assessment of the ground situation. New insecurities of tenure from urbanisation and industrialisation are impacting small farms which are efficient but lack adequate access. Its main recommendation is that a collective approach should be promoted in agriculture for small and women farmers at all points of the value chain. It cites many successful examples that stretch from the Gambhira farmer’s collective in Gujarat, initiated in 1953 and still going strong, to several initiatives of women’s group farming in Andhra Pradesh such as one initiated by Deccan Development Society in 1989 and another initiated by a UNDP-GoI project in 2001 and sustained since 2005 by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samakhya (APMSS). The most recent success story is the collective farming initiative launched in 2007 under Kudumbashree jointly by Kerala Government and NABARD. Success of these in increasing production and empowering women point to a need for States to experiment with (i) channelising NGO strength in mobilising people to encourage small holders to shift from an individual to a group-oriented approach; and (ii) facilitating land access by groups of disadvantaged farmers with appropriate arrangement for provision of inputs, including credit. Financing such experiments should be permissible under RKVY. 12.63. Since land access was the most difficult part in all the above efforts, the Working Group has suggested that, except distribution of homesteads to the homeless which should have the highest priority, future Government land distribution should be to groups of landless and women farmers rather than to individuals. This could take the form of long-term lease which would expire if the group broke down, for which it would be necessary to legalise tenancy at least for this purpose. Moreover, an innovative suggestion of both this Working Group and the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Working Group on Marketing is to set up Public Land Banks (PLB) at Panchayat level. Landowners could ‘deposit’ uncultivated land and receive regular payments from the PLB varying by period of deposit and rents actually obtained with the guarantee that this ‘deposit’ can be withdrawn with suitable notice. The PLB could then lease out to small and women farmers or their collectives. A form of ‘limited’ tenancy aimed at fuller agricultural use of available farm land and to slow down speculation in such land for future non-agricultural use, this idea excludes leasing to corporate entities. However, to set up PLBs will require some initial seed capital and a clear legal framework. If States provide the legal framework and the necessary guarantees, the seed capital could also be permissible under RKVY. 12.64. Access to finance, especially by small holders, is crucial for improved agricultural performance. Credit flow doubled in the Eleventh Plan but mainly by credit deepening, with little increase in farmer coverage and still leaving 60 per cent of farmers without institutional credit. There are several ways in which credit access can be widened. Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies (PACS) still have the widest coverage and must be made more memberdriven and less dependent on higher tiers. Joint Liability Groups (JLGs) are still the most appropriate mechanisms for farmers and livestock owners who have productive assets but cannot access credit because they have no land records, are located too far from banks or have last mile problems. The SHGBank Linkage programme is still the most appropriate financial mechanism to extend credit to marginal and dry land farmers as this allows better income smoothing since SHGs provide space for diversity in loan purposes and sizes, enabling financing of a variety of activities that such families select as part of livelihood strategies when income from agriculture is low. 12.65. Commercial banks have not supported JLGs or SHGs as much as they could have, preferring instead to comply with priority sector requirements by offering bulk finance through Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC) and Micro-Finance Institutions (MFI). However, NBFC–MFI lending

is mainly individual and based on standard products imposing short repayment schedules which did not dovetail with cash flows from agriculture. This caused multiple borrowings, increased risk to borrowers and led to a backlash. The solution is to restore the principle of group decisions by borrowers both in the borrowing process and in use of borrowed resources. This need not exclude NBFC– MFI so long as shortcuts are avoided. For example, NABFINS, a NBFC promoted by NABARD, lends only to groups and uses a Business Correspondent (BC) Model that also provides working capital to second level institutions like cooperatives and producer companies which aggregate, add value and market commodities. The SHGs have a stake in these second level institutions which help expand their livelihood base. 12.66. Small and marginal farmers face problems not only with shrinking land assets and with credit; they have difficulty in accessing critical inputs for agriculture such as quality seeds and timely technical assistance. In this situation, FPOs offer a form of aggregation that leaves land titles with individual producers and uses the strength of collective planning for production, procurement and marketing to add value to members’ produce through pooled resources of land and labour, shared storage space, transportation and marketing facilities. These also improve bargaining power of small farmers and, most importantly, reduce transactions costs of banks and buyers to deal them. Investing in such group efforts has strong externalities. 12.67. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Agricultural Marketing, Infrastructure, Secondary Agriculture and Policy for Internal and External Trade has in fact suggested that an institutional development component, along lines of NABARD’s farmer club scheme, be introduced in all Centrally sponsored schemes to specifically target FPO formation among small producers, especially tribals, dalits and women. It notes that a majority of FPOs that are likely to emerge as a result of such an intervention will remain focused on addressing issues of crop planning, technology infusion, input supply and primary marketing. But, with adequate support

Agriculture 23

for business development, about one fourth to a third would seek to leverage presence further up the value chain, most likely at the lower end (for example, setting up pack houses, grading centres, small cold stores, drying or quick freezing plants). Larger FPOs, for example, existing cooperatives could provide this support and in fact could aim bigger, but issues may be different. For example, the National Dairy Development Board’s SAFAL has had only limited success although the wide network and logistics of milk cooperatives make these obvious incubators for village-level aggregation of other perishable products. Therefore, the Twelfth Plan must try to mainstream support for FPO formation and capacity building using all credible agencies for the purpose: existing cooperatives, NABARD and the Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC).

(B) Issues in Expanding Agricultural Marketing and Processing
12.68. A major problem facing cultivators is that they do not get remunerative prices because of uncertainties caused by inadequate market information, unnecessary controls, lack of physical infrastructure and price volatility—both domestic and global. In order to provide adequate incentives to farmers, the Twelfth Plan will have to focus on leveraging the required private investment and also policies that make markets more efficient and competitive. 12.69. Reforming the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Acts should therefore have priority as emphasised in the Eleventh Plan and the Mid-term Appraisal. The introduction of the Model Act in 2003 was directed towards allowing private market yards, direct buying and selling, and also to promote and regulate contract farming in high-value agriculture with a view to boost private sector investment in developing new regularised markets, logistics and warehouse receipt systems, and in infrastructure (such as cold storage facilities). This is particularly relevant for the high-value segment that is currently hostage to high post-harvest losses and weak farm-firm linkages. While many States have moved towards adoption of the Model Act, actual progress has been limited. Often the permissions given are subject to unacceptable restrictions which make

them ineffective. Vested interests in maintaining the existing mandi system intact are very strong. In view of the slow progress, the Ministry of Agriculture set up a Committee of State Ministers in-charge of agricultural marketing. The Committee submitted a ‘First Report’ in September 2011 which has been circulated to all States and UTs. The report calls for ‘speedy reforms’ of Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMC) Act across different States along with ‘time-bound development’ of marketing infrastructure. Calling for a ten-year perspective plan to improve infrastructure of backward and forward linkages for agriculture production and marketing, the report has suggested that agricultural marketing be given access to priority sector lending. Thus, the process to secure necessary amendments in APMC Acts and thus create the enabling legal environment is still ongoing. The Twelfth Plan will need to fasttrack modernisation of mandi infrastructure, with adequate provision of communication and transportation, and also empower small producers through their organisations and marketing extension. 12.70. Post-harvest losses, probably average 10 to 25 per cent, being particularly high in horticulture, livestock and fisheries. Very large investments are required in developing agricultural markets, grading and standardisation, quality certification, warehouses, cold storages and other post-harvest management of produce to address this problem. Such large investments are possible only with the participation of the private sector which, in turn, require freedom from controls on sales/purchase of agricultural produce, its movement, storage and processing. Many new initiatives were taken up during the Eleventh Plan, including both terminal markets under Public–Private Partnership (PPP) mode in the National Horticulture Mission (NHM) and a model of public sector investment combined with professional management by stakeholders as exemplified by NDDB’s fruit and vegetable wholesale market at Bengaluru and APEDA’s Modern Flower Auction Houses. 12.71. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Horticulture and Plantations which studied the matter in detail has observed that participation by traders,


Twelfth Five Year Plan

wholesale buyers, exporters and processors has actually been very low in all these new initiatives because of reluctance to be subject to transparent operating procedures. It has come to the conclusion that the present model of Market Sector Reforms which is trying to create space for a new set of modern markets in coexistence with much less transparent procedures in APMC regulated markets is unlikely to result in any major private investment in modern marketing infrastructure. In its view, to break the barrier of reluctance to participate in business of modern markets it is necessary as part of marketing reforms to define and introduce a common Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for all markets: both the new modern markets envisaged as well as existing regulated markets under APMC Acts. Therefore, it proposes that managements of existing regulated markets must be made to adopt the modern marketing model: that is, undertake the auction function themselves and all payments to sellers ensured by the Market Committee through a system of bank credit limits of the buyers. This would involve redefining the role of APMC management with introduction of SOP and an open policy of registering buyers; permitting setting up of private markets in APMC areas; removal of interstate barriers to allow an unified national market, either by using entry 42 of the union list or at least for sealed container cargo; and single point levy at first point of sale. 12.72. While this entire area of regulation of agricultural product markets is thus in some flux and movement is still slow, an important initiative in the Eleventh Plan involved setting up a Warehouse Regulatory and Development Authority (WRDA) to set standards and modernise warehousing. The aim is enlarged use of negotiable warehouse receipts that can be linked to e-trading, both spot and future, so that farmers have an alternative to mandis. However, so far less than 300 warehouses have been registered and there is yet no effective coverage of perishable products. Cold storages have recently been brought under WRDA but minimum standards are yet to be set. This may be as difficult as meeting the requirement of cold storage additional capacity estimated at around 32 million tonnes over the next decade. Present cold storages are of inadequate quality, most

domestic component manufacturers do not have certified performance ratings, BIS standards do not exist for many critical components of cold chain infrastructure and critical storage conditions prescribed internationally for cold chain structures have yet to be validated for many Indian agro-climatic conditions or cultivars. 12.73. Although India ranks second in world production of fruits and vegetables, only 6–7 per cent of this is processed, compared to 65 per cent in US and 23 per cent in China. A well-developed food processing industry is expected to increase farm-gate prices, reduce wastage, ensure value addition, promote crop diversification, generate employment opportunities and boost exports. Further, issues concerning food processing industry are dealt with in Chapter 9. 12.74. The private sector needs to invest much more in creation of warehousing capacity, cold storages and supply chains. In this context, the Planning Commission had also set up a Committee on Encouraging Investments in Supply Chains including provision for cold storages for more efficient distribution of farm produce, which submitted its report in May 2012. The Committee has indicated that with regard to foodgrains, the Department of Food and Public Distribution has initiated steps for creation of 17 million tonnes of additional storage capacity including 2 million tonnes in the form of silos. This additional capacity is expected to take care of public sector’s warehousing requirement during the Twelfth Plan. The Committee has recommended to exempt perishables from the purview of APMC, provide freedom to farmers and make direct sales to aggregators and processors, introduce electronic auction platforms for all the mandis where daily transaction is above `10 crore, and replace licensees of APMC markets with open registration backed by bank guarantees to ensure wider choice to growers and to prevent cartelisation by traders. The Committee has recommended encouraging largescale private investments in the cold chain sector using PPP Model with Viability Gap Funding besides providing budgetary support and capitalising on schemes such as Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF). An Inter-Ministerial Group on Cold

Agriculture 25

Chain Infrastructure and Allied Sectors has been set up by the Government to facilitate implementation of these recommendations. 12.75. There is merit in planning part of such investment as infrastructure to reduce waste and enlarge markets rather than wait for corporate investment in processing or retail. The extent of wastage is not easily ascertainable and new research suggests that some of the older estimates were quite likely exaggerated, especially if quality loss leading to lower prices is not counted as waste. Also, the experience so far is that corporate entrants have not fared very well in the competition with incumbent traders since existing trading margins, although high, are in fact much less than, for example, in the USA. However, there is no doubt that modern storage and logistics do reduce waste. If such infrastructure also improves farm shares, social returns could exceed the private and justify subsidies. Subsidy rates, increased recently to 25–50 per cent, are now quite high and policy should be clear on whether the goal is just capacity targets or wider market access and improved marketing efficiency. If the latter, eligibility criteria need to be specified and also linked clearly with marketing reform. Social returns to subsidy will be more if access to both the infrastructure and to markets is more open. The real test is whether these can spawn and sustain enterprise in aggregation, grading and processing at the bottom, preferably by FPOs, but also by lead farmers and even by existing commission agents. 12.76. The recent decision to open up debate on FDI in retail must be seen in this context. With multibrand retail already open to the domestic corporate sector, FDI in retail should not be viewed as an entirely new disruptive factor affecting traditional retail. It will only add depth and competition to the present situation. Deeper pockets and technology, and the compulsions to invest in supply chain development which is not there for domestic modern retail may accelerate investment in logistics, quicken consolidation of retail trade and create new proprietary supply chains. It must be emphasised that FDI alone will not resolve back-end issues related to modernising agricultural markets that have so

far muted the domestic corporate effort and investment. FDI has an added potential to link farmers to wider markets by expanding exports. However, the Eleventh Plan had also noted the legitimate concern that if front-end investment outpaces backward linkage, the outcome could instead be more imports and lower farm prices. The introduction of FDI will increase, not lessen, the importance of priorities identified above: marketing reforms, aggregation at the bottom and public funding of stand-alone infrastructure. 12.77. With less than 40 per cent of farm produce presently consumed in urban areas and much less processed, use of public funds to improve market efficiency will have a positive effect on farm growth. There are benefits in coordinating this effort with other steps to encourage corporate investment in this area. For example, the NHM was designed based on a concept of adequately sized area clusters so that processors could plan capacities based on anticipated future fruit production that would in turn ensure markets for farmers when trees finally bore fruit. But processors have preferred to wait and watch while farmers, not sure of adequate market for any single crop, have usually chosen to diversify their production basket. Most clusters have therefore not developed in the manner intended. A larger thrust to modernise processing and retail will require bringing more synergy between corporate actors and farmers, particularly in infusion of technology and capital at the farm end. 12.78. The Ministry of Agriculture has proposed a RKVY window for Public–Private Partnership for Integrated Agricultural Development (PPPIAD) for States to facilitate ‘large scale integrated projects led by private sector players with a view to aggregating farmers and integrating agricultural supply chains.’ The idea is to leverage corporate interest and marketing solutions to part-finance mobilisation of expertise to form FPOs and infuse technology and capital to enhance farm production and value addition. This is in line with views of various working groups, and needs to be piloted. But since this will in effect be public subsidy to contract farming, it is necessary to be clear on what should and should


Twelfth Five Year Plan

not be subsidised. First, project selection should go beyond where contract farming would normally occur; that is, give priority to proposals involving FPOs composed mainly of small and marginal farmers in less accessible and rain-fed locations. Second, tangible assets that are property of the corporate partner cannot be subsidised by RKVY. Only stand-alone assets of farmers or their FPOs should be subsidised. Third, a transparent project selection mechanism will be required to rank proposals, for example, by assigning marks based on States’ priorities to deliverables offered, with outcome indicators for subsequent monitoring. If this works, it might be a game changer, not only to form FPOs and widen farm-industry linkage but also to fast-track desirable changes in cropping patterns.

12.81. On these issues, the working group has pointed to the need for more objective assessment of credit requirements for direct and indirect financing of agriculture and also to redefine the priority lending sectors. It has suggested updating of KCC databases with priority analysis of KCC percentage provided to the small and marginal farmers and more intensive use of ICT applications to track the flow of credit and transmission losses, with reference to such farmers. 12.82. Some ongoing and emerging changes appear to hold promise of triggering off better financial inclusion for banking activity: 1. The Core Banking Platform provides seamless connectivity which, with the telecom infrastructure, brings a new architecture to access financial services. 2. The BC model, together with mobile phones, can along with post offices provide significant lastmile connectivity. 3. Mandating payments (for example, of wages under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, pension dues and so on) through formal channels, including post offices, is helping to reach financial services to those so far not reached. 4. The enormous economies of scale generated by SHG Federations (each of 150–200 SHGs) is enabling banks to give larger loans for housing and health facilities for their members. A variety of insurance services are also being made available, including life, health, livestock and weather insurance. 5. The UID project of the GoI with biometric identity may facilitate easier opening of bank accounts, although this has yet to happen. 12.83. The financial health of the Long-term Cooperative Credit Structure (LTCCS) continues to deteriorate with accumulated losses of `5,275 crore by March 2010, resulting in erosion of 59 per cent in owned funds. A quick decision is warranted on the implementation of the revival package for the LTCCS too on the lines of the Short-term Cooperative Credit Structure (STCCS).

(C) Credit and Cooperatives
12.79. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Institutional Finance, Cooperatives and Risk Management has projected the demand for credit during Twelfth Plan at between `31,24,624 crore and `42,08,454 crore, depending on the methodology used. At the higher end of these estimates, that is, assuming agriculture growth at 4 per cent and ICOR at 4.5, the size of the credit requirement in the Twelfth Plan period translates into about double the flow during the Eleventh Plan, that is, `8 lakh crore per year, as against the level of `4.68 lakh crore achieved during 2010–11. 12.80. This projected level of credit appears feasible in view of the Eleventh Plan achievement. As against credit flow of `2,29,401 crore in agriculture during 2006–07, the total institutional credit flow to agriculture in 2011–12 was `5,11,029 crore. But despite this very robust growth, many issues continue to confront agricultural credit, particularly in the area of financial inclusion necessary for ensuring inclusive growth. Agricultural credit continues to neglect certain sub-sectors, the flow of term lending is dwindling and there is inordinate increase in the share of indirect finance. Credit dispensation by institutions to small and marginal farmers has been disappointing, including by the Cooperative Credit Structure (CCS) which has traditionally catered to relatively smaller farmers.

Agriculture 27

12.84. Notwithstanding, the relatively improved financial health of the STCCS following implementation of the revival package, its share in total institutional credit continues to show a declining trend. The package for STCCS was conditional to radical restructuring of coops into autonomous, democratic and self reliant institutions without intrusion of politics and bureaucracy. The States have not implemented these recommendations with full seriousness. Therefore, Cooperative Sector Reforms should continue to be insisted upon during the Twelfth Plan. 12.85. In the interest of strengthening of the ground level tier, there is also need for considering disciplined refinancing of PACS as stand-alone institutions, provided that these are member driven. PACS still have the widest coverage and the recent development of financing PACS through commercial banks needs to be widened, deepened and strengthened, especially in cases where higher tiers of the STCCS are weak and not in a position to fund them.

(D) Farm Income Variability: Managing World Price Volatility and Climate Risk
12.86. The Eleventh Plan document had noted that farmers are now subject to much greater risk than what Indian farmers have been used to in the past. The frequency and severity of risks in agriculture have increased on account of climate variability and this has been accompanied by much greater variability of world prices and their quicker transmission into the domestic economy. On price variability, it had recommended much greater co-ordination between MSP and trade policies and for putting in place a system whereby tariffs on imports and exports of farm products could be varied quickly in response to world price movements rather than having to take recourse to outright bans which hurt both farmers and trade. On climate variability, it had recommended going beyond current insurance measures and to put in place a tertiary mechanism for management and assessment through climate forecasting and mapping of agricultural losses. 12.87. World agricultural prices rose sharply during the Eleventh plan period, with inflation about

9 per cent per annum in US dollar terms and price volatility much higher than before, accompanied by even higher world inflation in fuels and fertiliser. It is now generally agreed that among the several factors that contributed to this were more frequent weather shocks, policies to promote biofuels and increased demand on commodity future markets as a result of speculation and portfolio diversification. There is also consensus that linkage between agricultural prices and price of oil is now very strong and may cause high volatility to persist. As compared to this, domestic Indian agricultural prices were much less volatile and domestic prices of fuel and fertiliser were increased much less than corresponding international prices. Indian farmers were thus relatively better protected against both higher price volatility and higher costs. However, this has involved repressing inflation in fuel and fertiliser and required bans on exports during world-price spikes. Co-ordination between MSP and tariff policy is still very weak. For example, while other aspects of a recent CACP suggestion for oil palm development can be met by ongoing schemes, the proactive tariff support required is a sticking point. These will need to be addressed during the Twelfth plan. 12.88. On the climate side, a number of initiatives taken by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the India Meteorological Department (IMD) during the Eleventh Plan have significantly improved the scope and quality both of climate data and of other remote sensing tools. Although IMD’s long-range forecasts of the monsoon still have a very large margin of error, its shorter-range products not only have greater accuracy but cover an array of agro-meteorological variables with fairly high resolution. There is also much better co-ordination today between ISRO and IMD on one hand and the Ministry of Agriculture, corresponding State departments and NARS on the other. For example, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) has set up a Mahalanobis National Crop Forecasting Centre with ISRO collaboration to augment present crop forecasts and assessment with regular remote sensing, GIS and Global positioning System (GPS) data.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

12.89. With better satellite products, an Eleventh Plan innovation was the Integrated Agro-Meteorological Advisory Service (IAAS) which now issues regular weekly Agro-Met Advisory Bulletins up to district level on field crops, horticulture and livestock. This involves agricultural universities to collect and organise soil, crop, pest and disease information and amalgamate this with weather forecasts to assist farmers in their decisions. Though still of very variable quality from district to district, and limited since district is too big a unit for useful advisory, a 2009–10 NCAER study concluded that this brought large savings to farmers. In the Twelfth Plan, a Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva (GKMS) will be launched to extend IAAS to block level, initially on experimental basis. Also, IMD will implement the Monsoon Mission aimed at generating better seasonal monsoon rainfall forecasts in different spatial ranges. 12.90. In a parallel Eleventh Plan initiative, that took advantage of IMD experience with Automatic Weather Stations technology, Government launched a Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) through the Agricultural Insurance Corporation (AIC). Initiated as a pilot in Kharif 2007 in 70 hoblis of Karnataka for 8 rain-fed crops, by 2010–11 the Scheme was being implemented in 17 States and covered more than 67 lakh farmers growing crops on 95 lakh hectares spread over 1,010 blocks in 118 districts. 12.91. At present WBCIS has about one-third the coverage of the National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), the main crop-insurance vehicle. Based on results of crop-cutting experiments, this has been in operation since 1999–2000. Although a useful device, especially for farmers growing relatively risky crops, the main problem with NAIS is that it is not actuarial insurance. Premiums for most important crops are fixed at all-India level irrespective of risk and Central and State Governments pay for the entire excess of claims over premium received. Moreover, being compulsory for all borrowers from banks in States where it is in force, and with relatively few non-loanee farmers involved, it mainly insures banks against default following poor harvest. Further, its popularity with farmers is

limited since crop-cutting experiments delay claims/ payments until well after harvest and risk covered is only of yield shortfalls at the block level. 12.92. For these reasons AIC is also piloting a Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) since 2010 that aims to (i) reduce the insurance unit from block to village panchayat with higher indemnity as proportion of threshold yield, (ii) move to actuarial premiums supported by upfront subsidies instead of NAIS practice of Government paying the entire excess of claims over premium, and (iii) extend insurance cover to situations such as failed sowing, cyclonic rains and localised calamities, such as hailstorms and landslides. The main problem is lowering insurance unit which although good for farmers increases the cost and effort on crop-cutting experiments exponentially. 12.93. As a result, the Government of India is currently implementing four schemes, that is, NAIS, MNAIS, WBCIS and another pilot Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS). Only NAIS is being implemented as a full-fledged scheme and the other three are being implemented on pilot basis. The pilot programmes will be evaluated early in the Twelfth Plan for future revisions/modifications to evolve a National Agricultural Insurance Programme. For this, the following will be necessary. First, define what should be the core programme which Government should set up and what should be left to companies to devise their own insurance products. Second, to examine the trade-off between competition and benefits of risk pooling, that is, a centralised reinsurance system. Third, arrive at an optimum mix between weather-based insurance and those dependent on yield measurements whether by crop-cutting experiments or remote sensing. 12.94. Some suggestions, based mainly on the Twelfth Plan Working Group on Institutional Finance, Cooperatives and Risk Management, are: 1. Taking as core the ongoing NAIS, modifications being made through the pilot MNAIS should be continued. The high cost of lowering the insurance unit should be dealt with progressively in

Agriculture 29







consultation with States. Centre may share part of the cost of crop-cutting experiments in the short-run but should shift to new technologies such as satellite imagery in the long run. The issue of private-sector involvement in agricultural insurance can be creatively addressed, for example, through a system of co-insurance under which the AIC is lead insurer (with underwriting responsibilities and contacts with multiple agencies). Weather-based insurance should continue, again focused on customisation and innovation such as double trigger (weather and yield) and indexplus products, with State Governments choosing what to subsidise. Roll-out of AWS can be demand-led and private sector also involved but with mandatory accreditation from a competent third-party designated by Government to ensure consistent and high-quality weather data. Further, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction Systems (TOPS) platforms need to be pilot tested. Other innovative products such as communitybased mutual insurance, savings-linked insurance, a properly designed product fort contract farming arrangement and so on can help establish insurance culture, especially if linked to FPO formation. Agriculture insurance, being specialty insurance with huge Governmental intervention should be seen more as a social instrument of the Government rather than a commercial instrument, hence is unlikely to be effectively administered unless backed by a statute. To protect non-insured farmers from extreme financial distress, Government may consider ‘Catastrophe Protection.’ A blanket Life Insurance cover could be devised for at least small/marginal farmers (including tenant farmers) to meet liabilities to banks or other RFIs in the unfortunate eventuality of death and to secure some financial support to families of the deceased. Premia on such group/blanket insurance could be funded by Central/State Governments and financing banks, in full or in part. Crop losses arising out of natural calamities are presently compensated by Government funding

or concessions like loan/interest waivers/deferments. This practice is fraught with inefficiency, besides crippling repayment ethics. It is, therefore, necessary that dealing with loan losses should be internalised within the banking system through the constitution of Relief and Guarantee Funds and Stabilisation Funds (set up partly with Government funding, by diversion of subsidies for loan repayments and so on).

12.95. Agricultural research has played a vital role in agricultural transformation and in reducing hunger and poverty and its role in the Twelfth Plan will be crucial. The Eleventh Five Year Plan had noted that research in the past had tended to focus mostly on increasing yield potential by more intensive use of water and biochemical inputs, paying less attention to either the long-term environmental impact of this approach or to methods and practices for efficient use of inputs and natural resources (Table 12.10). But now that limitations of this approach were evident, there appeared to be lack of any clear agricultural research strategy or to assign definite responsibilities and prioritise the research agenda rationally. It had proposed that ICAR institutes undertake basic, strategic and anticipative research, focusing particularly on problems of rain-fed agriculture, while SAUs concentrate on generating required manpower and on applied and adaptive research to address local problems. It had emphasised that research should shift from a commodity based approach to a farming systems approach through convergent efforts of R&D agencies within each agro-climatic region to address local problems identified by stakeholders, including development agencies. It had also stressed the need to enhance spending on NARS and proposed to raise this to 1 per cent of agriculture GDP by end of the Plan period. 12.96. As it turns out, research spending at 2006–07 prices, although reaching nearly 0.9 per cent in 2010– 11, averaged only 0.7 per cent during the Eleventh Plan. At current prices, it was even less, averaging only 0.64 per cent during the Eleventh Plan. Part of the reason was a shortfall of about 20 per cent in the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 12.10 Expenditure on Agricultural Research and Education (` crore at 2006–07 prices) Tenth Plan States Plan Non-Plan Total Centre Plan Non-Plan Total RKVY Centre and States Plan Plan Non-Plan Total GDP Agriculture and Allied (2006–07 prices) Research/Education as % GDP Ag 9,128 10,603 19,732 33,40,648 0.59% 4,151 6,477 10,629 4,977 4,125 9,102 2007–08 694 1,464 2,158 1,210 852 2,063 55 1,961 2,316 4,277 7,64,890 0.55% 2008–09 965 1,315 2,279 1,418 1,040 2,458 197 2,580 2,355 4,935 7,65,601 0.61% 2009–10 1,070 1,497 2,567 1,402 1,235 2,636 63 2,534 2,732 5,266 7,73,565 0.67% 2010–11 1,289 1,755 3,044 1,909 2,168 4,077 100 3,298 3,923 7,221 8,27,969 0.86% 2011–12 1,382 1,599 2,981 1,998 1,512 3,510 160 3,540 3,111 6,652 8,50,812 0.76% Eleventh Plan 5,401 7,629 13,030 7,938 6,808 14,745 576 13,914 14,437 28,351 39,82,837 0.70%

Centre’s Plan expenditure from that originally targeted, but the main reason was inadequate spending by States. While Centre’s expenditure (non-Plan and Plan, including RKVY) increased 68 per cent in real terms between the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan periods, corresponding States expenditures increased only 22 per cent. In particular, non-Plan spending on SAUs increased less than 17 per cent, less than required to meet the pay commission awards in most States. Consequently, most SAUs are understaffed and underfinanced. This is undoubtedly the most serious problem confronting NARS. 12.97. Nonetheless, new SAUs continue to be created, especially in animal husbandry, which lack adequate staff, have little infrastructure and are grossly underfunded. Emphasis has to be laid on arresting proliferation and improvement, especially in core disciplines like modern biology, to ensure a steady supply of quality human resources. ICAR should specify minimum standards, and meeting these standards could be an eligibility condition for States to get RKVY funding. 12.98. Significant contributions of public-sector research during the last decade have included

breakthroughs in basmati varieties, improved wheat varieties resistant to rust including race ug99, improved varieties of soybean, Bengal gram, mustard, chickpea and single cross hybrid maize; which have led to higher growth in these crops. Similarly, although most Bt cotton hybrids that are commercially successful are from private producers, these are based mostly on public material. With respect to natural resource management, public research claims significant contribution in developing resource conservation technologies like integrated farming, micro-irrigation, laser levelling, zero tillage and agricultural practices to improve efficiency of nutrients and water, including in situ rain water harvesting. In fruits and vegetables, better varieties and hybrids, disease management and multiplication of planting material and in livestock and fisheries, disease management technologies (vaccines and diagnostics), feed and fodder management, improving reproductive health and production of fisheries seed. 12.99. Broadly, although NARS has yet to respond to changes suggested in the Eleventh Plan, there are signs of some new research priorities and agendas. As example of new collaborative research, ICAR launched the ‘National Initiative on Climate Resilient

Agriculture 31

Agriculture (NICRA)’ in February 2011 as a network project with several collaborating institutions with a view to enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate vulnerability through strategic research and technology demonstration. The research on adaptation and mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management. The project aims to enhance resilience through development and application of improved production and riskmanagement technologies. It plans to demonstrate site-specific technology packages on farmers’ fields for adapting to current climate risks and to enhance the capacity of scientists and other stakeholders in climate resilient agricultural research and its application. This will be continued during the Twelfth Plan. 12.100. For the Twelfth Five Year Plan, the ICAR has proposed a number of new initiatives in its manner of functioning, such as extramural funding for research, creation of funds for agri-innovations and agri-incubation and setting up of an Agriculture Technology Forecast Centre (ATFC). To improve staff strength and quality it has proposed an Adjunct Professor Scheme, Agriculture Sciences Pursuit for Inspired Research Excellence (ASPIRE), e-courses and more post-doctoral fellowships. Modernisation of SAU farms is also contemplated. In particular, it has proposed the following new thrusts: • Conceived Research Platforms: Research consortia platforms are proposed for focused, time bound multi-disciplinary research in areas of ‘Agro Biodiversity Management; Genomics; Seed; Hybrids; GM Foods; Biofortification; Plant Borers; High Value Compounds/Phytochemicals; Nanotechnology; Diagnostics and Vaccines; Conservation Agriculture; Waste Management; Water Management; Natural Fibre; Health Foods; Precision Farming, Farm Mechanisation and Energy; Secondary Agriculture and Agriincubators.’ These will involve partnership of ICAR with R&D organisations inside and outside NARS. Inter-departmental platforms for research in these priority areas and also capacity building in basic sciences, remote sensing and medium range agri-advisory services will be fostered involving CSIR, DBT, ICMR, DRDO, DST

research institutes as well as general universities and Ministries of Environment, Space and Earth Sciences. National Agricultural Education Project: A National Agricultural Education Project for Systemic Improvement in Higher Agricultural Education and Institution Development is proposed to be undertaken as an externally-funded project to improve education quality in State Agricultural Universities. National Agriculture Entrepreneurship Project: Another externally-funded project is proposed in order to build an ecosystem for nurturing entrepreneurship development through translational research for technology commercialisation, management of technologies for commercialisation, research for breakthrough technologies for accelerated growth and higher-economic impact. Farmer FIRST: In order to make technology delivery process more effective through the existing 630 Krishi Vigyan Kendras, this new initiative will enhance farmers–scientist contact through multi-stakeholders’ participation to move beyond production and productivity to privilege the complex, diverse and risk prone reality faced by most farmers. Student READY: A one-year composite programme, the Rural Entrepreneurship and Awareness Development Yojana (READY) is proposed with the objective to develop professional skills for entrepreneurship: knowledge through meaningful hands-on experience in project mode; confidence through end to end approach in product development; and enterprise management capabilities including skills for project development and execution, accountancy and national/ international marketing. Attracting and Retaining Youth in Agriculture (ARYA): This initiative will be implemented with a youth-centric approach, targeting areas of agriculture research which can be converted into viable economic enterprises and build capacities to attract rural youth to agriculture.

12.101. The Twelfth Plan allocation for ICAR is of a size that will allow spending on NARS to reach 1 per cent of agriculture GDP by end of the Plan provided


Twelfth Five Year Plan

States fund SAUs similarly. The above ICAR proposals can have priority if defined in terms of deliverables, rather than areas. Also, NARS should address the following issues on priority basis during the Twelfth Five Year Plan: • Strengthening soil organic carbon (SOC) research, particularly on the quality of organic matter and microbial activity, physical properties of SOC, validation and refinement of models and SOC dynamics under different land uses and management regimes. • Developing Models and technology interventions on rational use of inputs, especially nutrients and irrigation water, under diverse agro-ecologies through interdisciplinary and farmer participatory mode in order to enhance their use efficiency, as also farm profits. • The Expert Group on Pulses has been critical of NARS. Efforts to enhance the yield potential of pulses, by analysing physiological and biochemical limitations of the current crop and designing more efficient types, is a priority which should also involve improving the nutritional quality of pulses and reducing various anti-nutritional factors. • Another priority continues to be the development of heat resistant varieties of wheat. • Greater thrust needs to be given to post-harvest management, secondary agriculture and value addition, along with by-products and waste management. The agricultural technologies which have been developed and matured in the Eleventh Plan should be taken for commercialisation in the Twelfth Plan. Accordingly, the human resource development including para-technicians should be emphasised. • Private agriculture input and seed companies use the research products of public system to generate profits. The public research system should seek a share in such profits which is possible if the public research system takes due care in protecting its intellectual property rights under the Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers’ Rights Authority (PPVFRA). This requires development of an appropriate pricing mechanism and preparing a suitable licensing system.

12.102. The extension system of State agricultural departments is the weakest link in the chain between research and the farmer. Large number of vacancies of extension workers in the State Agriculture Department was one of the gravest concerns expressed by the Eleventh Plan document. During the Eleventh Plan, efforts were initiated to improve extension services by extending Central support to State extension reforms. This has resulted in 604 Agriculture Technology Management Agencies (ATMAs) to be established across the country with 21,000 new posts sanctioned with Central assistance at State, district and block levels. Also, since a continuous problem plaguing extension has been lack of organic link between the research system and the extension machinery, R&D linkage guidelines were jointly brought out by the DAC and ICAR and sent to all States and SAUs. The basic thrust of these guidelines were to get ATMAs and KVKs to work together at the district level and below, keeping in view the priorities reflected in Comprehensive District Plans. Although neither has delivered full results, there is now much greater acceptance that things must be done together. 12.103. Seed is also an area where NARS made much greater effort than in previous recent Plan periods. 12.104. Along with seeds, farm mechanisation was also highlighted earlier as a source of the Eleventh Plan labour productivity gains. In view of emerging labour shortages in many states, there is demand to expand custom hiring services, as well as for new implements. During the Twelfth Five Year Plan it is proposed to give a co-ordinated thrust on seeds, farm mechanisation and extension through a new Mission on Extension and Technology Management. This should also have a component to fund ICAR research platforms to find solutions to problems thrown up by extension and requiring expertise beyond SAU.

(A) Seeds and Planting Material
12.105. Three major yield successes during the last decade relate to cotton, maize and basmati rice.

Agriculture 33

These were driven by new seeds of which cotton and maize hybrids were mainly from private sector while basmati rice varieties were almost entirely public. Increased adoption of hybrids in cross-pollinated crops like cotton, maize, pearl millet and sorghum has been led largely by the private sector, which accounts for three-fourths of hybrids developed so far in the country. But there is discernable change in role of public sector in development of hybrids after 2001–02. Till 2001–02, private sector developed 150 hybrids of cotton compared to 15 by public sector; 67 hybrids of maize compared to three in public sector. In the next seven years, public sector increased its share from 8 per cent to 19 per cent in cotton, from 4 per cent to 40 per cent in maize and from 25 per cent to 58 per cent in rice, with similar changes in other crops. In parallel, public production of quality seeds of varieties have increased rapidly in recent years, expanding the public share in total seed use. Production of quality seed doubled from 140 lakh quintals in 2004–05 to 280 lakh quintals in 2009–10, contributing significantly to the Eleventh Plan yield performance. Private sector accounted for 39 per cent of this seed production. Nonetheless, the ratio of quality seed to total seed use by farmers is still much lower than norm and there is considerable scope to raise crop productivity by raising this ratio. 12.106. There are several pending issues regarding seeds. For example, at present there is no regulatory mechanism to protect farmers against non-performance, say poor seed germination rate. The Seeds Bill, 2004, introduced in Parliament in 2004, is still under consideration of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Agriculture. It aims to regulate the quality of seeds and planting material of all agricultural, horticultural and plantation crops to ensure availability of true to type seeds to Indian farmers; curb the sale of spurious, poor quality seeds; protect the rights of farmers; increase private participation in seed production, distribution and seed testing; liberalise import of seeds and planting materials while aligning with World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments and international standards. Comprehensive and authentic databases on seed production and trade in India by public and private sectors as required under the seed and plant variety

laws need to be built up. The seed chain and the norms for quality control should be followed without any compromises or shortcuts. 12.107. At present, the public sector is responsible for most valuable germplasm while private seed agencies concentrate on more remunerative high value seed segment. Under the circumstances, clear protocols need to be developed for sharing precious germplasm with the private sector on payment of royalty, while ensuring their conservation and preventing possible erosion of the national interest in the context of international agreements on plant variety and intellectual property rights. If this can be done, there is vast scope to expand linkages between the private seed industry and public research institutions to take advantage of the positive aspects of both the segments for the benefit of farmers. 12.108. ICAR needs to revisit procedures for variety identification, release and notification to cover private and farmers’ varieties and also to avoid bias in favour of varieties evolved by the testing institutions. The number of seed testing centres in the country should be expanded rapidly, if necessary in PPP mode and with third party oversight, to reduce the time taken in assessment and refinement of varieties and hybrids and technologies for production and protection of crops. There is also a need for ‘Phytosanitary’ certification, especially for export/ import of seeds. The State Seed Corporations may establish at least one such certification centre in each major State. 12.109. The DAC made the present assessment of seed requirement during the Twelfth Plan for its proposed Seed Mission with respect to some of the major crops which brings out that even excluding requirements arising from possible shift to hybrids, seed production of varieties will need to increase by about a third to meet the projected increase in seed replacement rates. Since seed-production planning should be done with a long-term perspective (considering the viability of the seed) and also to keep buffer stock of seed to meet eventualities of natural calamities that require replanting, the actual production requirements may be higher. To meet the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

seed demand for 45 major crops produced within the country and required under diverse conditions, seed hubs need to be identified to produce seed and supply the same to the farmers in each area. This will save cost of transportation. Public agencies will also need to strengthen infrastructure for seed processing, storage, transportation and distribution. 12.110. Adequate availability of quality seeds is a particular challenge for farmers in rain-fed areas where rainfall risks are high and productivity depends crucially on timely sowing within a short rainfall window. The seed system must be capable of providing seeds of contingency or alternative crops during prolonged dry spells. With protection of crop diversity important in rain-fed areas, strengthening and improving local-seed systems and linking these to NARS is a necessity for productivity enhancement. 12.111. An important part of the new Mission will therefore be to better integrate farmers with production and distribution of quality seeds through, for example, seed village programmes and by encouraging NGOs to help FPOs take up seed production. Therefore, capacity building will be vital to success. Fodder seeds that are presently neglected and scarce will need to be emphasised. Equally, the Mission must be enabled to convey to NARS accurate feedback from farmers on seed suitability.

to be enhanced through promotion of custom hiring models as well as individual ownership. While draft animal power based implements and manual tools should be owned by individual farmers (with appropriate financial incentives, for example, off season employment for animal power by integrating some services such as ‘manure transport’ with MGNREGS), expensive machinery should be promoted thorough custom hiring. This could be done by promoting machinery service centres involving existing FPOs or by groups of farm youth trained in machinery operation and maintenance. 12.114. Greater impetus is needed to develop needbased and regionally differentiated farm machinery. Ongoing efforts by NARS need to be suitably strengthened with appropriate participation of commercial agricultural machinery manufacturers. Financial incentives could be linked to requirements thrown up by extension experience from different locations or from FPO demand. The Mission should identify and convey to NARS the critical mechanisation gaps and, in particular, specific local requirements related to machinery for soil and water conservation and gender-friendly implements.

(C) Strengthening Extension
12.115. During the Eleventh Plan, the task of strengthening and restructuring agricultural extension was approached through a wide mix of different initiatives. The context for this was that while public sector extension arrangements have weakened, the number and diversity of private extension service providers have increased in the last two decades. These include the media, NGOs, producers associations, input agencies and agri-business companies. Many provide better and improved services to farmers, but their effective reach is limited and most poor producers are served neither by public nor private sector in many distant and remote areas. Notwithstanding the important role being played by private sector extension, there are also concerns with regard to wholesomeness of information, given equity and long-term implications. 12.116. Although setting up ATMAs in almost all districts was the single most important achievement,

(B) Farm Machinery
12.112. Wages have increased significantly in recent years and with labour accounting for more than 40 per cent of variable cost, many farm organisations report that shortage of labour is obstructing operational efficiency. Animal power is also declining, with commercial banks reluctant to extend loans for bullocks. This has naturally led to an increase in farm mechanisation. However, farm mechanisation has so far been biased in favour of tractors and been concentrated in irrigated-command areas paying little attention to the needs of farmers in dryland areas and the scope for introducing small machines that might be useful to meet their needs. 12.113. Considering the farm sizes and prevailing skills, farm mechanisation penetration would have

Agriculture 35

this went hand-in-hand with efforts to enhance quality through domain experts and regular capacity building. Other efforts included interactive ways of information dissemination, public–private partnerships and pervasive and innovative use of ICT/Mass Media. Efforts were also made to involve agri-entrepreneurs, agri-business companies and NGO experts to bolster public extension. Most of these efforts will have to continue in the Twelfth Plan since extension is a continuous process. But, in view of the initial broken down condition, there are considerable gaps even after the subsequent effort. For example, an evaluation of ATMAs by the Agricultural Finance Corporation in 2009–10 found that although 52 per cent of respondent farmers said that they gained knowledge of new practices and technologies from this, only 25 per cent felt that this had helped to increase production. It is perhaps time to conduct a country-wide extension census to identify extension resources (manpower, infrastructure, expertise) available in public and private sectors. 12.117. It is also necessary to continue with experimentation. There are number of models which have been successfully implemented in several States and countries which can be tried as pilots by ATMA and then expanded. Many civil society organisations have successfully experimented with community managed extension systems with members of the local community acting as agents of agricultural extension. In the Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA) model of Andhra Pradesh, members of the village community have been trained and developed as Community Resource Persons (CRPs). CRPs adopt elements of sustainable and eco-friendly agricultural practices in their own farms and are in a better position to motivate and convince other farmers than normal extension workers. Working with agricultural scientists and extension personnel under the broad ATMA umbrella, CRPs can help technology transfer and diffusion. 12.118. Agricultural extension covering crops and allied sectors is primarily the responsibility of the States and it is expected that States should drive the extension reforms process. Any national effort in this regard can only support States’ efforts. Moreover,

as noted by the Twelfth Plan Working Group on Agricultural Extension, while public policy in agriculture increasingly recognises importance of public–private partnership in extension, the experience so far is that PPPs have been the exception rather than the rule. States must adopt PPP, but this is not substitute for strengthening the public extension system. Future collaboration between public and private players will have to focus more on the public sector’s ability to set standards and monitor progress so that these standards are enforced on all players, including public extension agents, while providing institutional training and support. 12.119. An important task of the new Mission should therefore be to consult with States so as to evolve a standards and regulatory framework for certifying and validating extension activities by all players, including public extension agents. MANAGE and SAMETIs should take the leading role in driving extension reforms at the National and State levels respectively. The corporate sector should be encouraged to involve itself in this effort and in agricultural extension in general, if only as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Even more important than funding under CSR, the corporate sector can support by providing adequate extension training to their extensive promotion network of distributors and dealers so as to meet required standards. 12.120. The Twelfth Plan Working Group on Agricultural Extension has noted that although ATMAs exceeded targets on training, demonstrations and exposure visits, the number of farm schools set up was well below target and that matters were lagging also on strengthening and extending Farmer Advisory Committees at every level. Since active involvement of farmers in planning and executing extension reforms was a key ATMA goal, the new Mission must concentrate on this and on feedback, particularly on technology and on agricultural plans at district and lower levels. A critical aspect of this will be ATMA–KVK coordination and more intensive ICT use. 12.121. Extension services must also be gender-sensitised, and this will require joint efforts, involving the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana component of the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) under MoRD, the Project Directorate for Women in Agriculture of ICAR and National Gender Resource Centre in Agriculture (NGRCA) of Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). Further, since the present extension system does not pay adequate attention to livestock, fishery and fodder and separate extension machinery for animal husbandry and fishery is not feasible in many states, this function will need to be integrated with ATMA with suitable KVK and NGO backstopping. Indeed, convergence should be a basic goal of the new Mission, both on the side of technology dissemination and feedback as well as for planning integrated agricultural development. 12.122. The ultimate objective of the Mission should be to upgrade ATMA from a society operating as an adjunct to line agricultural departments to an independent entity with technical capability to offer local solutions and deliver feedback to NARS on locationspecific technology needs. The larger trends of public policy point towards decentralised governance of natural resources and the promotion of growth with increasing emphasis on district (and lower) level planning. It is necessary to see decentralised planning as an iterative planning—doing—learning—planning cycle rather than as simply a onetime activity. The challenge is to institutionalise this process and ensure that the agency facilitating planning also has accountability in the overall outcome. ATMAs are a natural choice for such an agency in the present context.

adequate facilities and the infrastructure for disease diagnosis, reporting, epidemiology, surveillance and forecasting. Livestock markets are underdeveloped, which is a significant barrier to commercialisation of livestock production. Besides, the sector is also coming under significant pressure of increasing globalisation of agri-food markets. Although there is demand for Indian meat products in international markets, lack of international processing standards is a hindrance. Unfortunately, schemes on modernisation of slaughterhouses and by-product utilisation have not been effectively implemented. In the animal husbandry sector, the major priority areas during Twelfth Five Year Plan will be breed improvement, enhancing availability of feed and fodder and provision of better health services, including proper breeding management. Conservation and perpetuation of diverse local germplasm, which are adaptable to Indian climate conditions and resistant to various endemic diseases, will be another important area, with clearer focus on sub-sectors such as small ruminants that have so far been neglected. 12.124. An important Twelfth Plan initiative is the National Dairy Plan (NDP), which has already been launched as a central sector scheme with credit support from the International Development Association (IDA). To be implemented by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) through a network of End Implementing Agencies (EIAs), mainly dairy cooperatives and producer companies, this aims to (i) increase productivity of milch animals and thereby increase milk production and (ii) provide rural milk producers with greater access to the organised milk-processing sector. These objectives would be pursued through adoption of focused scientific and systematic processes in provision of technical inputs, supported by appropriate policy and regulatory measures. 12.125. An important sub-component of (i) above will be scientific progeny testing and pedigree selection of bulls for semen required in artificial insemination (AI) services. It is planned to make available about 900 high genetic merit bulls for replacement of bulls maintained at all ‘A’ and ‘B’ graded semen stations and thereby achieve 100 per cent high genetic

12.123. For achieving growth rate of 5–6 per cent per annum the animal husbandry sector would need to address important challenges during the Twelfth Plan. These include delivery of services, shortage of feed and fodder and frequent occurrence of deadly diseases. Compared to its contribution in the economy livestock sector has received much less resources and institutional support. Livestock extension remains grossly neglected. The country still lacks

Agriculture 37

merit bull replacement at these semen stations by end of the Twelfth Plan. It is estimated that this would produce some 100 million high-quality disease-free semen doses annually. 12.126. Taking NDP into account and, with RKVY incentives for States to substantially enhance public sector investment in agriculture and allied sector during the Eleventh Plan, the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) has also decided to redesign its schemes. It aims to provide more flexibility to States while reducing the number of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) and reorientating these to secure better programmatic focus. 12.127. On genetic improvement in bovines, the current major programme is the ‘National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB)’ which is being implemented since October 2000. Unlike NDP, which aims to provide breeding services from the dairy side, NPCBB is administered as part of States’ veterinary services. DAHDF proposes to continue NPCBB in this present form since the DAHDF target is to expand the artificial insemination programme from present coverage of about 25 per cent of breedable population to 50 per cent, which will require an expansion of AI services beyond the about 35 per cent coverage planned for under NDP. This is because NDP will not cover all States and there are likely to be farmers not covered by dairyled breeding services even in States covered by NDP. Moreover, States have already established Livestock Development Boards (LDBs) in the present format to implement bovine breeding programmes with a stated focus on development and conservation of important indigenous breeds. The critical requirement is that NPCBB and States’ efforts through LDBs share common standards and protocols with NDP in progeny testing, pedigree selection and to improve conception rates. If so, resources are sufficient to achieve 5 per cent growth of milk production in the Twelfth Plan 12.128. Since standards and protocols will be the key to success on the breeding side and basic commonality will have to be brought between NDP, LDBs and

NPCBB, there is need for some architectural redesign during the Twelfth Plan. Therefore, although NPCBB will continue, this will be as a component of a new National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy (NPBBD) which will subsume all DADF existing schemes on dairy development. Thus, NPBBD will have two main components, namely National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB) and Dairy Development. The component for Dairy Development will mainly focus on States/areas not covered under NDP and, in addition to existing support areas, convergence will be attempted in a phased manner so that dairy cooperatives which are not part of NDP also offer breeding and extension services. It is hoped that such combined activities in respect of dairying with breeding will be more effective in extension of artificial insemination services, feed management and marketing of good quality of milk which are essential for improving productivity and income of farmers. In the meantime, NPBB will continue existing NPCBB functions through LDBs and the veterinary side with two areas of focus: first, to harmonise breeding standards and protocols; and, second, to achieve the so far unrealised stated focus on development and conservation of important indigenous breeds. 12.129. The main programme on the veterinary side will be an expanded scheme for Livestock Health and Disease Control. Such an expansion is necessary because occurrence of diseases like foot and mouth disease (FMD), hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), brucellosis, mastitis, blood protozoon and so on, have been accentuated with introduction of exotic breeds. Taking into account the economic losses from these diseases, and also those of small ruminants (PPR or peste-des-petits ruminants), particularly to small, marginal and landless farmers including women farmers, it is necessary to have a strong focus on national control programmes for all major animal diseases, backed by epidemiological analysis and assessment of the animal diseases in different agroclimatic regions. Unrestricted movement of livestock, as well import of germplasm, and changes in ecosystems due to climate change are adding to occurrence of diseases. The availability of improved, potent and efficacious vaccines meeting international


Twelfth Five Year Plan

standards against major prevalent diseases can enable better management, containment and control of the diseases. The new programme will associate all ICAR institutes specialising in animal diseases and, in consultation with the State Governments, formulate and implement more effective strategies for control of different diseases. 12.130. The third major programme of DADF will be the National Livestock Mission (NLM). Apart from bovine breeding, dairying and livestock health schemes, DADF runs a plethora of other schemes relating small ruminants, poultry, piggery and fodder development which although of extreme importance, especially to small, marginal, landless and women farmers, have so far not received focused attention. The multiplicity of small schemes in these livestock sectors has been a major constraint since this limits the capability of states to effectively access funding under various schemes. In order to provide greater flexibility to states in formulating and implementing various projects, it is proposed to merge these schemes with the main objective of achieving sustainable development and growth of the livestock sector. 12.131. The NLM will have an important mini-mission of feed and fodder, with an objective to substantially reduce the gap between availability and demand. The deficit of dry fodder (10 per cent), concentrates (33 per cent) and green fodder (35 per cent) continues to be high, although availability of feed resources has improved somewhat. The forage and fodder seed need varietal and quality improvement alongside better availability. The NLM will encourage seed companies and SAUs to take up forage seed production on a priority basis. Developing common property resources, including grazing land and wasteland, and better utilisation and enrichment of crop residues/agricultural by-products is the other priority. Ration balancing, which is being promoted under NDP, will also be promoted under this minimission on feed and fodder. 12.132. The NLM will also have an additional minimission relating particularly to development of small ruminants, but also covering poultry, piggery

and other minor livestock species. While subsuming some of the existing Central Sector Schemes for poultry, small animals and fodder development, the objective will be fuller development of the animal biodiversity available in our country, which is a rich treasure of germplasm. NLM will also focus on predominantly non-descript pig populations, concentrated in NE region and eastern region there have poor productivity. Indian poultry industry is well equipped and organised to achieve target growth rate of 11 per cent for commercial broilers and 7 per cent for layers although it failed to diversify in favour of duck, quail, turkey and emu production. Need-based import of grandparent stock of reputed international brands may be continued with strict enforcement of bio-security measures. Rural poultry sector however, needs financial, infrastructure and technological support to raise the present 2 per cent growth rate to 3 per cent. All these, including the conservation of threatened breeds, will be covered by NLM in a flexible but more focused programmatic manner. 12.133. Other issues that NLM will address include livestock insurance and extension and any innovative initiative proposed by states for development of the livestock sector, for example, to deal with unhygienic slaughtering and processing. If State Governments notify minor veterinary services accordingly, shortage of human resources of veterinary staff could also be supplemented by recruitment of para-vets, similar to that of ASHA, to provide minor veterinary services and supplement the livestock-extension activity in the States. In this context, it might be noted that as public-sector spending is enhanced for development of livestock, there is need for continuous assessment of the efficacy of AI and of animal health programmes in terms of success rates, lactating efficiency and of potential and actual yield per animal.

(B) Fisheries
12.134. Potential of fisheries sector in providing quality food and nutrition, creating rural livelihoods, advancing socio-economic development in the rural and far flung areas is widely demonstrated and globally recognised as a powerful tool for poverty reduction and fostering rural development. Annual fish production has reached to the level of 8.30 million

Agriculture 39

tonnes during 2010–11 (P). Annual export earning has also touched record US$2.9 billion mark contributing about 17 per cent to national agricultural export. About 14.5 million people are engaged in fishing, aquaculture and other allied activities of which about 75 per cent are in inland fisheries and the remaining in marine fisheries. 12.135. In marine fisheries, uncontrolled fishing capacity has led to over-exploitation of the coastal resources. The estimated potential of the offshore waters offers opportunities which calls for upgradation of the fleet as well as skills and capacities of the fishers and incentives to promote diversified fishing in the offshore waters. Implementation of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) as a new programme in the ensuing Plan is expected to bring more discipline and regulate the activities so as to maintain the growth rate in a sustainable manner. There is a need of additional infrastructure and also upgradation of facilities infrastructure for landing and berthing facilities of marine fishing fleet and for domestic marketing that have been the main reasons for post-harvest losses. 12.136. Freshwater aquaculture, which contributed to the ‘Blue Revolution’ in the country in late 1970s, is now almost stagnating in terms of species diversification and yield rates due to less focus on sustainable development of inland capture fisheries in past Plans; increasing pressure on the resources, including habitat degradation; and multiple use of inland water bodies with least priority to fishery requirements. Average yield rates are around 1,000 kg/ha/ yr, against potential of 3–4 thousand kg/ha/yr. The efforts to raise productivity should, however, be accompanied by formulating guidelines and regulatory measures for the judicious use of critical inputs keeping in view the principles of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. 12.137. Quality fish seed is the most critical input to enhance the productivity and production of fishes. But, there are no organised brood-stock production and management facilities in the country. Therefore, there is need to set up brood banks in each State with one at the Central level. There is need to promote

commercial fish feed mills and indigenously formulated fish feeds with locally available ingredients by supporting the private players with enhanced capital subsidy especially in the States where there are no feed mills. 12.138. Adequate infrastructure is not available for disease diagnosis and treatment for fish disease management. There is a strong need for capital investment as well as support for the State Governments in capacity building and managing the disease diagnostic laboratories. There is also a need for creating a disease surveillance and communication agency/ mechanism at National level along with its wings at suitable regional locations to build awareness and send alerts to the stakeholders. This agency shall have adequate regulatory powers to ensure the disease control. 12.139. The gradual decline of Freshwater Fish Farmer’s Development Agencies (FFDAs) and Brackish water Farmer’s Development Agencies (BFDAs) and their resultant poor performance coupled with weak extension services has impacted the overall growth of aquaculture in the country. Rejuvenation and consolidation of the two field-level agencies (FFDA and BFDA) into a single agency— Fisheries and Aquaculture Development Agency or can undertake extension of technologies, promote networking of farmers and fishers (mainly from reservoirs) and provide effective liaison between the farmers and developmental and other extension agencies such as the Krishi Vigyan Kendras and the ATMAs as well as sourcing the public finance for fishers. 12.140. An important initiative of Government of India for development of fisheries sub-sector has been to launch ‘National Fisheries Development Board’ (NFDB) as a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) in the year 2006 for implementing fishery developmental schemes in an integrated manner. The scope of NFDB would be expanded to include management of fish diseases and creation of related infrastructure which is a gap in the present scenario. During the Twelfth Plan, the existing CSS on inland and marine fisheries (except welfare of fishers) will


Twelfth Five Year Plan

be merged with NFDB to facilitate expansion of fisheries through integration of a wide array of activities, but with its main focus on inland fresh water fishery. The schemes will be implemented under the aegis of NFDB removing any duplication or overlap of efforts. This clear demarcation of work, it is hoped will enable the growth rate of the sector to rise to 6 per cent during the Twelfth Plan. 12.141. DADF would focus its efforts on policy, regulation and welfare of fishers, and will implement the scheme relating to welfare of inland and marine fishers. The DADF will also handle the strengthening of fisheries data base, implementation of the proposed scheme on Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), all fisheries policy and legal matters, coordination with the sister Ministries/Departments at the Centre and the States to make the sector’s foundation more robust and sustainable and build stronger linkages between research and development. Future course of fisheries management will have to work at two fronts—sustainable utilisation of healthy resources and rehabilitation of threatened resources by habitat restoration and appropriate conservation measures. Climate change and its possible impact on fisheries and fishers is again an additional challenge. Thus, the future course of management will require highest level of compliance of acts and regulations, extensive adoption of BMP and implementation of CCRF (Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries introduced by FAO) which would be possible only through the cooperation and active participation of resource user communities as partner in the development and management process.

horticulture crops since taking up of a number of initiatives for horticulture development through NHB, TMNE (NE) and then NHM in 2005–06. 12.143. However, in quest for area-expansion efforts, the states have neglected due thrust on increasing productivity of existing orchards through technology infusion or by capital investment in fertigation, input management, plant protection and farm mechanisation. The area expansion programmes have also lacked the proper backward linkage with supply of quality seed and planting material. Even where Nursery Act exists, it has not been enforced effectively. A proper system of accreditation and rating of nurseries, with clearly defined protocols, is the most important priority and will have to be put in place during the Twelfth Plan. 12.144. Adequate attention to post-harvest management and market development and processing has yet to pick up and is the weakest aspect of diversification towards high-value products resulting in frequent and sharp fluctuations in prices of fruits and vegetables in domestic market. As discussed earlier, marketing sector reforms implemented by States have so far not resulted in efficient marketing of perishables, or put in place transparent system of auction and price discovery. There are huge logistic gaps between production clusters and marketing centres, often at long distance, and private sector investment in post-harvest management and in marketing infrastructure has not come forward to the desired extent. There is also lack of proactive steps to enhance export competitiveness for high-end export destinations. The availability of adequate regular, uninterrupted, affordable power supply for setting up infrastructure like tissue culture labs, seed processing plants, bio control labs and post-harvest management units like cold storages, ripening chambers and so on is a constraint which needs to be addressed at least in and around horticulture clusters. Since horticulture operations are cost intensive and hi-tech, horticulture growers need to be provided affordable credit with higher ceiling and insurance against risk. 12.145. The horticulture development missions depend on a loose set-up of Technology Support

(C) Horticulture
12.142. With increasing per capita income, Indians are consuming more of fresh and processed horticultural products indicating growing scope of horticulture by improving crop productivity and efficiency in the value chains. The initiatives taken in the horticulture sector during the Tenth Five Year Plan have helped in achieving high growth in production. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, the growth rate of horticulture is expected to be 4.7 per annum, slightly short of the projected 5 per cent. There has been a marked push to the expansion in area under

Agriculture 41

Groups for technology inputs. This has proved inadequate. Many States do not have adequate technical trained manpower to implement programmes. Unless State Governments fill up vacant posts and create additional posts to provide necessary technical input, it should be deemed that they are uninterested and the mission wound up in those States. 12.146. During the Twelfth Five Year Plan the National Horticulture Mission will integrate the several existing schemes in this sector and aim at holistic growth of horticulture sector, including bamboo, through area-based regionally differentiated strategies, which include research, technology promotion, extension, post-harvest management, processing and marketing, in consonance with comparative advantage of each State/region and its diverse agro-climatic features. The Mission will also facilitate marketing reforms discouraging payment of unnecessary market levies and encouraging private investment for setting up horticulture produce markets. While continuing existing efforts, and aiming at 5 per cent growth of horticulture production during the Twelfth Plan, the main objective will be to build required capacities at State level, and assess their seriousness, so that the horticulture development related activities can be transferred fully to States by end of the Twelfth Plan. 12.147. Another objective will be to improve horticulture statistics which continue to be weak, lacking both a validated methodology for data collection of horticulture crops and adequate machinery to collect such data. Generation and dissemination of quality data can also help in averting frequent situations of gluts and shortages and exploitation of such situations by the middlemen and speculators. DAC needs to take up a one-time horticulture census with the objective of generating reliable base line data. Further, as recommended by NSSO committee on improvement horticulture statistics, there is need to set up an extensive network of Horticulture Information Systems (HIS) with proper data units in all relevant districts and at State and Centre level covering all relevant aspects. To facilitate this, at least 3 per cent of Mission funds should be earmarked for this purpose.

(D) Food Grains and Oil Seeds
12.148. Since cultivated land is limited, with potential for only marginal future increase through higher cropping intensity or development of cultivable wasteland, future increase in production will have to come mainly from yield improvement. Declining average annual growth of food grains yields from 3.2 per cent in 1980s to 1.6 per cent in 1990s and further to only 0.6 per cent during the Tenth Plan, taking this well below population growth, had led to widespread concern about future food security. The issue was, therefore, analysed fully with several alternatives considered and the National Food Security Mission (NFSM) was formulated for the Eleventh Plan. This was based on an assessment of yield gap data then available, and was focused on increasing yields in low-yield districts using a variety of known interventions, with particular attention to availability of quality seeds. Although this has paid off, with food grains yield growth increasing to 3.3 per cent during the Eleventh Plan, a valid question regards continuation of NFSM is whether yield gaps are still large? 12.149. A committee set up under Chairmanship of Chief Minister of Haryana has recently examined the issue and suggested continuing with the strategy to bridge the gap between real and potential yields. The analysis of gap between potential and achieved yields presented to this committee suggests that there is considerable potential of increasing yields even in high productivity irrigated areas with the current technology. For these areas, the strategies will need to concentrate on propagation of balanced use of fertilisers and application of micro-nutrients, water and soil-saving technology. In case of wheat, however, there is need to step up research to develop varieties resistant to temperature. The major yield gaps are due to management practices. Other reasons for this gap need to be ascertained through specific studies and addressed through appropriate interventions. 12.150. In addition to enhancing productivity of food grains in the low productivity areas, it is equally important to stabilise the productivity gains in these areas as well as in areas where productivity levels are comparatively high. With these issues in mind, the National Food Security Mission (NFSM)


Twelfth Five Year Plan

will be revamped during the Twelfth Plan. While the Eleventh Plan approach of focused attention on identified districts and crops in a location specific, target-oriented manner will continue, greater attention will be put in most areas to shift from exclusive focus on individual crops to the cropping system/ farming system approach. In particular, the Mission will be extended to cover coarse cereals and fodder, in addition to wheat, rice and pulses as at present. The Mission contemplates that promotion of package of practices in compact blocks in a hand holding approach would not only help in enhancing the production and productivity of a region but also help in changing mindsets of farmers due to its positive large-scale impact. This approach will ensure inclusion of all farmers in the compact block irrespective of their size of holding or social status and will be compatible with other efforts that encourage strengthening of institutions, including building of farmers organisations and FPOs. The Mission will also build upon the Eleventh Plan experience regarding conservation agriculture. 12.151. However, the main way in which NFSM will be extended during the Twelfth Plan is through greater emphasis on strategic-area development. The two programmes that were started as RKVY sub-components in the Eleventh Plan namely, the 60,000 pulses village programme and the intensive millets production programme will largely be shifted into NFSM. On another sub-component of RKVY—Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India (BGREI)—a view will be taken by DAC in consultation with States regarding format of its continuation during the Twelfth Plan. Also, some additional districts in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and the north-eastern region will be included to provide a specific thrust on foodgrains cultivation in hill areas. 12.152. Such restructuring of RKVY and NFSM will address the problem of bridging the existing large gap between potential and realised rice yields in eastern States and the challenge of increasing pulses production. Since BGREI allows components which are not part of NFSM, and since development of the eastern region requires significant investments in power and marketing infrastructure, the final design

of how to proceed on the relative contributions of RKVY and NFSM will need to be decided in consultation with the States. Also, since a counterpart of expanding rice production in eastern States is to reduce rice area and resulting groundwater stress in the North-West, a decision will have to be taken on what components of the latter effort should be stressed in NFSM/RKVY. 12.153. Preliminary targets under the NFSM for the Twelfth Plan are enhancing production by additional 25 million tonnes of foodgrains consisting of 10 million tonnes of rice, 10 million tonnes of wheat, 3 million tonnes of pulses and 2 million tonnes of millet. Also it aims to expand fodder production to meet the demand both of green and dry fodder. In all probability, the requirement of sufficient quantity of dual purpose feed and fodder will require raising this target to 30 million tonnes, with additional production of coarse cereals put at 7 million tonnes. All these targets are less than was actually achieved during the Eleventh Plan and are consistent with demand forecasts. This would amount to targeting 2–2.5 per cent increase in foodgrains production in the Twelfth Plan. 12.154. Another consequence of the expanded scope of NFSM will be to absorb the pulses and maize components presently in the Integrated Scheme for Oilseeds, Oil palm, Pulses and Maize Development. During Twelfth Five Year Plan, it is proposed to replace this scheme with a new Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm which will be launched with a preliminary target to increase the production of oilseeds by at least 4.5 per cent per annum, that is, the same rate of growth as actually achieved during the Eleventh Plan. The core of this Mission will therefore be to continue past efforts with a clearer focus on oilseeds. However, since production of oilseeds has not been able to match the increasing demand of edible oils, resulting in persistence of a huge gap between demand and production of edible oils in the country, the Mission will also aim to expand area under oil palm to realise the latent potential of the oil palm in the country. This part of the Mission will fully consider a proposal made recently by CACP and incorporate whatever is feasible.

Agriculture 43

12.155. The water resource potential of India is assessed as 186.9 million hectare meter, mostly from rainfall. With annual availability still more than utilisation and with its uneven spatial and temporal distribution leading to floods/droughts in some or other parts of the country every year, there is a strong demand to fully utilise this potential as soon as possible. The total States proposals on investment in Irrigation and Flood Control for the Twelfth plan add up to about `4,00,000 crore, which alone would amount to over the 4 per cent of cumulative GDP from agriculture and allied sectors being targeted as total public investment in this sector during the plan. Recognising both the criticality of irrigation for agricultural growth and the potential available, the Centre’s Twelfth plan gross budgetary support for development of water resources (including on AIBP) is being stepped up to `1,09,552 crore from the Eleventh plan actual expenditure of `41,427 crore. 12.156. However, the performance in respect of creation and utilisation of irrigation facilities during the Eleventh Five Year Plan was not satisfactory. The original Eleventh Five Year Plan target for creating irrigation potential was 16 million ha. This was subsequently revised to 9.5 million ha, which has been achieved. However, utilisation out of the created potential is expected to be only 2.7 million ha. The ever increasing gap between created potential and its utilisation is an issue that is a Twelfth Plan priority, steps to address which are discussed in another chapter. 12.157. In recent decades irrigation facilities have increasingly been created through exploitation of groundwater deployment. However, non-judicious exploitation of groundwater for irrigation purposes in India is already showing signs of crisis in many parts of country. Studies report that more than 26 cubic miles of groundwater has already disappeared from underground aquifers in large areas of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Delhi, between 2002 and 2008 (NASA 2009). Global Runoff Data Centre, University of Hampshire and International Earth

Science Information Networks have projected that around 30 per cent area of India falls in the extreme water scarce zone having less than 500 m3/person/ year supply of renewable fresh water. The information from the Central Ground Water Board reveals that situation has worsened in most of the states since 2004. The groundwater level has been declining annually by about 4 cm during the past decade, often resulting in drying of rivers and wetlands and contamination with arsenic, fluoride and other toxic substances. This requires effective regulatory framework and participatory watershed development, especially because groundwater extraction is often highly unfavourable to the small farmers who cannot keep investing to tap deeper aquifers. Apart from developing appropriate regulatory framework, and people’s participation, the need of water saving devices and crop planning cannot be overemphasised. Micro-irrigation coverage will be given priority both in irrigated and rain-fed areas, as part of comprehensive local planning.

(B) Watershed Development
12.158. Watershed development has long been one of the major channels directing public investment to natural resource base and production systems in rain-fed agriculture. From their earlier emphasis on soil and water conservation, the focus in case of watershed projects is shifting towards livelihood security and income generation. It is also now generally accepted that to be effective, the watershed development and soil conservation investments have to be complemented with farming systems investments in a watershed-plus framework that takes into account the diversity of rain-fed agriculture. 12.159. However, despite considerable emphasis on this in the Eleventh Plan design and development of common guidelines, actual performance in regard to watershed development was poor during the Eleventh Plan. The details of the Eleventh Plan had target and achievement may be seen in the Chapter on Water. Since all watershed development programmes have been transferred to the Department of Land Resources, the Ministry of Agriculture has to redefine its initiatives for rain-fed farming and sustainable agriculture.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

12.160. The National Rainfed Area Authority was constituted with the specific objective of integrating schemes/programmes and activities of various Departments of the Centre and the State Governments with regard to dryland farming as well as providing technical back stopping for watershed development in a comprehensive manner. The authority was expected to play a major role in training of the officials associated with the watershed development projects and also take a lead role in social mobilisation which is critical in the success of the watershed development programmes. It was also expected to take up studies for evaluation of the implementation of projects by the States. So far Departments both at the Central and State level has not taken much interest in associating NRAA either in evaluation of the programmes or for providing technical input for these. NRAA expertise will be better utilised during the Twelfth Plan.

integrated nutrient management, carbon sequestration, erosion control, saline and alkaline soils management, legislation for soil protection, development of remote sensing and GPS-based Decision Support System (DSS) and amelioration of polluted soil are required to rejuvenate deteriorated soils.

(D) Use of Fertilisers and Pesticides
12.163. Fertiliser consumption in the country has been increasing over the years and now India is the second largest consumer of fertilisers in the world, after China, consuming about 26.5 million tonnes of NPK. However, imbalanced nutrient use coupled with neglect of organic matter has resulted in multinutrient deficiencies in Indian soils. These deficiencies are becoming more critical for sulphur, zinc and boron. As nutrient additions do not keep pace with nutrient removal by crops, the fertility status of Indian soils has been declining rapidly under intensive agriculture and is now showing signs of fatigue, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Potassium is the most mined nutrient. Sulphur deficiencies are also showing up in all parts of the country especially in the southern region. In a comprehensive study carried out by ICAR through their Coordinated Research Project on Micronutrients, Toxic and Heavy metals, based on an analysis of 2,51,547 soil samples from different states, it was found that 48 per cent of these samples were deficient in zinc, 33 per cent in boron, 13 per cent in molybdenum, 12 per cent in iron, 5 per cent in manganese and 3 per cent in copper. The micronutrient deficiency is a limiting factor lowering fertiliser response and crop productivity. As a result of over-emphasis on chemical fertilisers and imbalanced fertiliser use, efficiencies have become abysmally low: hardly 35 per cent for N, 15–20 per cent for P and only 3–5 per cent for micronutrients like zinc, resulting not only in high cost of production but also causing serious environmental hazards. At this rate, the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences has estimated that for meeting the food needs of the country by 2025, India may have to increase NPK supply to over 45 million tonnes from the current level of 26.5 million tonnes and of organic manures from 4 to 6 million tonnes. The Twelfth Plan envisages NPK demand at 34–36 million tonnes by 2016–17, but the more important

(C) Land and Soil Health Management
12.161. Land is the prime natural resource of which 140.02 million hectares are net sown area. Since 1990–91 there is gradual but sustained decrease in net sown area from 143 million hectare to 140 million hectares with corresponding increase in fallow land. The demand from non-agricultural uses like industrial and urban requirement as well as speculative demand on account of rising land value is putting pressure on availability of land for agricultural use. There is an urgent need for State Governments to lay out clear policies to protect productive agricultural land and provide specific guidelines on preservation of commons and their protection. There are also other important institutional and policy issues concerning land: proper recording of land titles, easing tenancy rigidities, computerisation of land records as well as addressing declining size of holdings. 12.162. An important aspect of land is its degradation in terms of mechanical, chemical and biological. Widespread and continuing erosion of country’s natural resource base is threatening the sustenance of agriculture sector’s growth rate. Over 120 million ha have been declared degraded or problem soils (NAAS 2010). Conservation agriculture (CA),

Agriculture 45

priority should be to give much greater emphasis than hitherto on fertiliser use efficiency and soil health. 12.164. Restoration of soil health requires initiatives for continuous monitoring of soil health, measures to arrest decline of soil health, creating adequate facilities for soil testing, fertilisers testing, developing and upgrading testing protocols, ensuring judicious and efficient use of fertilisers and pesticides. Judicious use of fertiliser requires adequate soil testing facilities. By 2010–11 there were 1,049 soil tests labs in the country with a soil analysis capacity of 106 lakh soil samples per annum. The State Governments have issued 40.8 million soil health cards to the farmers by October 2011. Although a massive achievement in fairly short time, this remains far below the requirement of soil testing capacity. To augment the capacity the State Governments need to utilise resources from Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana and also engage State Agricultural Universities, Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee and other institutions. There is need for widespread awareness creation for soil-test–based fertiliser use by involving State Agricultural Universities and KVKs and NGO and other stakeholders. 12.165. Measures to soil health improvement need to be comprehensively centred on addition of soil organic matter in substantial quantities over time. The efforts for production and use of available biological sources of nutrients like bio-fertilisers, organic manure, bio-compost for sustained soil health and fertility and improving soil organic carbon and so on as alternative inputs have been inadequate so far. For promotion of these inputs in conjunctive use with chemical fertlisers, and to promote organic farming we need to formulate and define standards for unregulated organic and biological inputs and bring them under quality control mechanism and define/ upgrade standards and testing protocols. 12.166. Similarly, use and availability of safe and efficacious pesticides and their judicious use by the farming community is critical to a sustained increase in agricultural production and productivity. Quality of pesticides is monitored by the Central

and State insecticide inspectors who draw samples of insecticides from the market for analysis in the 68 State Pesticide Testing Laboratories (SPTLs) that have a total annual capacity of 68,110 samples in 23 States and one Union Territory. However, sale of low quality/spurious pesticides by dealers is widespread and is an issue that States need to handle with seriousness. Further, since use of synthetic pesticides needs to be confined to target control in the right quantity and at the right time, presence of pesticides residue in food commodities is becoming a serious food safety matter. DAC implements a scheme for monitoring pesticide residues and sharing outcomes of the sample analysis with State Governments as well as advising States to take necessary action including promotion of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach, which emphasises a safe and judicious use of pesticides. Many NGOs, however, represent that sporadic promotion of IPM is not helping in establishment of sustainable agriculture practices and that Non-Pesticidal Management (NPM) of pests is the only sustainable answer.

12.167. A major new mission that will be launched during the Twelfth Plan is the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA). Conceived originally as part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), this aims at transforming Indian Agriculture into a climate-resilient production system through adoption and mitigation of appropriate measures in the domains of both crops and animal husbandry. Since a number activities relating to sustainable agriculture are already parts of other proposed missions, NMSA as programmatic intervention, will primarily focus on synergising resource conservation, improved farm practices and integrated farming for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rain-fed areas. Key deliverables under this mission will be developing rain-fed agriculture, natural resource management, enhancing water and nutrient use efficiency, improving soil health and promoting conservation agriculture.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

12.168. Nonetheless, since sustaining agricultural productivity through climate and other challenges to the natural resources base is the focus of this mission, it will have to go beyond its programmatic interventions to bring mind-set changes required in transiting from the past focus on irrigated, chemical intensive agriculture. The recent ICAR network project on National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) provides some insights on requirements of adaptation. NMSA can collaborate with ICAR on specific matters regarding adaptation to climate change. The key to this is a paradigm shift that moves towards a knowledge-based, farmer centric and institutionally supported system where the Government is prime mover and facilitator to demonstrate at scale the overall strength and impact of rain-fed agriculture packages that have slowly emerged through several years of grass-roots work by Government and civil society organisations and have shown the strength of combining water and other interventions at a micro-level. The starting point of NMSA must be an accurate assessment of the natural resource, comprising water, land, climate and biodiversity, which determine the opportunities for livelihoods of the people.

use efficiency of applied water. This shift calls for two major focal areas: a. Promote measures for in-situ conservation and efficient use of rainwater b. Invest in shared and protective/supportive irrigation 2. Harness the inclusive growth potential in the so far untapped Agronomic and Management Innovations that are aligned to enhancing sustainability of natural resources, reducing costs, increasing efficiency of resource use and improving total factor productivity. System of Rice Intensification and non-pesticidal management (NPM) of pests as mentioned in the Approach Paper and options evolving in conservation agriculture are some examples. 3. Strengthen the extensive livestock systems depending wholly or partly on commons and agriculture residues through intensive efforts in improving health care, feed, fodder, drinking water, shelter, institutions and so on. The domain of public policy and intervention must shift to these from the present almost exclusive focus on high yielding breeds. 4. Invest in decentralised and local institutional capacities that enable a shift away from onetime Planning to ‘iterative Planning—implementation—learning cycles’ anchored by local institutions. 5. Enhance institutional capacities in local governance and resource management, particularly related to Commons and strengthen Panchayat Raj, cooperatives and other stakeholder institutions. Such institutional base is a prerequisite for evolving location and agro-ecology specific mechanisms of programme designing, credit access, filling in infrastructure gaps, marketing and so on. 12.170. The specific recommendations of this working group, including the setting up of a National programme on rain-fed farming, could be another component of NMSA, financed by resources currently expended under the scheme of Macromanagement in agriculture which housed the

(E) Design of NMSA
12.169. While the decision to launch the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is quite historical, there are design issues both in view of the fact that the Ministry of Agriculture no longer has a watershed development component in its programmes and because there are strong differences on the matter of fertiliser and pesticides use. While the current National Mission on Micro-Irrigation, the National Project on Management of Soil Health and Fertility and the Rainfed Areas Development Programme (RADP) window in RKVY can be merged with NMSA, none of these address fully the issues that have been raised by the Twelfth Plan Working Group on Natural Resources Management and Rainfed Farming. Its main recommendation is to observe the following: 1. Focus on stabilising and securing diverse cropping by bringing a focus on ‘Rainfall Use Efficiency’ as central to policy as against mere

Agriculture 47

watershed development schemes of DAC and will now have to be wound up. This component could mainstream the learning that has emerged from the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) along with ICAR’s National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA).

programmes for development of agriculture and allied sectors. The Ministry is likely to realise 88 per cent of the outlay at current prices. A noticeable feature is that RKVY, which was initiated in 2007–08, accounted for 38 per cent of MoA’s total plan expenditure in 2011–12(RE). 12.173. DAC with utilisation of around 94 per cent of projected outlay for Eleventh Plan at current prices has shown a better performance. The NHM fell short of targets mainly on account of below par performance in grounding the Terminal Market Complexes. The NFSM and horticultural programmes except NHM have achieved the envisaged financial targets and expenditure on agricultural insurance exceeded the Eleventh Plan projection because of demands arising from the drought of 2009. DAHDF incurred major shortfall in the Plan expenditure. One of the reasons for this was the attempt to introduce a large number of schemes with small outlays during Eleventh Plan which faced problems in their conceptualisation, formulation and approval at various stages. Inadequate staff in the State implementing Departments and resulting limitations on absorption capacity of the States to implement the programmes has also been responsible for the shortfall. Both DAC and DAHDF also transferred increasing amounts through State/ District level autonomous bodies, which will need to be avoided in future since this limits the capacity of States to plan comprehensively for agriculture development. Plan realisation is expected to be around 77 per cent in the case of DARE.

PLAN FINANCING Expenditure on Agriculture and Allied Sectors
12.171. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, a combined Plan outlay of `1,36,381 crore (at 2006–07 prices) by the Centre, States and UTs was envisaged for the agriculture and allied sectors. The realisation is estimated to be `1,30,076 crore at 2006–07 prices, that is, 95 per cent of projected Plan. The priority to agriculture and allied sectors in allocation of resources in the combined Plan of Centre, States and UTs has been around 5.6 per cent in the Eleventh Plan, an improvement over 3.6 per cent during the Tenth Plan. At present about 50 per cent of the agriculture and allied sectors plan in the country is being financed by the Centre, including expenditure on Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).

12.172. Table 12.11 gives the outlay and expenditures of the MoA and its three departments, DAC, DAHDF) and Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), which implement plans and

TABLE 12.11 Outlays and Expenditure of MoA and Its Three Departments (DAC, DAHDF and DARE) DAC Eleventh Plan proposed (Current Prices) 2007–08 Actual 2008–09 Actual 2009–10 Actual 2010–11 Actual 2011–12(RE) Total Eleventh Plan Actual % utilisation during Eleventh Plan 41,337 5,769 6,545 6,827 10,208 8,654 38,003 92 DAHDF 8,174 782 865 871 1,096 1,357 4,970 61 DARE 12,588 1,280 1,630 1,707 2,522 2,850 9,989 79 RKVY 25,000 1,247 2,887 3,761 6,720 7,811 22,426 90 WDPSCA 240 40 39 40 40 50 209 87 Total 87,339 9,118 11,966 13,206 20,585 20,722 75,597 87


Twelfth Five Year Plan

12.174. The National Development Council (NDC), in its meeting held on 29 May 2007 resolved to initiate a special Additional Central Assistance Scheme viz. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). The purpose behind this programme was to encourage States to draw up District and State agricultural plans and also increase their own spending on the sector so as to reorient agricultural development strategies for rejuvenating Indian agriculture during the Eleventh Plan (2007–12). RKVY is preferred by States for its inbuilt flexibility in selecting interventions and setting State specific targets. 12.175. One objective of RKVY during the Eleventh Five Year Plan was incentivising States to increase expenditure on agriculture and allied sectors. State plan expenditures (excluding RKVY receipts) as percentage of GDP in agricultural and allied increased from 1.0 per cent in the Tenth Plan to 1.4 per cent in the Eleventh Plan. State plan expenditures on agriculture and allied sectors (excluding RKVY) have also increased as percentage total plan spending by States, from about 5 per cent during the Tenth Plan to over 6 per cent during the Eleventh Plan. RKVY was therefore successful in motivating States to pay greater attention to agriculture, besides providing increased Central assistance for the sector. 12.176. RKVY as assistance was particularly useful for the funds-starved animal husbandry, dairying and fisheries sectors. Projects amounting to over `5,000 crore were sanctioned under RKVY for these sectors during the Eleventh Plan, about 20 per cent of the total sanctioned RKVY projects, and more than spending on DAHDF’s schemes. This has provided a substantial push to these sectors which account for a significant contribution to the agricultural GDP. 12.177. However, preparation of Comprehensive District Agriculture Plans (C-DAPs) has been a weak area in many states, partly due to lack of capacity at District/State level. Although there are reservations regarding quality and effective capability of district level planning and project design, this was an original NDC intention and must be fully implemented during the Twelfth Plan. At least 25 per cent of projects sanctioned by SLSCs should originate from

the district level, preferably approved by District Planning Committees. For the purpose, suitable units will have to be formed involving ATMA/KVK/ SAU and any other technical support unit that States may specify. As mentioned earlier, it is necessary to see decentralised planning as an iterative planning— doing—learning—planning cycle rather than simply a one-time activity. The challenge is to institutionalise this process and ensure that the agency facilitating planning is also accountable for the outcome. 12.178. Further, while there is very strong anecdotal evidence of the early success of RKVY, a detailed impact assessment of the scheme is needed for further experience and learning. Moreover, two modifications are desirable in the present practice. First, there should be a proper committee to examine and vet all projects proposed to the SLSC. Second, that at least this vetting committee or even the SLSC work closely with, and preferably be coterminous with, State level bodies that select MoRD projects, particularly for watershed development. This would permit better convergence and better project selection. 12.179. Many States have requested changes in the allocation criteria of RKVY and some have objected to opening of new windows within the RKVY. A decision has been taken that no more than 20 per cent of RKVY funding will be in such windows of national importance. A decision has also been taken that at least 40 per cent of RKVY spending should be on hard infrastructure spending. A meeting of all States will be held to discuss proposals for changes in allocation criteria. 12.180. Finally, future RKVY design needs to be seen in the context of many pending key reforms. Despite efforts by the Central Government, progress in agricultural marketing, extension and cooperative reforms continue to be sluggish. Delivery of services has not been efficient due to lack of staff at various levels. State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) need greater funding support from the State Governments. Inadequacy of agricultural infrastructure hampers achievement of growth potential of the agriculture sector. During the Twelfth Plan RKVY will need to be reoriented to facilitate such market reforms, higher expenditure on SAUs and for infrastructure

Agriculture 49

development, besides emphasising effective formulation and implementation of District Agriculture Plans. These could be incorporated by changing the current eligibility conditions and allocation formula for RKVY. The proposed meeting of all States as mentioned above will need to be held before these changes in RKVY are proposed to Cabinet.

existing methodology for generation of fishery statistics needs fine tuning. 12.184. For ascertaining the reliability of land use statistics in the context of diversion of agriculture land to other uses for residential, industrial, urbanisation, roads and so on, there is a need for conducting a study for checking the land records through khasra registers/other records of those villages where the area have come under diversion of agriculture land to non-agriculture uses particularly in the vicinity of the metropolitan cities. 12.185. Pilot studies need to be undertaken for perfecting remote sensing techniques and GIS/GPS tools to develop reliable estimates of area under agro-forestry area under crop production, land-use planning, land development and precision farming and so on. 12.186. All in all, the Twelfth Plan objective is to continue with the decentralisation thrust of RKVY, while reducing number of Centrally Sponsored Schemes. As discussed in relevant sections above, this vision on decentralisation could extend to fertiliser and food subsidies also. While doing this, the main Twelfth plan foci are: • Bringing scale through development of Farmer Producer Organisations • Emphasising technology, both on the research and development sides • Stressing standards and protocols and standard operating procedures in every scheme • Improving statistics and evaluation • Initiating a shift towards sustainable and climateresilient agriculture, not only through NMSA but more generally by laying emphasis on rain-fed areas and bringing about shifts of water-intensive rice cultivation from water-stressed North-West India to Eastern India. • Preparing for faster growth through a more diversified agriculture, with investment in the necessary modern infrastructure required for perishable products. 12.187. As shown in Table 12.13, States have indicated that they will more than double their plan

12.181. Statistics are the hard input into planning. There are numerous gaps in agricultural statistics hampering the agricultural development planning some of which include reliable and timely availability of forecasts of agricultural crops especially foodgrains, reliable statistics for small areas like blocks and Panchayats, estimates of agricultural production losses due to pests, diseases, floods and drought, good estimates of production of minor crops including spices, condiments, medicinal plants, floriculture and so on, estimates of requirement of foodgrains for seed, feed and industrial use, harvest and post-harvest losses in agricultural production and estimates of meat production. Further, the available estimates generated through sample surveys suffer from organisational and operational problems bringing in inconsistency in these surveys. 12.182. The Vaidyanathan Committee has recommended setting up a National Centre for Crop Statistics, independent of the present system, for providing reliable quick estimates at the National and State level. This should have high priority since not only are there strong doubts about quality of present data among experts, the large increase in number of crop-cutting experiments for insurance purposes may further vitiate the system. An independent source of high-quality data is vital for improving the quality of agricultural statistics in India. 12.183. The existing database relating to horticulture sector needs to be strengthened as mentioned earlier in the horticulture section. Cost of production data for animal husbandry products also needs improvement. Development of appropriate methodology for estimation of feed consumed by livestock will help in updating ratios currently used by the National Accounts Division. Similarly, the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

expenditure on agriculture and allied sectors from `1,11,824 crore during the Eleventh plan to `2,26,500 crore during the Twelfth Plan. The Centre shall also more than double its plan expenditure. The allocation for RKVY is being raised to `63,246 crore for the Twelfth Plan from actual expenditure of `22,426

during the Eleventh Plan. The indicative Twelfth Plan Gross Budgetary Support (GBS) for all other schemes of the MoA is `1,11,232 crore. This is against corresponding the Eleventh Plan actual expenditure of `53,171 crore. Refer to Table 12.12 for department-wise break-up, excluding RKVY:

TABLE 12.12 Gross Budgetary Support (Department-wise) Department Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) Department of Agriculture and Research Education (DARE) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) Gross Budgetary Support (GBS) (` Crore) 71,500 25,553 14,179

TABLE 12.13 Comparison of States Outlay and Expenditure for Eleventh and Twelfth Plan (` in crore at current prices) Name of Sate Eleventh Plan Outlay Agriculture and Allied Sector Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Orissa Nagaland Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Total States 3,487.44 752 877.86 3,672.73 4,613 211.76 9,092.94 1,638.82 1,470.08 1,818.21 3,130.53 8,426.85 2,649.11 3,408.18 9,507.64 386.55 735.52 536.31 1,230.29 434.31 1,309.13 2,919.07 260.43 7,831.57 798.51 19,146.37 2,478.5 1,846.50 94,670.21 % of Total Plan 2.4 9.5 2.1 4.8 8.6 2.5 0.7 4.7 10.7 7.0 7.8 8.3 7.8 4.8 5.9 4.7 8.0 9.6 3.8 8.3 4.5 4.1 6.9 9.2 9.0 10.6 8.4 2.9 3.6 Eleventh Plan Expenditure Agriculture and Allied Sector 9,510.46 617.71 2,335.56 4,805.33 5,637 325.39 8,879.8 2,733.02 1,642.82 892.98 2,319.85 10,484.4 2,931.54 6,057.09 10,636.4 234.04 845.2 387.86 3,580.37 725.08 1,410.77 5,990.67 228.27 8,170.01 858.79 14,164.8 2,079.25 3,339.26 1,11,824 % of Total Plan 6.0 5.7 7.8 6.3 12.7 3.6 6.9 5.7 12.1 3.5 5.9 7.7 7.6 7.3 7.3 3.2 9.8 7.1 8.2 11.3 4.0 6.2 6.4 8.8 11.3 7.8 10.0 5.1 7.2 Twelfth Plan Outlay Agriculture and Allied Sector 17,138 1,114 3,272 15,613 8,284 1,046 19,712 6,288 2,174 2,843 4,157 19,824 8,831 17,076 19,325 643 2,114 346 8,387 1,795 1,524 7,255 469 20,680 980 24,354 2,673 8,583 2,26,500 % of Total Plan 5.0 5.3 5.9 6.0 6.9 3.9 7.8 5.4 9.7 9.7 3.8 8.9 11.5 8.5 7.03 3.1 10.7 2.8 7.4 13.8 2.9 5.6 4.1 10.0 6.8 8.5 5.9 5.5 7.1 Increase in Twelfth Plan over Eleventh Plan Expdr. (%) 80 80 40 225 47 221 122 130 32 218 79 89 201 182 82 175 150 134 148 8 21 106 153 14 72 29 157 103

13.1. India has become one of the fastest growing economies in the world over the last two decades, undoubtedly aided in this performance by economic reforms. The striking aspect of India’s recent growth has been the dynamism of the service sector, while, in contrast, manufacturing has been much less robust, contrary to the experience in other emerging market countries, where manufacturing has grown much faster than GDP; this has not happened in India. Consequently, manufacturing sector’s contribution to the GDP has stagnated at 16 per cent, raising questions about India’s development strategy, especially its implications for generating adequate employment. Additionally, employment in manufacturing declined in absolute terms from 55mn to 50mn between 2004 and 2005 and 2009–10, after having grown by 25 per cent between 1999 and 2000 (44mn) to 2004–05 (55mn). 13.2. The Eleventh Plan period was marked by unfavourable global economic conditions brought on by the financial sector crisis of 2007–09 followed by the risks of sovereign debt crisis mid-2011 onwards. While this led to slackening demand, exchange-rate volatility and economic uncertainty, domestic difficulties such as poor implementation and delayed reforms also slowed the growth of the Indian manufacturing sector. The year 2009–10 witnessed a fleeting return of manufacturing buoyancy largely on account of a few sectors such as the automotive sector along with a revival in cotton textiles, leather and food products. This brief spurt, however, has now moderated. The net result is that the share of the manufacturing sector in the country’s GDP continued to be stagnant, a trend now observed for nearly three decades and remained relatively lower than other emerging and developed economies (refer to Figure 13.1). 13.3. Further, India was not able to fully leverage the opportunities provided by the dynamics of globalisation that resulted in a dramatic shift of manufacturing to developing countries over the last decade. The increasing gap in both, the sectoral share of manufacturing and the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector in India, compared with countries, such as China, is testimony of that (Figure 13.2). 13.4. This shift of manufacturing capacities from developed nations to rapidly developing economies (RDEs) is likely to continue. It is estimated that by 2025 RDE production will account for over 55 per cent of global production compared to 36 per cent presently. Hence, India’s ability to capitalise on this by capturing a disproportionate share of such a shift in global economic setting through an accelerated growth rate will be imperative.

13.5. The manufacturing sector averaged a growth of 7.7 per cent (till 2009–10) during the Eleventh Plan (refer to Table 13.1). Growth peaked at 14.3 per cent in 2007–08 and then started decelerating. The decline in manufacturing growth was primarily responsible for the slowdown in GDP in 2011–12.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Manufacturing needs to grow at higher than GDP growth to capture better share of GDP Manufacturing GDP Growth for most Countries higher than GDP Growth Growth rate for ‘99–’09 China India Poland Malaysia Russia Thailand Egypt Hungary South Korea Turkey Brazil Argentina Germany Japan 0% x% 6.8% 6.7% 6.7% 6.6% 6.6% 5.4% 5.0% 4.4% 3.9% 2.7% 2.2% 0.8% 0.6% 3% 6% 9% 10.3% 9.9% 7.0% 3.9% 4.8% 5.3% 4.0% 4.9% 2.5% 4.9% 3.6% 3.3% 3.3% Share of manufacturing GDP in India is low at ~15% when compared to other economies Share of mfg. GDP Thailand 36% 31% South Korea 30% China 26% Malaysia 23% Hungary 21% Germany 21% Argentina 19% Japan 18% Poland 18% Turkey 16% Russia 16% Brazil 16% (0.8)% Egypt 15% (1.3)% India 12% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

GDP growth rate for 1999–2009 FIGURE 13.1: Contribution of Manufacturing to GDP Very Low in India Manufacturing Gross Value Added ($bn)

Source: Economic intelligence Unit, Data Monitor, Euro-monitor, World Bank Work Development Indicators, BCG analysis.

2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0


1,856 1,084 614 308 282 279 268 231 226 209 179 176 170





az il



M ex ico

an y

ss ia

Ja pa

an c





ne do
25 20 13









Global Rank

1990 2000 2010

8 3 1

1 1 2

2 2 3

3 3 4

4 6 5

12 12 6

13 8 7

7 7 8

6 5 9

16 13 10

9 16 11

14 9 12


10 11 14 2.2% India

Manufacturing Output as % of World Total 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%


18.9% 10.7% 6.0%

2.3% UK USA China 1970 1980 Japan 1990

3.0% Italy 2010

2.6% France

Germany 2000

Source: UN National Accounts Main Aggregates Database. FIGURE 13.2: India and Global Manufacturing States








Industry 53

Initial deceleration in industrial growth was largely on account of the global economic meltdown. Fragile economic recovery in US and European countries, and subdued business sentiments affected the growth of the manufacturing sector. Rising interest rates and appreciation of the rupee during the Eleventh Plan period also contributed to this slow down. It is significant to note though, that volatility of manufacturing growth has become more pronounced over the last five years. An important implication of this is the need for greater flexibility both in policy and non-policy factors which have a bearing on the manufacturing sector.

industry comprising mining, manufacturing, electricity and construction averaged 10.9 per cent during 2004–11, almost the same as the rate of growth of GCF in the economy as a whole. For manufacturing to grow faster than other sectors in the economy, rate of GCF in manufacturing will have to be higher.

13.7. Employment in manufacturing increased from 44 million to nearly 56 million between 2000–01 and 2004–05. However, employment in manufacturing reduced by 5 million between 2004–05 and 2009–10 (Table 13.3). The net increase in employment over the decade 2000–01 to 2009–10 was around 6 million, that is, a 13 per cent increase over 10 years. Manufacturing in India contributes to only ~11 per cent of total employment. This compares unfavourably to other emerging economies where the share of employment in manufacturing range from 15 per cent to 30 per cent.

13.6. Investment and capacity additions are critical for sustained industrial growth. National accounts data clearly indicate a moderation in the growth of gross capital formation (GCF) in industry (Table 13.2). The rate of growth of GCF in four broad sectors of

TABLE 13.1 Rate of Growth of GDP at Factor Cost at 2004–05 Prices (Per cent) 2007–08 Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industry Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, Gas and Water Supply Construction Services GDP at Factor Cost Source: CSO. TABLE 13.2 GCF in Industry (` Crore at 2004–05 Prices) 2004–05 Mining Manufacturing Construction Total Industry Share of GCF in Industry as % to Total GCF 37,322 3,44,517 54,445 4,89,584 48.4 2005–06 52,259 4,04,928 57,531 5,79,391 49 2006–07 60,456 4,74,405 95,799 7,07,029 51.8 2007–08 68,372 6,11,928 1,15,157 8,81,464 54.9 2008–09 57,045 4,20,506 88,523 6,65,067 42.5 2009–10 65,984 5,98,445 86,290 8,52,999 49.6 2010–11 70,389 6,40,982 98,426 9,13,051 48.3 CAGR (Eleventh Plan*) 3.9% 7.8% 0.68% 6.6% 5.8 9.7 3.7 10.3 8.3 10.8 10.3 9.3 2008–09 0.1 4.4 2.1 4.3 4.6 5.3 10 6.7 2009–10PE 1 8.4 6.3 9.7 6.3 7 10.5 8.4 2010–11 QE 7 7.2 5 7.6 3 8 9.3 8.4 2011–12 AE 2.5 3.9 –2.2 3.9 8.3 4.8 9.4 6.9

Source: Economic Survey 2011–12; *CAGR has been calculated for a period of four years.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 13.3 Employment by Sector (in Millions) Sectors Agriculture Manufacturing Mining Electricity, Gas and Water Supply Construction Services Total 1999–2000 237.67 44.05 2.17 1.13 17.54 94.2 396.76 2004–05 258.93 55.77 2.64 1.3 26.02 112.81 457.46 2009–10 244.85 50.74 2.95 1.25 44.04 116.34 460.22



4. 5.

Source: Planning Commission.

to contribute at least 25 per cent of the national GDP by 2025. Increase the rate of job creation in manufacturing to create 100 million additional jobs by 2025. Emphasis should be given to creation of appropriate skill sets among the rural migrant and urban poor to make growth inclusive. Increase ‘depth’ in manufacturing, with focus on the level of domestic value addition, to address the national strategic requirements. Enhance global competitiveness of Indian manufacturing through appropriate policy support. Ensure sustainability of growth, particularly with regard to the environment.

13.8. One hundred and eighty-three million additional income seekers are expected to join the workforce over the next 15 years. Agriculture cannot be expected to provide more jobs. Manufacturing must provide a large portion of the additional employment opportunities required for India’s increasing number of job seekers. Unless manufacturing becomes an engine of growth, providing at least 70 million additional jobs, it will be difficult for India’s growth to be inclusive. Since the pattern of development of the manufacturing sector so far has not delivered the desired growth in output and employment, a change in strategy is required. This Plan is a description of the strategy, and the process for its implementation, without which the national objectives cannot be achieved.

13.10. The Eleventh Five Year Plan as well as Plans that preceded it aimed at establishing a strong manufacturing sector but this has not happened. This suggests that a radical change in the policy approach is needed. 13.11. Comparison with the performance of other countries shows that the countries that managed to catch up with the earlier industrialised, high-income countries were the ones whose governments proactively promoted structural change. Industrial policy, and with a special focus on manufacturing, is back on the national agendas of many countries and we need to consider what lesson we can draw given our particular circumstances. In other words, the critical question now is not whether there should be an industrial policy but what should be the architecture of the industrial policy. 13.12. Industrial policies, where they have succeeded, have generally not been an outcome of Centrally planned economies but of economies that have had the active involvement of private enterprises and other non-governmental stakeholders. Successful strategies evolve from ongoing productive interactions between government and producers. Therefore, the government must improve the process of interaction, collaboration and learning amongst producers and itself. This is very different from the paradigm of Indian industrial policy

13.9. In order to create a paradigm shift in the manufacturing sector, it is essential to consider the objectives over a longer timeframe, such as 15 years. The National Manufacturing Policy, which was introduced in 2011, states these objectives and these are the underlying objectives that the Plan aims to achieve as well. These objectives are: 1. Increase manufacturing sector growth to 12–14 per cent over the medium term to make it the engine of growth for the economy. The 2 to 4 per cent differential over the medium term growth rate of the overall economy will enable manufacturing

Industry 55

prior to India’s economic reforms commencing in the 1980s. In that era, industrial planning was a topdown control activity with Government determining who should produce what, where and how much and also what technology they should use. The roadmap for the Twelfth Plan and beyond can definitely not be a return to this type of planning.

stories, whether we think of Japan or Korea or, more recently, China. In planning a strategy for rapid growth of industry in India we need to learn from these success stories and apply them suitably to our circumstances.
Paradigms of Industrial Policy 13.14. Countries that have succeeded in growing the competitiveness and scale of their manufacturing sectors have adopted different policy approaches. However, a common element in their approaches has been a close coordination between producers and government policymakers, with Governments playing an active role in providing incentives for domestic industrial growth and in relieving constraints on industrial competitiveness. The process by which this coordination has been achieved has differed according to the political structure of each country’s economy (Figure 13.3). In Japan the coordination between Government and industry (and within Government) was very successfully orchestrated by MITI in partnership with Japanese industrial associations. In South Korea, the Chaebol and the Government collaborated to create world-class and world-scale winners. In Singapore, the Government identified industries to be developed and created ecosystems (skilled human resources, tax regime, Government incentives and so on) to support growth of competitive enterprises in the country. In China,

Nature of Industrial Policy
The Question of ‘Industrial Policy’ 13.13. The Government of India needs a strategy to accelerate the growth of the country’s manufacturing and industrial sectors to meet the goals and obtain the outcomes mentioned. The concept of ‘industrial policy’ has varied across countries and also over time. In India, industrial policy becomes assaulted under a stifling system of bureaucratic controls through licenses and quotas for industrial production. There is no doubt that these controls were highly dysfunctional and needed to be dismantled but the mere removal of these controls and reliance on markets alone was not sufficient. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ascendancy of Western free-market approaches to economic growth which was fashionable for a time in the 1990s implied abandonment of any concept of ‘industrial policy’ altogether. However, this is not the recipe which delivered rapid industrial growth for many of the post-war success

Ineffective Models Centrally Planned Economy Input–output matrix with control of investments and outputs. The Indian approach prior to the mid 1980s Picking Winners Big bets on national champions and technologies No Industrial Policy Leaving it completely to the ‘market’

Rethinking ‘Industrial Policy’ and Our Approach The three ‘rails’ of manufacturing policy Stakeholder involvement Implementation Learning FIGURE 13.3: New Approach to Industrial Policy A national ecosystem that facilitates competitive abilities of enterprises


Twelfth Five Year Plan

the large State Owned Enterprise (SOE) sector has enabled the Chinese Government to adopt a very muscular ‘industrial policy’. Along with preferential treatment to domestic companies, large investments in technology development/acquisition, massive investments in infrastructure and restraints on its exchange rate, China’s industrial policy has been remarkably successful. Germany’s manufacturing sector remains very successful in spite of high labour costs and a strong currency because collaboration between stakeholders in the German industrial system is deeply embedded in policymaking processes and also within industrial enterprises. 13.15. A deeper analysis of such successes (Japan, Korea, China and Germany) of ‘industrial policy’ and also of its failures (India, the Soviet Union and some instances in Latin America) reveals the essence of successful industrial policy. Firstly, ‘industrial policy’ is a web of ongoing changes that facilitates the growth of a competitive industrial/manufacturing ecosystem in the country. Secondly, Governments have a key role in facilitating the process of learning and collaboration between producers and policymakers. Thirdly, and this is key, it is the quality of this process of collaboration and the speed of learning and execution in the system that enables the system to improve its competitiveness faster than other countries’ systems. Government policymakers must have the skills and orientation to facilitate and coordinate, rather than to control. Industrial policy will not produce a competitive manufacturing ecosystem if the orientation of the Government and its functionaries is to control and micro-manage. It will also fail if Government and its functionaries do not master the skills and build institutional capabilities for better coordination within Government, smoother collaboration with industry (which must be organised in line with the industrial–political economy of the country, as mentioned before) and, above all, faster learning. 13.16. The paradigm we must adopt is to build an ecosystem for rapid learning and capability building, which will encourage entrepreneurship and support innovation, and which will provide the system-wide processes to support collaboration and build stronger

value chains with depth. This paradigm requires a change in the mindset of Government functionaries from being ‘controllers’ to ‘facilitators’, from ‘resource allocators’ to ‘knowledge managers’ and from ‘scheme managers’ to ‘continuous learners’.

Essential Features of a Manufacturing Ecosystem that Learns
13.17. A dynamic manufacturing ecosystem has three features that enable it to learn and grow. 1. Firstly, it must have depth (value addition) in manufacturing processes. A manufacturing sector, no matter how large, that is composed mostly of low value addition assembly industries, cannot create new technological capabilities. It may compete on low costs on account of scale and low labour costs, but it can easily lose these advantages to other countries which have even lower labour costs. Also, merely having R&D capabilities, without the wherewithal around them to convert ideas into manufactured products will not enable the growth of manufacturing industries. 2. Second, it must combine four capabilities: human skills, embodied technology in hardware, knowledge (intellectual property) and a large and demanding customer base. All four components grow together to create a productive and competitive industry. 3. Third, it must have a range of different sized firms, especially small and medium sized ones. Small firms provide the first stages for skill development. They take up larger numbers of people into the industrial workforce with less capital investment, and they provide nurseries for experimentation too. Some of these small firms can grow into specialised, internationally competitive, medium sized firms. Such firms are the backbone of the German industry, and also the strength of India’s internationally recognised automotive component, pharmaceutical and IT sectors. 13.18. Firms operating in such an ecosystem would be able to flourish in an open competitive global economy. While there is a case for special support for strategically chosen industries for a limited

Industry 57

period, the only way the industry can demonstrate competitiveness is to be able to export to global markets within a defined period. 13.19. In addition to the three features described above, there are five processes that enable the ecosystem to learn. • Firstly, learning is accelerated through the interaction of the diverse components of the system: R&D with producers, both with customers, producers with institutes for skill development, and interactions amongst adjacent sectors and technologies that spur new combinations and innovations. Thus complexity breeds further technological development and growth. This requirement translates into the strategies for building clusters, and linking research and development institutes with producers. • Second is the process of Innovation. Innovation can be spurred by several enablers that create ‘safe-failing’ spaces for experimentation. These enablers include early stage risk capital, incubators and quick exit/bankruptcy laws. Analysis reveals that the Indian industrial ecosystem has inadequate support systems for experimentation and innovation. • Third is a regime of Standards. Standards are an embodied learning of the ecosystem. They enable firms, small ones in particular, with a base of knowledge, and also act as means to reduce transaction costs with their customers and suppliers, domestically and globally. • Fourth is an IP regime. Like Standards, a good IP regime provides a base of knowledge for researchers and producers to develop upon further without having to reinvent the wheel. An IP regime also provides incentives for taking risks by assuring rewards. • The fifth category of processes that enable systemwide learning and continuing improvement are a class of processes such as total quality management, total productive maintenance, business excellence and so on. In fact, such processes have been the foundations for the rapid, country-wide growth of productivity and competitiveness of the Japanese and Korean industry. The power of

such processes has been realised by some sectors of Indian industry too, such as the auto industry, steel industry and so on.

The Architecture of a Strategy to Accelerate Growth of Manufacturing
13.20. Manufacturing enterprises, unlike IT and financial services enterprises, involve the production and movement of material goods. They, therefore, require good physical infrastructure to be competitive and this means improving transportation, uninterrupted power and adequate land to build. Moreover, the materiality of manufacturing activities also results in more regulations—of safety, pollution, factory inspections, labour conditions—and hence a more complex administration structure too. The quality and efficiency of the physical and administrative infrastructure is a basic requirement for productive manufacturing enterprises. This is a major weakness in India at present. The thrust in Government’s New Manufacturing Policy (2011) to create good infrastructure for manufacturing enterprises along transportation corridors is, therefore, overdue. 13.21. Good physical infrastructure and smoothly functioning administrative infrastructure are threshold requirements for Twenty-first century manufacturing enterprises to compete in the international arena. However, these will not be sufficient. Competitive manufacturing, requires the development of complex capabilities—technologies, skills and management abilities to coordinate diverse interactions and processes of learning. Such capabilities can be learned and improved. Continuous improvement in these capabilities is the key to sustainable competitive advantage, even absent advantages from raw materials required for manufacturing, as Japan and Korea have demonstrated. Therefore, the thrust of Government strategy must be on the enrichment of the composition of these capabilities in the country’s manufacturing ecosystem.

Three Components of India’s Manufacturing Strategy and Plan
13.22. India’s Manufacturing Plan strategy in the Twelfth Plan must be built around three components. The first are capabilities and processes that


Twelfth Five Year Plan

go across many, if not all sectors of manufacturing, and that build into the ecosystem the processes for rapid learning and building of capabilities. 13.23. The second component has to be the plans to strengthen the performance of selected sectors. The selection of these sectors is done by a combination of top-down and bottom-up analysis. From the top, certain sectors appear more important to meet the goals of the Plan for more employment, for example, to produce goods that India needs for its strategic security. On the other hand, the capabilities created by Indian entrepreneurs in some sectors provide potential for more growth, and they should be supported. For example, the pharmaceutical and auto parts sectors. Thus the Plan, at present, has identified 18 such sectors. 13.24. India’s sectoral strategy has to be broad-based, covering many sectors, to achieve the large-scale growth that India needs in manufacturing. India cannot achieve its goals by ‘picking winners’. In each of these sectors, a sector strategy is required to grow capabilities and relieve constraints. Such sector strategies should be formulated jointly by the associations of producers in the sector (and other principal stakeholders too) and the relevant Government department. They should describe the opportunity for the sector and the actions required from the producers themselves, along with support from Government policies. 13.25. The third, vital, component of the Strategy is the institutional ability for effective consultation and collaboration between producers and public policymakers and implementers and the systemic reform of existing systems and processes within the Government. The strength of this process has been found to be the common factor in the success stories of all countries that have built large, competitive manufacturing sectors. 13.26. Lack of co ordination amongst government ministries, and the relatively poor quality of interaction between business associations and government—which is constrained by the competition amongst associations, and the orientation, by and

large, towards lobbying and financial sops—prevents improvement in the process of collaborative learning and capability building that India needs to grow its manufacturing sector. 13.27. The challenges to developing and implementing a cohesive manufacturing strategy in democratic India are many. Cohesion can be brought about through more effective coordination amongst agencies, and more effective consultation amongst stakeholders. Apart from this, the Government will also require specialised skills such as consensus building and programme management to manage this process. Government should consider a ‘Backbone Organisation (BBO)’ to facilitate this process.

13.28. The focus of this Plan has specifically been on transforming the approach to align the varied stakeholders to a common national goal, instead of having silo-limited views on individual sectors and individual goals (Figure 13.4). In order to achieve this coordination between the various sectors, and to identify the underlying causes of the slow progress of manufacturing, a set of thematic ‘cross-cutting’ issues were identified in addition to the major sectors of manufacturing. The ‘cross-cutting’ issues affect the growth of manufacturing across sectors. They fall into two categories: one category is those issues that ‘industry’ ministries and industrial enterprises have responsibility to address, albeit in collaboration with other stakeholders; and the other category is those broader issues that affect the economy overall in which the responsibility primarily lies with other ministries. 13.29. In the first category is the weak development of human resources, of which a vast quantum is essential to achieve our goals. Another key issue, common to all sectors, is depth within the country of technology in the sector’s supply chain. Yet another is a set of the infrastructural challenges, both physical and administrative, related to acquisition of land and water management, and the business regulatory framework, in which industry has a key role to play in developing and implementing solutions in consultation with

Industry 59

other stakeholders. These cross-cutting issues have been identified in the National Manufacturing Policy recently approved by the Cabinet. This Plan describes the actions to be taken in all these areas and a process for their implementation and monitoring. 13.30. The second category, that of external inputs to industry that affect the economy as a whole too, and which are managed outside industry, includes four principal constraints on the growth of manufacturing: transport infrastructure, power, cost and availability of credit, and the exchange rate. Transport infrastructure and power have a direct bearing on the competitiveness of manufacturing. Energy and logistics are critical requirements for competitive manufacturing operations. While significant investment were made in transportation infrastructure in the Eleventh Plan, Indian industries continue to suffer from severe infrastructure handicaps compared with the infrastructure available to manufacturers in other countries. Ports are already close to fullcapacity utilisation resulting in extremely inefficient turnaround times and similarly roads suffer from congestion resulting in heightened costs. Unreliable

and inadequate power supply continues to be a serious impediment in India in spite of the considerable efforts made to enhance power generation capacity in the country. Improving the supply and quality of both transport infrastructure and power are essential requirements for attaining the targeted growth rates for manufacturing in the Twelfth Plan and beyond. 13.31. Adequate availability of low-cost credit is a vital requirement for sustainable manufacturing growth. Continued monetary tightening due to the recent turn of global events has resulted in a high cost of capital, adversely impacting manufacturing investment and growth in India. Cost of capital is key for ensuring competitiveness, especially of exports, of the manufacturing sector and needs to be carefully managed through a more balanced blend of fiscal and monetary measures. Specifically for MSME’s, access to credit continues to remain a challenge and besides a host of measures to facilitate greater flow of credit to this segment detailed in Section 5, the overall pool of available capital needs to be enlarged to include alternate sources of capital such as private equity, venture capital and so on.

Focus given not only to ‘vertical’ sectors by also to ‘horizontal’ issues that cut across sectors Technology & Depth Human Resource Development Business Regulatory Framework Environment Sustainability Land and Water Clustering and Aggregation MSMEs Boosting India’s Manufacturing Exports Role of PSEs National Investment and Manufacturing Zones Gems & Jewellery Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Food Processing Industries Mineral Expl. & Development Defence Equip. Textiles & Jute Leather and Leather Goods Capital Goods & Engineering Petrochemical & Chemical Ship-building & Repair Cross-cutting Groups


Sectoral Groups FIGURE 13.4: Focus on Sectors as well as Cross-cutting Issues







Twelfth Five Year Plan

13.32. Finally, the exchange rate is an enormously important factor affecting the international competitiveness of a country’s manufacturing sector. Large fluctuations in exchange rates can disrupt the management of supply chains. Monetary and fiscal authorities need to be cognisant of the impact that such fluctuations have on the growth of manufacturing.

Status and Key Challenges
13.36. Lack of depth in technology is one of the foremost issues affecting the growth of manufacturing sector in the country. India’s R&D spend is 0.9 per cent of GDP, whereas China, UK and Israel spent about 1.2 per cent, 1.7 per cent and 4.3 per cent, respectively. India needs to increase its R&D expenditure to improve its depth. The private sector finances 70 per cent of the total R&D spending of China, 65 per cent in United States and 75 per cent in Korea and Japan, while Indian private sector funds only 25 per cent of the total R&D spend. As majority of private sector funding of other countries is towards industrial R&D, Indian corporate sector needs to increase its spending on industrial R&D (see chapter on Science and Technology). 13.37. The key challenges faced by Indian industries are: • The Indian Industry has not given sufficient importance to the documentation of knowledge and creation of IP. As a result, not only were opportunities lost to create IP, but we lost IPs to other countries, such as in traditional agricultural products (IPs filed by western countries on neem, turmeric and basmati rice, which India has contested). Our regulatory framework, speed of award of IPs and the enforcement of IP regulations needs improvement. India’s approach on IP, hence, needs to distinguish between shaping the framework for IP creation and improving its IP management processes. • Though there is an improvement in the industry-academia collaboration in creating patents/technologies, still there is a large scope for improvement. • While FTAs signed with other countries are favourable for some products, they often create a distortion in the market in terms of inverted duty structure for other products. • Many segments of the industry, especially MSMEs, have limited information and access to risk capital for sourcing/developing and internalising new technologies. • The weak attention to standards not only invites dumping of sub-standard products by other

13.33. A principal objective of the Twelfth Plan must be to increase ‘depth’ in manufacturing, to increase domestic value addition, and meet national strategic requirements. The technological depth of the country’s manufacturing sector goes up when it becomes an active player in more parts of the manufacturing value chain (research, development and production). Depth defined in these terms increases synergies across the value chain and also strengthens the overall trade position. It may be noted that depth is not necessarily required in all sectors. There is merit in being part of a global value chain but substantial part of industry must have technological depth. 13.34. Depth in technology is extremely important for a country to sustain its competitive advantage in a global economy. It is not only important from the point of view of greater value addition, but it is also required to attract new industries and maintain competitive advantage of current industries. 13.35. The key requirements for improving technology and depth are to: • Provide an enabling environment for domestic enterprises to invest in technology creation, technology absorption and achieve higher value addition • Ensure availability of demand for products developed and/or manufactured indigenously • Provide enabling environment for foreign enterprises to invest in manufacturing and research activities in the country, in the areas in which the country needs foreign technology • Mitigate the risks of MSMEs investing in technology development and technology upgradation

Industry 61

Box 13.1 Examples of Weak Domestic Standards Leading to Influx of Sub-standard Products in the Country
A) Absence of standards In the absence of technical standards, it becomes easy to import poor-quality products into the country. This hurts the domestic industry as the domestic industry is unable to match the price of these poor-quality products; it also exposes consumers to the harmful effects of spurious products. In the absence of such standards, it would not be possible to make such technical regulations which would curb import of poor-quality products. Some of the examples include mobile telephones, batteries for the mobile telephones, digital blood pressure measuring equipment, decorative lights (imported from China during Diwali festival), medical equipment and so on. Mobile telephones: Lack of manufacturing standards and testing/sampling labs are prompting dumping by foreign manufacturers. For example, till 2009, there was no standard mandating all imported mobile phones to have an IMEI number. As a result, Chinese handsets without IMEI numbers had a market share of about 13 per cent at that time. B) Lack of a clear framework for voluntary and mandatory compliances In some situations, where Indian Standards exist for products or processes, the Central Government has not notified them for mandatory compliance. Toys: Standards have been laid out for safety of toys such as quality of plastics and paints, electrical and mechanical hazards, migration of heavy elements (Lead, Cadmium) and so on. However it is not mandatory to comply with, and hence toys from other countries are being dumped in the Indian market. Structural steel: This is used in building damns, bridges and so on. Standards in the manufacturing of structural steel are voluntary and lack the need to specify end use. The lack of compliance to such voluntary guidelines and the absence of the need for requisite certification lead to dumping of poor grade structural steel.

countries (refer to Box 13.1), but also makes it difficult for the industry participants to benefit from each other’s learning and improve their technology depth. • Absence of national agenda and policy framework to support innovation.

requirements of sectors by a process of industry— Government consultation which, as has been emphasised before, will be the key to ‘get it right’. MSMEs and large enterprises will require different kind of interventions from Government. 13.40. MSMEs play a critical role in innovation, thanks to their nimbleness and their ability to experiment with new technologies on small scales. However, they often suffer from lack of funds, inability to take risks associated with technology developments and the difficulty of attracting skilled manpower. Policy interventions for MSMEs must be tailored to their conditions. Government policies for MSMEs should therefore help them improve their technological capabilities by focusing on: • Providing access to risk capital • Setting up of standards for the industry • Improving Industry/research institute/academia interaction, mostly in clusters • Stimulating demand/providing scale through preferential treatment in government purchases

A Systems Improvement Framework
13.38. It is essential to set the context before moving to the recommendations. Government support is essential to enable a country’s industrial ecosystem to gain depth because technological learning takes a long time, requires large investments and is risky. Support to the enterprises should be in such a way that it motivates and enables enterprises to learn and develop complex capabilities and not become complacent and inefficient, which was the outcome of the industrial policy adopted by India until the 1980s. 13.39. Table 13.4 and Table 13.5 capture the generic policy levers that should be moved for faster growth of manufacturing over the next five years. The specific policy interventions must be tailored to fit the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 13.4 Processes that Enable Learning Process that Enables Learning 1. Interaction between diverse components of the system—R&D, producers, customers, Government, institutes of skill development and so on. 2. Creating ‘safe-failing’ spaces for experimentation by firms 3. Creating a regime of ‘Standards’ 4. IP regime, which helps firms to build on each other’s innovation 5. System-wide improvement: Processes such as ‘Total Quality Management’ Policy Levers • • • • Cluster development FDI and JVs Industry/research institute/academia partnership Higher education in the country

• Access to risk capital, technology funds • Subsidy on interest costs • PPP model of funding • Setting up a system of National Standards benchmarked to International Standards • Effective ‘IP’ regime • Improving awareness of IP • Mainly the firm’s role to adopt such tools and increase organisational learning • Nation-wide, and State-wide campaigns to improve ‘Total Quality’ in all enterprises, including MSMEs, should be sponsored by Government through institutions such as Quality Council of India

TABLE 13.5 Manufacturing Ecosystem Infrastructure Ecosystem Infrastructure 1. Physical infrastructure 2. Improving capabilities Policy levers • Cluster development • Special manufacturing zones (NIMZ) • Skill development • Total quality management • JV, Technology transfer, FDI • • • • Developing MSMEs Common facilities through clusters Developing Standards Availability of quality human resources • Demand availability for manufactured products

competitive products for domestic as well as global customers. They compete with global manufacturers in local as well as in global markets. The Government policies for large enterprises can focus on: • Improving IP regime • Ensuring human resource availability by establishing institutions for technology education and research, educational institutions and so on • Ensuring access to critical raw materials

3. Creating the manufacturing ecosystem

Strategies for Change
13.42. Some high impact strategies for India at this time to accelerate the development of technological depth in the manufacturing sector have been analysed. These should receive special attention in policymaking and implementation. 13.43. Creation of coherence amongst existing institutional agencies towards developing national priorities for indigenous technology development. 13.44. Several countries like China and Singapore have followed a comprehensive approach to identify critical technologies to be developed indigenously and have formulated mechanisms to

• Modular industrial estates/laboratories near premier technical institutions with the required plug and play facilities.

setting up of a Technology Acquisition and Support Fund
13.41. On the other hand, large enterprises handle complex technologies and manufacture globally

Industry 63

ensure that these technologies were funded and incubated. 13.45. In India, we have various agencies like the Department of Science and Technology, NMCC and the Planning Commission working in this area. Connections between these agencies remain weak as they continue to function in silos, resulting in a cluttered approach to technology development. To make this process more robust and comprehensive (including funding and incubating projects), the present process/institutional arrangements should be reviewed and fine-tuned/restructured. The industry, as key stakeholders, should be involved and consulted in the design of new arrangements.

Create ‘Safe-failing’ Spaces for Companies to Engage in Innovation
13.46. Government participation in funding of research through a ‘Technology Fund’ or ‘Technology Upgradation Fund’ is an important instrument for reducing the risk for firms in investment in research. The structure of the ‘Technology Fund/ Technology Upgradation Fund’ has to evolve over a period of time. Traditionally such funds have been operated in the form of Government grants or schemes. However, they can be more effective in producing outcomes if they were managed by professionally managed investment entities. 13.47. The ways in which the Government could provide/redesign fiscal incentives for R&D activities are: • Tax credit instead of tax incentives: With the imposition of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) of 20 per cent, companies are unable to avail full benefit of weighted deduction. Equivalent benefits of weighted deduction on R&D spend should be treated as tax credit and be allowed to be set off against Tax and/or MAT payable. • Credit on inputs/capital goods used for R&D outside the factory premises: The Cenvat Rules provide that credit can be availed on inputs and

capital goods if they are used in the factory of the manufacturer. Enterprises having R&D facility separately from manufacturing facility will not be able to claim Cenvat benefits on inputs and capital goods used for R&D. This anomaly should be removed and the Cenvat benefits to be available for inputs and capital goods used in R&D, even if the R&D is carried out in a different premises, as long as linkage between manufacturing and R&D activities can be established. Due to this lacuna, assesses with sizeable investments in R&D facilities outside their factory of manufacture will not be entitled to avail Cenvat credit on investments and certain operating expenses. Consequently, this forms a disincentive to setting up of R&D centres by increasing the costs of setting up such centres. 13.48. The tax incentives should be provided in such a way that they do not penalise existing enterprises that do not operate in special economic zones or particular locations/States. To ensure a ‘level playing field’ to all domestic manufacturers and to provide a wider stimulus by the incentives, the tax incentives should be available for all enterprises involved in a specific activity rather than for a few enterprises operating in some specific locations. Knowledge sharing should be improved between the industrial and financial sectors. 13.49. The financial sector works with many industrial sectors and thus can see patterns and, with its perspective, obtain insights that are not available to people within industrial institutions. There are several programmes like Small Industry Business Research Initiatives (SIBRI), Technology Development Board (TBD), Biotechnology Industry Partnership Programme (BIPP) and Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Programme (BIRAP) which promote early stage innovations and PPPs. These institutes should work more often and closely with financial sector institutions to share knowledge that can improve policies for the manufacturing sector.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Strengthen the IP Regime and Systems to Leverage IP
13.50. A strong intellectual property regime is a prerequisite for creation of global IP from India. It has also become a requirement under WTO. While the importance of IP for creation of innovations in the industry is well understood, the question is whether developing countries will get penalised given that they are starting with a low base compared to developed countries. Various alternatives like ‘utility model’ of patents (as China has) to manage this need to be examined to put in place an efficient model that can help generation and protection of incremental innovations in Indian manufacturing. 13.51. Given the need for a strong IP regime from a long-term point of view, the following steps need to be taken: • Improve IP management and protection mechanisms. • Develop global information database on IPs accorded. • Strengthen and modernise the process of patent examination and according patents. 13.52. Also, in order to leverage the benefits of IP: • Build awareness about IP through education and training. • Create national IP mission to continually evolve the IP strategy of the nation. • Encourage joint IP filings by industry/academia/ research institutes. • Encourage the formation of companies specialising in IPs (through tax incentives). • Exempt income tax for the income generated from domestic IPs.

subsequent commercialisation. Such aspect in turn will incentivise and inspire further innovation. Some of the policy measures that Government can use to accelerate the development of industry–academia partnership are: • Joint ownership of IP arising out of these collaborations. • Align the goals and annual planning processes of central research institutions with that of industries through industry associations. • Incentivise Central/State Research institutes to create joint IPs with Industry. • Tying up a certain percentage of their budget to the number of collaborative IPs created. • Incentivise university and industry for forging successful partnerships in university’s governance, infrastructure, course curriculum design, faculty/students development and research. • Create cluster innovation centres at universities with the aim to foster a favourable ecosystem and enforce industry–academia linkage. • Provide an institutional framework for active interface between funding agencies, academia and industry.

Clusters (and NIMZ) Can Provide Enabling Infrastructure to Improve Technological Depth
13.54. Clusters play a critical role in propagating technological depth by facilitating technological learning and manufacturing through the presence of the entire ecosystem in the same geographical location. The National Manufacturing Policy, which outlines creation of NIMZs, was cleared by the Cabinet in November 2011. It ensures that business is provided with the ecosystem required for growth, not only in manufacturing, but also for investments in research and development. The attractiveness of NIMZs will be even higher for new high-technology industries, which will benefit from the localised presence of the entire value chain of participants. Also, the benefits of industrial clusters to MSME participants are also well understood, and the MSME Ministry is using the cluster approach to drive the growth and depth of MSME industries.

Strengthen Partnership between Industry and Academia/Other Research Institutes to Create IPs Domestically
13.53. Industry–academia partnerships are relatively weak in India compared to many other countries. The partnership should aim for building an ecosystem which can create a virtuous cycle of education and research leading to IP creation and its

Industry 65

Improve Technical Standards, Voluntary Compliance and Conformity Assessment
13.55. Standards are a form of embodied technical knowledge accessible to all types of business that enables more effective product and process development. They promote and enable the diffusion of technology in a form that is readily assimilated by firms with the complementary capabilities to take up and use the new methods. Standards, therefore, constitute one of the important foundations for the technological depth in manufacturing, and are accorded high importance by the policy planners in the developed world. 13.56. During the Twelfth Five Year Plan, the focus on technical regulations should be on: • Developing a policy on technical regulations. • Capacity building of regulators (BIS). • Review of technical regulations to identify the gap vis-à-vis national standards. • Sensitising the industry regarding the need to provide scientific data to regulators to formulate effective technical regulations. • Setting up of helpdesks in industry bodies and export promotion councils for information dissemination. 13.57. In addition, voluntary compliance initiatives must be strengthened: • Promoting and funding a ‘Standards Cell’ in industry associations and Standards Developing Organisations (SDO). • Capacity building of SDOs. • Capacity-building programmes for the training of technical staff in the industry for writing company- and industry-level standards. 13.58. Government should also create a databasebased/software-based system to track the changes in technical standards/voluntary compliances globally and alert Indian manufacturers of development. 13.59. While the Standard-setting process sets the standards to be followed, conformity to the standards is assessed by conformity assessment agencies.

While many conformity assessment agencies have sprung up in the last few years, it is important that these conformity assessment agencies are of world class and their certificates are acceptable across the world. 13.60. To achieve these, the following steps are envisaged during the Twelfth Five Year Plan period: • Promoting the acceptance of Indian conformity assessment globally • Capacity building for inspection bodies/certification bodies • Developing regulation on conformity assessment 13.61. Quality Council of India, set up jointly by the Government of India and the top industry associations—CII, FICCI and ASSOCHAM, has been working to • Establish and maintain an accreditation structure in the country • Help representing India’s interest in International forums • Spread the quality movement through the country 13.62. The Twelfth Plan will focus on strengthening the capabilities and role of the QCI.

Removing Anomalies in Duty Structure
• Remove special schemes that allow import of finished goods at concessional custom duty: In almost all promotional schemes where import duties are reduced (nil duty project imports, certain defence purchases, SAD exemption under ITA Agreement for IT products and so on), imports get the benefit of reduced duties/nil duty. This erodes the level of protection which would have otherwise been available, thereby, creating a systemic disadvantage for local manufacturers. It is therefore recommended that import of finished goods at concessional custom duty under special schemes be discontinued. • Inverted duty structures (Higher duty on intermediate products vs. final products): For specified purposes, presently there is higher duty on


Twelfth Five Year Plan

intermediate goods (used by the domestic manufacturer for assembly/manufacture of goods), as compared to duty on finished goods. This in turn leads to higher input cost for the domestic manufacturer. It is therefore recommended that duty on intermediate goods be brought in line or set lower than applicable for final products. 13.63. The Government has corrected, as best possible, the issues related to inverted duty structures (illustrated above) raised by industry. It must review any new case that is brought to its notice and must undertake a study of effective rate of protection across sectors. 13.64. Some issues regarding CST/VAT retention and VAT/SAD were also analysed: • CST/VAT Retention: Interstate movement of goods by domestic manufacturers carries added cost in the form of central sales tax (on interstate sales)/retention of input VAT credits (on interstate stock transfers). This can be avoided in case of imports by executing sales in the course of import or through directly consigning the goods to the customer’s state. This creates disadvantage to domestic manufacturers. Therefore, CST on interstate sales and provisions with respect to retention of input VAT on interstate stock transfers should be abolished. • VAT vs. SAD: VAT rates have been increased from 4 per cent to 5 per cent, however there has been no consequential increase in the rate of SAD on imported products which is levied in lieu of VAT. Therefore, SAD should be increased to 5 per cent to reflect the pan-India based trend of revision of the VAT/CST rate bracket of 4 per cent to 5 per cent. 13.65. In order to resolve the aforesaid issues, it is necessary for the Central and State Governments to quickly build consensus on the design of a comprehensive GST and implement the same at the earliest.

companies with foreign partners can provide access to technology in areas in which domestic expertise is inadequate. The Government must identify the areas, in consultation with the industry, in which FDI and Joint Ventures can help to bring technology. Several problems that are impeding FDI/JVs need to be addressed. Some these are: • The ambiguity in the characterisation of income arising to foreign investor on transfer of technology from the perspective of direct-tax obligations. This leads to uncertainty with regards to its taxability in the hands of foreign investor thereby discouraging the flow of technology from outside India. The foreign investor is required to obtain PAN to enable the payer to withhold taxes at appropriate rates. Also, the foreign investor is required to file its annual return of income before the tax authorities in India for the purpose of claiming credit with respect to the taxes withheld by the payer in India. Such additional compliances could become quite cumbersome for the foreign investor in India especially where the foreign investor does not have any operations in India. • The R&D cess paid by the importer cannot be adjusted against any output taxes paid by the importer, resulting in additional cost of 5 per cent for the technology importer. • Service tax paid on import of technology cannot be adjusted against taxes paid on output, if the manufacturing is outsourced. • Limitation on technology cost as percentage of total investment available for state tax exemptions.

Preference for Domestic Products in Government Procurement
13.67. The cost of any manufacturing activity (excluding raw materials and utilities) depends on the maturity of manufacturing technology used and the magnitude of the demand. For a matured technology, the cost of manufacturing will be relatively low, due to the learning curve effects. Similarly, due to scale effects, the unit cost of manufacturing goes down with the increasing demand. Therefore, a domestic enterprise using new indigenous technology will have a cost disadvantage

Encouraging FDI and Joint Ventures
13.66. FDI (investments by foreign companies in Indian ventures) and Joint Ventures of Indian

Industry 67

compared to a global enterprise that has the benefits of matured technology. Unless there is some incentive provided to domestic enterprises to offset this handicap, developing indigenous technology will be difficult. 13.68. Therefore, Governments in many countries, developing as well as developed, provide preference in Government procurement to domestic enterprises. However, to ensure that this policy measure does not lead to development of substandard quality products or create inefficiencies in the domestic enterprises, the preference in procurement can be made applicable with minimum quality standards; a cap on the permissible price differential between domestic and imported products, and also a sunset clause. 13.69. Some ways in which the preference for indigenous products can be provided in Government purchases are: • In sectors of strategic importance, procurement should be done only from those vendors, who have locally established manufacturing base. • A multi-tier tax structure can be introduced, which offers concessional tax rates for products with higher local value addition. • A certain percentage of Government procurement to be reserved for enterprises using domestic manufacturing/domestic IP; and a certain percentage of it can be reserved for firms in MSME Sector. 13.70. However, as a prerequisite to implementing this procurement strategy, streamlining of procurement functions is essential. Public procurement organisations must be clear about how national policy goals should be translated into procurement practices without compromising quality. ‘Least cost’ is not always the right strategy and needs to be balanced by other guidelines (life-cycle costs such as service agreements, continuous improvement contracts and so on). A balanced approach should be taken to determine the weight assigned to price versus other qualifying criteria.

Aligning Investment Obligations Under ‘Offset Policy’
13.71. Offsets as a policy tool should be encouraged for public procurement in sectors where the Indian industry does not have existing technology or capability. The obligations of investments of foreign companies under ‘Offset Policy’ should be targeted towards investment in industries in which the country needs to improve technological depth. Articulation of clear objectives for an offset programme, not just for defence industry but also for the economy as a whole can become an instrumental lever to further investment and growth of the country’s manufacturing sector.

Encouragement of Local Value Addition in Critical Natural Resources
13.72. Some natural resources like good-quality coal and iron ore are becoming short in supply in the global economy with growing demand from developing economies especially China and now India. Domestic availability of some of these raw materials provides us a competitive advantage which we should leverage to build domestic industries that add value to these resources, thus creating additional jobs and improving our trade balance. Going further up the value change Government policies and duty structure should be designed in a way to incentivise value addition of steel rather than exporting steel in raw material form. 13.73. In general the trade-off between export of inputs which are in demand elsewhere in the world, and use of those inputs for improving the competitive position of domestic user industries is a tricky one, while promoting entrepreneurial freedom and free trade. These trade-offs must be understood and sensitively managed to ensure competitive and sustainable growth of domestic manufacturing. Examples of vulnerabilities that have developed for Indian industries, when longer term consequences of policies have not been foreseen, are the virtual disappearance of production of intermediaries for generic drugs which China is now dominating, and also the dwindling of Indian capital goods industries (refer to Box 13.2), where too Chinese industry is becoming a big international supplier. Chinese industrial policy


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Box 13.2 Dwindling Indian Capital Goods Industry
The capital goods industry can be considered as the ‘mother’ of all manufacturing industry and is of strategic importance to national security and economic independence. It is in the interest of User Sectors that the capital goods industry be strengthened since it is well established that the presence of a strong domestic industry increases competition and helps in reducing the capital cost of projects. And most importantly, in economical maintenance of plant and machinery. Imported plants come at lower cost but the foreign suppliers make up for that in their high priced spares and maintenance contracts. However, Indian capital goods industry is facing severe competition from Chinese companies over the last few years. In the case of machine tools, imports account for about two-thirds of the domestic requirements and is increasing further. The import of power-generation equipment from China at much lower cost is also making the domestic industry uncompetitive. The major factors responsible for increasing Chinese competitiveness are: • • • • • Artificially depreciated Chinese currency Tax advantages and Government subsidies given by the Government Much lower interest rates Simpler labour laws Better infrastructure leading to lower cost of power, transportation and cluster approach helping specialisation of labour and engineering skills

This is further complicated by the absence of level playing field for Indian manufacturers: • All domestic manufacturers of capital goods are rendered uncompetitive due to additional burden of sales tax, entry tax, octroi, VAT and other local duties and levies. • For specified projects (Oil and Gas, mega nuclear/hydel power, fertiliser, refinery and so on) zero/5 per cent customs duty applies on capital goods. While it may be preferable from user industry point of view to allow the import of capital goods at lower costs in order to improve their competitiveness, this will result in over reliance of Indian industry on other countries for key strategic inputs, exposing itself to vagaries to the policies of these countries. Also, this does not help in building technological depth of the Indian industry and manufacturing ecosystem.

has evidently done far better than India’s in building depth in China’s industries.

13.74. One of the primary objectives of the plan is to increase the competitiveness of Indian manufacturing. Human resources are of critical importance for the growth of knowledge and technology, value addition and improvement of competitiveness in manufacturing through processes of continuous improvement. In fact, the human resource is the only ‘appreciating resource’ in a manufacturing system. It is the only resource that has the motivation and ability to increase its value if suitable conditions are provided, whereas all other resources—machines, building, materials and so on—depreciate in value with time. The best enterprises view their people as their prime asset and the source of their competitive advantage. Nations that have achieved sustainable

competitiveness in manufacturing even when they do not have raw materials required, such as Germany, Japan and South Korea, have created systems for the continuous improvement of the capabilities of their human resources. 13.75. India must invest in and build its human resource capabilities to catch up with other countries that have moved ahead and thereafter sustain competitive advantages in manufacturing. Indeed the contentious debate of ‘labour’ versus ‘capital’ in the enterprise, as well as disputes between the institutions that represent the people working in the enterprise and owners of the capital could be reframed if employees were seen as assets, with value that can appreciate, rather than as labour costs. 13.76. The purpose of this section is to propose a set of holistic changes in key areas that require close involvement and buy-in from various stakeholders.

Industry 69

Consensus about these holistic changes is more likely to be achieved if, as mentioned before, the primary challenge was reframed as the development of human assets to build India’s manufacturing ecosystem and strengthen India’s manufacturing enterprises, rather than merely management of costs of labour. 13.77. Challenges in meeting the objectives lie broadly in three areas: • From a skill development perspective, there is a significant gap between the existing training capacity and people entering the workforce. A very small proportion of total manufacturing workforce is currently skilled. Moreover, less than 25 per cent of the total number of graduates are estimated to be employable 1 in manufacturing. • The total training capacity in the country is about 4.3 million for all sectors including manufacturing.2 The Apprentice Training Scheme (ATS), which is supposed to provide a bridge from education to employment, has very low penetration and is suffering from significant administrative issues. • For entrepreneurs and other employers, the perceived lack of flexibility of changing the size and nature of the workforce can act as a retardant in making investments that could lead to greater employment opportunities. Furthermore, the complexity of labour laws and the administrative mechanism of the laws make it harder to do business in the country. • By 2025, an additional 8 million management workers3 (supervisors and above) are estimated to be required. Well-trained management/supervisory staff are critical for improving the productivity and industrial relations in large as well as small manufacturing enterprises.

above are: Government (at the Centre and State level), Industrial organisations and the unions. 13.79. The strategies for meeting the objectives are in the following categories: • Inducing job creation by reducing the cost of generating employment. • Developing a supply of qualified human resources to meet the demand from additional job creation. • Enhancing skill levels of current workforce to improve productivity. • Improving the state of manufacturing management in the country. • Providing social protection to low-income workforce. • Improving industry–workforce relationships.
Inducing Job Creation by Reducing the Cost of Generating Employment 13.80. There are two major barriers to employment generation: limited flexibility in managing the workforce and cost of complying with labour regulations. Both these barriers must be removed in order for jobs to be created at a much faster rate.

Limited Flexibility in Managing the Workforce 13.81. The recommendations to increase the level of flexibility while ensuring fairness are: • Companies should be allowed to retrench employees (except categories such as ‘protected workmen’ and so on) as long as a fair severance benefit is paid to retrenched employees. This severance benefit should be higher than what is currently mandated—and the value should be arrived at through tripartite dialogue between Government, employers’ associations and employees’ associations. • In order to ensure that there is sufficient liquidity to pay the severance benefit to the retrenched employees, a mandatory loss-of-job insurance programme could be put in place. This will especially be useful in situations where the retrenchment is due to bankruptcy or exit of the employer and will reduce the justification for requiring prior permission to shut down businesses.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
13.78. Human resources should be managed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Government policy changes should induce and support such firm level strategies. The key stakeholders who will need to work together to make the necessary changes to the system in key areas mentioned


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• The threshold level of employment for the Chapter VB of the Industrial Disputes Act and the threshold for applicability of the Factories Act should be raised to at least 300 which was the level in 1983. • The process of engaging contract labour should be reformed—employers should be allowed freer use of contract labour while ensuring that the rights of contract workers are protected, which is not the case at present. Cost of Complying with Labour Regulations 13.82. The traditional enforcement approach which is based on inspection—prosecution—conviction creates incentives for rent-seeking behaviour, especially if the laws are complex or have provisions that are contradictory. The complexity of compliance impacts smaller enterprises much more. They cannot bear the high administrative costs. 13.83. Recommendations to improve compliance and also contain the cost of complying with labour regulations are: • Simplification of labour laws: The implications of labour laws should be detailed through a series of ready reckoners that are easily available and regularly updated so that inspectors and employers have a common set of rules to look at. • Improvement of administration: Higher investment should be made in the training of inspectors to ensure that they are able to efficiently identify incidences of actual non-compliance rather than harass employers. • Facilitating easier filing: Filing of reports should be made a once a year activity with an online option. As far as possible, the interface between enterprises and Government should be computerised to increase transparency and efficiency and remove scope for rent seeking. • Developing a self-certification model: While ensuring that regulations governing labour welfare must be complied with, a self-certification model should be developed where appropriate. • Additionally, fiscal incentives to encourage permanent job creation should also be considered, after evaluating their implications and potential

impact. For example, skill building and training costs of permanent employees can be considered for accelerated tax benefits (subject to a ceiling on percentage of salary paid to permanent employees).
Developing a Supply of Qualified Human Resources to Meet Demand from Additional Job Creation 13.84. The manufacturing sector may need more than 90 million people by 2022. However, the current capacity for skill development is ill equipped to meet this demand.

13.85. Role of industry: To enable the industry to play its role in defining the requirement of manpower both in terms of quality and quantity, Sector Skills Councils envisaged in the National Skills Policy are being set up. These councils will identify skill development needs in their sector, evaluate the gaps, create plans for skill development and improve the quality of the training system. The councils are also expected to establish sector specific Labour Market Information Systems (LMIS) to assist in planning and delivery of training. 13.86. Private sector participation in skill development: For the private sector to play a role in augmenting the skill-development capacity in the country, effective PPP models are needed. Existing ITIs should be clustered together in projects with total training capacity of at least 1,00,000 each to allow private sector service providers to leverage scale benefits leading to long term financial sustainability. For inducing the private sector to participate in creation of additional capacity, scalable and sustainable business models with direct linkages to employment should be deployed. The NSDC has created such models. They should be implemented across 20–30 projects specific to manufacturing in partnership with industry associations and from funding through NSDF. 13.87. Improving ITIs: We need to improve privatesector involvement in upgrading existing ITIs and also improve their curriculum and content through the sector-skills councils.

Industry 71

13.88. Attracting students: As a long-term strategy, it is important to make acquisition and improvement of skills an aspiration for people, especially youth. This could be achieved by recognising high-skill persons at the national and State levels along with recognition of other worthy citizens. For example, an unsecured loan scheme should be created for those who aspire to undertake vocational training. Large enterprises could also provide special incentives and recognition for acquisition of high skills. 13.89. Overall coordination: A number of initiatives have already been taken by various Government ministries to tackle issues related to skill development both at the Central and the State level. Coordination between these initiatives should be improved. The role and performance of the National Skill Development Coordination Board should be assessed. To ensure that skill-development activities are aimed towards areas of maximum impact, it is important to put in place an information system that provides data on availability and requirement of skilled resources.
Enhancing Skill Levels of Current Workforce to Improve Productivity 13.90. Training and skill building of the existing workforce is an important element of the strategy for increasing productivity of manufacturing in India. Training of employees can be incentivised by allowing tax deductions for expenditure incurred on training. Currently, skill building is predominantly achieved by in-house training of workers by each enterprise. However, clusters and NIMZs provide opportunities for shared infrastructure to provide training for skilled and semi-skilled workers.

the Twelfth Plan period, thus, requires to increase its current training capacity from 4 lakh person per year to at least 17 lakh persons per year by 2017. 13.92. Apprenticeships can be an effective way of ensuring that entry-level workers have the skills required to join the formal workforce. While there should be no obligation to employ apprentices, the current apprenticeship model needs to be reformed by simplifying workflow for engagement of apprentices by employers, inclusion of new trades and recording compliance through e-filing, removing NOC requirement for out-of-region candidates. Further, it is proposed to make all graduates eligible for apprenticeships and the duration of courses should be reduced to a minimum of three months and should be converged with MES. Outdated curriculum needs to be updated and outsourcing of classroom trainings should be allowed. 13.93. Changes in the Apprenticeship Act may have to be made. In the meantime, a new model of incompany training should be deployed. In this model, companies should be allowed to take trainees for a period of up to six months.
Improving the State of Manufacturing Management in the Country 13.94. There were a total of approximately 5 million managers in the manufacturing sector in 2008. If the manufacturing sector grows at the targeted 12–13 per cent, 8 million more managers will be needed by 2025. Well-trained managers are extremely important for improving the productivity of manufacturing enterprises and maintaining harmonious industrial relations. Currently, only a very small portion of graduates from engineering and management institutes take up careers in manufacturing. Consequently, there is a significant gap between supply and demand.

13.91. A number of existing initiatives are focused on setting up tool rooms which are necessary for SMEs. These tool rooms can be made more effective by periodic performance audits by independent agencies and also by operating them on a PPP model in collaboration with industry associations. Just as tax incentives are provided for investments in critically required infrastructure assets, fiscal measures including tax benefits on training expenditure may also be considered for investment in critical human assets. MSME Sector alone needs to skill 42 lakh persons in

13.95. The quantity and the quality of management in the manufacturing sector can be improved by the following initiatives: • Increasing collaboration between manufacturing companies and engineering/management institutes for joint projects in which staff and


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• •

students of the institutes can get some hands-on experience. Encouraging enterprises (especially larger ones) to run good graduate engineering programmes which can be a source of management talent for themselves as well as the manufacturing sector generally. Scaling up programmes such as Visionary Leadership for Manufacturing (VLFM) at the national level. Setting up centres of excellence for manufacturing management through MoUs between institutes, government bodies and industry partners. Business schools that focus only on manufacturing management should also be encouraged. Creating a PPP model for engineering and management colleges with partnership with industry associations and employers with focus on manufacturing management. Launching a campaign focused on attracting management talent to the manufacturing sector. A large source of potential managerial/supervisory staff is the current workforce. Support should be provided to enable deserving members of the workforce to be promoted to management positions.

total number of workers in the manufacturing sector. For example, the New Pension Scheme (NPS) that was launched in May 2009 to increase pension coverage, particularly to the informal sector, has less than 2,00,000 voluntary subscribers—this is far less than the total intended coverage for such a scheme. Limited access to social security is exacerbated for those with low or uncertain incomes. 13.98. Unemployment benefits: Low income workers in transitional phases of unemployment are particularly vulnerable as they are unlikely to have significant savings. To help overcome the problems associated with social protection for temporarily unemployed workers, which include contract workers at the end of their contracts, a solution could be for these workers to be part of a ‘sump’ as permanent employees of contract agencies that are provided with Government support to ensure skill upgradation of these workers. The focus should be on creating a pool of workers who can be available to employers and ensuring that those that are unemployed have avenues for training as well as financial assistance. For example, the Automotive Mission Plan has recommended the formation of a Supplementary Unemployment Benefits Fund to be created by automotive companies for providing compensation to laid-off workers. Such funds in other sectors too can be utilised to finance the creations and sustenance of the ‘sumps’ that could be the ‘win-win’ solution out of the ‘fairness–flexibility’ dilemma. 13.99. Increasing penetration of existing schemes: To ensure that existing schemes reach the entire workforce, it is important to increase awareness of these schemes through communication programmes. The distribution channels for these schemes should be evaluated and measured regularly and private sector participation should be encouraged too. Financial literacy of the workers in the informal sector should also be improved so that they make better informed decisions about participating in social-security schemes.
Improving Industry Workforce Relationships 13.100. Strong and effective industry relations can enable managements of enterprises and their

13.96. Recent reviews with many sectors of industry reveal a crying need for better supervisors and foremen—the first and second levels of supervision— who are the backbone of productive and harmonious manufacturing enterprises. Development of supervisors and foremen, through suitable programmes, collaboratively designed and managed by industry and educational and training institutions must be ensured along with the emphasis on development of skilled workmen and good managers.
Providing Social Protection to Low-income Workforce 13.97. Formal sector workers can leverage collective bargaining to obtain social security; however, the informal workforce is dependent on government actions to improve social protection for them. A number of social security schemes have been launched in the recent past. However, the existing coverage represents a very low percentage of the

Industry 73

workers to collaborate in increasing the productivity and competitiveness of the manufacturing sector. Unions have a critical role to play in ensuring inclusive growth of the manufacturing sector, especially by working towards social protection for the workforce. They can also play valuable roles in other areas such as skill development. The National Skill Development Policy has recommended that trade unions contribute in areas such as developing competency standards, course design, improving awareness of and promoting participation in skill development among the workforce. To ensure that unions can play a broader and more effective role, it is important to invest in capacity development of unions through training of their leadership. 13.101. The multiplicity of unions in the same enterprise for the same type of workers can lead to interunion rivalries and can weaken collective bargaining. Therefore, legislation that enables one union per enterprise is strongly recommended. The union leadership should also be held accountable for any illegal behaviour by union members during negotiations. The practice of withholding recognition of unions should be discouraged. Strong gain-sharing systems can help to improve productivity. 13.102. The Government has a crucial role in enabling good industrial relations by providing platforms for the industry and the workforce to participate in policy development and implementation. Since labour figures in the concurrent list in India, both the Central and State Government’s role in such platforms should be that of an impartial facilitator focused on creating consensus amongst employers and employees around solutions. In especially contentious areas such as changes in labour laws, the Government should enable the development of consensus positions between the various interested parties. The ‘backbone organisation’ described in the Way Forward Chapter should have the capabilities to effectively assist in such a process of consensus creation.

great extent, done so on account of the quality of the business regulatory environment, which is an important factor distinguishing better performing countries from others. The key objectives of streamlining of business activities through the regulatory framework should be: • Low compliance cost for doing business in India • Simple regulatory environment, saving time and energy for the businesses; and • Ensuring fair competition 13.104. The country must improve regulations and implementation in many subjects to make India generally a more attractive country for doing business. These include land and environmental regulations, labour laws and their administration and so on. It should be noted that, in the context of India’s federal structure, the ability to mandate specific reforms to the regulatory framework from any centralised apex body is fairly constrained. Therefore, while nodal agencies may be set up to focus attention on matters that must be attended to across the country, and this section and others mention some, it is imperative that the role of such agencies in the process of making improvements across the country fits the country’s federal and decentralised political structure. Such agencies cannot and must not usurp local authority.

Status and Key Challenges
13.105. The present regulatory environment is seriously deficient for the reasons enumerated below: • Weak institutional architecture for business regulations in the country – Despite that high priority of the business regulatory reform agenda in the country, there is no dedicated authority that can guide the whole process of reform in a structured, planned, cogent and systematic manner, which could mandate the respective departments of the Union, State and Local Governments to comply in a timely, result oriented and predictable way. • Ambiguous nature and vast scope of business regulations: there are vast numbers of business regulations at different levels of Government in existence in the country. There are instances of

13.103. Countries that have performed better than the others in terms of thriving business have, to a


Twelfth Five Year Plan

contradictory as well as overlapping business regulations on account of these being administered by the different tiers as well as layers of Government. Absence of national repository of business regulations: despite the advancements in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its ever-growing applications and usage, there is no dedicated online repository to track all the business regulations and procedures. Lack of coherence in business regulatory governance across country; business facilitation is often mentioned as part of the agenda at the national as well as State levels. But there is lack of coherence in all such efforts. There are wide variations in Government-business transactions taking place in different locations of the country. It has also been found that there is a lack of predictability and standardisation in terms of timelines as well as process adopted by different State Governments when it comes to facilitating business. Lack of defined mechanism for consultation between Government and industry: the interface between Government and the industry is also not well defined. There are periodic consultations among various industry collectives and specific Government departments located at different levels, but such consultations are not structured enough to be guided by a well-defined and outcome-oriented process. Inherent limitations of regulatory system in country: lack of periodic-review clauses in regulations and Lack of Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA). There have been recommendations for regulatory reforms earlier as well, but due to absence of any one dedicated agency accountable for the reforms, they could not be implemented.

reviewed and a repository of all these documents needs to be created. After this an enquiry can be taken up to check the extent to which these recommendations have been implemented or are pending by the public authority or department. 13.107. There is a need for a process for responding to the existing recommendations. In such a system once a certain expert group or commission of enquiry has submitted its report, the respective departments are required to prepare a response. That response is put up in the public domain along with the original recommendations. This makes it easier for various stakeholders to understand the extent to which the recommendations have been accepted along with the reasons for non-acceptance, if any.
Establishing Enabling Institutional Architecture • Formulating national policy on business development and regulation – The policy should also provide the principles of optimal business regulatory governance. It is recognised that there will be a special role of the Prime Minister and Chief Ministers in the aforementioned policy making process because in the final analysis, the actual adoption of the policy will entirely be dependent on the political leadership. • Drafting and enacting ‘National Business Development and Regulation Bill’. • Building institutional architecture for looking after the business-regulatory reforms in the country: a dedicated institution can be set up for this purpose. The institution should be set up at the national level as well as at State level. • Enabling institutional architecture for ensuring competitiveness in manufacturing. The same is required in both, Central as well as State level. – At the Central level the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been entrusted with this responsibility. – Similar institutions may be set up at State level; to be called State Council on Manufacturing Competitiveness and Competition Reforms. • In June 2011, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs has set up a Committee to draft National

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Follow-up Over Previous Administrative and Regulatory Reform Endeavours 13.106. Lack of implementation of earlier recommendations on regulatory reforms has contributed to the current situation of business-regulatory framework in the country, both at the Central and State level. All these recommendations need to be

Industry 75

Competition Policy (NCP). In February 2012, the Drafting Committee submitted a Draft National Competition Policy and comments of all stakeholders have been invited. Once this policy is approved by the Union Cabinet, further steps are required: – Building consensus on the policy – Creating institutional framework for operationalising the policy, as recommended by the Committee – Creating incentive and disincentive mechanisms for States to implement NCP • Operationalisation of National Manufacturing Policy and development of State manufacturing plans in line with National Manufacturing Plan.
Systematisation of Business Regulatory Governance • Mapping and classification of all existing business regulations and procedures and providing an online one-stop shop—‘National Business Facilitation Grid’ for all information related to business regulations and procedures in India. Design principles of this on line portal can be finalised through a consultative process. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is the nodal agency for the NBFG repository. • A system of mandatory reviews of existing regulations at periodic intervals should be established and operationalised. This will achieve the desired goal of making the regulatory system intrinsically strong and up to date. • A decentralised Single Window System should be established with appropriate geographical spread. The Single Window System, governed by a common minimum standard, should, rather than being a coordination office, be endowed with access to relevant information and sufficient delegation of powers from all concerned regulators, including Central, State, Local and Sector regulators. This would help reduce the start-up time for businesses by providing all requisite approvals and licenses, if any, through the Single Window System. – Recognising the wide variations with business procedures at the country level, it is recommended to benchmark the execution timelines and processes that are undertaken by different

Government entities to facilitate business requirements. – A team of Business Facilitiation Officers (BFOs), in each of the partcipating regulatory authorities, may be asked to aid the Single Window System, and the BFOs could be made accountable for defaults or deviations resulting in aggravated costs of compliance to businesses. The desirability and feasibility of such a Single Window System should be determined through a consultative process. eBiz Mission Mode Project 13.108. The eBiz Mission Mode Project, under the National e-Governance Plan, aims to create a business and investor-friendly ecosystem in India by making all business and investment related regulatory services across Central, State and Local governments available on a single portal, obviating the need for the investors or the business to visit multiple offices or a plethora of websites. It in envisaged that the services offered on eBiz will eventually cover the entire life cycle of a business—right from its establishment, through its ongoing operations, to even its possible closure. Once operational, this project will also create a platform for multiple Government agencies to cross validate their information.

13.109. The project is being implemented as a 10-year PPP with M/S Infosys. The first-year pilot includes 8 Central Departments and States (Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Delhi) covering 29 core services. Five more states (Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal and Rajasthan) and 21 more services will be added during the next two years of the pilot phase. An end-to-end solution providing the services under the Andhra Pradesh Single Window Act will also be provisioned on the eBiz platform by September 2013 along with the payment solution gateway.
Adopting Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) • Tool of RIA should be developed for Indian context through a consultative process and due research reflecting upon global experiences with its adoption and usage.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

– The parameters of RIA should be clearly spelt out for evaluation (which should gradually be expanded to include the following eight elements: policy coherence; cost of doing business; competition; innovation; SMEs; consumers; labour; environment and commons). • Process of doing RIA should involve a wide stakeholder consultation. • RIA has be to be mandated in the country in ex ante as well as ex post manner. • It is recommended that Policy Coherence Units (PCUs), for conducting RIA, be established under the respective State Planning Boards and at the national level. Such policy analysis functions can be connected with the capabilities of the proposed backbone organisation.
Making Businesses More Responsible Towards Society • Considering the importance of the subject, ‘business responsibility’ should be included as a separate subject under the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, and Ministry of Corporate Affairs can be entrusted with the responsibility of carrying out these activities. • Redefining the contract of business and society and developing new rules of the game for corporate conduct. – Needs to be done through a widespread consultative process. • Stronger role of business associations in responsible business. – Business associations should be encouraged to develop and impose rules of conduct on their own members. – Business associations should be entrusted with the responsibility of overseeing the compliance to rules of corporate conduct. – Such associations should provide their members a process for debating and agreeing on voluntary imposed norms, assistance to members to develop capabilities to conform to these norms and, very necessarily for such associations to become trusted by stakeholders as effective institutions for self-governance, internal governance that disciplines errant members.

• Disclosures on the adoption of ‘National Voluntary Guidelines on Social, Environmental and Economic Responsibilities on Business’ (NVG) principles should be made mandatory for businesses. Adoption of NVG principles can be made mandatory for all public–private partnership projects by the relevant authority at the time of project inception. This will help in mainstreaming these principles. • Establishing the required institutional architecture for facilitating adoption of NVG principles. Awareness and implementation of NVG principles is currently the responsibility of the Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs. The IICA’s abilities in this respect should be further strengthened.
Developing an Ongoing Process of Stakeholder Consultation 13.110. For achieving the objectives of a stakeholder consultation, it is imperative to have capacity, building both ends: at the Government side as well as at the industries. A process of productive consultations, and the roles of representative institutions of employers and unions in these consultations, in improving the productivity of the country’s manufacturing ecosystem, and its sustainable competitiveness, cannot be overemphasised. The competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing industries, in spite of high-wage costs and expensive currencies, in contrast to the relative decline of US and UK manufacturing industries, is attributed to the better collaborative processes in the former countries. The following actions must be taken to achieve this objective:

• Passing a legislation mandating stakeholder consultation and also defining the process that needs to be followed. • Measures to strengthen industry associations and their structure to enable them to convey the view of industry in a constructive manner. • Similar capacity building for stakeholders, such as labour unions. 13.111. Developing a Business Regulatory Governance Mechanism to choose appropriate regulatory alternatives among self-regulation, co-regulation and public regulation.

Industry 77

• Currently there is no structured modality exploring various alternatives for achieving regulatory objectives. • Detailed analysis should be undertaken to determine which alternatives to regulations are feasible as well as beneficial for Indian context. • As each form of regulation has merits and demerits, a desirable combination of all three regulatory alternatives may be evolved gradually. • Such mechanism will serve as a ready reference one-stop shop for the policymakers as well as the business community while arriving at the choice of appropriate mode of regulation.
Capacity Building for Carrying Out Regulatory Reforms 13.112. Since carrying out the aforementioned regulatory reforms requires a tremendous effort, capacity needs to be built in order to implement them. The capacity-building framework needs to incorporate the following:

• Procurement and use of natural resources • Industrial processes and activities • Product use and disposal 13.114. The air, water and land are affected through the environmental impacts created through the operations of manufacturing units.

Key Objectives
13.115. Rapid ecologically sustainable industrial growth with focus on • Mainstreaming and promoting green business: an environment has to be created wherein being green is not viewed as just an obligatory expectation of a company, but as an area of primary focus for the company to develop further and be recognised as a leader. • Protecting natural resources: natural resources have to be prolonged to their fullest use to maintain the aim for continual economic growth and lessen environmental impacts. • Addressing funding issues: which act as a constraint for movement towards a more sustainable industrial model.

• Developing resources such as modules, guidelines, methodologies, reference manuals, checklists, case studies and so on as reference material for regulators. – These resources should also be available through an online-knowledge portal. • Training programmes for regulators need to be arranged. • A review may be initiated to determine the feasibility of expanding the roles of institutions functioning under the aegis of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, namely, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs, Competition Commission of India, Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Institute of Company Secretaries of India and Institute of Cost Accountants of India.

Status and Key Challenges
13.116. The Central Pollution Control Board has identified 17 highly polluting industries, the majority of which are manufacturing industries. MSMEs, in particular, can have a significant impact on the environment as they are generally liable to be equipped with obsolete, inefficient and polluting technologies and processes. Seventy per cent of the total industrial pollution load of India is attributed to MSMEs. 13.117. New technologies leading to cleaner processes and operations are not being developed at a fast enough pace to address the urgent need for environmental protection. 13.118. The current ecosystem does not encourage and facilitate the mainstreaming and scaling up of new technologies for widespread use, mainly due to a lack of financial support, resources and Government assistance.

13.113. The rise in growth in the resource intensive manufacturing sector is enabled and facilitated by an ever-increasing rate of material use leading to manifold impacts to the environment. The contribution of the manufacturing sector to environmental degradation primarily occurs during the following stages:


Twelfth Five Year Plan

13.119. The waste management and recycling industry in India is currently vast but largely unorganised. In this space, it is necessary to mainstream the industry and ensure that the livelihoods of all people dependant on this industry are supported and upgraded.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Organised Waste Management and Recycling • Development of a National Waste Management and Recycling Programme – This is an overarching framework to create and mainstream the organised waste management and recycling industry. – Structured frameworks and guidelines for recycling industry to be developed to integrate it with the existing waste management rules and guidelines. – Development of industry and sector specific recycling standards. • Promotion of PPP model for waste management and recycling – Establish facilities for reuse, recycling and reprocessing of wastes from various sectors should be encouraged by providing incentives and ensuring the process for setting up PPP facilities. • R&D funding – Promoting new technologies and processes for waste management and recycling. – This should be aligned with the overall technology fund as discussed earlier. • Building institutional capacity – Local institutional bodies must have their capacity built on recycling and waste management. Creation of a Green Technology Fund • For usage in three key areas: technology upgradation, promotion of green entrepreneurs and funding for R&D. • This could be disbursed in the form of concessional loans, grants and so on. • This fund should be a part of the overall technology fund proposed for improving depth in manufacturing and must ensure focus on commercialisation of new technology areas.

Promotion of Green Products • Development of a framework and guidelines for promotion of green products – Definition of the specifications – Creation of/assignment of a new/existing entity to perform this task on a regular basis – Identification of top 100 green products (based on assessment of maximum environmental impact) and setting of standards for the same • Promoting green public procurement through price incentives on Government tenders • Encourage and develop voluntary rating programmes • Creation of centres of excellence to promote green products and processes • Incentive programmes for creation of Life Cycle Inventories • Incentives for export of green products Environmental Regulatory Reforms and Market Based Instruments • Strengthening regulatory institutions together with bringing institutional reforms – Moving towards load-based standards from concentration based regime. • Implementing polluters-pay principle, with specific pollution loads beyond a defined benchmark should be priced and paid for by industry. – Reforming the existing environmental clearance process. – Institutionalise the concept of cumulative impact assessment of the region. – Introducing technology assessment while appraising new projects. – Process for administering the clearances needs to be streamlined—should include considerations of decentralisation, requirements and tenure of clearances. • Establishing integrated chemical-management policy and regulatory regime – Set up a regulatory process to assess all chemicals, register and phase-out toxic chemical products and replace them with non-toxic/lesstoxic substitutes. • Market-based instruments and emission trading – Initial pilot Emissions Trading System to limit particulate matter emissions.

Industry 79

– Scale up the emissions market to address additional pollution problems at the State and national levels. – Monitoring technology for all types of pollutants be made as affordable as possible for industry; waiving of applicable taxes and excise duties, as well as direct subsidies to monitoring technology wherever their installation is mandated by the State pollution boards.
Sustainable Environment Management in MSMEs • Reconstitution of regulatory bodies – Inclusion of stakeholders/associations. – Sector-wise product sub-groups need to be formed as part of PCBs. – Grievance Redressal Mechanism should be established at each PCB. • Creation of common infrastructure for MSMEs in clusters – Central Grant Scheme for soft infrastructure, unit level technology upgradation assistance, portion of project cost for Common Effluent Treatment Plants. – State Grant Scheme with provision for arranging land for CETPs, time-bound speedy legal clearances, provision for equity participation in SPVs by SPCBs/State agencies. Disclosure on Performance • Short-term action to increase voluntary disclosure of environmental sustainability performance. – Development of reporting standard-based on several existing sustainability reporting initiatives. – Incentives for voluntary disclosure. • Long-term steps to compare environmental sustainability performance of organisations with industry-specific benchmarks. Development of Environment Sustainability Benchmark Index, Espeacially for Identified Highly Polluting Sectors Organised Waste Management and Recycling • As covered in the chapter on Environment, the development of a National Waste Management and Recycling Programme and the promotion of

PPP model for waste management and recycling are required.

13.120. With its increasing population and industrial activity, India is moving towards perennial water shortages. The current per-capita water availability is estimated at around 1,720.29 m3 per capita according to data from the Central Water Commission and as per the World Water Development Report— one of the United Nations, India has been ranked 133 (Out of total of 182 countries) in terms of total renewable per capita water resources. 13.121. The total water demand is projected to increase by 22 per cent by 2025, and 32 per cent by 2050. A major part of the additional water demand will come from the domestic and industrial sectors. The water demands of the domestic and industrial sectors will account for 8 per cent and 11 per cent of the total water demand by 2025.

Key Objectives
• Improve the governance and management of water in order to ensure availability of water for all purposes. • Improve the management of water by industry, in particular in terms of utilisation and pollution.

Status and Key Challenges
• Inadequate storage capacity • Governance deficit and fragmented institutional framework • Inadequate water management by and for industry – Water intensity high as compared to global benchmarks—to the extent of ~30–50 per cent. – Recycling water in industry is not common and its proliferation is not happening at the scale as required.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
13.122. Strategy on improving overall governance and management of water has been covered in detail in the section on Water Resources. The proposed draft National Water Framework Bill will provide the broad overarching national legal framework of


Twelfth Five Year Plan

general principles on water which will necessitate the requisite administrative frameworks needed for greater clarity on demand management, protection of water resources, improving efficiency of water use and so on. 13.123. Specifically, strategic measures to ensure availability for and efficient utilisation of water by industry have been outlined below.
Water Management in Industry • Create equity-based and efficiency-based Water Pricing Regime for industries – Overcome lack of a clear policy framework based on cost-recovery principles. • Current pricing regime is undervalued for all users. • This would overcome wide variations in tariff structure due to current determination by various States. • All Indian cities currently operate a mix of measured/metered or unmeasured/unmetered tariffs. – Potentially two different pricing regimes in two-tier tariff system/IBT tariff system. • Enforce ‘Water returns’ – Annual return to be filed by water users on similar lines of tax returns—should include key measures like water utilisation per unit produce, effluent discharge details, rain water harvested, water reuse details, fresh water consumption and so on. – Mandatory for major water using industries and businesses. • Promote reuse and recycle of wastewater in industry – Regulations and incentives through national frameworks and a system of water returns • Industry specific standards – Promoting rain-water harvesting in industry, both within and beyond the fence through incentives and regulation.

It needs to be looked at from Industry’s perspective as a tangible resource with supply and demand issues and the linkage in the form of land acquisition for industrial demand. 13.125. Land in India has a special significance because it carries a huge tangible and emotional value for owners and also for those whose livelihoods depend on it. This makes it very important to consider the land acquisition process in a critical manner.

Key Objectives
13.126. The key objectives with regard to solving the various issues and challenges related to land pertain to: • Improving the management of land as an asset in India. • Setting up a more transparent, fair and efficient process of land acquisition for industry development. 13.127. By achieving these key objectives, we would be able to ensure a more productive utilisation of land, and in particular, be able to spur industrial development, which has in many instances been hindered as a result of poor land management and land acquisition processes.

Status and Key Challenges
13.128. India has sufficient land for all uses—agriculture, industry, human dwelling, infrastructure and other uses—as long as it is used with prudence and productivity. Currently industry utilises only about 2–4 per cent of all land in India. Even at heightened industrial activity in the future, it is expected that there would be sufficient land for all users, including industry. However, there are some critical issues that need resolution in order for land to become a wellmanaged resource, especially from the point of view of Industry. 13.129. Land is inherently an imperfect market, because land is an immobile asset. Hence, no two pieces of land are alike and can be differentiated. This gives rise to a monopolistic power with the

13.124. Among all the traditional factors of production for any economic activity, land being natural, immovable and non-renewable, is a distinct resource.

Industry 81

landowners. Furthermore, the value of a piece of land effectively changes when we change its usage and due to development of surrounding areas. In addition, the owner is often emotionally attached to his land. In India, land is considered a very important asset from an emotional perspective. 13.130. A major characteristic of land ownership in India is that the land holdings are typically small. Typical industrial usage requires development of large tracts of land. Consequently, industrial development has as a prerequisite need to acquire land from a large number of owners in order to develop a contiguous piece of land for industrial use. 13.131. Another problem in the land market is the incomplete, outdated and inaccurate land records, which give rise to disputes and litigation. Since industrial projects require large amounts of land and land holding in India is fragmented, industrialists have to deal with a large number of landowners and consequently face substantial risk of litigation.
3-part strategy to tackle land issues

13.132. In addition, there are some restrictions on usage of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes. Non-Agricultural Use Clearance (NAC) from the local/State Government is necessary before agricultural land can be considered for other uses.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
13.133. A three-pronged approach should be undertaken for tackling the land issues. This includes the development of an institutional framework to support the various actions, a drive to create Land Use Policies to manage land better, and a reformed process of land acquisition (Figure 13.5). 13.134. A National Land Use Policy should be developed to take care of the growing requirements of land for sectors other than agriculture. State Governments should formulate appropriate Land Use Policy in alignment with the National Land Use Policy. The main features of this policy should be Land Mapping (record of types and quanta of land available), Land zoning and Digitisation of Land Records. The Land

Institution Framework National regulator. lay down guidelines, monitor the functioning of the sector and provide oversight Land development corporations: independent commercial entity licensed by the Regulator to acquire and develop land on behalf of the end-users (industry)

Land Use Policy National Land Use Policy to be developed: Land mapping, zoning, digitization of land records State Governments should formulate appropriate Land Use Policy in alignment with the National Land Use Policy

Process for Land Acquisition and R&R

Execution of land acquisition by LDCs through SPVs: based on certain considerations on Valuation of land —open-offer price/ multiples of historical price Compensation for land R&R programme

FIGURE 13.5: Strategy for Land Issues


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Use Policy should also look at measures to optimise utilisation of land by benchmarking current utilisation efficiency with global benchmarks, and setting standards and incentives for more efficient utilisation. • There is a need to establish an independent and autonomous regulator which can lay down guidelines, monitor the functioning of the sector and provide oversight. The regulator should – encourage State and local Governments to define zoning of land, ear-marking them for different uses, and encourage digital land records – define guidelines for valuing various types of land for different uses – Establish norms for setting up and operating Land Development Corporations (LDCs) and monitor adherence to the norms by these institutions – lay down the guidelines for acquiring land by a corporate body – establish norms for process of land acquisition, compensation and relocation and rehabilitation of various stakeholders for different project characteristics • Value of land can be determined, as per the guidelines laid down by the regulator, in the following ways: – Open-offer price: Land owners will be asked to submit their application for sale of land in a reverse-auction process. – Multiple of historical price: The regulator can set a price based on a multiple of the historical land prices, as mentioned in the land records of the government. • The acquiring agent for land should be an independent commercial entity—Land Development Corporation— that has been licensed by the regulator to acquire land. The role of LDC would be to acquire and develop the land on behalf of its clients (end users) in exchange of the process and maintenance fee. A State can have multiple LDCs and each LDC will execute projects through SPVs. The operations of the LDC will be under the purview of the regulator.

• The process of land acquisition will be guided by the regulatory framework applicable for the project characteristics as defined by the LDC in its SPV. The role of local/State Government authorities in supporting the acquisition process should be laid out clearly by the regulator based on project characteristics. The acquisition process may vary depending upon – minimum per cent that the SPV needs to acquire from individual landholders before regulation mandates compulsory acquisition of land from other owners – nature of consent required from different stakeholders • Compensation for land needs to factor the following: – upfront payment – annuity income stream – participation in the future appreciation due to growth as a result of land development In addition to the above factors, the land owner needs to have the flexibility to choose a compensation package – an owner can choose to take the full value in upfront compensation or take a part of it as annuity payouts (determined by prevailing financial indicators of the time) – however, every land owner will necessarily have the component of ‘participation in future appreciation’ as part of the compensation • The LDC has to operate a rehabilitation and resettlement programme with combination of different elements which have been defined by the regulator based on the project characteristics; these include elements like. – alternative dwelling, if displaced – skill development – assistance in employment/income-generating opportunities – community development • The Industry must be responsible for payment of cost of land acquisition, including market price, share of the appreciating value and cost of the comprehensive R&R. • There should be a timeframe defined for land acquisition, and the LDCs must interface

Industry 83

2 Land Zoning and Valuation Zoning Capital value/ Annuity income/ Emotional/intangible value 1 Regulator

Project Characteristics Purpose - Public goods - Social resources - private business Owner Stakeholders Tenant Tertiary user Community at large

Development - Short term - Medium term timeframe - Long term - Agriculture Type of land - Forest - Barren, tribal - Small Size of land - Medium - Large Impact on - Mild community - Severe 4 5 6

Process of acquisition Compensation Rehabilitation and Resettlement

Ownership Funding Mandate 3 Acquiring Agency

FIGURE 13.6: Description of Land Acquisition Process

appropriately not only with the local selfgovernance bodies, but also other grass-root level organisations in order to build awareness about the land acquisition process. 13.135. A description of the process of land acquisition, the role of the institutional framework and the other modalities related to land acquisition is provided in Figure 13.6.

13.136. Industrial clusters are increasingly recognised as an effective means of industrial development and promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Status and Key Challenges
• For MSME participants, clusters play an important role in their inclusiveness, technology absorption, efficiency improvement and availability of common resources. Ministries dealing with MSME enterprises have been using Cluster programme as one of the key policy tools in administering Industrial Policy. There are around 7,000 clusters in traditional handloom, handicrafts and modern SME industry segments.

• The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) adopted the cluster approach as a key strategy for enhancing the productivity and competitiveness as well as capacity building of small enterprises (including small scale industries and small scale service and business entities) and their collectives in the country. The Ministries have been administering hard and soft interventions to help the cluster participants. While hard interventions will include investments in infrastructure like common facilities, common testing centres, roads, the soft intervention will include training, capacity building, skill improvement, marketing inputs, product design and development and so on. • In order to assess the level of intervention required, MSME Ministry has carried out a diagnostic study of about 471 clusters. However, the follow-up on these studies have been weak. • Today, the cluster programmes are administered by various ministries (textiles, leather, food, MSME, heavy industry [auto]) under various names with different terms and conditions. This apart from putting the cluster participants through procedural hurdles also makes it very tough to learn from each other and improve the efficiency of these schemes.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• Though many of the cluster schemes make it mandatory to have an SPV, a Project Management Agency and Cluster Associations, the capacity of these aggregators needs urgent improvement. These cluster aggregators provide the crucial link between the Ministry and the cluster participants. The cluster aggregators also need to have soft skills required to impart a vision to cluster participants, and see beyond their immediate requirement. • The current amount allocated for soft interventions is grossly inadequate. • The current cluster initiatives are mainly focused towards MSME Sector. Other industries can also benefit from cluster programmes as demonstrated by the automotive industry clusters. • There is a deficit of trust between the various participants in clusters today, which needs to be addressed.

– Building innovation at cluster level – Suggesting fiscal incentives to provide to clusters – Increasing competitiveness of cluster players – Effectively leveraging the common facilities 13.137. However, the effectiveness of the CSCs depends entirely on the way they are structured and run. If CSC is set up as a hierarchical organisation controlling clusters, it will lead to suboptimal results as the line ministries are the best agencies for implementing cluster programmes. On the other hand, If CSC is structured as knowledge organisation, with the responsibility of enabling clusters to improve their performance, CSCs can play an effective role in improving the performance of clusters across the country. 13.138. Today there are several agencies playing critical roles in developing and supporting clusters: • Implementing ministries like MSME, Textiles, Leather, Food Processing and Heavy Industries • State Governments • Department of Science and Technology and National Innovation Council in the areas of technology upgradation and innovation 13.139. Normally, clusters, especially for MSMEs, develop on their own and Government may play a facilitating role to accelerate their growth. However, going forward the State Governments should have devolved powers to create clusters while the Central Government’s role should be to stimulate learning across the system. Hence, the CSC is envisaged as knowledge partner to these agencies. The roles of CSC will complete a crucial missing link in the cluster support ecosystem. • Provide assistance to State Governments in the cluster formation through strengthened DICs at district level besides NGOs and reputed institutions that have capacity to undertake this type of work. • Develop strategies for growing different types of clusters (for example, hub-and-spoke, MSME, high tech and so on) for the different sectors.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
• It may be desirable to set up a Cluster Stimulation Cell (CSC) at apex level (to be located in DIPP/NMCC) to monitor the performance of clusters and share best practices across them. The CSC should also develop a cluster manual which may define clusters, development strategies adopted across the clusters, share best practices and develop a communication channel. The constitution of a CSC will considerably reduce the coordination problems across the clusters and within clusters across different sectors. The CSC should. • Undertake mapping of clusters to identify the key bottlenecks and the means for overcoming the same. It would also enable devising an appropriate strategy and support mechanisms for including the clusters in the growth trajectory. • Maintain information about all the clusters along with the cluster participant profile, employment generated and so on. • Evaluate the performance of these clusters on predetermined range of various performance parameters. • Identify best practices and ensure sharing the best practices across clusters, in areas like – Building trust among participants – Cluster branding

Industry 85

• The CSC should undertake this exercise and include details on the approach to be employed for each type of cluster and sector. • The scope of soft interventions should be expanded to include capacity building of Cluster associations, initiatives aimed at improving market linkages, improving product quality, improving access to credit, encouraging innovation, skill development and so on. • The allocation of funds for soft interventions should be increased accordingly.

TABLE 13.7 Definition of MSME Nomenclature and Classification of MSME (Manufacturing) Micro Small Medium Ceiling on Investment in Plant and Machinery (in INR) 25 lacs 5 crore 10 crore

13.140. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian economy over the last few decades. It is estimated that this sector contributes about 45 per cent of manufacturing output and 40 per cent of total exports of the country and employs about 69 million persons in over 29 million units throughout the country. Within the MSME Sector there is a significant concentration of Micro Enterprises, both in terms of working enterprises and employment (refer to Table 13.6). There are over 6,000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items manufactured by the MSMEs. The sector also covers the enterprises established in khadi and village industries and coir sector (plans for these sectors are detailed in Annexure 13.3).
TABLE 13.6 Registered MSMEs—Manufacturing Micro Working Enterprises Employment 94.9% 69.2% Small 4.9% 26% Medium 0.2% 4.8%

13.142. It is important to recognise though that a broad band of differentiation exists within the MSME Sector across indicators such as turnover, employment and so on. Further discussion on MSMEs also needs to specifically address organised and unorganised segments. Classification based on investment in plant and machinery only superficially institutes a numeric threshold for describing a funnel of growth. Schemes and interventions based on such concretised classifications, however, may not be able to necessitate real growth as such definitions create perverse incentive structures that might thwart firms from graduating from small to medium, such as service tax exemptions for firms with less than 10 lac revenue, exemption from central excise duty for firms with an annual turnover of less than `1.5 crore and so on.

Key Objectives
13.143. The objectives for the MSME Sector are: • Promoting competitiveness and productivity in the MSME space • Making the MSME Sector innovative, improving technology and depth • Enabling environment for promotion and development of MSMEs • Strong presence in exports • Improved managerial processes in MSMEs

13.141. Recognising the contribution and potential of the sector, the definitions and coverage of MSE Sector have been broadened significantly under Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 (refer to Table 13.7). Service sector, an important emerging sector, has also been included under this Act, depending on its category into Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. The criteria of investment limit in plant and machinery is the only parameter, used to categorise the enterprises in the sector in the country.

Status and Key Challenges
13.144. MSME Sector has been consistently registering a higher growth rate than the overall growth of the industrial sector. During the first four years of the Eleventh Plan, MSME Sector exhibited a growth rate of 13 per cent on an average. There are some inherent challenges faced by the sector which have a strong impact on its growth. These


Twelfth Five Year Plan

relate to (i) availability of credit and institutional finance (ii) outdated technology and innovation, (iii) need for skill development and training, (iv) inadequate industrial infrastructure, (v) marketing and procurement. 13.145. The Plan explores various aspects of MSME Sector, relating to the growth of the sector. These may be classified under six important verticals to provide theme-based focus, while devising any strategy for the sector. These are (i) finance and credit (ii) technology (iii) infrastructure (iv) marketing and procurement (v) skill development and training (vi) institutional structure, however, keeping in view of the unique status of the khadi and village industries and coir sector in the Indian economy, it was decided that there will be separate recommendations for these sectors. Similarly, concerns of unorganised sector and special areas and groups would be given due consideration while formulating any programmes/schemes under the aforementioned six major verticals.

been an effort to facilitate credit to clusters by financial institutions such as SIDBI, reach and thereby coverage needs to be increased. In fact, a clustercentric approach is the best bet for addressing the credit needs of the MSME Sector because of reasons of operational convenience and trust building. 13.148. Access to finance needs to be enlarged through alternative sources of capital such as private equity, venture capital and angel funds. This is crucial for facilitating the growth of knowledge-based enterprises which have high potential in the Indian context. Further, prospective enterprises in emerging areas such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, aerospace and defence applications would also require such alternative sources of finance since traditional channels are unable to meet their needs. 13.149. There has to be aggressive market intervention, such as promoting companies for market making and ensuring scaling up of operations of SME exchange. The Plan has to provide resources for such market interventions.
Technology Upgradation and Support for Emerging Sectors 13.150. Technology will be the foremost factor for enhancing the global competitiveness of Indian MSME Sector. The Prime Minister’s Task Force on MSMEs has identified low technology, generally used by the MSME Sector, as a major cause for poor competitiveness of the sector. Strategies for improving technological capability of MSMEs have been previously discussed in the section on improving technology and depth in domestic manufacturing.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Credit and Finance 13.146. Credit is a crucial input for promoting growth of MSME Sector, particularly the MSE Sector, in view of its limited access to alternative sources of finance. Access to information, simplification of loan procedures and interest subvention for micro enterprises are enabling features for timely and affordable credit to MSMEs. The Plan should provision resources for promoting e-platforms for information flow and simplification of procedures. To address the risk perception of banks, particularly for lending to MSEs, the Credit Guarantee Scheme needs to be strengthened, with enhanced budgetary support. There should be substantial increase in the number of MSEs covered under the Performance and Credit Rating Scheme which is a facilitating factor for easy access to credit with liberal terms.

13.147. The reach of the MSEs to the banking network has to be substantially enhanced through setting up of branches near clusters. While there has

13.151. The main focus needs to be on developing appropriate technologies for various manufacturing processes to bring down cost, develop collaborations between private and public sector on boosting R&D, and facilitate absorption of globally competitive technologies. Also, separate schemes of the ministry for installation of plants and equipment’s with advanced technologies viz. CLCSS and NMCP components may be merged into one scheme, skill development and capacity building.

Industry 87

13.152. Lack of skilled manpower and information as well as lack of reach to modern technology are affecting the growth of the MSME Sector. Among its major recommendations, the Prime Minister’s Task Force has identified lack of skilled manpower as a road block for the growth of the MSME Sector. The Ministry of MSME has been mandated to provide skill to 42 lakh persons during the Twelfth Plan period. Strategies for this, including enhancing training capacities for skilling and industry-led skilling and training programmes have been covered previously in the Human Resources Development Section.
Infrastructure Development 13.153. Cluster-based intervention has been acknowledged as one of the key strategies for comprehensive development of Indian industries, particularly the Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). The Ministry of MSME has adopted the cluster approach as a key strategy for enhancing the technical and physical infrastructure as well as capacity-building of micro and small enterprises and their collectives in the country. Since 1994, Ministry had also been supporting creation and upgradation of industrial infrastructure in the States under Integrated Infrastructural Development (IID) Scheme, which was subsumed under MSE-CDP in October 2007.

maintenance of industrial estates to the industry associations, local bodies, State Government agencies, SPVs on self-sustaining basis. World over hightech and innovative enterprises start in Modular Industrial Estates. To encourage such ventures, modular industrial estates are proposed to be set up near centres of excellence like IITs. 13.156. The Cluster Development Programme of the Ministry of MSME (MSE-CDP) may be continued in the Twelfth Plan period with streamlining of interventions and also ensuring the sustainability of clusters developed. The Programme should also address the requirements of the large unorganised manufacturing sector.
Marketing and Procurement 13.157. Marketing and procurement are the other areas where MSMEs face more challenges than opportunities. The challenges range from procurement of raw materials to lack of market information. MSMEs face several constraints in the marketing and procurement front due to their limited manoeuvrability in such wide ranging activities either on account of lack of finance or on account of lack of awareness. While marketing of products of MSMEs mostly depends upon the market forces and individual efforts of the enterprises, Government and its organisations can play the role of a facilitator to help MSME Sector in these endeavours.

13.154. Land and infrastructure constraints are a major problem, particularly in metros and bigger cities. As production processes of majority of MSEs can be accomplished in flatted factories, flatted factory complexes may be encouraged by providing financial support likewise. Accommodation problem of industrial workers may be addressed to a great extent by supporting dormitories (in or around industrial estates/areas). SPVs may run the dormitories on sustainable basis. 13.155. Maintenance of industrial estates (mainly maintenance of roads, drainage, sewage, power distribution and captive power generation, water supply, dormitories for workers, common effluent treatment plants, common facilities, security and so on) is a critical component for successful functioning of the industrial enterprises in any industrial estate/ industrial area. It would be appropriate to handover

13.158. There are multiplicity of market development assistance programmes to support MSMEs, like participation in domestic and international trade fairs, bar coding, packaging and standardisation within the Ministry. There is a need for rationalisation and consolidation of such programmes under different broad heads. 13.159. However, schemes especially in areas of use of ICT for creating cluster-level, State-level and national-level B2B portals with connectivity to international markets and marketing infrastructure may be required in the Twelfth Plan such as setting up of testing facilities and establishment of information dissemination centres and display-cum-exhibition centres.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

13.160. The plan allocation for such schemes can be made under the infrastructure vertical and technology vertical (ICT Scheme), respectively. The vacant land available in the premises of MSME DIs and DICs can be put to use for construction of displaycum-exhibition centres and establishment of information dissemination centres. 13.161. Setting up of marketing organisations in clusters in PPP mode through formation of SPVs, which would form the focal point at the cluster level for all marketing-related activities, such as e-marketing, branding, advertising, barcoding and so on could be considered in the Twelfth Plan. 13.162. National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), the autonomous outfit of Ministry of MSME may be the apex organisation to coordinate market development activities under different schemes. 13.163. The Government has recently introduced a Public Procurement Policy for the MSME Sector. Further, there is also need for inclusion of private sector in the procurement policy for the MSME Sector. An offset under defence purchases has vast potential for MSME Sector. There is need for setting up a mechanism in the Ministry of Defence to ensure that the offsets under defence purchases are suitably focused to support SMEs in upgrading their capacities. 13.164. All new and existing schemes should be merged into one scheme, namely Marketing Development Assistance Scheme.
Institutional Structure 13.165. The Institutional and legal framework for promotion and development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) Sector of India is spread both at the National and State level. The primary responsibility for the development of MSMEs lies with the State Governments and Government of India supplements their efforts through a range of initiatives. The Prime Minister’s Task Force in its report have made significant recommendations on liberalising the policy regime for the MSME Sector, viz. introduction of insolvency act, liberalisation

of labour laws, liberalisation of apprenticeship act, strengthening of district industry centre and so on. 13.166. The following issues need to be immediately addressed to unshackle the growth of the MSME Sector (i) environmental issues, (ii) labour issues, (iii) exit policy, (iv) amendment of MSMED Act (v) restructuring of the DICs and MSME-DIs. 13.167. On the environmental issues, it is recommended that policies be made uniform pan-India with appropriate relaxation of the controls for the MSMEs. Regarding the labour issues, the immediate need is to consolidate the plethora of labour laws and acts into one user-friendly law. The enactment of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 is a harbinger for the growth of the MSME Sector. However, there is an urgent need to strengthen the various provisions of the Act along with enactment of the rules under the various sections.4 13.168. However, the implementation of the process of filing of Entrepreneurs’ Memorandum is still very tardy. Application of e-governance for streamlining of the procedures and for that purpose setting up of an information and database network among the DICs, MSME-DIs and the Ministry may be considered. 13.169. The provision regarding the delayed payment under the MSMED Act was another facilitator for ensuring regular cash flow to the micro and small enterprises against the supplies made. The Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Councils (MSEFC) stipulated under the Act to be set up at the State level where foreseen as facilitators to the MSEs. 13.170. However, most of these MSEFCs are not operating efficiently. In fact, in some States they are yet to be constituted. The group recommends immediate action for upscaling the activities of these MSEFCs and introduction of an information and communication network for operation and monitoring of these MSEFCs. A budget of `100 crore may be allotted for ICT enabled upscaling of the EM filing and MSEFC operations.

Industry 89

13.171. The Prime Minister’s Task Force on MSMEs have stated that no discussion on MSME can be completed without a full treatment of the unorganised sector. More than 94 per cent of MSMEs are unregistered with most of them being in the informal/unorganised sector. The Task Force has commented that in addition to the growth potential of the sector and its critical role in the manufacturing and value chains, the heterogeneity and the unorganised nature of the Indian MSMEs are important aspects that need to be factored into policy making and programme implementation. 13.172. Policies/programmes for the larger sized MSMEs need to address issues relating to growth, marketing, access to raw material, credit, development and technology upgradation. Programmes for the micro and small enterprises in the unorganised sector need to address similar issues for improving their productivity and competitiveness. In addition, they must address requirements of social safety nets for workers in these, more vulnerable enterprises. The future strategy should focus on providing social security to the unorganised workers in the MSME Sector in terms of the mandate under Unorganised Workers Social Security Act (UWSSA).5 13.173. The policies for the MSME Sector would have to be devised especially in the areas of skill formation and credit and technology upgradation, and should meet the special needs of the informal sector. Instead of consigning these responsibilities to other departments, the Ministry of MSME will have to actively provide an enabling environment for the unorganised sector to flourish and integrate with the organised sector. Towards this, it is suggested that separate approaches/schemes for the unorganised sector be built into the broad verticals—credit, technology, skill formation and so on. For example, some of the important suggestions can be incorporated into the flagship MSE-CDP Scheme as these can be done on a cluster basis. Apart from this, the Ministry may work out the modalities of how enterprises in the sector can be registered.

13.174. In order to achieve the desired growth rate for the manufacturing sector, it is necessary to have a high growth rate for the country’s exports as well. Considering this, the Department of Commerce has come up with a strategy paper on doubling India’s exports. 13.175. The recent spiral of exchange rate depreciation of Rupee, while has exerted pressure on imports, has made Indian goods more competitive in international markets. However, this has not materialised into a much needed spurt in exports, largely due to falling global orders and declining domestic demand on account of rising prices, especially of fuel. Over time, repricing of Rupee, if sustained, will incentivise domestic manufacturing. However, it is important to consider that demand for two of India’s biggest imports, oil and gold, is not as sensitive to prices. Exchange rate depreciation will therefore have to be supported and balanced by fundamental changes in the ecosystem that can sustainably boost Indian exports and also overall domestic manufacturing.

Key Objectives
• Accelerating the rate of growth of manufacturing exports • Building a brand image for Indian products • Increasing technology intensity of products being exported from India

Status and Key Challenges
• Low level of production – Output is the most important determinant of exports. Therefore, quantum, quality and competitiveness of domestic manufacturing is very important for export performance of the manufacturing sector. Unfortunately, India’s manufacturing is growing at a very low rate as compared to other developing countries. • Very low share of high tech exports – High-tech products have better terms of trade due to high income elasticity. However, India’s share in the global trade of high tech products is very low, and has been between 5–8 per cent during 2003–09.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• Non-tariff barriers being placed by countries – There is a lack of information and clarity on procedural norms and regulations of various countries regarding specification as well as methods of sampling, inspection and testing. Several conformity assessment issues also have the effect of restricting trade.

• •

Strategy and Key Recommendations
13.176. For achieving the above mentioned objectives, a stable and comprehensive policy for promotion of exports is required. Following specific action points can be considered for achieving the above mentioned objectives:
Accelerating Rate of Growth of Indian Exports • Providing world-class infrastructure at ports and airports. For promoting exports, adequate infrastructure at all major ports and air ports is required. Further, deepening of draughts at berths, anytime working in ports, deployment of shore mobile cranes for cargo, LPG and CNG connection through pipes, and making them available in every town are also required. • Dedicated export berths for automobile industry at Chennai port and one more port on west coach, equipped with facilities to handle ~5l vehicles by 2010 and space for parking are required. • Ranipat, Gurgaon and Unmao should be notified as town of export excellence as this would enhance infrastructure development there. • Providing an enabling mechanism for facilitating exports is required. • Reduction of transaction cost for exporters – Export procedure to be simplified and human interface with exporters to be reduced • Addressing non-tariff barriers to ensure fairness to exporters – Indian standards need to be in line with international standards and technical regulations – Review of our existing standards and their benchmarking with international standards is required – More improved labs with international accreditation • Reform of the FTA process to include improved consultative process with stakeholders

• • •

– Include better input taking mechanism from industries and associations Improving fiscal incentives to exporters Attracting FDI in country – Linking FDI investment with market access and giving preferential incentives for investment in areas where Indian domestic market is non-existent – Reduction of threshold limit for offset obligation should be considered Ensuring availability of funds to exporters – For example, reduction in ECGC premium, availability of pre-shipment and post-shipment credit Market strategy to capture unexplored markets and products Move to higher value-added products exported to traditional markets Focus on Asian and African countries – Market access through quota system should be negotiated with competing countries – Conducive trade agreements need to be put in place Focus on globally dynamic products – Products which are gaining significant share in global trade

Building a Brand Promotion Strategy to Coalesce the Brand Values of the Indian Manufacturing Sector • Initial survey of existing product-promotion strategy and product perception—through IBEF • Initiate study to benchmark Indian products with competitors in terms of quality and price; all stakeholders should be consulted in this exercise • A logo and a standard brand kit should be developed • Focus required on strong PR initiative – Participation of Government and industry should be ensured at major national and international trade fairs, seminars and exhibitions Focus on Moving Towards ‘High-tech’ Exports from Current Low Tech Exports • Identify the sectors having high technology and high export growth potential

Industry 91

– Frequent consultations among export promotion councils, industry associations and major technology agencies required – CII is already in partnership with many agencies for development of technology. Department of Commerce may partner with these efforts to assist R&D for manufacturing exports – Need to focus on measures to promote these identified sectors

13.177. Public-sector enterprises occupy an important space in manufacturing. While PSEs like SAIL and BHEL have performed very well in competition with private-sector enterprises, there are also many PSEs that have performed very poorly. In an economic environment that has changed considerably since the early days of India’s post- Independence development journey, the need for PSEs as well as the systems for their governance and management should be re-evaluated. Considering this, the Roongta Committee was set up to examine a range of issues of the PSEs and suggest a roadmap for reforms and further development of these enterprises. 13.178. Major recommendations of the Roongta Committee are given below

Strategy and Key Recommendations
13.179. A fundamental problem facing CPSEs which inevitably affect their performance is that they are expected to compete in the market with privatesector companies while having much less freedom of manoeuvre. To deal with this problem it is necessary to consider some fundamental changes as outlined below:
Change in Corporate Governance Structure in CPSEs • Setting up a strategy and business development committee by every CPSE Board. The committee needs to set direction for the company towards diversification, acquisition, joint ventures, new business entry and review of organisational structure and so on. • Introduce a system of annual self-evaluation for board of CPSEs.

• Changing the board composition to have 50 per cent board members as independent directors. • Role of Government director should be equivalent to independent directors on matters where Government has no views as Government. These directors should be paid sitting fees for attending board committee meetings. Their evaluation should also be based on their performance as Directors of board of CPSEs. • Reform the process of selection of independent directors to make the process more efficient. For this DPE/PSEB can formulate a panel of approved names, out of which independent directors can be appointed for CPSEs. Full-time CEOs of successful enterprises should also be eligible to be appointed as independent directors provided there is no conflict of interest. • Streamlining the process of appointment of CMDs and full-time directors, in particular the mechanism of obtaining vigilance clearance Process of selection of CMDs/CEOs of Maharatna and Navratna Companies to be different from current process. A separate body may be constituted within PSEB and the selection criteria should be more focussed on leadership quality, strategic thinking, capability to manage external environment and so on, apart from domain/ sectoral expertise. Selection of CMD should be made three months before the term of incumbent CMD. Vigilance-clearance process also needs to be reformed in line with the previous point. • Tenure of CMD/Functional director should be minimum made three years irrespective of the age of the person. • Reforming vigilance function in CPSEs.
Change in Human Resource Strategy for CPSEs • All CPSEs should undertake a comprehensive manpower planning exercise to identify key skill and talent requirement across all levels within an organisation from a medium term and a long term perspective. • CPSEs should develop a leadership pipeline for its key positions and a leadership development strategy. • To fill the immediate gaps at the higher level in CPSEs, an extension of two years may be allowed


Twelfth Five Year Plan

at DGM and above level, subject to certain conditions. • Autonomy in recruitment policy. • Autonomy in compensation policy.
Review of Memorandum of Understanding for CPSEs • Current MOU System to be modified and greatly linked to the organisation’s approach towards diversification, acquisition, formation of JVs, new/strategic business, usage of ICT, R&D initiative, HR development and organisational changes. • Physical performance parameters, if included in MOU should be benchmarked with industry parameters including those in private sectors. CPSEs should be encouraged to reach to these standards within a defined timeframe. Joint Ventures, Public–Private Partnership and Procurement • CPSE board should be empowered to select the partner for JV and companies for acquisition. • Process of entering into partnership and JVs need to be simplified. Current restriction of minimum ownership of 51 per cent in case of JV to be done away with. • Disinvestment through privatisation of loss making CPSEs may be considered. • Creation of a Public Sector Land Development Authority for the purpose of developing surplus lands with CPSEs and unlocking their real value. Technology Mapping for CPSEs • Every CPSE to have a technology policy, clearly indicating the commitment of the enterprise in using/sourcing/developing type of technology as per needs of the organisation. • A technology committee may be set up in every CPSE to identify the technology needs and finding alternative ways of developing or finding such technology.

Government investment in the industry is missed or Government’s investments, when they have outlived their necessity, become a drag on the performance of the units and a drain on the public exchequer too. • For this purpose, a Single Holding Structure (SHS) for all new government-owned companies can be established. – The SHS can be in the form of holding company owning different stakes in different Government companies. – The management can be a mix of senior incumbent bureaucrats and members chosen for their integrity, expertise and domain knowledge in industry, economic or commerce. – The SHS can be self-managed like a mutual fund. The board of the SHS would appoint the board of the company it has invested into to the extent of its investment. – SHS would earn income through dividends from entities it invested into or through divestiture of its stake. – The performance of the SHS entity could be monitored by an empowered group of ministers to whom it would be accountable. 13.181. The above mentioned model can be used to fill gaps where there is not enough Indian presence in sectors and which the Government considers strategic and vital to India’s future.

13.182. NIMZ is a new concept which is an integral part of the recently approved National Manufacturing Policy of DIPP. The NMP is a policy solution for a number of challenges discussed in this document, and is a policy tool to be applied to select zones designated for promoting manufacturing.

Key Objectives
13.183. Creation of dedicated zones for manufacturing in the nation to • Promote investments in manufacturing • Make the country a hub for both domestic and international markets

13.180. There is a need for changing the governance model for CPSEs in sectors in which private-sector investments are not forthcoming. Government should be able to enter or exit from any such investment in good time. Otherwise, the benefit of

Industry 93

• Promoting ease of development of manufacturing units

Concept and Approved Strategy
13.184. The National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) will be developed as integrated industrial townships with state-of-the art infrastructure and land use on the basis of zoning; clean and energy-efficient technology; necessary social infrastructure; skill development facilities, and so on to provide a productive environment to persons transitioning from the primary sector to the secondary and tertiary sectors. These NIMZs would be managed by SPVs which would ensure master planning of the zone; pre-clearances for setting up the industrial units to be located within the zone and undertake such other functions as specified in the various sections of this policy. 13.185. To enable the NIMZ to function as a selfgoverning and autonomous body, it will be declared by the State Government as an industrial township under Art 243 Q1(c) of the Constitution. In sum, the NIMZs would be large areas of developed land, with the requisite ecosystem for promoting world class manufacturing activity. They would be different from SEZs in terms of size, level of infrastructure planning, and governance structures related to regulatory procedures and exit policies. 13.186. The administrative structure of NIMZ will comprise of a Special Purpose Vehicle, a developer, State Government and the Central Government. The Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, notify an NIMZ. An SPV will be constituted to exercise the powers conferred on, and discharge the functions assigned to it under this Policy to manage the affairs of the NIMZ. Every SPV shall be a legal entity by the name of the NIMZ. This SPV can be a company, including a Section 25 company depending upon the MOU between stakeholders.

• Viability gap funding through existing schemes will be provided for internal infrastructure development in the zone including infrastructure for skill development. • The Central Government, through its institutions and schemes, will provide institutional infrastructure for productivity, quality (testing facilities and so on) and design capabilities, encouraging innovation and skill development within the NIMZ. • The Central Government will be responsible for the technology acquisition and development interventions in the policy. • The Central Government will put in place a jobloss policy for units in the NIMZ. • The Central Government will undertake, along with the State Government concerned, the promotion of domestic as well as global investments in NIMZs.

Role of State Governments
13.187. The State Governments would play the lead role in setting up of the NIMZs. In particular, the State Government would be responsible for providing/facilitating the following infrastructure: • • • • • Land Power connectivity Provision of bulk requirements of water Road connectivity (State roads) Sewerage and effluent treatment linkages, from edge of NIMZ, to the final disposal sites • Appropriate infrastructure to address the health, safety and environmental concerns

Institutional Framework for Implementing NIMZs
• The Department of Industry Policy and Promotion (DIPP) will be the nodal department of the Government of India for the NIMZs. • Board of Approval constituted by DIPP will scrutinise applications for setting up the NIMZ, and subsequently monitor and expedite the progress of implementation. • The administrative structure of NIMZ will comprise of a Special Purpose Vehicle, a developer, State Government and the Central Government.

Role of Central Government
• Expenditure on master planning for the NIMZ. • Improve/provide external physical infrastructure linkages to the NIMZs including—rail, road (national highways), ports, airports and telecom.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• The SPV would be constituted for each NIMZ and will be responsible for its development and management. It will also be empowered to issue/expedite approvals and pre-approvals.

13.189. Initially, seven investment nodes/cities have been taken up for development: 13.190. DMIC is conceived as a model industrial corridor comprising global manufacturing and commercial hubs, that is, self-contained, state-of-the-art, industrial cities. These cities will have world-class physical infrastructure like high speed road and rail connectivity for freight movement between the ports and production/consumption centres, logistics hubs, international air connectivity, reliable power and water, waste management and recycling. 13.191. With the view to taking the project forward to the implementation stage, the Cabinet in its meeting held on 15 September 2011 has approved the financial and institutional structure and financial assistance for the development of industrial cities in the DMIC. This inter alia includes creation of the ‘DMIC Project Implementation Fund’ of `17,500 crore over the next five years for the development of industrial. The Government of Japan has also announced their financial support for the DMIC project to an extent of US$ 4.5 billion for projects with Japanese participation in the first phase of the project.

The Major Benefits for Units within NIMZ
• Job-loss policy will enable units to pay suitable worker compensation in the eventuality of business losses/closures through insurance and thereby eliminate the charge on the assets. • The transfer of assets belonging to a firm which has been declared sick will be facilitated by the SPV of the concerned NIMZ. • Exemption from capital gains tax. • Skill up gradation programmes for new employees as well as for the existing employees in coordination with NSDC. • Soft loans from multilateral institutions will be explored for funding infrastructure development. • The developers of NIMZs will be allowed to raise ECBs for developing the internal infrastructure.

Special Incentives for Green Technologies in NIMZs
• • • • Environmental audit will be mandatory Water audit will be mandatory Exemption from water cess Ten per cent one-time capital subsidy for units practicing zero water discharge • Rainwater harvesting will be compulsory • Under renewable energy appropriate incentives under existing schemes will be available • Incentive to obtain green rating for buildings

13.192. The objectives of the Plan will be met by the performance of enterprises in select sectors. The selection of the sectors that are included in the Plan has been on a ‘bottom-up–cum–top-down’ process. India’s New Manufacturing Plan is not made on a blank slate. Manufacturing enterprises are operating in the country in a large variety of sectors. They are competing with one another and with enterprises from abroad too. They understand the constraints in India on their competitiveness and growth, as well as opportunities before them. Therefore, associations of enterprises in various sectors were encouraged to prepare plans for their sector’s growth, along with the central Government ministry/department responsible for the sector. They have indicated what the enterprises (and their associations) will themselves be responsible for and the support required from Government.

Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project
13.188. The DMIC is proposed to be developed on either side along the alignment of the 1,483 km long Western Dedicated Rail Freight Corridor between Dadri (UP) and JNPT (Navi Mumbai). Running across the six States of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra, the project seeks to create a strong economic base with a globally competitive environment and state-of-the-art infrastructure to activate local commerce, enhance investments and attain sustainable development.

Industry 95

Sector Coverage
13.193. Some sectors have been identified as critical in achieving the overall manufacturing goals. The key characteristics of these sectors are:
Sectors of Strategic Importance 13.194. It is essential for the country to develop domestic manufacturing capabilities in certain sectors for ensuring national security and self-reliance. Industries such as Defence Equipment, Aerospace, Capital Goods, Electronics Systems Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) and Shipbuilding and Ship Repair are sectors where greater focus is required to increase indigenisation in production. Sectors for Basic Inputs 13.195. Availability of high-quality raw material and production inputs is essential for ensuring sustained growth of the manufacturing sector. Industries which are engaged in the production of steel, cement, fertilisers, and in the exploration and development of Minerals, underpin this growth. Significant impetus is required towards developing production capacities in these sectors. Sectors for Depth and Value Addition 13.196. These are knowledge-intensive and technologyintensive industries with high growth potential. Developing competitive advantage in them through increasing depth and value addition in domestic manufacturing will contribute to long-term sustained economic growth. While India has developed good technological capability in certain sectors in this category (automobiles, pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals), it lags behind significantly in others (electronics, chemicals and paper). Sectors for Employment Generation 13.197. Industries such as textiles, food processing, leather goods, and gems and jewellery are less capital intensive and more labour absorptive in nature. These are high employment generating industries that are currently dominated by MSMEs. They lack the deployment of sophisticated technologies in their manufacturing processes and instead rely heavily on manpower. Maximum growth in employment is likely to come from these industries and hence their

success is imperative for the country to achieve its job-creation goals. 13.198. The definition of the sectors was influenced by the way the ministries are organised. However, most of the growth and employment data available under NIC classification does not follow this sector definition. Therefore, we have attempted to correlate the Plans for the sectors (in the way we have defined in this Plan) to the industrial segments as per NIC classification to arrive at the likely scenarios for manufacturing growth rate and employment that will be achieved if the recommendations suggested in this Plan are implemented. The Table 13.8 provides the likely growth rate and employment figures that would be achieved on a ‘business as is’ basis with the manufacturing sector growing as per its historical growth rate (Scenario 1). 13.199. Under Scenario 2, we consider the manufacturing growth rate provided the manufacturing strategy is implemented. Targets for sectoral growth rates6 in manufacturing were derived by the respective working groups. This then provided the starting point towards identifying the supporting and enabling conditions that would need to be effected to realise the requisite outcomes. One such condition is that capital investment in the economy needs to be labour supplementing and not labour displacing; to reflect this we have deflated the growth rate of labour productivity in Scenario 2. As can be seen from the following table, in Scenario 2, the creation of 70 million additional jobs is a possibility, provided the manufacturing strategy recommendations are implemented, while a ‘business as usual’ approach will not create the requisite additional employment opportunities. 13.200. The Plan is a living process to shape and to strengthen the productivity and competitiveness of a large industrial ecosystem so that much faster growth of industrial output and more employment can be created across the country. Actions will be required in all States, and in many industrial sectors, to meet the ambitious national goals for the country’s industrial sector that this Plan has laid out. This Plan cannot be ‘the last word’ on all that

TABLE 13.8 Manufacturing GDP by Sector and Employment Projections Eleventh Plan* Scenario 1: Manufacturing Growth as per Historical Growth Rates Employment Employment Employment 2009–10 2016–17 2024–25 Scenario 2: Growth rate as per Manufacturing Plan GDP CAGR Employment Employment 2016–17 2024–25 as per Manufacturing Plan 8.8% 4.7% 11.5% 11.5% 24.0% 12.0% 8.7% 1.03 2.66 12.22 1.19 4.68 2.09 1.63 4.3 50.5 4.76 60.01 0.84 5.33 3.34 1.59 4.47 68.83 10.7% 12.0% 13.6% 10.3% 16.8% 12.8% 13.0% 6.3% 7.29 4.35 12.07 10.94 2.22 5.82 2.08 1.16 2.66 7.61 1.86 7.25 2.20 2.37 5.02 74.91 9.50 4.17 19.14 17.34 8.25 9.57 2.69 1.73 4.36 14.03 2.71 16.67 3.82 4.18 5.43 123.59

Manufacturing Sectors (Excluding Mining)

Contribution to GDP CAGR Manufacturing 11th Plan GDP 8.7% 1.7% 9.2% 3.9% 1.3% 2.2% 2.7% 10.6% 12.2% 6.8% 9.7% 11.1% 6.0% 7.7% 6.3% 6.3% 6.0% 12.8% 1.3 1.5 8.1% 3.8 1.9% 1.4 13.6% 4.3 9.0% 1.7 2.20 7.22 7.5% 0.8 0.95 5.8% 1.6 1.72 12.0% 3.6 5.52 8.34 1.64 4.6% 0.9 0.90 0.79 7.3% 7.3 8.57 9.20 3.8% 8.4 8.00 6.56 4.7% 4.1 4.12 3.61 7.3% 5.5 6.46 6.94

Food products and beverages

Tobacco products


Wearing apparel

Leather products and others

Wood and others

Paper, publishing and others

Coke, petroleum products, and nuclear fuel, rubber and plastics

Chemicals and chemical products

Other non-metallic mineral products

Basic metals

Machinery and equipment and others

Electrical machinery and apparatus, telecom and others

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

Furniture and other manufacturing


Note: *Contribution to Manufacturing GDP as per GDP Data series provided by CSO—2009–10. Basis of GDP CAGR Eleventh Plan estimates provided in the Annexure. Employment figures are in millions. Employment for 2009–10 does not include employment of 0.20 million for recycling and medical, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks. ^ The key variables and assumptions are part of Annexure 13.1.

Industry 97

is required to be done. Just as many stakeholders, many sectors and many industry ministries have come together to start this comprehensive, collaborative process, others are expected to join too. Thus, the snowball will grow into a larger and faster movement. Indeed, the preparation of this Plan has already brought forth demands from sectors that did not join the first wave to come on board too. In the directions set by the Plan, they see opportunities for their growth too. For instance, biotechnology, which focuses on industrial enzymes, alternate energy, seed manufacturing, diagnostics, vaccines, discovery research and clinical services and biotech drugs, is emerging as an important focus area for the country. 13.201. While we have not included this as a separate section (this is included in the Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Section), the policies needed for the sector would be given due importance in the ongoing planning process. More such sectors are likely to join the planning process as we go along. 13.202. With this in mind, the process of planning has been designed as an ongoing activity with periodic reviews to ensure that right policies are provided to encourage new emerging industrial sectors and reviewing policies of existing sectors based on the changing global and domestic economic and industrial environment. 13.203. While there are certain common challenges and underlying solutions across sectors, which have been articulated in the previous section, each sector also has its unique constraints that need to be addressed. These sector-wise recommendations have been attached as an annexure to this document (Annexure 13.2).

would serve well to further the overall growth of manufacturing in India (Box 13.3). 13.205. The Central and the State Governments are responsible for implementing the various policyrelated and institution-related recommendations. This categorisation can be seen in Box 13.4.

WAY FORWARD Principles of Policy Implementation
13.206. Research on success of countries that built effective implementation systems to create sustained competitive advantage across multiple manufacturing sectors provides some principles for a robust implementation process. • Build an implementation system, don’t just do the task: Explicit attention to the process of policy development and implementation has been lacking to a large extent in the Indian context. An effective implementation system is not limited to the success of a single initiative. It builds broadbased capabilities across several industries. • Systemic experimentation and learning help to progressively and rapidly improve implementation: Even carefully designed programmes are likely to face challenges from unforeseen changes in the environment. Therefore, it is important to have learning and feedback mechanisms in place to ensure that implementation effectiveness improves through successive cycles. Good policy development (and implementation) should follow the PDCA cycle (Plan—develop strategy; Do—implement strategy; Check—diagnose issues in strategy and its implementation; Act—rectify issues identified). • Prioritise, sequence and create momentum through results: Often it takes time for results of policy recommendations to become visible. When results are not visible, the implementation process may lose momentum. Therefore, to build momentum, some early wins must be targeted. They build confidence and commitment to the process. • Performance measures for government programmes have to be defined consultatively: The old

13.204. The overall manufacturing strategy outlined in the chapter details many initiatives and actions that address the key challenges in each sector as well as focuses on capitalising on the opportunities that lie within. Also, recommendations have been formulated to relieve the cross-cutting constraints across sectors. A few high-impact strategies emerge, which


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Box 13.3 Strategies for Highest Overall Impact
Policy and Process Interventions • Align stakeholders in the process of development and implementation of industrial policies. • Simplify processes for doing business in India by mandating a ‘Regulatory Impact Assessment’ and operationalising single window clearance across the country. • Create a level-playing field for Indian manufacturers through fiscal measures by correcting anomalies in duty structures. • Boost demand for domestic manufacturing, regardless of ownership of enterprises, through public procurement backed by minimum threshold quality parameters. • Bring down the cost of finance. Technology Upgradation Measures • Improve Government–industry and industry–academic collaboration. • Encourage technology transfers through FDI/JVs. • Improve technical standards and voluntary compliance, across the industry. • Encourage adoption of ‘green technology’. • Modernise MSMEs through technology adoption and adequate access to finance. Infrastructure Creation • Improve transport and power infrastructure. • Set up NIMZs (National Investment and Manufacturing Zones). • Make industrial clusters more effective by creating both, the ‘hard’ physical infrastructure as well as the ‘soft’ infrastructure for knowledge creation and sharing. • Design an effective land-acquisition process for industrial development. Human Capital Formation • Modernise labour regulations and institutions. • Improve skill availability through Skill Councils. • Ensure social protection to all employees in the manufacturing sector by creating ‘sump institutions’ for workers in transitory phase and develop innovative insurance systems for the informal sector. • Improve ‘industrial relations’ through streamlining of consultative processes and representative institutions. • Improve the quality of manufacturing managers/supervisors.

management adage—‘you can’t manage what you don’t measure’—is especially true with regards to complex Government programmes. The need for performance measures is well accepted. However, it is also very important to define these measures appropriately. A key difference between public sector and private sector programmes is that the value required to be produced by public programmes is generally more intangible than in private programmes where shareholder value and profit may be good measures. Outcomes of public programmes must deliver against expectations of diverse public stakeholders. Therefore, it is imperative that time is spent, upfront, to define outcomes in consultation with key stakeholders. Failure to do this causes the system to adopt simplistic measures of performance

against expenditure targets, which are not good indicators of the outcomes that were desired. • Coordination between Government departments is critical: Given the complexity of policy issues relating to manufacturing, most solutions are likely to require coordinated actions between a number of Government departments. While the default solution is to create another agency/committee to oversee this coordination, this is not always the optimal solution. Before setting up such an agency/committee, the tasks required to be performed by such an agency/committee must be analysed and the existing system of agency/ committees must be mapped to eliminate any overlaps and redundancies. Otherwise additional agencies/committees can increase the clutter in the system rather than

Industry 99

Box 13.4 Key Recommendations for Manufacturing
Category Policy recommendations Central Governments • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Institution-related recommendations (new institutions) Develop National Land Use policy Reform the existing environmental clearance processes Initiate Reforms in labour laws Create a ‘Sump’ for transitory workers and ‘job loss insurance Mandate Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for all regulatory changes in the country Develop functional National Business facilitation and development policy Develop functional competition Act Evolve a Single Holding Structure for all PSEs Create a National IP Mission Develop Policy on technical regulations Mandate minimum 30% local value addition for capital goods Provide preference to local content in PSE purchases of capital goods Rationalise the import of second hand capital goods Make changes in ECB and FDI policy and removal of sectoral cap for banking sector (Steel) Accord ‘deemed exports’ status to Steel Industry Prepare policy on fuel usage in Transport sector Evolve National Policy on Vehicle Retirement and End-oflife solution Develop integrated chemical management policy and regime Passing of MMDR bill State Governments • Reforming the existing environmental clearance processes • Developing State Land Use policy • Initiate reforms in labour laws • Developing State business facilitation and development policy • Developing State Competition Act • Mandate Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for all regulatory changes in the State • Mandate minimum 30% local value addition for capital goods • Provide preference to local content in PSE purchases of capital goods • Improve the performance of power generating and distributing companies in the States • Streamlining the administration of sales tax, VAT and so on • Development of State maritime policies and boards • Strengthen land management at State level • Establish/strengthen State-level cluster stimulation cells

• Create RBOs mandated and empowered for integrated Water Resource Management • Establish an independent and autonomous regulator for Land • Establish functional National-State Business Facilitation and Development Commissions • Establish functional national state institutions for promoting business responsibilities, competitiveness and competition reforms • Establish cluster stimulation cells • Establish speciality chemical forum • Constitute domestic council for leather industry • Create National Aeronautics Commission • Create National Discovery and Development Center for Pharma Industry • Develop institutional mechanisms enabling expert study of techno-economic policy issues relating to national raw materials security • Strengthen capabilities of − Local bodies for recycling and waste management − Standard developing organisations − Inspection bodies/certification agencies/regulators in the areas of Technical Standards − Scale up of operations of SME exchange

Strengthening of existing institutions

• Strengthen capabilities of micro and small enterprises facilitation centers in States


Twelfth Five Year Plan

improve its performance. Since coordination is an essential function to improve system performance, coordination/oversight should be accountable for performing its task and its performance must be measured too. • Stakeholder consultations are key to improve the quality of policy development and implementation: Rather than seeking to a priori design a detailed plan in an unpredictable environment, it is better to create effective forums to identify problems, and for joint teams to be formed to tackle them. These forums should be broad-based and inclusive to ensure that all stakeholders can contribute to the process.

13.210. The ‘third rail’ that provides the power to accelerate learning and institutional capacity improvement is an ongoing process of evaluation and learning, which must be proactively facilitated through the creation of a ‘backbone’ organisation and other means. This approach is schematically represented in Figure 13.7.
Collaboration and Implementation 13.211. Two root causes identified for poor implementation are: inadequate consensus amongst stakeholders for policy changes and very poor coordination amongst agencies in execution.

A Two Track Process of Implementation
13.207. The Manufacturing Plan makes many recommendations developed through a managed, participative process with structured involvement from a diverse set of stakeholders (Figure 13.7). Previous experiences of implementation in India have shown that the inability of various stakeholders to work together is a root cause of failure of policies. 13.208. The conventional response to this has been to try and create a structure with a chain of command. However, this becomes untenable when there are many stakeholders and owners who cannot all be included within such a structure. The recommended approach for policy implementation, based on the principles enunciated before, is characterised by three ‘L’s: enable local action, create lateral connections; and focus on learning. Local actions and lateral connections require a process of implementation that coordinates multiple entities in a consultative manner. Learning requires a process that systematically distils lessons from experience to improve the ongoing evolution of policies and their implementation. 13.209. Therefore, a two-track approach for implementation and learning is recommended: the first track delineates the steps required to convert the recommendations of the Plan to implementation and the second track concentrates on the systemic changes that need to be undertaken to strengthen the process of consultation, learning, policy making and ongoing implementation.

13.212. Wide-spread consensus-building processes, therefore, need to be institutionalised within the Indian manufacturing system to ensure successful implementation of plans. 13.213. This consensus cannot be commanded. We need another mechanism specifically designed to bring people with different perspectives together: to listen to each other, to distil the essence of their shared aspiration for the country and the critical principles they will adhere to in the work they have to do together as partners in progress. 13.214. Hence, there is a need to establish an effective ‘backbone’ capability which will provide strength to multi-stakeholder policy and implementation processes. 13.215. The ‘backbone’ capability neither requires an organisation with large amounts of resources and manpower nor one with the power to command topdown. The ‘backbone’ capability must essentially comprise of small catalytic units located in many parts of the system, which can provide the ‘tools and techniques’ to the various States and ministries to effectively coordinate, design and implement their programmes. The backbone network (and its units) must rely on ‘learning by doing’ to enhance its own capacity and to transfer knowledge to other stakeholders tackling specific systemic issues. 13.216. The India Backbone Implementation Network will provide these institutions with tools

Industry 101

Implementation Tracks

Learning 2 1 Manufacturing Plan Categorize and Prioritize Recommendations on the basis of Impact and Feasibility Doing Changing Identifying and Inducing Systemic Reform

Process for Implementation

Define, Develop and Induce the Process for Implementation

Creating enabling mechanisms for Implementation – Inducing State Consultation – Ensuring Sectoral schemes align with overall strategy

• Ensuring Accountability • Designing an Effective Consultation Process • Developing principles for key policy actions such as scheme design and implementation • Structuring of implementation agency


FIGURE 13.7: Two Connected ‘Tracks’ for Implementation and Systems’ Improvement

and assistance to fulfil their coordination functions more effectively. This has been discussed in detail in Volume I of the Plan document, in the section on Collaboration and Implementation, under the chapter on Governance. A ‘Movement’ of Learning and Improvement 13.217. The distinction between creating yet another ‘organisation’ and stimulating a ‘movement’ is crucial. For widespread acquisition of capabilities, across a large, diverse, and democratic system, a movement of learning and change is required. 13.218. Japan was able to improve the quality of all is enterprises, in the public and private sectors, through the TQM movement. Relevant principles, techniques and tools were provided by many persons and organisations, notable amongst them were Professors Deming and Ishikawa, and Taichi Ohno of Toyota. These principles and tools were deployed by the movement. The subjects of the IBIN Movement are stakeholder collaboration and implementation. IBIN must play a catalytic role, and it must be designed for it. Strategic functions such as high-stake partnership brokering and project management are capabilities

that should rest within IBIN and can be managed with a compact team. Some amount of time will have to be invested in identifying staff and partners with the appropriate skills and character required for the work of IBIN and its units. Given that India has never quite had an organisation like the proposed IBIN, the enrolment process of partners will need to be very deliberate about selecting the right individuals and organisations for the job, keeping in mind how these selections will impact stakeholder perceptions of IBIN and, therefore, willingness to solicit services of IBIN and its units. Empanelment of partner organisations should be based on established guidelines/principles with a rigorous selection process whereby partners should expect to be challenged and evaluated, even being dropped from IBIN’s panels if deemed necessary. 13.219. Further to develop project management and stakeholder-alignment skills, IBIN needs the support of quality policy analysis to ensure consistency in implementation in the present federal structure (refer to Figure 13.8). Thus, IBIN could be well positioned to drive policy coherence at the central level and ensure nation-wide consistency in actions and


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Capabilities of the BPO

Program Management

Policy Analysis

Stakeholder Alignment

FIGURE 13.8: Capability Map

policies. For this IBIN’s units at the Centre and in the States will use tools such as Business Regulatory Impact Analysis (BRIA) to analyse the need and relevance of existing as well as new regulations on the basis of set criteria, developed though a consultative process, and relevant to the Indian context. 13.220. As mentioned ‘backbone’ units should form at several nodal points in the institutional structures of governance in the country where coordination and management of implementation are key responsibilities. These will be in State Governments and they will be within national missions that bring together several agencies to produce integrated outcomes. In each of these, the three modules of capabilities described above may be required. Of these, stakeholder-alignment and programme management would be required invariably. The third capability, policy analysis, may be required in some units, not all. For example, it would be most likely required in State level units, but perhaps not in units supporting missions. 13.221. A decision will have to be made about where the central node of the ‘backbone’ capability (which as mentioned before must grow and be distributed across the country) will reside, taking into consideration how its location will impact stakeholder perceptions of its purpose, neutrality and capabilities, and therefore the willingness of stakeholders to solicit ‘backbone’ services or take part in IBIN interventions.
Make Systemic Reforms 13.222. In the course of developing the Plan for manufacturing, through intensive discussions with stakeholders, ‘root causes’ for present problems in

the country with implementation of such ambitious and complex programmes were located. Ways to address some of these have been built into the Way Forward for the Manufacturing Plan. However, some root causes require broader institutional changes. Efforts are being made by Government to address these. Implementation of those changes by Government will accelerate the implementation of the many actions required to achieve the country’s ambitious goals for its manufacturing sector. These broader institutional changes, the benefits of which will be in all sectors of the economy, are described below. Improve Architecture of Government Programmes and Schemes 13.223. Schemes, especially those that aim to provide financial incentives to encourage specific behaviours from the private sector, are popular instruments of manufacturing policy in the country. However, significant reforms are required in the architecture of schemes to ensure that they effectively and efficiently help to fulfil policy goals: 1. Change the role of the central Government ministry from micro-manager to scheme designer and facilitator: The ministry’s role should be to act as a knowledge partner and enabler to the project implementers (which will typically be in the States). In order to be able to play this role effectively, the ministry will need to develop capabilities which are focused on scheme design and creation of learning systems and networks from which the States and other local implementers can learn. 2. Establish strategic alignment of schemes: Schemes should have strategic outcomes defined (such

Industry 103

as employment generation, number of patents, output generation and so on) so that measures of schemes’ performance are not limited to expenditures against targets. 3. Invest in good scheme design: While the Planning Commission includes schemes in principle during the five-year plan process based on the strategic logic supporting them, the actual monies should be released only when the scheme design meets well-defined quality considerations. The ministry should be provided funds to design the scheme—which might require hiring consultants/experts or reaching out to numerous stakeholders—after which they should be provided funds for the schemes only if the design can demonstrate that the scheme will deliver on the desired outcomes. 4. Establish an evaluation and feedback mechanism: Schemes should be measured on productivity of the money being spent—this allows various schemes to be compared with each other. Also, the ministry should demonstrate how learning from implementing a scheme is being used in improving it. Reform Government Institutions 13.224. The Second Administrative Reforms Commission has made several important recommendations that will improve the performance of Government generally and that will substantially improve Government effectiveness in growing the country’s manufacturing sector. Since the recommendations are very well developed and explained in the ARC’s reports, they will not be elaborated here; however, the following may be highlighted: • In its Report No. 10, the ARC has recommended changes in the career structure of the administrative services that will ensure that senior postings have adequate tenure. It has also recommended an ‘up or out’ evaluation system so that only the better officers will stay in service and move to postings at the top. And it has provided for lateral entry from outside Government, of suitably qualified personnel for such top positions. • In its Report No. 13, the ARC has recommended that policymaking functions of Government and

execution functions be separated and organised in appropriate structures. For ‘execution’ functions, the ‘agency’ structure has been strongly recommended. ‘Agency’ structures have enabled several countries—UK, Sweden, Japan, Australia and Thailand, to name a few—to substantially improve Government’s performance. 13.225. The concept of ‘agencification’ is to carve out of Government departments, ‘executive agencies’ to carry out, under competitively selected professional managers on fixed tenures, specific executive functions within a framework of policy and resources. Each such agency is institutionalised in a framework document which spells out its mandate, mission and objectives, structure, accountability, standards and targets, financial arrangements and so on and is mandated to release an annual performance report and accounts. The agency has the freedom to mould its management style, strategy, operations, systems, workforce and so on within broad Government guidelines. 13.226. The advantage of the ‘agency’ structure is that it leads to clarity about outcomes. It also allows for an inculcated culture of service delivery, empowerment of frontline staff, greater accountability and openness, improved management, transparency and so on. Role of Industry Associations 13.227. Industry associations have a vital role to play in the evolution and implementation of the Manufacturing Plan at the Centre and in the States. They provide platforms for their members to come together to analyse the constraints in the environment that must be addressed. Good-quality associations, that are democratic in their governance, transparent in their functioning and represent their industrial sector, or perhaps all industry, satisfactorily (that is, have large membership) can be invaluable partners of Government in the development and implementation of plans for manufacturing growth. Associations can also arrange platforms for consultations with Government and other stakeholders on the lines described above and thus can facilitate the


Twelfth Five Year Plan

achievement of the country’s goals for its manufacturing sector. Involve Commercial Banks in the Analysis Process 13.228. Commercial banks, who provide finance to manufacturing enterprises, large as well as small ones, are a valuable (and neutral) source of insight into constraints of different sectors. They should be involved, more systematically, in the processes of evaluation of sectoral performance and for developing solutions, along with other stakeholders. Disseminate Information to Public Effectively 13.229. Government must become much more effective in communicating with the public. Citizens are not aware of many schemes set up by Central and State Governments for their benefit. Stakeholders, who will be affected by new Government policies, realise only after the policies are announced, that they have great concerns whereas Government departments claim that the policies were posted on their websites and views had been invited. Moreover, with the ubiquity of electronic communications, including 24 × 7 TV news, and the advent of social media, Government’s communication processes must be modernised, become more proactive, and reach out to citizens more effectively.

13.230. The immediate next steps for implementing the Plan are:

• Take the Plan to the States: Much of the implementation of the Manufacturing Plan will be in the States. Therefore, State Governments and stakeholders in the States must be engaged. • Put the implementation system in place: The implementation system described in this section will need to be instituted through the collaboration of various National and State agencies as well industry associations. The DIPP, NMCC and the Planning Commission will need to collaborate to delineate their roles in the implementation process. • Ensure sectoral schemes align with overall strategy: The financial outlay of the Plan should be aligned with the strategies identified in the Plan. Rather than following the process where budgets are determined as variances to previous year’s outlays, allocations should be designed and reviewed in accordance to the strategies identified. • Communicate the Plan to a broader audience: Communication is critical to the successful implementation of any major change programme. Communications must be designed to suit the audiences for which they are intended. Some can be delivered in the form of documents or presentations. Others should be delivered through interactive discussions where clarifications can be given and even suggestions obtained. Industry associations can play a very important role in these. The Planning Commission, DIPP and NMCC would have to provide leadership and play a major role in the communications outreach.

Industry 105

Manufacturing GDP by Sector and Employment Projections TABLE 13.9 Key Variables and Assumptions Variable GDP by Sector (Excluding Mining) Assumption(s) National Accounts Statistics published by CSO provides GDP data series till 2009–10 for the manufacturing sector. This data was then extrapolated basis the projected growth rates in the economic survey report 2010–11 and adjusted for the slowdown in 2011–12 to estimate the overall growth rate for the Eleventh Plan. The growth rate thus arrived at, has then been used to project GDP for Scenario 1. For Scenario 2, growth rates as per sectoral working-group reports have been considered. It is important to note that NIC classification at the two digit level for capturing data related to individual sectors under manufacturing does not correspond to the classification of sub-sectors (eighteen) in the manufacturing strategy. Projected growth rates for the individual sectors as per the respective working groups have been mapped on a best information basis. The outcome of this approach is an average growth rate of 12 per cent for manufacturing sector as a whole during the Twelfth Five Year Plan and till 2025. GDP growth rate for the country is assumed to be at 9% for the model. Employment data is quinquennial as published by NSSO. Employment data last available is for 2009–10. This has been used to calculate labour productivity, (GDPt/Employmentt) for 2009–10 for each sector which is a key input variable towards projecting employment. Reflecting recent trends in productivity, the labour productivity growth rate has been assumed to be 6% p.a. under Scenario 1 and 5% p.a. under Scenario 2. Employment in manufacturing declined between 2004–05 and 2009–10 despite an increase in output. Hence, it is important to consider a long run view of the trend in labour productivity. As per Papola and Sahu (2012), labour productivity in India grew by 3.8% p.a. between 1993–94 and 2004–05 and by 6% between 1993–94 and 2009–10. It is important to note that in the unorganised segment which employs more than 80% of the workforce, manufacturing sector productivity per worker was estimated to be almost one-twentieth of that in the organised sector in 2006–07 (Papola et. al., 2011). Hence, a 6% growth rate has been an outcome of declining employment combined with a concentration of manufacturing output in the organised sector. This trend is not likely to be sustainable for the Indian economy, especially if the objective of inclusive growth needs to be realised. The manufacturing strategy for the Twelfth Five Year Plan aims to address systemic deficiencies in the economy with a clear focus on accelerating both growth and employment. Hence historical labour productivity growth rates cannot be relied on to project the likely impact of manufacturing strategy during the Twelfth Five Year Plan and beyond. The moderate adjustment in labor productivity growth rate from 6% in Scenario 1 to 5% Scenario 2reflects the assumption that with increased focus on employment generation, capital investment will supplement labour rather than displace it (contrary to the trend that has been observed historically).

GDP Employment by Sector (Excluding Mining)


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Sector-wise Recommendations

1. As indicated earlier, we have included Plans for 17 different industrial sectors, under four categories—sectors of strategic importance, sectors of basic inputs, sectors of depth and value addition and sectors of employment generation. It is these sectors, which will have to achieve the Plan objectives, that is, growth and employment objectives. Following are the sector-wise recommendations.

2. India has been rapidly enhancing its spending on defence. It is expected that India would become the third largest defence spender after the US and China by 2014. Equipment spending by Ministry of Defence has increased by 15–20 per cent over the last five years. With several large equipment and modernisation programmes in the pipeline, analysts are projecting an overall spend of USD 80–100 billion in the next five years. This makes India one of the world’s most lucrative markets for military products, and defence suppliers are gearing up to compete. 3. The Indian defence equipment market can be divided into four large areas: • • • • Land Systems Naval Systems Electronics Systems Aerospace

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Progressive increase share of domestic procurement from 30 to 75 per cent in next 10 years. • Ensure that 8–10 largest weapons programmes in the country have a targeted large percentage of locally manufactured content. • Build local IP in critical defence areas. • Promote and track civilian applications of technologies and material developed during defence research. • Support local defence manufacturers in building export capabilities. • Enable creation of one million new direct and indirect jobs in the defence manufacturing space. • Monitor implementation of Government’s offset policy in letter and spirit for large contracts.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
• Set up a National Defence Manufacturing Council. • Set up a national defence manufacturing council under the aegis of the Prime Minister’s office to ensure that domestic manufacturing gets due focus. • Pass an Executive Order with decision to use Make/Buy and Make (Indian) mandatory for flagship large programmes with appropriate funding to enforce Make or Buy and Make (Indian) classification for all flagship defence contracts and mandate that the prime contractor be an Indian entity, which can be a JV between a local entity and relevant global vendors. • Decide the right financial model for Indian entities working with the Government on these flagship programmes. • Streamline the defence procurement infrastructure – Need to streamline at the level of offset implementation, DPSU and OFB procurement and Ministry of Defence cantered capital procurement. – Centralisation of procurement systems and infrastructure for DPSU and OFB, creation of a centralised list of defence vendors and providing guidance to new entrant in the system. – Provide standardised contractual frameworks and clauses that can be accessed by the multiple contracting agencies to reduce contract variation and complexity across the system.

Industry 107

– Adopt more professional and specialised approach to enhance the offset facilitation process. • Increase the FDI limit for foreign participation – The current upper cap of 26 per cent on FDI in defence production needs to be relaxed to 49 per cent on case to case basis. Specific technology transfer should be specified and post-contract technology should reside in the JV/country. • Support for SMEs – SME-specific support structure for upgradation of defence manufacturing facilities for deeper capability building, achieve manufacturing certifications like ISO, developing IPs and in establishment of licensed defence units. • Create enabling infrastructure for capability building – Mechanisms to provide access to critical technologies available with research agencies or obtained through Transfer of Technology (TOT) arrangements. – Creation of a Centre of Excellence for Defence Electronics: to be modelled on a PPP model aimed at generation of indigenous IP. • Vendor development – Continuous development of vendor base by DPSU.

AEROSPACE Introduction
4. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces ‘aircraft, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts.’ Its value chain is characterised by a long project life cycle spanning R&D, engineering design, manufacturing, assembly, maintenance, repair and overhaul. India is one of the fastest growing aerospace markets. 5. The three segments of the Industry are: • Defence • Civil Aviation • Space

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• • • • Develop greater design and manufacturing capabilities in the defence space. Become a global player in supplying advanced technology in space sector at a fair price in the global space market. Drive dedicated technology development for civil aviation, develop greater manufacturing capabilities. Become the international hub for maintenance, repair and overhaul needs.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
• Strengthening institutional architecture through a National Aeronautics Commission, if required – All the knowledge residing in entities like aeronautics organisations, colleges, labs and so on should be synergistically harnessed. – Map indigenous capabilities, identify knowledge gaps, direct resources efficiently to address critical technology gaps. – Formulate a national aeronautics policy to strengthen the aerospace industry. • Strengthening of certification organisations – Given the expected increase in the work in the sector, CEMILAC and DGCA must be strengthened. – The government should facilitate certification of SMEs. • Promotion of PPP model – PPP model by forming JVs should be encouraged in order to fully exploit the knowledge base of the government and the entrepreneurship of the private sector. • Earmarking special aerospace economic zones may be considered – Creating clusters to certify and quality test aircraft and system components. – The growth in offsets could be efficiently utilised in the creation of such SEZs.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

6. Nearly 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade in terms of volume and more than 65 per cent in terms of value is through sea routes. Currently, about 10 per cent of our trade is carried by ships with an Indian flag while the ships manufactured in India carry even less cargo. India’s emergence as a major economic power would mean greater integration in terms of trade with the rest of the world, requiring huge shipping tonnage. To ensure the safety of our vast coast line, the naval requirement of sophisticated and modern vessels is also growing rapidly. Therefore, shipbuilding is very important from a civilian as well as defence perspective. 7. While the Indian seaborne trade has been growing rapidly, Indian shipping and shipbuilding sector has been lagging behind despite their development potential. Indian registered ships form just about 1.1 per cent of the global shipping stock. Indian EXIM trade is being increasingly serviced by foreign flagged vessels whose share in the Indian shipping market has increased from 60 per cent in 1980s to about 92 per cent by 2009–2010. This is both a cause of concern and a huge opportunity for India’s shipping and shipbuilding sector.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Medium and long term goals have been set for the Indian shipbuilding and ship repair industry. These are: • To achieve 5 per cent share of the global shipbuilding market and 10 per cent share in the global ship repair industry by 2020. • To be self-sufficient in ship repair requirements of the country and to emerge as a dominant ship repair centre displacing Colombo, Dubai, Singapore and Bahrain. • To develop a strong ancillary base for shipbuilding/ship repair in the country by 2020. • To generate additional employment for 2.5 million persons (0.5 million direct and 2.0 million indirect) by 2020 in the core shipbuilding as well as the ancillary and supporting industry sector. • To develop strong R&D facilities and design capabilities for commercial shipbuilding.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
8. The key recommendations to enable the shipbuilding and ship repair sector to meet its mid-term and long-term goals are: 1. 2. 3. Incentives: In the line of the erstwhile Shipbuilding Subsidy Scheme, some form of adequate financial/fiscal incentive would need to be considered in order to facilitate the industries to achieve critical mass. Infrastructure status to shipbuilding: Granting infrastructure status would enable the indigenous shipbuilding industry to enjoy tax benefits and lower interest rates for investment in the technological development and modernisation. Purchase preference for Indian built, Indian flagged vessels and Indian shipyards in Government/Defence purchase: On the lines of global practice, promotion of the use of locally build vessels by local shipping companies would help To develop domestic shipbuilding capabilities. Offset scheme for Government procurement: In order to provide impetus to the ancillary industry in India, it should be mandated that during the purchase of any ship from a foreign yard, the foreign yard would have to source a certain amount of marine engineering goods from India. This can create a steady stream of orders for domestic marine engineering companies and help develop capabilities in the sector. To examine the issue of incidence of taxes that disadvantages the domestic shipbuilding industry.



9. The Prime Minister’s Group constituted under Chairman, National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council in its Report (Prime Minister’s Group Report—PMGR) identified capital goods as one of the sectors that is strategic for strengthening national capabilities for the long term. The PMGR has recommended support for the following sub-sectors within the capital goods sector: (i) machine tools, (ii) heavy electrical equipment’s, (iii) heavy transport, earth moving and mining equipment’s, and (iv) high technology equipment’s like IT, telecommunications and electronics hardware. The PMGR has recommended that a time-bound action plan should be prepared in each of these areas for building high class modern capacities with R&D facilities, appropriate programme to encourage growth and development of these areas in the private sector together with

Industry 109

strengthening of the existing public sector and revisiting the existing policies to protect and promote selected capital goods industries. 10. PMGR has also recommended enunciation of a clear policy to provide incentives for acquisition of advanced technologies strengthening the country’s technological capabilities in the long term. Need for a dedicated fund for acquiring technology for tier-2 suppliers of priority sectors and an ‘offset policy’ as one of the means to boost domestic content in the total equipment imported has been underlined. A review of the current FDI policy from the point of view of transfer of technology as well as considerations of national security was also recommended. This can be done by giving preference to JVs instead of 100 per cent foreign-owned companies.

Key Objectives
11. The Plan focuses on the following sectors: machine tools, earth moving, heavy electrical, metallurgical, textile, process plant, mining, power plant and other industrial machinery and engineering sectors. The key objectives were to make the capital goods sector globally competitive, reduce overseas dependence in strategic sectors, increase depth in manufacturing and enhance production levels, employment, exports and contribution to the national exchequer.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
I. Investment inducement through clusters: Apart from common facilities for product development, design and testing, clusters should include enterprise management development through a common training centre promoted through SPVs. II. Skill development support: Problem of skill deficit impacting the machine tools, electrical machinery and earth moving equipment segments should be remedied through a two-pronged approach comprising skill development through public agencies as well as with the help of private sector on a Public–Private Partnership mode. The action steps suggested in the different sub-sectors of capital goods include upgradation of selected ITIs, polytechnic institutions and engineering colleges and to establish centre of excellence for executive development. III. Fund for Expansion/Modernisation of existing units; fund for technology transfer, acquisition of firms abroad: The industry is considered high risk and not considered a preferred borrower. Therefore, low-cost funds are required to stimulate creation of additional capacity and for technology upgradation. The following major recommendations for policy initiatives are proposed for the capital goods and engineering sector: • Support for incentivising technology development/transfer and value addition in India – Modify FDI policy to ensure transfer of technology by giving preference to JVs instead of 100 per cent foreignowned companies – Develop indigenous facilities for design, development and testing of equipment – Incentivise/mandate foreign players to increase value addition in India – Preference in PSE/Government purchases for products having higher local content • Substitute Imports: Calibration of duties and taxes to remove disadvantages for domestic players – Regulate/ban import of second-hand machinery – Address adverse tax structure for local manufacturers in India – Modify Government tender terms to remove disadvantages to Indian firms against imports • Promote exports by facilitating dedicated line of credit and brand development 12. Though many of the issues constraining the growth of the capital goods sector are common, there are specific sub-sector issues that would require to be addressed with specific measures. The issues specific to machine tool, heavy electrical and power plant equipment, earth moving and mining equipment and associated recommendations are as follows:

Machine Tools Industry
13. India’s share of machine tool production is at present only 0.8 per cent of world production. At present, about 70 per cent of the requirement of machine tools is met through imports. There are 8–10 large companies (turnover above `100 crores), 10–15 medium companies (50–100 crores) and rest are small. HEC and HMT are two CPSEs in the machine tools sector. New investments have been few, due to low returns on investments. However, the machine tool industry has the potential to grow from about 12 per cent per annum to 15–20 per cent. To achieve a market share of about 50 per cent by 2020, the industry will require a set of policy, investment and technology development measures.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

14. The recommended measures, in addition to policy support, include Government support for capacity expansion. The measures include support for technology transfer, common facilities, R&D/incubation centres, business and market development and cluster parks. Some of the major recommendations are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Define a National Mission for Machine Tools Introduce immediate fiscal incentives Mission to indigenise critical mechanical elements and machine tool electronics Measures to attract investment are a priority Creation of modern state of the art capacities Realise full potential of PSU capacities—currently, capacity in PSUs such as HMT and HEC not optimally utilised Fillip to R&D and technology development is essential Industry–academia–R&D linkages

Heavy Electrical and Power Plant Equipment
15. Heavy electrical and power plant equipment sector is growing at about 14 per cent. Its growth in two distinct segments, that is, power plant equipment and electrical equipment for power transmission and distribution are being driven by the major power addition programmes namely, Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R-APDRP) and Rajiv Gandhi Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) and transmission projects. 16. With increase in the requirements for meeting the planned additions and a shift towards setting up higher efficiency super critical power plants in the country, the Indian domestic manufacturers have formed joint ventures (JVs) with foreign companies and are focusing on manufacturing higher efficiency equipment’s. The domestic industry has expressed concern about contract with Chinese suppliers and the lack of capacity utilisation in BTG segment. The ‘Electrical Equipment Manufacturing Industry’—Industry Report 2010 by IEEMA has highlighted concerns of limited high-voltage testing facilities, varied procurement guidelines of state utilities, persisting gap between Indian and international standards. Threat of rising imports issues of inverted duty structure, critical raw material constraints and absence of appropriate clause to allow preference in domestic procurement on the lines of procurement guidelines of World Bank and ADB. Following are the sector-specific policy recommendations: 1. Ensuring utilisation of domestic capacity a. Ensuring sufficient investment in power generation through appropriate Government policies to create adequate demand potential for heavy electrical and power plant equipment b. Creation of appropriate conditions enabling full capacity utilisation of domestic manufacturers of heavy electrical and power plant equipment c. Constituting a special vehicle for State Electricity Boards (SEB) facilitating replacement of old and ageing power plants d. Facilitating availability of critical raw materials Standardisation: Adoption of uniform ratings by Central Electricity Authority (CEA)/Ministry of Power (MoP) as standard ratings to be adopted for the Indian grid. Testing facilities: Strengthening of R&D Infrastructure at national level for type testing of prototypes with a view to minimise development/commercialisation cycle.

2. 3.

Earth Moving and Mining Equipment Sector
17. The earth moving and mining equipment as well as the construction equipment industry (CEI) in India enjoys a positive long-term outlook. Planned investment in infrastructure (more than US$1 trillion) and growing urbanisation will drive the construction industry to grow at 16–17 per cent CAGR over the next 10 years. The growth opportunities are accompanied by increasing competition from equipment’s from countries like Brazil and China. 18. The sector has evolved over the years and is at present in an intermediate stage of development. Some products manufactured in India by some of the MNC’s who have set up assembly plants in India are meeting the global standards. It is estimated that the domestic content is nearly 35 per cent in standard equipment whereas the domestic content is about 78 per cent in high technology equipment’s. Over the years three Chinese companies have emerged as leading construction equipment

Industry 111

manufacturers and have cornered a 12 per cent share of the market. Competition is likely to intensify as many Chinese players have improved their distribution and after-sale networks in India. 19. Like its global counterpart, the domestic mining sector is now graduating into high-end technology products and is in demand of transfer of such technology. A recent Industry Report by CII on the Indian Construction Equipment Industry emphasises for (i) rationalisation of taxes to mitigate impediments for interstate movement of earth moving and construction equipment, (ii) bridging skill gaps, (iii) prohibiting unregulated import of used equipment, and (iv) removal of ambiguity about emission and safety standards. Following are the major recommendations: • Emission standards must be made applicable to earthmoving equipment’s and so on. • Initiatives for indigenous development of certain equipments like dredgers are to be taken to achieve self-reliance in this area • The existing competence and capability of Bharat Earth Movers Ltd (BEML) need to be, inter alia, strengthened by providing support for transfer of technology

20. Electronics Systems Design and Manufacturing (ESDM) comprises semiconductor design; high-tech manufacturing; electronics components; electronics systems design telecom products and equipment’s; IT systems and hardware and other segments. Electronics, along with Information and Communications Technology (ICT), is considered a meta-resource: the competitiveness of various industries often depends on their ability to integrate ICTE in their business processes. Electronics is the largest and the fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world. It is expected to reach US$ 2.4 trillion by 2020.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
The key objectives for the ESDM Sector are: • To achieve domestic production of USD 122 Billion by 2017 (growth of 30 per cent) • To ramp up domestic value addition in ESDM manufacturing

Strategy and Key Recommendations
The strategies and key recommendations are: Creating a level playing field • Introduce Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme for improved value-addition • Provide preferential market access to domestic industry in the ESDM sector and remove trade barriers through effective negotiations in WTO • Mandate Indian standards for ESDM to safeguard against substandard items • Introduce reforms in Government procurement procedure for electronics hardware Creating an enabling environment • Set up a national electronics mission • Promote exports of ESDM by providing appropriate incentives and brand development • Promote sustainable growth through waste management practices Providing support across the value chain • Set up semiconductor fabs in India and encourage innovation, R&D and Indian IP by setting up of Electronics Development Fund • Promote the semiconductor chip design, electronics components and strategic electronics industry


Twelfth Five Year Plan

STEEL Introduction
21. Indian iron and steel industry, with its strong forward and backward linkages contributes significantly to the overall growth and development of the economy. The industry today directly contributes 2 per cent to India’s Gross Domestic Product and its weightage in the official Index of Industrial Production is 6.2 per cent. India has become the world’s fourth largest producer of crude steel, preceded only by China, Japan and USA. However, India has been lagging behind other major steel producing countries in terms of techno-economic efficiency of operations and hence Indian steel industries are not very globally competitive. 22. There is an urgent need to address its basic constraints irrespective of equity size and nature of operations. In 2010, our per capita consumption of steel was only 51.7 kg, as against the world average of 202.70 kg. There is tremendous potential for improvement in the domestic steel consumption given the economy’s large untapped markets, especially in rural areas. With a GDP growth of ~9 per cent, the sector is expected to grow by ~10.3 per cent in terms of steel consumption. This translates to a need an installed capacity addition of 142.3 MT of steel in the Twelfth Plan.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Increase capacities to ~142.3 MT in accordance with demand projections • Ensure raw material security, especially in terms of iron ore and coking/non-coking coal

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Raw Materials
23. Iron ore is the basic raw material used in steel making. Though iron ore is abundantly available in the country, large scale exports of iron ore have raised serious concerns about the future availability. Side by side, there is an urgent need to address the problems of degradation of the environment, displaced population, transportation bottleneck and so on. 24. The domestic availability of coking coal, a critical raw material required by steel industry is limited and therefore the Indian steel industry has to depend heavily on imported coking coal to meet its needs. To ensure raw material security and minimise the impact of volatility in coal prices, it is desirable to acquire overseas coking coal assets and to increase the domestic production of coking coal and upgrade its quality.

25. Given the rising demand anticipated in the Twelfth Plan period, the already overburdened domestic infrastructure and more particularly in mineral rich states requires immediate attention. Apart from ensuring adequate rail–road connectivity, National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NMIZs) proposed in the National Manufacturing Policy may provide an excellent option for future location for new steel plants due to close proximity to consumers. However, for this to happen, the perspective planning for NIMZs has to consider some of the NIMZs in the eastern region of mineral-rich states.

Financial Resources
26. The requirement of financial resources to create an additional capacity during the Twelfth Plan at reasonable costs will be a challenging task. Softening of norms for external borrowings and having a special purpose long-term financing facility may ease the situation.

Technology and Research and Development
27. Indian Steel Plants are less efficient in terms of specific consumption of raw material/consumables, energy/power consumption, environmental and pollution norms than those in advanced countries. It is essential to build up indigenous capacity to develop technologies to suit indigenous raw materials, improve energy inputs norms and meet national emission and comply with global standards on emissions and carbon foot print and so on. Several small units engaged in manufacturing iron and steel products need to focus on domestic R&D to improve their technology and performance standards. 28. Improvement in raw materials is to be achieved through selection of appropriate beneficiation process and improvement in operational practices of ore beneficiation/coal-washing circuit. Coal gasification of non-coking coals and recovery and

Industry 113

utilisation of CBM, are the important steps to address the issues such as coal coke shortage and CO2 emission. To alleviate the shortages of iron, there is a need to put up pellet plants. Due to increasing demand for high-strength steel, current Batch Annealing Furnace (BAF) technology may get replaced with Continuous Annealing Technology. 29. The strategies for development of steel sector should not only focus on volume growth but also on quality of growth. It is necessary to evolve an approximate sustainable development framework which balances the need for rapid growth of the steel industry and also addresses the concerns on environment and climate change. There is a consensus that there exists a lot of scope for the Indian steel industry to contribute to the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) as well as National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) of 2008, which basically aims to reduce the emission intensity. Existing plants need to evolve short-term and long-term action plan to phase out the old and obsolete facilities by State-of-art, clean and green technologies with an aim not only to achieve higher standards of productivity but also to harness all waste energy. 30. The Steel Industry needs policy support from the States to achieve the object of the National Steel Policy to make India a global producer.

Plan Assistance/Allocation for the Steel Industry
31. The Twelfth Plan’s new projects essentially focus promotion of beneficiation and agglomeration of low grade iron ore and iron-ore fines and improvement of energy efficiency in secondary steel sector.

32. India is endowed with ample resources of a number of minerals and has the geological environment for many others. The metals and minerals sector has a direct bearing on the growth, development, depth and sustainability of the manufacturing and infrastructure sectors. Hence, its extraction and management have to be integrated into the overall strategy for the country’s development. Raw material security and the ability to provide the range of metal-based mineral required in terms of quality, standards and prices are keys to the process.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
33. The mining sector is strategically very important for India. The key goals that need to be met for this space are: • Raw material security: for all the user industries • Enhanced co-production of by-product metals for Technology Metals and Energy Critical Metals and Rare Earths Elements • Ensuring sustainability of the environment

Strategy and Key Recommendations
34. The core function of the state in mining needs to be the facilitation and regulation of exploration and mining activities of investors and entrepreneurs, provision of infrastructure and royalty and tax collection. In order for the State to achieve the key objectives associated with the sector, a select set of reforms are essential. The major recommendations are as under.

Strengthening of Institutions
• Equip and position public agencies like the Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Directorates of States and other organisations to conduct detailed exploration at the State’s expense to enable the State Government to adopt a bidding route for exploration to a larger extent. • Position GSI to emphasise on geospatial and multi-disciplinary work for the benefit of science, society and the nation, by placing emphasis. An overarching mechanism to provide policy direction for geosciences is a must.

Encouraging R&D and Technology Development
• Engage IBM to drive process of giving special focus in select areas of mining. • Strengthen the Mineral Process Laboratories of IBM and other research organisations must before the development of processes for beneficiation, elemental analysis of ores and so on. • Inspire concessionaires to undertake deposit-specific process R&D.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

35. Develop an institutional mechanism for the direct lab scale research to commercialisation for the production of materials of high purity, • Reorient focus of organisations like Non-Ferrous Technology Development Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre on process R&D for Technology and Energy Critical Metals.

Creation of Infrastructure
• Special emphasis needs to be given to linking infrastructure in mineral bearing areas.

Skill Development
• Review and upgrade existing training facilities for manpower to meet the requirements of the mining industry.

Ensuring Full and Productive Coverage of Survey and Exploration
• GSI needs to ensure that its regional surveys cover all major geo-scientific datasets – All pre-competitive data must be available to facilitate entrepreneurs to take investment decisions. • India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) needs to be fully explored and exploited. This requires sea-bed exploration and mining, and the Ministry of Earth Sciences and GSI need to cooperate at an institutionalised level to expedite and complete this task. • There is need to address all important aspects of Rare Earths including Mapping the potential sources, enhancing survey and exploration indigenously as well as in joint collaboration overseas, scaling up R&D in extraction, re-cycling and research for increase use in other alternative materials in place of Rare Earths.

A Database of Mineral Resources Needs to be Developed
• Consider an efficient IT system in GSI, IBM and State Directorates to ensure availability of a comprehensive and up-to-date review of exploration data. • For this purpose, create a National Geophysical Data Repository and a National Drill Core Library. • Implement the National Tenement Registry and integrated it with the cadastral maps being digitised under the National Land Records Computerisation Scheme.

Ensuring Availability of Financial Resources
• Access to “risk funds” from capital markets and venture funds needs to be facilitated since prospecting is a high risk venture. • A suitable scheme for taking full advantage of the HTREL licence must be completed in consultation with the major financial institutions in India, including SEBI, RBI, CBDT and IVCA.

Ensuring Environmental Sustainability of Mining
• Promote a scientific and efficient process of small scale mining of small deposits – Regulations related to safeguarding the ecology must be ensured and their compliance strengthened. – A cluster approach must be adopted with a single lease model for multiple small deposits within a defined area • Undertake all mining undertaken within the parameters of a comprehensive Sustainable Development Framework – Under such a framework, no mining lease should be granted without a proper mining plan including an approved environment management plan. – For this purpose, the IBM must acquire the expertise to approve Environment Management Plans and conduct Environmental Impact Assessments. Thus, the IBM should be able to position itself as the internal environmental regulator as well as the official mining regulator for the sector.

Select Policy Changes in Line with the Overall Strategy
• Adopt an open-sky policy of non-exclusivity for reconnaissance work • Introduce a new instrument called the High Technology Reconnaissance and Exploration License (HTREL) to attract large investment and better technology • Ensure higher value addition in the sector and curb non value-added exports – Encourage mineral value addition through techniques of beneficiation, pelletisation, agglomeration and processing making use of fine. – Incentivise export of minerals in value added form and develop is a coherent long-term strategy for this

Industry 115

– In line with this, forge long-term relationships with countries with complementary resources, in terms of minerals and technologies. – Encourage the user industries to develop long-term linkages with mineral producing units. • A fair and transparent process for land acquisition must be ensured. This is already under way through the LARR bill 36. The MMDR bill aims at enabling some of these key recommendations, and must be pushed for implementation at the earliest.

FERTILISER Introduction
37. The Indian fertiliser industry, given its strategic importance in ensuring the food security in the country has remained under Government control. Through its impact on agricultural productivity, fertiliser usage directly impacts food security of the country. Government has been consistently pursuing policies conducive to availability of adequate quantity of quality fertilisers throughout the country and their appropriate use. The annual consumption of nutrients (N + P + K), has increased by 62 per cent, from 17.4 million tonne in 2001–02 to 28.1 million tonne in 2010–11. The nutrients N, P and K accounted for 16.6, 8.0 and 3.5 million tonne respectively in 2010–11. 38. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in imports of urea and DAP because there has been hardly any investment for major capacity additions. Fertiliser consumption in India is highly skewed, with wide inter-regional, interstate, interdistrict and inter-crop variations. The average intensity of fertiliser use in India is much lower than most countries in the world. 39. Government introduced Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) for Phosphatic and Potassic (P and K) fertilisers with effect from 1 April 2010 with broad objectives of ensuring balance use of nutrients, introduction, and promotion of innovative and efficient fertiliser products and allowing market dynamics in pricing of products.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
40. The key objective for the fertiliser sector is to ensure national food security by generating sustainable rapid growth in fertiliser use to increase agricultural production and productivity at the desired rate. In order to meet the growth targets in fertiliser use, the following measures are needed: • Ensuring adequate and timely availability of quality fertilisers to the farmers at fair prices • Creating an attractive environment for improving indigenous fertiliser • Rationalisation of the level of fertiliser subsidy disbursed

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Improving Fertiliser Use
41. For continuous rapid growth in fertiliser use to increase agricultural production and productivity, the Fertilisers Monitoring System (FMS) should be strengthened. There is a need to produce and promote right kind of efficient fertilisers like customised, water-soluble and fortified fertilisers.

Attracting Investment in the Sector
42. With rising demand and no major domestic capacity addition during the last few years, the industry has been exposed to volatility of world markets. There is an urgent need to create a conducive environment for new investments in the sector. Investment for revival of closed units of Fertiliser Corporation of India Ltd (FCIL) and Hindustan Fertiliser Corporation Ltd (HFCL) will significantly bridge the demand–supply gap of urea.

Availability of Feedstock
43. The Government needs to ensure long-term supply of natural gas at reasonable prices with pipeline connectivity to attract fresh investment in urea sector. For this, part of future gas finds need to be committed for the new investment in urea units and incentivising alternative feedstock like coal, CBM and so on to enlarge the choice of raw materials. There is a need to explore the possibility of investment in R&D for extracting potash from other resources in the country.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Rationalising Subsidy
44. The burden of fertiliser subsidy has increased substantially during the last few years mainly owing to increase in international prices of inputs as well as finished fertilisers. A phased approach towards reforming the subsidy disbursement mechanism needs to be developed as under: • Phase 1: Create information visibility of the movement of fertilisers along the supply chain • Phase 2: Release subsidy to the retailer through transfer of subsidy directly to the retailer’s bank account on receipt of fertiliser from the wholesaler • Phase 3: In the long run once Aadhaar enabled payments are operational, subsidy disbursement to the farmer can be made directly into the bank accounts of the intended beneficiary

Joint Ventures Abroad
45. Rising imports of fertilisers are a cause of concern and require urgent attention. India, being one of the largest consumer of fertilisers in the world, has significant impact in world trade and prices and is exposed to high volatility in prices. There is a need to ensure long-term supplies of raw materials/intermediates to fertiliser sector by promoting investment and setting up JVs in mining capacities of the countries with rich reserves of natural gas, rock phosphate and potash with appropriate buy-back arrangement or long term off-take arrangements.

Setting up R&D Centre
46. R&D centres need to be encouraged especially in the area of catalyst efficiency, retrieval of elements from spent catalyst, new fertiliser development, improving fertiliser use efficiency and so on.

Fertiliser Prices Regulatory Authority
47. With the implementation of Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) regime in non-urea sector and likelihood of extension to urea sector, the fertiliser sector moved towards a free market system. Therefore, it may be necessary to consider a fertiliser prices regulatory authority to oversee and regulate fertiliser prices in the interest of the agriculture sector.

Road Map for Sick CPSUs
48. Despite the overall health being fairly satisfactory. Three of the central CPSUs, three units BVFCL, MFL and FACT are incurring losses due to outdated technology and, high energy consumption. There is a need to explore various possibilities for their revival and sustainable operation to come up with a holistic revival plan for the sick CPSUs.

CEMENT Introduction
Key Features of Cement Industry
• Cement production is one of the world’s most energy-intensive industries. Cement industry is in a way a scavenging industry and has been burning alternative fuels such as, residue derived fuel, municipal sewage wastes, agro wastes, plastic and polythene wastes, paint sludge, shredded tyres and so on in the kiln and conserves fossil fuels. • Because of low-value high-density product, cement movement is normally restricted to nearby markets and has very limited international trade. • Initial investment of setting up a plant is very high.

Production Trends
49. Global cement production has continued to be expanding at an average rate of 6.4 per cent in last five years from 2,568 million tonnes in 2006 to 3,294 million tonnes in 2010. Around 56 per cent of production originates in China. China (with an average annual growth of 11.4 per cent) and India (with an average annual growth of 9.8 per cent) have been the drivers of the growth in global cement output, with increase in production in rest of countries remaining virtually stable. Production of cement in India has increased from 100.1 million tonnes in 2000–01 to 228.3 million tonnes in 2010–11. The demand for the cement in India has been influenced mainly by the housing, infrastructure and irrigation and so on.

Industry 117

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Reducing environmental impact of industry and encouraging use of fly ash • Modernisation of plants based on older technology and further improvement of plants

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Measures to Maintain Existing Capabilities
• Allocation of coal of better quality and consistency to cement plants and also speeding up privatisation of collieries for captive consumption of cement plants should be considered • To ensure availability of limestone process of limestone mining lease approval/renewal need to be streamlined and simplified as well as encourage mining of limestone at remote areas • Rationalising duty structure – Simplification of excise duty to have specific rate or percentage of sale price with appropriate abatements – Rationalisation of inverted duty structure to address any inversions

Reducing Environmental Impact of the Industry
• Incentivise non-polluting cement plants adopting newer technologies • Grant cogeneration of power through waste heat recovery status of renewable energy • Cement plants should be permitted to move waste from other states with minimum restrictions if they are following standing guidelines – Encouraging use of fly ash by ensuring availability of comprehensive data on fly ash generation, disposal, stock and its pricing, setting standards for making composite cement and so on.

Upgradation of Existing Plants and Research in Further Developed Technologies
• Funding from corpus of clean energy fund for cement sector for development of processes for using alternate fuel and municipal and solid waste and energy efficient technologies. • NCCBM, which is primarily an R&D organisation would need support for development of infrastructure.

Development and Adoption of Nanotechnology
• Promoting collaborative research involving national and international laboratories on technologies to produce nanoparticles and the latest characterisation techniques Establishing a well-equipped Centre of Excellence for development and adoption of nanotechnology practices to cement and concrete through PPP mode.

Improving the Transportation Facilities for Cement Industry
• Rail transport: Railway should try and attain a share of 50 per cent in total dispatches of cement and clinker. • Road transport: Load carrying capacity of trucks may be increased to 1 tonne. • Inland waterways: Sufficient infrastructure need to be provided at IWT terminals/jetties to integrate with other modes of transportation.

50. The automotive industry is also a key sector for the Indian economy. Owing to its deep forward and backward linkages, it has a strong multiplier effect and acts as one of the drivers of economic growth. With the gradual liberalisation of the automotive sector in India since 1991, the numbers of manufacturing facilities have grown progressively. It produces a wide variety of vehicles ranging from passenger cars to heavy commercial vehicles to tractors and other agricultural equipments and so on. 51. The competitive paradigm for the automobile sector world over is rapidly undergoing complete transformation on account of environmental and energy security concerns. It is estimated that by 2020, electric vehicle (EV) and other green cars will


Twelfth Five Year Plan

represent up to one third of total global sales in developed markets and up to 20 per cent in urban areas of emerging markets. The Indian auto sector which has close linkages with international auto industries will be deeply impacted by the evolving trends.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
52. The Auto Policy of the Government had the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Exalt the sector as a lever of industrial growth and employment and to achieve a high degree of value addition in the country Promote a globally competitive automotive industry and emerge as a global source for auto components Establish an international hub for manufacturing small, affordable passenger cars and a key centre for manufacturing tractors and two-wheelers; Ensure a balanced transition to open trade at minimal risk to the Indian economy and local industry Conduce incessant modernisation of the industry and facilitate indigenous design, research and development Steer India’s software industry into automotive technology Assist development of vehicles propelled by alternate energy sources Development of domestic safety and environmental standards at par with international standards

53. The Automotive Mission Plan 2006–16 laid down a 10 year road map for the industry The specific targets set up AMP are as follows: • • • • • • To continue to be the world’s largest tractor and three-wheeler manufacturer in the world. To continue as the world’s second largest two-wheeler manufacturers. To emerge as the world’s fifth largest car producer (as compared to the seventh largest currently). To become world’s fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer. Automotive sector would double its turnover ratio to India’s GDP in 10 years. To export USD 35 billion by 2016.

54. The industry is planning to take a mid-term review of the AMP in 2013 and come up with objectives and targets for beyond 2016.

Government Initiatives
55. Government has also decided to constitute National Council for Electric Mobility (NCEM) and National Board for Electric Mobility (NBEM) for fast policy and decision making at the apex level for promoting electric mobility and for encouraging manufacture of electric vehicles in the country. Deliberations at the level of NBEM have been initiated to define short-term and long-term objectives and to develop short-term/long-term plans. 56. To address the issue of lack of testing infrastructure, a Plan scheme—National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRIP) was initiated in the Tenth Plan. With the coming up of NATRIP facilities (in the first year of the Twelfth Plan), the industry would be in a position to adopt higher safety standards. NATRIP implementation Society (NATIS) is overseeing the implementation of NATRIP.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
• Providing an enabling environment to the industry to encourage growth, promote domestic competition and stimulate innovation to achieve operational efficiency. • Removal of taxation on interstate movement of goods to make the Indian market a genuine ‘free trade area’ domestically. • A stable import tariff structure consonant with the AMP that encourages investments rather than trade in fully built vehicles. • Continuation of lower excise duty (in future GST) for manufacture of vehicle types that are a national priority for the country. • Ensuring that the Free Trade Agreements being entered into with other countries do not distort markets for Indian automobile and auto component manufacturers.

Industry 119

• Inadequate availability of skilled labour—to be addressed with partnership with NSDC. • Government to prepare a strategy paper on utilisation of different fuels in the transport sector to meet our national priorities of emission control, energy security as well as fuel efficiency • Evolving the emissions and fuel availability road map beyond 2010 • Deepening competence in manufacturing of fuel efficient cars and electric vehicles including the hybrid segment. • User incentives for adoption of EVs. • Auto component industry needs to be supported by the Government by easing access to capital, logistic and infrastructure development in auto component hubs and so on. • To address the issue of road safety, an appropriate regulatory body would be required.

57. Indian pharmaceutical industry is one of the high performing knowledge-based segments of the Domestic Manufacturing Sector. The soft patent regime prior to 2005 provided opportunity for this industry to consolidate its position and witness significant growth in generic production and exports. Indian pharmaceutical Industry has entered an era in which it has to play a pivotal role in providing generic medicines to the world and also become a global hub for R&D activities. Despite our success, we are still at the periphery of a vast unexplored opportunity. At this juncture, it is all the more important to recognise the challenges and opportunities and realign our strategies along with appropriate policy and institutional frameworks for shaping the future of the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• The Indian pharmaceutical sector should grow to US$ 60 billion size in 2017 (CAGR of 18 per cent) and have a 5 per cent share of the global pharmaceutical industry by the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. By 2020, the sector should be at US$ 100 billion. • Exports should be at INR 1,30,000 crores by the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. • The sector should employ 1.5 million people by 2015, 1.898 million people by 2018 and 2.464 million people by 2022. • Domestic R&D should be internationally competitive. • Universal access of quality medicine at affordable prices. • Improve domestic content in medical devices. • Make all the CPSUs self-sustaining by 2020.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
58. The recommendations are summarised below: • Capacity building of private sector to meet WHO–GMP standards and other international manufacturing standards. • Enabling the Indian pharmaceutical industry to develop competence in advanced areas of drug manufacturing like dedicated research facility in bulk drugs , improving processes of manufacturing generics and new APIs. • Developing common infrastructure in drug discovery and development, such as, manufacturing, distribution, exports, medical devices and so on. • Appropriate coordination between relevant ministries/departments and stakeholders to build a coordinated strategy s to tackle non-tariff barriers through counter measures and during signing of FTAs. • Develop competencies for 2D Bar-coding for SMEs. • Developing capacity of Central Drug Standards and Control Organisation to ensure timely clearance for new drug trials, pharmaco-vigilance, and assistance to the willing industry members to shore up their technical capacities for better regulatory compliances and adequate number of labour inspectors. • Developing, evolving and rationalising regulatory frameworks for biosimilar drugs, fixed-drug combinations, clinical trials and early drug development. • Developing the ecosystem to take advantage of the opportunity in clinical research and development of Clinical Research Centres for high-risk trials such as Phase-I. • Create a level-playing field for domestic manufacturers in the bulk drugs industry.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

59. Induce higher levels of research and development: • Strengthening the NIPERs to boost patent filing from these institutes. • Improving industry–academia linkages by creating a strong platform for incentivising innovation in producing safe, affordable medicine, arranging public–private partnerships with industry and leading academic partners. • Providing incentives for New Drug Development. 60. Review the regulatory system including expanding tax deduction (to cover activities such as international patenting costs, regulatory consultants, outsourced R&D services and patent litigation expenses), reducing approval timelines and so on. • Improving access to quality healthcare promotion of unbranded generics through Jan Aushadhi Stores (JAS) Ministry of Health needs to bring out legislation for prescription of medicines in generics nomenclature by the doctors on a mandatory basis. • Inducing greater level of domestic manufacture of medical devices by creating infrastructure and parks for setting up greenfield medical devices and equipment units and setting up a National Centre for Medical Devices. • Enabling CPSUs to be self-sustainable by upgrading the existing manufacturing facilities to WHO–GMP compliance. 61. India, with its significant advantage of low cost of innovation, low capital requirements and lower costs in running facilities, well-established manufacturing processes, R&D infrastructure, is strategically well positioned to emerge as a major force to reckon with in the pharmaceuticals sector. 62. Moving to a higher growth trajectory will require focussed institutional support and incentivise the clusters to foster innovation, encouragement to maximise investments in enhancing manufacturing capacities and aggressive drive for creation of ‘Brand India’ image in select segments including biopharmaceuticals/biosimilars and Indian systems of medicines.

CHEMICAL Introduction
63. The domestic chemical industry is heterogeneous in nature comprising organic, inorganic, petrochemicals, dyes, paints, pesticides and specialty chemicals manufactured in the small scale and large units (including MNCs). In the global context, the industry is increasingly moving eastwards in line with the shift of its key consumer industries (for example, automotive, electronics and so on) to leverage greater manufacturing competitiveness and share of Asia in the global chemical industry has risen from 31 per cent in 1999 to 45 per cent in 2009. With the current size of $108 billion, the Indian chemical industry accounts for ~3 per cent of the global chemical industry.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Ensuring optimal allocation of resources for adequate feed stock (coal, natural gas, naphtha and refinery cuts) to industry. • Developing new and more energy efficient and environment-friendly/green technologies and processes. • Clustering and providing common infrastructure to units.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Ensuring Availability of Feed Stock
• Refinery configuration to focus on optimisation of availability feedstock and source feedstock from feedstock rich countries through , long term contracts. • NCL and IICT to take initiative towards development of processes to use bio-based raw material instead of crude-based ones.

Development of Common Infrastructure
• Set up Greenfield PCPIRs and R&D parks through public private partnership. • Establish a site operator, with the right functional expertise, to market and manage each PCPIR.

Industry 121

Focus on R&D
• Establish chemical sector specific council having representation of stakeholders to develop the innovation road map for chemical industry. • Develop dedicated innovation centres in universities for chemical industry.

Focus on Green Technology and Consolidation of Environmental Regulations
• Consolidation of rules governing environment protection for chemical industry. • Development of green technologies—implementation of the related provisions and fiscal measures of the National Manufacturing Policy. • Central and State Government to work together to ensure more rigorous and transparent enforcement of pollution-related and environment-related regulations in chemical units.

Human Resource Development
• Setting up specialised vocational training centres in the clusters for chemical industry.

Other Strategies
• Fiscal incentives to the chemical sector for tackling the threat from cheap imports. • Simplifying the process of registration of pesticides to boost export possibilities. • Better testing mechanisms for tackling the problem of spurious pesticides.

64. Petrochemicals are chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas and they form an essential part of the chemical industry today. Due to its very nature, Petrochemicals is an ‘enabler’ industry playing a vital role in the functioning of virtually all key sectors in the economy including packaging, agriculture, infrastructure, healthcare, textile and consumer goods. Petrochemicals provide critical inputs which enable other sectors to grow. Even though this industry is capital and technology intensive, the downstream sector is a major avenue for large-scale employment. The downstream plastic processing industry employs over 3.53 million people who derive their livelihood from this sector.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Developing new technologies • Reducing the environmental impact of the sector • Development of clusters

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Technology Upgradation
• Setting up a petroleum research and development fund under PPP model. • Augmenting existing testing centres to act as certifying agencies for testing plastic products and raw materials to meet international as well as BIS standards.

Ensuring Sustainable Growth of the Sector
• Setting up a code of conduct for the industry and permitting certain types of industries, beyond a particular size only if they can ensure zero discharge. • Fiscal incentive to encourage use of renewable feedstock, adoption of green processes and build energy-efficient housing. • Focus on recycling industry.

Creating Infrastructure
• Formation of industrial clusters/plastic parks—benchmarking with similar clusters in China, Singapore, Taiwan and so on, and other areas which have successfully built such facilities over the years to serve as a blueprint on policy actions.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Human Resource Development
• Specialised programmes for technical training, which can address the specific requirements of plastic industry.

Other Policy Initiatives for Promoting the Sector
• • • • Branding ‘made in India’ products for increasing export competitiveness of the sector. Ensure strict and effective enforcement of the ‘Edible Oil Packaging (Regulation) Order’, 1998 by all State Governments. Encourage use of plastic packaging in key applications, for example, milk packaging. Encourage the use of plastic components in housing to reduce energy requirements.

PAPER Introduction
65. The Indian Paper industry produces 10.11 million tons of paper per annum and accounts for 2.6 per cent of total world production. The annual turnover of the Indian paper industry is nearly `30,000 crores and it employs about 3.70 lakh people. Per capital consumption of paper in India is also very low. Most of the paper mills are in existence for a long time and hence technologies used by them fall in a wide spectrum ranging from oldest to the modern. 66. As many as 30 large integrated paper mills, accounting for about 31 per cent of total domestic production, use woodbased/bamboo-based pulp. One hundred and fifty paper mills, contributing 22 per cent of domestic production, use agro-based (bagasse and straws) and about 473 mills, accounting for 47 per cent of total production, use recycled fibre or waste paper for paper production.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• Developing new technologies • Improving availability of raw material • Development to be environmentally sustainable

Strategy and Key Recommendations
67. The deliberations of the woking group on Pulp and Paper Sector have shown that expected increase in demand of paper in the country will require considerable increase in the indigenous production base of the paper sector in the next 15 years. Clearly, this would require in-depth planning to address critical issues like non-availability of fibrous resources, technological obsolescence and lack of economies of scale. The group has come out with a set of recommendations in respect of areas requiring improvement and focus. The key recommendations are given in the Box 13.5.

Box 13.5 Key Recommendations
• Ensuring availability of basic raw material and power – Wood: Large scale promotion of agro based plantation and substantial improvement in productivity of agro based plantation activity; Restoration of degraded forest land • Bagasse: Review of incentives policy for use of bagasse in sugar mills, • Identification and promotion of alternate lingo-cellulosic raw materials • Setting up waste paper collection centres and creation of awareness • Modernising entire RCF/WP bases industry to adopt state of the art technology • Technology improvements for better energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact – Improving energy efficiency of existing and designing of incentives for technology upgradation for paper industry – Development of indigenous technologies to make agro-based industries competitive and environmentally sustainable – Development of energy efficient technologies – R&D institutes like CPPRI to be strengthened with appropriate funding support • Support for indigenous manufacturing facility for capacity expansion. • Fiscal measures to support the sector • Rationalisation of duty structure to address inversions, if any • Assistance to forestry/plantation

Industry 123

68. The Indian paper and pulp industry has potential and also capabilities to service the growing demand in domestic and international market. It can also create huge employment avenues in rural India through agro-forestry and can provide direct employment in production at mills through capacity addition/expansion, provided the competitiveness of the value chain is ensured. This warrants an enabling policy environment to gear up productive capacity, ensure varied raw material options, induce new technologies and promote local innovation.

69. The strength of the Indian textiles and clothing industry lies in its strong raw-material base, indigenous design capabilities, presence in the entire value chain, large and growing domestic demand, and the availability of trained manpower at internationally competitive rates. The Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry consumes a diverse range of fibres and yarns but is predominantly cotton based. 70. The sector plays a pivotal role in the economy, contributing about 12 per cent of the manufacturing output, 11 per cent of merchandise exports and employs about 45 million people. It has a major presence in the unorganised sector as compared to the organised sector, both in terms of the workforce and number of enterprises.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
71. The growth of this Sector is crucial to the realisation of targets relating to total output and employment growth. The key objectives of the Textile sector for the 12th plan period are: • Achieve an annual average growth rate of 11.5 per cent in volume terms in cloth production and 15 per cent in value of exports by increasing domestic value addition and technological ‘depth’ and by enhancing the global competitiveness. • It is expected that training to 35 lakh persons would be provided. • Additional employment to the tune of 15.81 million by 2016–17 would be created.

Strategy and Key Recommendations
72. Based on the lessons learnt in the Eleventh Plan and continuing with the thrust on technology up gradation and modernisation, the Twelfth Plan envisages critical interventions in the weaker segments of the textile value chain such as processing and garmenting. The main elements of the strategy for the Textiles Sector would be as under:

Technology with Focus on Weaving and Processing Sectors
73. The benefits of the Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS), have mainly been availed by the Spinning and Composite Sectors. While investments in the spinning sector may be required to ensure yarn availability and domestic value addition of cotton, it is also important to promote forward integration. A study by CRISIL has recommended that the interest subsidy for spinning should be allowed only when it is accompanied by matching investments in weaving or knitting. Investment for technology up gradation in the downstream segments of weaving and processing is necessary to ensure that maximum quantity of yarn produced in the country is converted into spinning products domestically.

74. The Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP) was launched in 2005 to neutralise the weakness of fragmentation in the various sub-sectors of textiles value chain, and the non-availability of quality infrastructure, with only 9 projects completed of 40 projects sanctioned in the 11th Plan, impact of these Parks is yet to emerge. 75. There is little evidence of vertical integration in these parks, which specifically encourages both forward and backward linkages in the entire textile value chain. It would be prudent to focus on consolidation of the gains for existing Parks. The proposed new scheme of setting up of Integrated Apparel Clusters, activities laid down in the Technology Mission for Knitwear and Wovenwear should be subsumed in SITP.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Cotton Sector
76. As per the evaluation study carried out by ICRA Management Consultancy Services Limited, trash content in Indian cotton has reduced from high levels of 4–8 per cent during the pre-TMC period to 1.5–3 per cent post modernisation under Mini Mission-IV of the Technology Mission on cotton. Under Mini Mission-III, up-gradation/improvement in the Market Yards has arrested the level of contamination. Based on the estimated cotton production of 438 lakh bales by the end of the terminal year of the Twelfth Five year Plan, MM-III and IV should make efforts for modernisation of G&P factories and Market Yards.

Environmental Concerns
77. The major challenges faced by the textiles processing are availability of water, effluent treatment and disposal of the treated water and solid effluents. A scheme for Common Effluent Treatment with Marine Outfall for the existing textile processing clusters on a PPP mode needs consideration.

78. Dependence of Jute Mills on Government orders the Jute Mandatory Packaging Act is one of the major barriers to modernisation and product diversification within the industry. The Jute Sector must plan for a gradual phasing out of this order and achieve more self-reliance through modernisation and diversification. 79. The major focus of interventions during the Twelfth Plan would be on aggressive implementation of Technology Mission on Technical Textiles which would include implementation of regulatory framework in specified areas, encouraging indigenous production of specialty fibres and yarns, encouraging investment in high end technical textiles products, including FDI, encouraging R&D in technical textiles, formulation and notifications of standards by BIS and ensuring availability of data base.

80. India is the second largest producer of silk in the world, a distant second to China, with 15.50 per cent share of the world production. 81. The objectives in the Twelfth Plan would be to facilitate and create conducive conditions for achieving the targeted silk production of 32,000 M.T. at a CAGR of 7.14 per cent by the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan. This would be done through intensive efforts in R&D, technology transfer and enterprise development, creating an inbuilt pyramid structure of federated farmers and farmer associations to synergise and synchronise the production processes. Also, efforts will be directed to develop 3rd Generation multivoltine crossbreeds to increase production and matching quality parameters of bivoltine silk and accelerate the growth in vanya silk production and explore better value realisation in domestic and international markets.

82. The decentralised powerloom sector plays an important role in the textile economy in terms of fabric production and employment generation. It contributes 62 per cent to the total fabric production in the country and provides employment to the tune of 57.2 lakh persons. 83. The interventions required for Powerloom Sector development during Twelfth Plan period include Powerloom Cluster Development Programme, setting up of Common Facility Centres, Yarn Bank, setting up of Design Development Centres in the clusters, conducting awareness programmes/seminars/workshops/pilot activities and Distress Relief Fund Scheme for powerloom weavers. An exclusive provision for Powerloom Sector under TUFS for its modernisation and creation of an office of the Powerloom Commissioner need to be considered.

Wool and Woollens Textiles
84. The woollen industry in the country is of the size of `10,000 crore and broadly divided and scattered between the organised and decentralised sectors. India has the third largest sheep population in the world, having 6.40 crore sheep producing 43.30 million kgs of raw wool, out of which, about 85 per cent is carpet grade wool, 85. It has been estimated that the raw wool production and imports would double from 114.2 million kg in 2008–09 to 260.8 million kg by 2019–20. During the period 2009–10 and 2014–15, exports of woollen yarn fabrics and made-ups are expected to record a CAGR of 11.6 per cent.

Industry 125

86. There is a need to have proper data base and action plan to reduce mortality rate of sheep, increasing coverage of shepherds as well as sheep under insurance, faster development of CFCs, improvement in productivity in wool production. Thrust of the scheme/programmes has to be oriented accordingly.

Human Resource Development
87. As per the study conducted by National Skill Development Corporation, with the overall growth of 9.5 per cent in the Textiles and Clothing Sector, its incremental human resource requirement would be about 17.8 million by the end of Twelfth Plan.

88. As a leading producer of food grains, milk, fruits and vegetables, India has the advantage of adequate food at the farm gate to ensure food security for the nation and to even have a surplus for exports. Food processing industry in India has immense potential for boosting the rural economy as it brings about synergy between consumers, industry and agriculture. A welldeveloped food processing industry is expected to increase farm-gate prices, reduce wastages, ensure value addition, promote crop diversification, generate employment opportunities and boost export earnings.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
89. Following are the main objectives for the Twelfth Plan: • Develop the food processing sector to enable containment of food inflation and food wastage • Create 1 million additional jobs during the Twelfth plan period

Strategy and Key Recommendations
90. Based on lessons learnt during Eleventh Plan and keeping in view the priorities of the proposed Manufacturing Plan, the strategy for 12th Plan has been devised based on three basic principles. Firstly, greater emphasis would be laid on decentralised process of implementation with greater involvement of states in selection of projects vis-à-vis beneficiaries and monitoring their implementation. 91. Secondly, instead of project implementation, focus would be on policy making and coordination so as to address critical issues impacting the value chain in the sector. Lastly, the existing focus on infrastructure development will be continued with expansion of scope and depth so as to ensure sustainability of the value chains. The major recommendations in regard to Twelfth Plan activities are in Box 13.6. 92. Adoption of a decentralised approach to instil greater involvement of states and appropriate coordination between states and stakeholders is a well-conceived idea for development of Food Processing Sector. Launching a National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP) will be appropriate vehicle to carry forward the idea of decentralisation.

• • • • • • • •

Box 13.6 Key Recommendations Setting up of National Mission on Food Processing to improve coordination and implementation of schemes and to enable greater involvement of state governments. Expanding and modifying existing infrastructure development schemes – Mega Food Parks Scheme, Integrated Cold Chain Scheme Setting up and Modernisation of Abattoirs—Establishment of new abattoirs and modernisation of existing abattoirs Develop and strengthening of existing and new institutions Taking up a nation-wide skill development programme along the lines of special projects for skill development of rural youths under SGSY of MoRD. Putting in place a network of food testing labs (Government/Private) through providing incentives. Encouragement for larger participation in Codex deliberations and setting up/strengthening of Codex Cell in FSSAI to promote, coordinate and monitor related initiatives at the level of stakeholders Setting up of an Innovation Fund and Venture Capital Fund for Food Processing to promote innovations and technology development


Twelfth Five Year Plan

93. Likewise shift of focus of the Ministry from project implementation to policy initiative is in right direction towards holistic development of the sector. The policy to be effective will have to be comprehensive and should evolve through consultation with the states and the industry. 94. While basic agricultural research has strong and large institutional network in the country, there is inadequate focus on the food processing sector. There is an urgent need for building a bridge between agricultural universities, premiere technological and industrial research institute and the private sector to actively undertake collaborative strategic research in this important sector. 95. Apart from National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM), the Central Food Technology Research Institute (CFTRI) should play a more central, pro-active role to strengthen knowledge base of the industry through greater public and private partnership in technology development. 96. Another critical objective should be for the industry to reach international standards of food safety and quality. All efforts should be made to harmonise Indian Food Standards with Codex. Enactment of the comprehensive legislation, the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 in the recent past has already provided an enabling vista for taking the above aspects forward. 97. Last but not the least; it is required to recalibrate the existing schemes of MFPI for greater effectiveness. The proposed Centrally Sponsored Scheme of NMFP has to be structured in such a manner so that it is efficiently managed. It may also be worthwhile for new mega food parks to explore options of identifying one or more anchor industry(ies) to speed up their pace of implementation.

98. The leather and leather products industry occupies an important position in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment generation, potential for growth both in domestic and export markets. The leather industry is spread in different segments, namely, tanning and finishing, footwear and footwear components, leather garments, leather goods including saddlery and harness and so on.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• • • • • To increase the number of employed in the industry–ensuring the availability of trained/skilled labour To improve the export competitiveness of our products and facilitating exports Improving the scale of businesses in the sector Ensuring clean processes (environmental pollution) Improving the social conditions

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Attracting Large Scale Investments through FDI and Domestic Companies
• Promoting the model adopted China and Vietnam to build a strong leather industry, Promotional activities in foreign countries to be carried out in various formats, print campaign, investment meet, missions for collaborations on raw materials and so on.

Skill Development Initiatives
• Establishment of new Footwear Design and Development Institutes (FDDI) to skill deficit in the sector. • Support to Artisans’ scheme—360 degree intervention plan. • Placement linked Skill Development Programme and Training of Trainers—For providing employment opportunity and to fill the demand of operators in the footwear sector and improving the quality of training.

Industry 127

Ensuring Environmental Sustainability
• Animal Husbandry Measures, Slaughter and Skin Collection Improvement Measures and Rural Tanning Improvement Measures. • Technology Upgradation and Modernisation, environmental impact upgradation and technology benchmarking of Tanneries.

Improving Export Competitiveness
• Brand Building and Indian Leather Mark • Constitution of Domestic Council—Footwear and Leather Products Development and Promotion Council (FLPDPC)

• Improving the availability of raw-materials

99. India’s Gem and Jewellery (G&J) industry is an important foundation of the country’s export-led growth. It is a leading foreign exchange earner and one of the fastest growing sectors accounting for 16.67 per cent of India’s total merchandise exports during FY 2010-11. India now accounts for nearly 55 per cent of world net exports of cut and polished diamonds in value terms, 90 per cent in terms of pieces and 80 per cent by cartage. The industry employs about 2 million highly skilled workforce out of which one million are exclusively engaged in export production. 100. India is known to be the largest consumer of gold in the world. It is estimated that the current annual demand for gold in the country is well over 800 tonnes. Naturally India is also the largest fabricator of gold. 101. In the diamond segment, the industry is importing rough diamond from countries such as Belgium, UK, UAE, Israel, Hong Kong, Switzerland and other mining countries. The polished diamond is exported to countries such as UAE, Hong Kong, USA, Belgium and Israel.

Key Objectives Under the Twelfth Plan
• To ensure access and availability of raw material to the industry • To make Indian products attractive at global markets

Strategy and Key Recommendations
Secure Raw Material Sources: 1. Diamond
• Restrict the export of rough diamonds from domestic mines and invest in diamond reserves abroad through PPP to ensure the sustained availability. 2. Gold • Explore possibility of free import of precious metal gold for manufacturing exports. • Examine option of permitting import of gold as per international practice in place of current practice of import by canalilising agencies to erratic supply and frequent shortages. Coloured Gem Stones • Commissioning exploration programmes and surveys to ascertain availability of coloured gemstones in India.


Training and Development
• Create Sector Skill Council, under the aegis of NSDC, GJEPC and other critical stakeholders. Develop and administer ‘Train the Trainer’ programmes, create training infrastructure and roll out the training programmes.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Research and Development and Technological Upgradation
• Documentation of existing tacit knowledge of traditional artists. • Develop a Design Centre of Excellence and Product Development at Mumbai.

Infrastructure Facilities
• Setting up Gem Bourses, jewellery parks/clusters, Gem trading centres and G&J training centres in some key cities across the country.

Marketing and Brand Promotion
• Creation of a fund with contribution of industry to promote ‘Made in India’ brand image across the globe. • Approprite measures by Government of India to have access in the untapped market for G&J products. • Government should encourage the participation of the industry in international trade forums.

Regulatory and Fiscal
• • • • • • • Introduction of Turnover based taxation system for Indian Gem and Jewellery industry. Relaxation in EPC norms for import of machineries from Italy. Allowance of External Commercial Borrowings for working capital as well. RBI to allow financing for retail jewellery business abroad. Create dollar fund to refinance banks to finance industry at competitive international rate. Introduction of adequate credit guarantee mechanism for Gem and Jewellery Sector. Decrease of transaction cost—Introduction of regulatory control like IRDA to monitor the different transaction charges that an exporter pays to the different government agencies and financing institutions.

102. The broad targets for development of Khadi and Village industries sector during the 12th Plan period are to achieve at least 11 per cent growth in Khadi sector and 13 per cent growth in Village Industries. The strategy for achieving targets are to develop product-wise clusters of Khadi and Village Industries products and develop their domestic as well as export market, introduce innovations in design and technology, creation of entrepreneurship and growth in manufacturing in rural non-farm sector to prevent migration by enhanced allocation for PMEGP. The Khadi Reform Programme has been taken up in the 11th Plan for up scaling marketing of Khadi Products and improving earning of Khadi artisans. The reform also includes introduction of Khadi mark, strengthening Khadi Institutions, market promotion of Khadi products and participation of private party in the form of partnership in the existing establishment of Central Silver plants. The process has been slow and needs to be stepped up in the 12th Plan. Also, outcomes need to be clearly defined. 103. Although the PMEGP is the flagship Programme under KVIC, it is yet to be evaluated in terms of its efficacy. A quick evaluation is warranted before any major up-scaling. Likewise an evaluation of the cluster based initiative by the name of SFURTI is also necessary to evaluate how shortcomings can be overcome while taking up the proposed expansion and introduction of Heritage Clusters. Since the Textile Ministry has been implementing such clusters in Handloom and Handicrafts sectors it would be desirable to ensure convergence whenever possible and avoid duplication.

104. Coir Industry is mostly confined in Southern states namely, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Enterprises in this sector are usually in Micro and Small sector. At present, products manufactured in the Coir Sector are for limited uses. R&D initiatives have been made by the Central Coir Research Institute in Kalavoor and the Central Institute of Technology in Bangalore to develop innovative products for diverse uses. Under the Prime Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana (Bharat Nirman), it has already been decided to use Coir geo-textiles for construction of rural roads in nine States. In future, the project is likely to be extended to all the 28 States of the country. The coir industry is likely to face problems in catering to the huge requirements. Hence it may be required to infuse appropriate technology to improve quality and up-scaling manufacturing capacity in the Twelfth Plan to meet the requirements. The Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) outlays (GBS) for the sectors discussed above are given in Annexure 13.3.

Industry 129

Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays (GBS) for Industry Sector TABLE 13.10 Ministry/Department-wise Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012–17) Outlays Industry Sector (` Crore) S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S. No. of Annex. 3.2 34 35 36 40 43 52 53 54 27 56 64 65 Ministry/Department Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals Department of Pharmaceuticals Department of Fertilisers Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion Ministry of Corporate Affairs Ministry of Food Processing Industries Department of Heavy Industry Department of Public Enterprises Ministry of MSME Ministry of Mines Ministry of Steel Ministry of Textiles Budgetary Support 2,890 2,968 1,484 12,601 233 5,990 4,680 50 24,124 2,332 200 25,931 IEBR 3.00 127.00 15,437.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17,543.00 0.00 1,890.00 18,221.00 90,975.00 0.00 Outlay 2,893.00 3,095.00 16,921.00 12,601.00 233.00 5,990.00 22,223.00 50.00 26,014.00 20,553.00 91,175.00 25,931.00

1. According to NASSCOM—for all graduates (not only related to manufacturing). 2. Aon Hewitt Survey. 3. ASI 2008–09 data shows ~9 per cent of workforce at supervisory and above levels. Assumption of 9 per cent continued for calculating managerial staff requirement in 2025 (organised and unorganised). 4. Recommended changes include (i) Defined limit of investment in plant and machinery for classifying the micro, small and medium enterprises may be deleted from the MSMED Act, 2006 and should be announced through Notifications. (ii) The monetary limit of penal provisions of MSMED Act, 2006 should be provided in Rules instead of in the Act. (iii) Delayed payment of earnest money/security money should be included for payment of penal interest in case of MSEs as per provision in Chapter 5 of MSMED Act, 2006. (iv) Amount of award given by Micro and Small Enterprises Facilitation Council should be realizable as arrear of land revenue. 5. The UWSSA provides for a National Social Security Board at the Central level and for welfare schemes to be formulated

by the Central Government on matters relating to (i) health and disability cover, (ii) health and maternity benefits, (iii) old age protection, and (iv) any other benefits as may be determined by the scheme (Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme, National Family Benefit Scheme, Janshri Bima Yojana, Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana and so on. are among the welfare schemes notified in Schedule 1 of the Act under the Central Government). The Act provides a State Social Security Board at the state level to recommend suitable schemes in the State sector and monitor social welfare schemes for unorganized workers. Schemes relating to (i) Provident Fund (ii) Employment Injury Benefit (iii) housing (iv) educational schemes for children (v) skill up gradation of workers, (vi) funeral assistance and (v) old age homes, is to be formulated and administered by the State Governments. 6. It is important to note though that the overall condition of the economy will be a key driver of sectoral growth rates. And emerging economic realities, especially globally, are likely to create some restraints in the growth of domestic manufacturing. Hence, deliberate effort is needed to implement the manufacturing strategy to boost the Indian manufacturing sector.

14.1. India is the fourth largest consumer of energy in the world after USA, China and Russia but it is not endowed with abundant energy resources. It must, therefore, meet its development needs by using all available domestic resources of coal, uranium, oil, hydro and other renewable resources, and supplementing domestic production by imports. High reliance on imported energy is costly given the prevailing energy prices which are not likely to soften; it also impinges adversely on energy security. Meeting the energy needs of achieving 8 per cent– 9 per cent economic growth while also meeting energy requirements of the population at affordable prices therefore presents a major challenge. It calls for a sustained effort at increasing energy efficiency to contain the growth in demand for energy while increasing domestic production as much as possible to keep import dependence at a reasonable level.
TABLE 14.1 Energy Intensity for Total Primary Energy* Period 1981 1991 2001 2011 Energy Intensity (Kgoe/US$)** 1.09 0.99 0.85 0.62

* Energy intensity indicated is energy required to produce a unit of GDP. ** kgoe: Kilograms of oil equivalent. Source: Planning Commission.

14.2. Energy intensity, defined as the energy input associated with a unit of gross domestic product (GDP), is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation’s economy. India’s energy intensity has been declining over the years (See Table 14.1) and is expected to decline further. 14.3. Falling energy intensity implies that the growth in energy used is less than the growth of GDP, which in turn implies that energy elasticity, that is, the ratio of the growth of energy to the growth of GDP is less than unity. In fact, this elasticity has been declining over the years. Total primary energy–GDP elasticity

was around 0.73 during the period 1980–81 to 2000– 01 and it declined to 0.66 in the period 1981–81 to 2010–11. The elasticity of commercial energy is higher than that of total primary energy because of the ongoing shift from non-commercial to commercial energy. However, even this elasticity declined from a level of 1.09 in the period 1980–81 to 2000– 01 and to 0.91 during 2000–01 to 2010–11. The decline in share of non-commercial energy could be attributed to increased availability of clean fuels and replacing traditional fuels such as wood and cow dung cakes to meet household energy needs. The Twelfth Plan continues to focus on enhancing household access to cleaner forms of energy with an aim to promote sustainable development. 14.4. A National Mission on Energy Efficiency (NMEE) has been launched to improve energy efficiency in all areas of the economy including power, transport, urban housing, consumer goods and

Energy 131

industries. As a part of Clean Energy Mechanism, which is a global initiative, a number of measures are being planned for improving efficiency in lighting by use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and superefficient appliances. A strategy has also been devised to improve the share of energy-efficient modes of transport. This improvement in efficiency will lead to reduced energy intensity of GDP and lower elasticity of energy against GDP. It is estimated that during the Plan, the elasticity may further improve by about 10 per cent by the end of the Plan. 14.5. Table 14.2 shows energy intensity of some select countries for the year 2010, with GDP measured in terms of 2010 USD purchasing power parity (PPP). India’s energy intensity using PPP GDP is 0.191, which is on par with the world average but higher than most of the European countries. China’s energy intensity is roughly 1.5 times that of India.
TABLE 14.2 Energy Intensity S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Country United Kingdom Germany Japan Brazil USA China South Korea India Energy Intensity (Kgoe/US$) 0.102 0.121 0.125 0.134 0.173 0.283 0.189 0.191

14.7. There is ample evidence of unmet demand in rural areas indicating the need to expand access even as we expand total supply. The NSS 66th Round Survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) for 2009–10 shows improvement in access to cleaner forms of energy by households for cooking and lighting purposes as compared to the NSS 61st Round Survey for 2004–05. Access to electricity in this period increased from 92 per cent of urban households to 94 per cent and from 55 per cent of rural households to 67.3 per cent. Since 2009–10, 1.40 crore below poverty line (BPL) households have been provided electricity connection under RGGVY. If we add only the number of BPL households connected during last three years to the NSSO data, the estimated household electrification level as on 31 March 2012 would be of the order of 75 per cent. However, the availability of electricity supply continues to remain an area of concern, particularly in rural areas, where consumers get supplies for less than eight hours a day in certain states. Though 67 per cent of the rural households are reported to have access to electricity in 2009–10, their per capita consumption of electricity is only around 8 units per month, which is just one-third of reported consumption of 24 units in urban areas. This is because of poor quality of electricity supplies and reflects significant unmet demand. 14.8. Achieving universal access to electricity is one of the most important goals and the Government plans to provide electricity to each and every household in the country in the next five years by extending RGGVY programme to every habitation irrespective of the size of the population. Subtransmission, distribution network and renewable sources will need to be expanded suitably in consultation with the State Governments to realise this objective. Adequate investments in the distribution networks will improve the quality of electricity supply for the existing consumers as well as the targeted consumers in the next five years 14.9. The percentage of all households using LPG as cooking fuel increased from 57 per cent of the households in 2004–05 to around 66 per cent in 2009–10. Access to LPG supplies in rural areas increased from

Source: World Energy Outlook 2011.

14.6. Higher levels of GDP will obviously require higher levels of energy as an input but in addition to this requirement India’s energy planning must allow for the need to expand access to clean energy at affordable prices for the bulk of the population. Village electrification and connection of rural households to electric supply under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) is a critical instrument. The supply of kerosene/liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at affordable prices is equally important.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.3 Household Access (%) Energy Source Rural Electricity LPG 54.9 8.6 61st Round 2004–05 Urban 92.3 57.1 Total 65.2 21.9 Rural 67.3 15.5 66th Round 2009–10 Urban 93.9 66.2 Total 75.5 31.2

Note: Access to energy data for Census 2011 shows primary energy sources for lighting in 2011 as 55.3 per cent rural, 92.7 per cent urban and 67.2 per cent overall, as against 43.5 per cent rural, 87.6 per cent urban and 55.8 per cent overall in 2001. The difference in NSSO and Census data is possibly due to differences in questionnaire. It will need to be further looked into.

8.6 per cent in 2004–05 to around 15.5 per cent in the year 2009–10. Besides, per capita consumption reported in rural areas was just 0.3 kg per month as compared to 1.8 kg in urban areas. Since the disparity between urban and rural per capita total consumption is much lower it is reasonable to assume that potential in rural areas is much higher, but is left unsatisfied because of insufficient access. Women being the main energy users and primary energy suppliers are worst affected by restricted LPG supply. This poses one of the most difficult barriers to the empowerment of women. Table 14.3 shows the access levels in 2004-05 and 2009–10.

14.10. The demand for energy during the Plan will increase as the economy grows and as access in rural areas expands. Table 14.4 presents estimates of the total primary energy demand projected to the end of the Thirteenth Plan. The annual average growth rate of the total energy requirement is expected to accelerate from 5.1 per cent per year in the Eleventh Plan to 5.7 per cent per year in the Twelfth Plan and 5.4 per cent per year in the Thirteenth Plan. The faster growth in supply in the Twelfth Plan is in part a reflection of the need to meet suppressed demand. 14.11. The demand for non-commercial energy is expected to decline with increasing expansion of the network and access to commercial energy. As shown in Table 14.4, whereas commercial energy is expected to grow at 6.91 per cent in the five years up to 2011–12, non-commercial energy is projected to grow at only 2.6 per cent in the same period. The growth of non-commercial energy is projected to decline to around 1.5 per cent in the next 10 years.

14.12. Table 14.5 shows the share of each energy source in total domestic production and also its share (including imports) in the total commercial energy consumption. The most important point to note is that coal remains the dominant source of primary energy. Domestic production of coal and lignite account for two-third of total production of commercial energy in 2000–01 and is projected to be about the same in 2021–22. As a percentage of total consumption of commercial energy, the share of coal and lignite is projected to increase to 57 per cent, from a level of 50 per cent in 2000–01. While share of oil in total commercial energy consumption is expected to decline from 37.5 per cent in 2000–01 to 23.3 per cent in 2021–22, the share of natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) is projected to rise from 8.5 per cent to 13 per cent in the same period. The combined share of oil and natural gas in energy consumption was 24.7 per cent in 2011–12 and is expected to be about the same in 2021–22. 14.13. The supply from renewables is expected to increase rapidly from 24,503 MW by the end of the Eleventh Plan to 54,503 MW by the end of the Twelfth and 99,617 MW by the end of theThirteenth. This fourfold increase in the next 10 years is expected to continue in subsequent years as policies provide a strong incentive for the renewables. Nevertheless the base is small and the share of renewables in total commercial energy used will remain small. It is expected to rise from about 1 per cent in 2011–12 to 1.43 per cent in 2016–17 and just under 2 per cent in 2021–22. Though small, the share of renewable energy in India is comparable with that in many other countries: USA (1.7 per cent), Indonesia (1.4 per cent), Thailand (1.0 per cent) and China

Energy 133

TABLE 14.4 Trends in Supply of Primary Commercial Energy (in mtoe)* 2000–01 (Actual) DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Coal Lignite Crude Oil Natural Gas Hydro Power Nuclear Power Renewable Energy Total Domestic commercial Energy Non-commercial Energy 1 Total IMPORTS Coal Petroleum Products LNG Hydro power Total Net Imports Total Commercial Energy (growth over the previous five years) Total Primary Energy 11.76 77.25 0 0 89.01 295.46 432.01 24.92 98.41 8.45 0.26 132.04 396.32 (5.01 %) 549.60 (4.09 %) 54.00 129.86 12.56 0.45 196.87 536.59 (6.25 %) 710.79 (5.28 %) 90.00 152.44 24.80 0.52 267.76 749.60 (6.91 %) 937.26 (5.69 %) 150.00 194.00 31.00 0.60 375.60 1017.60 (6.30 %) 1219.76 (5.41 %) 130.61 6.43 33.40 25.07 6.40 4.41 0.13 206.45 136.64 343.09 177.24 8.76 33.99 27.71 9.78 4.91 0.87 263.28 153.28 (1.93) 416.56 222.16 10.64 39.23 42.79 11.22 8.43 5.25 339.72 174.20 (2.6 %) 513.92 308.55 16.80 42.75 76.13 12.90 16.97 10.74 481.84 187.66 (1.5 %) 669.50 400 29 43 103 17 30 20 642.00 202.16 (1.5 %) 844.16 2006–07 (Actual) 2011–12 (Provisional) 2016–17 (Projected) 2021–22 (Projected)

*mtoe: million tons of oil equivalent. Source: Planning Commission. Note: Figures in brackets are annual average growth rates over the previous five years’ period.

(0.5 per cent). Brazil at (3.1 per cent) is significantly higher. We have made a good start but there is need to do more. 14.14. Even though domestic production of energy resources is projected to increase, import dependence will continue at a high level. The main area of import will be crude oil, where nearly 78 per cent of the demand will have to be met from imports by the end of the Twelfth Plan. However, import dependence for coal is also estimated to increase from 18.8 per cent in 2011–12 to 22.4 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan and 25.9 per cent by the end of the Thirteenth Plan. It is estimated that the import

dependence for coal, LNG and crude oil taken together in the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan is likely to remain at the Eleventh Plan level of 36 per cent. However, this assumes that we are able to realise projected domestic production levels of coal, petroleum and natural gas. If this is not achieved, the level of import dependence would increase further if the GDP growth rates projected are to be maintained.

14.15. Energy pricing is an economically important but also politically sensitive issue, which will pose major challenges in the Twelfth Plan. While the political sensitivity of energy prices is self-evident,


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.5 Share of Each Fuel in Total Energy Production and Consumption (in percentage) 2000–01 Actual Share in Commercial Energy Production Coal and Lignite Crude Oil Natural Gas Hydro Power Nuclear Power Renewable Energy Share in Total Commercial Energy Supply Coal and Lignite Crude Oil Natural Gas Hydro Power Nuclear Power Renewable Energy 50.36 37.45 8.49 2.17 1.49 0.04 53.22 33.41 6.99 2.53 1.24 0.22 53.45 31.51 10.32 2.17 1.57 0.98 55.41 26.04 13.46 1.79 2.26 1.43 56.90 23.29 13.17 1.73 2.95 1.97 66.38 16.18 12.14 3.10 2.14 0.06 70.65 12.91 10.52 3.71 1.86 0.33 68.53 11.55 12.60 3.30 2.48 1.55 67.52 8.87 15.80 2.68 3.52 2.23 66.82 6.70 16.04 2.65 4.67 3.12 2006–07 Actual 2011–12 (Provisional) 2016–17 (Projected) 2021–22 (Projected)

the economic role of rational energy pricing is not adequately appreciated. Rational energy prices help to balance consumer energy demand with producer supply, providing incentives to reduce consumption on the one hand and to stimulate production on the other. As a general rule, energy prices should be aligned with the global energy prices, especially when large imports are involved. 14.16. Misalignment of energy prices poses both microeconomic and macroeconomic problems. At the microeconomic level, underpricing energy to the consumer reduces the incentive to be energy-efficient and also promotes leakage of subsidised products for sale in open market and also (in case of kerosene) adulteration. Underpricing to the producer reduces both the incentive and also the ability to invest in the sector, depressing production and increasing reliance on imports. This obviously undermines energy security. At the macroeconomic level, misalignment either hits producers as stated above, leading to excessive import dependence with implications for the balance of payments, or if producers are sought to be insulated, it necessitates a subsidy, which places a burden on the budget.

14.17. Over the years, India’s energy prices have become misaligned, and are now much lower than global prices for many products. The extent of misalignment is substantial, leading to large un-targeted subsidies. The implications of price misalignment are discussed in the individual sections relating to different sources of energy.

14.18. Energy security involves ensuring uninterrupted supply of energy to support the economic and commercial activities necessary for sustained economic growth. Energy security is obviously more difficult to ensure if there is large dependence on imported energy. This calls for action in several areas. 1. First, and most importantly, the domestic production of coal, oil and gas and other energy sources has to be stepped up. Some of the recent issues in this regard have been availability of land, clearances for environment and forest and implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. Uncertainty about

Energy 135





production sharing contracts has also posed problems. Management strategies and procedures will have to be devised for ensuring effective implementation of fuel development projects while meeting the requirements of above policies and legislations. Second, a stable and attractive policy regime has to be provided to ensure substantial private investment including foreign investment in oil and natural gas blocks and new capacities for renewable energy. Producers must have clarity in the price they will receive and an assurance of a stable tax regime. Since oil exploration is a global industry the terms India offers must be comparable with those offered elsewhere. In this context the entire structure of New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) contracts for oil and gas need to be reviewed. Third, investments in renewable energies need to be strongly emphasised. By present projections, the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption will only reach 2 per cent by 2021. Fourth, investments in energy assets in foreign countries, especially for coal, oil and gas and uranium should be stepped up. Fifth, to meet any possible disruption in oil supplies, on which we are import-dependent to the extent of more than 80 per cent, storage capacities need to be created. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have generally created these capacities to the extent of 90 days of their domestic demand. We have created the capacity for 5 million tonnes. It has, however, not been fully utilised so far. There will be a need to increase this gradually and utilise it fully. Innovative ways will have to be found to fill up these tankages.

generation accounting for 67 per cent of total generation. The power sector is currently at a crucial juncture of its evolution from a dominantly public sector environment to a more competitive power sector, with many private producers and greater reliance on markets, subject to regulation. The performance of the power sector shows many positive features, especially relating to the pace of addition to power generation but there are numerous problems relating to fuel supply which need to be resolved as also problems relating to the financial viability of the operation of the distribution companies (Discoms).

14.20. The Eleventh Plan was the period in which the Electricity Act of 2003, which was enacted during the Tenth Plan period was to be fully operationalised. The objectives of the Act are “to consolidate the laws related to generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity, and taking measures conducive for the development of electrical industry, protecting interests of consumers and supply of electricity to all areas, rationalisation of electricity tariff, ensuring transparent policies regarding subsidies, promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies, constitution of regulatory commission and establishment of Appellate Tribunals”. While substantial progress was made in setting up the institutional structure, there are several important areas where reforms have yet to take place. These are: 1. Open access to consumers, which is mandated under the Electricity Act, remains ineffective due to reluctance of state utilities to comply. 2. Trading of power at very high rates and its purchase by utilities even though not willing to pass on the higher cost in the form of consumer tariffs. This has a distortionary effect and threatens to jeopardise the financial viability of the Discoms. 3. Energy audit of power utilities has not been undertaken. 4. Electricity retail tariffs have remained static for many years because of political pressure, widening the gap between the average tariff and average cost of supply.

14.19. The electric power sector consists of a mix of plants depending on different primary fuels, including conventional sources like coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power; and non-conventional sources like wind and solar power, and agricultural and domestic waste. However, coal remains the dominant primary energy source used in power


Twelfth Five Year Plan

5. The distribution companies suffer from serious financial stress. Losses of the distribution utilities remain high. The annual loss of the State power utilities (without subsidy) was `33,698 crore during 2007–08 and increased to `59,891 crore in the year 2009–10 (provisional). The State Discoms cannot sustain such high losses indefinitely.

Physical Achievements
14.21. An important gain in the Eleventh Plan was the ramping up of the pace of addition to generation capacity. The Eleventh Plan aimed at a substantial increase with a target for additional capacity of 78,700 MW. Actual achievement in the Eleventh Plan was 54,964 MW. Sector-wise and mode-wise capacity addition achievements are given in Table 14.6. This is 30 per cent lower than the original target, but it is more than twice the addition achieved in the Tenth Plan. More importantly, the pace of capacity creation picked up in the Eleventh Plan,

and there is at present about 90,000 MW of generation capacity currently under construction which would achieve commercial production in the Twelfth Plan. If these projects proceed to completion as scheduled, and a strong effort is made to initiate new projects in the first year of the Twelfth Plan, we could reasonably expect to achieve addition to capacity in the Twelfth Plan of the order of 80,000–1,00,000 MW. 14.22. While the pace of addition to generating capacity is commendable, there has not been comparable progress in delivering fuel and the availability of both coal and gas to the new power plants is not assured. Resolution of this problem must have high priority in the Twelfth Plan. 14.23. The main physical milestones achieved in the power sector during the Eleventh Plan are summarised in Box 14.1.

TABLE 14.6 Installed Capacity Addition during the Eleventh Plan (in MW) Type Central Hydro Thermal Nuclear Total 8,654 24,840 3,380 36,874 State 3,482 23,301 – 26,783 Target Private 3,491 11,552 – 15,043 Total 15,627 59,693 3,380 78,700 Central 1,550 12,790 880 15,220 State 2,702 14,030 – 16,732 Actual Private 1,292 21,720 – 23,012 Total 5,544 48,540 880 54,964

Source: Central Electricity Authority (CEA).

Box 14.1 Achievements in Power Sector during the Eleventh Plan
• Capacity addition during the Eleventh Plan period has been at 54,964 MW which is 69.8 per cent of the original target and 88.1 per cent of the reduced target of 62,374 MW set in the Mid-term Appraisal (MTA). It is more than 2.5 times that of any of the earlier Plans. • Total installed capacity as on 31 March 2012, including renewable energy sources of the country is 1,99,877 MW. The share of renewable energy capacity is about 12.2 per cent • Approximately 69,926 circuit km (ckm) of transmission line. 1,50,362 MVA capacity of alternating current (AC) substations and 1,750 MW capacity of high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) substations were added to the existing transmission systems. • Total number of villages electrified till March 2012 was about 5.6 lakhs, indicating that more than 93 per cent village electrification has been achieved. However, a large number of small habitations still remain unconnected. • Various activities under different schemes of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and Ministry of Power (MoP) have resulted in saving in avoided power capacity of 11,000 MW. • Works relating to 18 units for life extension aggregating to 1,931 MW and 69 units for repair and maintenance (R&M) aggregating to 17,435 MW have been completed during the Eleventh Plan.

Energy 137

Electricity Generation
14.24. The Eleventh Plan estimated a terminal year (2011–12) requirement of electricity generation from utilities at 1,038 billion units (BU), implying growth rate of 9.1 per cent (CAGR) per annum over the gross generation level of 670.65 BU in 2006–07 (the terminal year of the Tenth Plan). As against the above, the actual generation from utilities in 2011– 12 was 876.88 BU, a shortfall of about 16 per cent, implying an annual growth rate of only 5.51 per cent for power from the utilities. The mode-wise and sector-wise energy generation for 2011–12 is given in Table 14.7. After allowing for captive generation of about 110 BU in 2011–12, the growth rate in total power generation is likely to be 5.7 per cent (CAGR) over the Eleventh Plan period, against the Plan target of 9.5 per cent. This has resulted in a demand–supply gap. On 31 March 2012, it was estimated that the peak deficit gap was 11.1 per cent and energy deficit

was 8.5 per cent. These deficits are lower than the corresponding deficits of 13.8 per cent and 9.6 per cent respectively at the end of the Tenth Plan, but there is a clear need to step up capacities and energy availability as the economy grows. 14.25. The actual cumulative capacity as on 31 March 2012 was 1,99,877 MW, including 24,503 MW of renewable sources of energy, the details of which are given in Table 14.8. 14.26. The Eleventh Plan has clearly succeeded in creating the precondition for achieving much larger addition to capacity in future. The performance of the private sector exceeded targets (see Table 14.6) whereas the Government sector fell short, with the shortfall being the generation in the Central sector. The share of the private sector in the total installed capacity has risen to about 42 per cent

TABLE 14.7 Mode-wise/Sector-wise Break-up of Generation (in Billion Units) Type Hydro (Incl. Bhutan Import) Thermal (a) Coal (b) Lignite (c) Gas Nuclear Total (Incl. Bhutan Import) Source: CEA. TABLE 14.8 All-India Cumulative Generating Capacity (as on 31 March 2012) (in MW) Hydro Centre State/UTs Private Total 9,085.40 27,380.00 2,525.00 38,990.40 Thermal 45,817.23 55,024.93 30,761.02 1,31,603.18 Nuclear 4,780.00 – – 4,780.00 RES (MNRE)* 0.00 3,513.72 20,989.73 24,503.45 Total 59,682.63 85,918.65 54,275.75 1,99,877.03 Central 55.97 (5.28) 281.04 225.18 18.76 37.09 32.29 369.28 (5.28) State 71.02 296.93 271.98 2.88 21.27 – 367.95 Private 8.81 130.84 87.63 6.45 35.10 – 139.65 Total 135.80 (5.28) 708.81 584.79 28.09 93.46 32.29 876.88 (5.28)

* MNRE: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Source: CEA.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

of the incremental capacity in the Eleventh Plan. The capacity addition program has benefited from increase in the potential of the domestic equipment suppliers like Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), and also increased imports. BHEL has now the potential to deliver about 15,000–20,000 MW of new capacity per year as against 6,000 MW per year a few years ago. Further, more private-sector equipment manufacturers are also entering the market and the total capacity may increase to about 40,000 MW per year by 2016–17.

of coal-based capacity addition in the Twelfth Plan is expected be based on supercritical technology. For the Thirteenth Plan, it has been decided that all coal-fired capacity addition shall be through supercritical units. Higher stream parameters of 565/593 degree centigrade are being adopted for supercritical units which would lead to design efficiency of over 40 per cent and lower CO2 emissions by about 5 per cent as compared to a typical 500 MW subcritical unit. 14.29. Initiatives have been taken by the Government for developing indigenous capacity/capability for manufacturing of supercritical boilers and turbine generators as indigenous manufacturing capacity is considered vital to support large-scale induction of supercritical units envisaged. BHEL has entered into a technology collaboration with M/s Alstom and Siemens for supercritical technology for boilers and turbine generators respectively. BHEL has intimated that it had augmented its manufacturing capacity to 20,000 MW per year by March 2012. Further, setting up of joint ventures (JVs)/subsidiary companies by international manufactures of supercritical boilers and turbine generators was encouraged. As a result, several JVs have come up in the country for setting up manufacturing facilities for supercritical boilers and turbines generators. Manufacturing capacities which may come up are indicated in Table 14.9. The Government of India has also approved the policy of encouraging domestic production of supercritical plants by bulk-tendering of such units. Two bulk orders—11 × 660 MW supercritical units for National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) and 9 × 800 MW supercritical units for NTPC—were approved and being implemented.

Ultra-Mega Power Projects
14.27. The Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) Programme, which brings in private investment into power generation, was a major initiative of the Eleventh Plan. So far power purchase agreements have been signed for four UMPPs of 4,000 MW each on the basis of competitive tariff-based bidding. They are based in Sasan (Madhya Pradesh), Mundra (Gujarat), Krishnapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and Tilaiya (Jharkhand). Out of these, one unit of 800 MW of Mundra by Tata Power has been commissioned in March 2012. 12 more supercritical UMPPs are being planned covering Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra and Karnataka. An important element of this programme is the induction of supercritical technology, which is an important shift towards energy efficiency. Unfortunately, some of these projects are plagued with uncertainties regarding fuel supply because they were based on imported coal and changes in government policies in the countries where the coal mines were located have raised the cost of coal whereas the power tariff is based on a competitive bid which does not contain a provision for passing on such increases.

Super Critical Projects under Construction
14.28. Thermal power stations based on present-day subcritical technology have efficiency of about 38 per cent. To improve energy efficiency further, it was decided that new thermal power plants should be based on supercritical technology. Already, eleven supercritical units with a total capacity of 7,400 MW have been installed. Large number of supercritical units are under construction and about 50 per cent

14.30. A programme for construction of 88,515 ckm transmission lines for evacuation of power from generating stations was envisaged at the beginning of the Eleventh Plan based on the target for capacity addition that was planned. When the capacity target was scaled down to 62,374 MW at the time of the Mid-Term Appraisal (MTA), the target for transmission was scaled down to 68,673 ckm. Details of

Energy 139

TABLE 14.9 Planned Manufacturing Capacity MW Per Annum Joint Venture L&T–MHI Alstom–Bharat Forge Toshiba–JSW Gammon–Ansaldo 4,000 MW Boilers 4,000 MW – Turbine-Generators 4,000 MW 5,000 MW 3,000 MW – Remarks Production for boiler and turbine commenced All manufacturing facilities for manufacture of turbines to be completed by June 2013 All manufacturing facilities to be completed by April 2013 Probable date of completion of facilities— December 2012 (2,000 MW) and December 2014 (additional 2,000 MW) All manufacturing facilities to be completed by September 2012 All manufacturing facilities to be completed by January 2013 5 Turbine Generators per All manufacturing facilities to be completed by annum (~3,000 MW) July 2014 2,200 MW (Both subcritical and Supercritical) DCW Pvt. Ltd. is 100 per cent subsidiary of Doosan Korea. Company incorporated in India on 20 July 2000 Existing facility–Chennai Additional facility acquired at Mannur village, Kancheepuram district Production from additional facilities to start by Sept-2012.

Thermax–Babcock and Wilcox BGR–Hitachi Boilers Private Limited BGR–Hitachi Turbine Generator Private Limited Doosan Chennai Works Private Limited

3,000 MW 5 Boilers per annum (~3,000 MW)

the achievement of transmission lines at the end of the Eleventh Plan are given in Table 14.10. The addition achieved during the Eleventh Plan is 69,926 ckm which is greater than the scaled-down target.

14.31. Distribution is the weakest link in the power system with large losses leading to financial unviability. The cash losses of utilities selling power directly to consumers, after accounting for subsidy from the State Governments, increased from `17,620 crore in year 2007–08 to `42,415 crore in year 2009–10. The cumulative book losses (on accrual basis) of State Discoms have increased from `79,339 crore as on 31 March 2009 to `1,06,247 crore at the end of year 2009–10. The net worth of the Discoms has decreased from `31,972 crore to `14,786 crore as on 31 March 2010. While some of the States have shown improvements in the financial health of their utilities, others are yet to demonstrate the impact of the policy initiatives.

14.32. Distribution companies have not been able to recover the cost of supply through tariff, and the gap between Average Cost of Supply (ACS) and Average Revenue Realised (ARR) has widened and the same has been increasing over the years. This gap is partly a reflection of lower tariff, but it also reflects high aggregate technical and commercial (AT&C) losses which reduce the average revenue realised. The trends in AT&C for all States are shown in Table 14.11. The position is especially serious in the special category states, which have losses (2010–11, Provisional) varying between 29.17 per cent in the case of Uttarakhand to 74.30 per cent in Jammu & Kashmir. Himachal Pradesh with AT&C loss of 13.53 per cent is an exception. The non-special category states have generally performed better, though the losses are still unacceptably high in several of these, for example, Jharkhand (45.11 per cent), Bihar (49.99 per cent), Chhattisgarh (36.41 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (37.86 per cent), Odisha (44.35 per cent)


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.10 Cumulative Achievement of Transmission Lines at the End of the Eleventh Plan Transmission System Type/Voltage Class Transmission Lines 765 kV HVDC + 500 kV Bi-pole 400 kV 230/220 kV Total Substations 765 kV 400 kV 230/220 kV Total HVDC Bi-pole link capacity Back-to-back capacity Total Source: CEA. MW MW MW 5,000 3,000 8,000 1,750 0 1,750 6,750 3,000 9,750 MVA MVA MVA MVA 0 92,942 1,56,497 2,49,439 25,000 58,085 67,277 1,50,362 25,000 1,51,027 2,23,774 3,99,801 ckm ckm ckm ckm ckm 1,704 5,872 69,174 1,10,805 1,87,555 3,546 3,560 37,645 25,175 69,926 5,250 9,432 1,06,819 1,35,980 2,57,481 Unit At the End of the Tenth Plan (March 2007) Addition during the Eleventh Plan At the End of the Eleventh Plan (March 2012)

and Madhya Pradesh (41.10 per cent). In contrast, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi and Tamil Nadu show relatively good performance in containing AT&C losses. 14.33. Due to unsustainable levels of AT&C losses and other inefficiencies in metering, billing and collection, the utilities are not able recover the cost of supply resulting in widening of gap between average cost of supply and tariff. Table 14.12 shows recent trends in financial parameters of major States. 14.34. The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India has carried out a study involving 24 utilities on issues impacting financial health of power distribution utilities in India and has pointed out the need for rationalisation of tariffs charged for various consumers. Unless the measures to contain these inefficiencies are taken, the Discoms will not be able to break even. Further, default in payments, nonmetering of consumers, inadequate energy auditing, inadequate investments in upgradation of the distribution system are some of the other issues that need

to be addressed. This situation is a cause of serious concern and remedial steps need to be taken on priority basis in the Twelfth Plan to ensure that utilities generate adequate surpluses to support their ongoing projects.

Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP)
14.35. To address the problems of distribution losses, the Central Government had launched the APDRP scheme in 2002–03 as an Additional Central Assistance (ACA) scheme to finance the modernisation of sub-transmission and distribution networks with the objective to reduce AT&C losses to 15 per cent. This programme was not effective in reducing losses. A Re-structured APDRP was approved as a Central scheme in 2008 with a total outlay of `51,577 crore over the Eleventh Plan period. The focus of the programme is on actual, demonstrable performance in terms of AT&C loss reduction. The coverage of the programme is for the urban areas—towns and cities with a population of more than 30,000 (10,000 for

Energy 141

TABLE 14.11 Aggregate Technical and Commercial Los ses of State Power Utilities (within State) (in Percentage) S. No State Special Category States 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Arunachal Pradesh Assam Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura Uttarakhand Non-Special Category States 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Andhra Pradesh Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Delhi 20.61 47.60 35.17 17.69 26.43 29.01 54.18 31.63 44.80 46.64 30.67 41.68 22.36 40.18 19.25 38.89 20.67 34.58 19.39 41.66 37.78 17.81 25.46 28.43 54.23 24.79 34.98 45.78 28.75 42.20 19.76 32.99 20.19 35.29 28.81 17.92 18.32 42.39 46.62 16.18 26.87 29.50 49.07 23.69 28.81 42.93 27.44 39.71 19.97 33.06 19.11 36.69 26.13 20.78 16.78 49.99 36.41 15.57 18.25 26.72 45.11 23.64 29.72 41.10 23.47 44.35 18.35 25.60 18.27 37.86 28.87 15.76 78.31 36.77 19.52 73.43 86.75 39.74 38.38 51.20 46.87 41.44 35.37 74.27 35.37 16.20 70.69 83.55 35.27 46.43 55.85 46.81 40.08 29.35 63.14 38.24 17.39 72.03 69.23 43.19 42.89 58.02 51.37 37.52 28.61 65.48 45.13 13.53 74.30 67.74 37.93 42.08 55.98 46.81 41.19 29.17 2007–08 (Actual) 2008–09 (Actual) 2009–10 (Actual) 2010–11 (Provisional)

special category States). Private distribution utilities are not covered under the programme which has been a point of criticism by some States. Projects under the R-APDRP scheme were to be taken up in two parts. Part A focused on establishing reliable and automated

system for sustained collection of accurate baseline data, and the adoption of IT in the areas of energy accounting and auditing and consumer-based services. Part B includes projects to strengthen the distribution system, including activities like automation


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.12 Viability of Major State Utilities Not Improving (Excluding Delhi and Odisha) 2007–08 Actual Energy sold/energy available (%) Revenue from sale of electricity (` crore) Total cost of electricity sold (` crore) Commercial losses without subsidy (` crore) Average cost of supply (paise/kWh) Average tariff (paise/kWh) Gap between the cost of supply and tariff (paise) Source: Power Utilities of various States and UTs. 72.86 1,31,220 1,74,452 33,290 405.86 305.29 100.57 2008–09 Actual 74.55 1,48,605 2,12,292 52,452 464.48 325.13 139.35 2009–10 Provisional 74.33 1,63,475 2,35,701 60,172 480.37 333.17 147.20 2010–11 RE 76.21 1,92,827 2,61,467 59,050 485.67 358.18 127.49

and validation of baseline system, project evaluations, capacity-building and development of franchisees in the distribution sector and consumer attitude surveys. Projects under Part B would be taken up after the baseline data is established (Table 14.13). 14.36. The status of R-APDRP at the end of the Eleventh Plan is as follows: • Under Part A of R-APDRP, 1,402 projects at an estimated cost of `5,196.50 crore have been approved for 29 States/UTs. • Part A SCADA projects for 63 towns of 15 States have also been sanctioned at an estimated cost of `1,443.48 crore. • Under Part-B of R-APDRP, 1,086 projects at an estimated cost of `24,776.17 crore have been approved for 20 States.

• All Part A projects have been awarded except in one State. These are under implementation and at a stage of advanced progress in several States. • Part A of R-APDRP is to be completed by utilities in three years after its approval. Presently, there are no projects which have completed three years’ time since they were sanctioned. However, it has been observed that State procurement policy and procedures have delayed the appointment of IT consultants in some of the States.

Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY)
14.37. RGGVY was launched by the Government of India in April 2005 as a comprehensive scheme for providing access of electricity to all rural households. The scheme involved electrification of all un-electrified villages plus a free connection for

TABLE 14.13 Details of Year-wise Progress Achieved on Restructured APDRP (as on 31 March 2012) (` Crore) Year Part A 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 Total 1,947.70 3,183.00 715.40 793.88 6,639.98 Project Sanctioned Part B 0.00 3,059.28 12,915.31 8,801.58 24,776.17 Total 1,947.70 6,242.28 13,630.71 9,595.46 31,416.15 Loan 0 1,650 3,600 1,959 7,209 Budget Allocation Grant 1 80 100 75 256 Total 1 1,730 3,700 2,034 7,465 Loan 0.00 1,331.46 2,246.42 1,600.00 5,177.88 Actual Releases Grant 350.00 1.26 100.00 67.87 519.13 Total 350.00 1,332.72 2,346.42 1,667.87 5,697.01

Source: Ministry of Power.

Energy 143

TABLE 14.14 Status on RGGVY Progress during the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan Year Target 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 Cumulative (as on 31 March 2012) 10,000 40,000 10,500 19,000 17,500 17,500 14,500 1,12,795* Un-electrified Villages (No.) Achieved 9,819 28,706 9,301 12,056 18,374 18,306 7,934 1,04,496 % Achieved 98.2 71.8 88.6 63.5 105.0 104.6 54.7 92.6 Target 3 40 16 35 47 47 52 275* Tenth Plan 0.17 6.55 16.21 30.85 47.18 58.84 34.45 194.25 5.7 16.4 101.3 61.7 100.4 125.1 66.2 70.6 BPL Households (lakh) Achieved %Achieved

Eleventh Plan

* Revised coverage including Phase II projects. Source: Ministry of Power.

BPL households. The scheme provided a subsidy of 90 per cent of the total project cost and balance 10 per cent of the project cost was to be provided by the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) as loan. Initially, Phase I of the RGGVY scheme was approved for implementation with a capital subsidy of `5,000 crore during the remainder of the Tenth Plan period. Subsequently, the scheme was approved to be continued in the Eleventh Plan with a capital subsidy of `28,000 crore. As on 31 March 2012, out of the total of 1,12,795 villages to be covered under RGGVY (including Phase II projects), works in 1,04,496 villages have been completed and only 8,299 un-electrified villages remain; 6,000 villages are targeted to be electrified during 2012–13. In addition, about 10,000 remote villages are to be covered by the MNRE through non-conventional sources. Overall, by the end of Eleventh Plan, out of the total 5,93,732 villages in India (Census 2001), 5,56,633 villages (93.8 per cent) have been electrified as per CEA report. Some of the villages which have been electrified, that is, connected to the grid, have not yet been energised. The gap is primarily in the States of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and Assam. Most of the projects are expected to be completed during 2012 except in the north-eastern region and in areas involving difficult terrain.

14.38. The year-wise targets and achievements for RGGVY during the Tenth and the Eleventh Five Year Plan are given in Table 14.14. 14.39. Studies were carried out to evaluate the socioeconomic impact of electrification in Odisha. Other such studies are also underway. The key findings of the studies are: 1. Electrification has altered the household energy mix through substitution of traditional kerosene-based lighting source by electric light. This has resulted in energy and financial savings of households as families would no longer be subject to exorbitant price of kerosene. 2. Security within the villages as well as the quality of living of masses have improved. 3. Electrification has enhanced livelihood generation in the field of agriculture and related activities, small shops and other entrepreneurial activities. 4. Availability of electricity during post-sunset time allowed for extension of study hours for students. 5. Increased mobility and overall comfort, especially for women, have enhanced safe spaces and reduced the drudgery of household chores.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

14.40. The RGGVY programme has several deficiencies in implementation. Firstly, nearly 6,000 villages electrified till December 2011 were still not energised due to lack of supporting network or other resources. Secondly, access to electricity in rural areas is still limited, especially in smaller hamlets. The traditional approach to policy and planning in power has assumed gender neutrality, thus failing to recognise that the needs of men and women can differ. Attention needs to be paid to livelihood activities of women and to their concerns of safety, security such as street lighting, healthcare, education and so on. Thirdly, poor financial health of utilities and high cost of power act as a disincentive for States to give new connections. Fourthly, some States do not have supporting network and are unable to provide energisation. Fifthly, a viable revenue model is yet to emerge. This has hindered larger access to new consumers. 14.41. Some of the other areas of concern are: 1. In certain States, even the minimum required hours of supply of six hours to eight hours could not be met. 2. There is a need to upgrade transformer capacity as the current average demand of BPL and above poverty line (APL) consumers is in the range of 300 to 500 watts and 0.5 to 1.15 KW, respectively. There have been several complaints of frequent burning of transformers. 3. The progress of release of APL connections is slow on account of poor supply of electricity, long delays in processing of applications and inadequate transformer capacity. 4. In many States, the distribution company takes a long time for issuing the first bill which can be anywhere between three to six months. Because of this delay, the total bill comes to around `1,000 to `1,500 which a rural household finds difficult to pay. This leads to a permanent high level of outstanding bills. 5. In most of the operating States, no franchisee was found in any of the surveyed villages and the Discoms had their own mechanism of meter reading, billing and so on.

6. As far as project preparation is concerned, it has been observed that in most cases, the detailed project reports (DPRs) were prepared in a hurried manner and quality was compromised. 7. As far as the socio-economic impact is concerned, it is found that electrification has so far not generated substantial employment opportunities or economic development in the rural areas except in a few cases. 8. The number of actual BPL families in the villages in many cases has been higher than the number indicated in the DPR.

Status on Open Access
14.42. The Electricity Act, 2003, mandates that nondiscriminatory open access for interstate as well as intra-state transmission and distribution networks be provided by the utilities. Effective implementation of open access is crucial for opening up consumer choices as well as encouraging a healthy trading function in the country. The open access at interstate level is fully operational. Starting from 17 BUs of energy transacted through Short-Term Open Access (STOA) at the interstate level in 2004–05, the volume has grown to 55 BUs in 2010–11. While carriage and content separation at interstate level has been largely addressed by design, a point of concern has been the adequacy of carriage. Therefore, adequacy issues with respect to carriage need to be specified. Little progress has been made in the implementing of open access at intra-state transmission and distribution network level. 14.43. An inter-Ministerial Task was constituted under the chairmanship of Member (Energy), Planning Commission in February 2008 to examine the status and make recommendations on the measures for operationalising the provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003 in respect of open access. The Forum of Regulators (FoR) has issued model regulations for intra-state open access in September 2010. Adoption of these model regulations by State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) would go a long way in successful implementations of intrastate open access. Further, a Second Task Force was constituted in February, 2010 to review the progress made on the recommendations of the previous

Energy 145

Task Force and suggest further course of action on the issues upon which there was no consensus in the First Task Force. The report of the second task force has been received and States have been asked to take necessary action to implement the recommendations. Recommendations of the Task forces on open access are given in Box 14.2. 14.44. At the State level, Discoms need to create distribution control centres and empower them so that open access at the distribution level becomes a reality. The request for open access is given at the State level to the State distribution control centres. If these can be empowered to take a quick decision in accordance with the prescribed guidelines and norms for providing open access, the decisions will not be delayed.

Such an empowerment of the State distribution centres is, therefore, is important for the open access.

Financial Performance
14.45. The approved Eleventh Plan power sector budgetary outlay for the public sector (Central and State sectors) was `5,72,648 crore which was 15.71 per cent of the total Plan outlay. Summary of the year-wise investment made during the Eleventh Plan is shown in Table 14.15. 14.46. The Table indicates major shortfalls in case of central power sectors. This is primarily because the pace of capacity addition of NTPC and National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) has been lower than the expected. The internal and

Box 14.2 Recommendations of Task Force on Open Access

1. SERCs to regulate the tariffs of all consumers of 1 MW and above in accordance with the provisions of Sections 42, 49 and 86 of the Act and fix only the wheeling charges (in conformity with section 42, read with section 62 of the Act) and open access surcharge. 2. Tariff to be charged by the discoms for providing standby supply should not exceed the maximum UI rate for the applicable hours plus a 5 per cent administrative charge thereon or alternatively, the bulk consumers may directly handle the UI supplies with the respective State Load Dispatch Centres (SLDCs) and to act as independent entities with financial and operational autonomy. 3. SLDCs should be upgraded in a time bound manner to enable open access, under section 42. 4. SERCs should ensure enabling arrangements such as metering and settlement. 5. Regulators should meet bulk consumers to take proactive action for encouraging open access. Timelines should be provided for the same. 6. The trading margin fixed by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) should apply in a seamless manner in any one transaction emanating from a generating company and terminating with a discom through multiple traders and should not exceed the maximum margin allowed to a single trader.

7. To earmark a specified proportion, say, 25 per cent of the Centre’s discretionary allocation of 15 per cent of central public sector undertakings’ (CPSUs’) generating capacity which may be made available for direct sale by CPSUs to open access consumers. As for new and upcoming capacity of CPSUs, 75 per cent of the discretionary quota may be reserved for sale to open access consumers and the sale price should determine by bidding. 75 per cent of the profits made by the CPSUs on this account may be transferred to the respective states where open access consumers are located. 8. Scheme of UI charges should be reviewed to ensure that UI does not become a vehicle for gaming in scheduling. For this a mechanism should be evolved to facilitate corrective measures against gaming including stiff penalties. 9. Commencing from the Twelfth Five Year Plan, the Central Government should release Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) assistance only to States that comply with the above and enable consumers to exercise their statutory right to open access. A package of incentives and disincentives should also be formulated by Power Finance Corporation (PFC) and REC for States to operationalise open access.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.15 Outlay/Expenditure: Centre, States and UTs (` Crore) Sector Eleventh Plan Approved Outlay 2,25,385 3,47,263 5,72,648 2007–08 (Actual) 27,243 29,596 56,839 2008–09 (Actual) 31,577 42,242 73,819 2009–10 (Actual) 34,059 44,528 78,587 2010–11 (RE) 43,749 46,746 90,495 2011–12 (RE) 48,068 70,390 1,18,458 Eleventh Plan Likely Expenditure 1,84,696 2,33,501 4,18,197 Per cent Utilisation 81.95 67.24 73.03

States and UTs Central Sector All India

Source: Planning Commission.

extra budgetary resource (IEBR) of the power sector CPSUs was 63 per cent of the original Plan targets.

TWELFTH PLAN PROGRAMME Addition to Generation Capacity
14.47. The Working Group on Power has estimated a capacity addition requirement of 75,785 MW corresponding to 9 per cent GDP growth during the Twelfth Plan period. However, in order to bridge the gap between peak demand and peak deficit, and provide for faster retirement of the old energy-inefficient plants, the target for the Twelfth Plan has been fixed at 88,537 MW. As shown in Table 14.16, the share of the private sector in the additional capacity will be 53 per cent, compared to a target of 19 per cent in the Eleventh Plan. Since the growth rate of GDP for the Twelfth Plan is likely to be 8.2 per cent and not 9 per cent, the target for capacity addition contain an element of slack of about 10 per cent. 14.48. The share of power based on non-fossil fuel plants is very low at present and should be

increased over time to promote low carbon growth strategy. The share of coal and lignite in the additional capacity being created during the Twelfth Plan is 79 per cent, up from 76 per cent in the target from the Eleventh Plan which actually ended up at 79 per cent. The projected capacity addition in non-fossil fuel plants covers addition of hydro capacity of 1,0897 MW and nuclear capacity of 5,300 MW. Besides this, 1,200 MW import of hydro power from Bhutan has also been considered. In addition, it is planned to add a grid interactive renewable capacity addition of about 30,000 MW comprising of 15,000 MW wind, 10,000 MW solar, 2,100 small hydro, and the balance primarily from bio mass planned. Details of the projected Twelfth Plan capacity addition, sector-wise and mode-wise, are given in Table 14.16.

Power Generation
14.49. The Working Group for the Twelfth Plan has estimated a requirement of 1,403 BU by the year 2016–17, after taking into account energy conservation measures and demand–supply management.

TABLE 14.16 Sector-wise and Mode-wise Capacity Addition (Provisional) during the Twelfth Plan (MW) Sector Hydro Total Thermal 14,878 13,922 43,540 72,340 – 72,340 Thermal Breakup Coal 13,800 12,210 43,270 69,280 – 69,280 Lignite 250 0 270 520 – 520 – 2,539.6 Gas/Lng* 827.6 1,712.0 0.0 2,539.6 – 5,300 5,300 0 0 5,300 26,181.6 15,530.0 46,825.0 88,536.6 30,000 1,18,536.6 Nuclear Total

Central State Private Total (Excluding RES) Renewables Total (Including RES)

6,004 1,608 3,285 10,897 – 10,897

* Addition of gas capacity is provisional and will depend upon the availability of gas. This will be reviewed during the MTA.

Energy 147

Without such measures, the generation requirement is projected at 1,463 BU. Even if the moderate level of 1,403 BU is taken as the Twelfth Plan target, the projected growth rate in power generation will be 9.8 per cent. 14.50. The projected change in the mix of generation by fuel supply by the end of 2030 is given in Table 14.17. The share of renewables in electricity generated is expected to rise from around 6 per cent in 2012 to 9 per cent in 2017 and 16 per cent in 2030. However, the share of hydro electricity is expected to fall from 15 per cent in 2012 to 11 per cent in 2030. The share of nuclear power, another clean source from a carbon emission perspective is expected to rise from 3 per cent in 2012 to 5 per cent in 2017 and to 12 per cent in 2030. Taking all these clean energy sources together, the share of hydro, renewables plus nuclear energy is expected to rise from 26 per cent in 2012 to 39 per cent by 2030.

R&M of Hydro Plants
14.52. The normal life expectancy of hydro plants is about 30–35 years after which they need life extension. Many of the existing hydro power stations could be modernised to generate reliable and higher yield by restoration and modernisation schemes. These involve adopting modern equipments like static excitation, microprocessor-based controls, electric microprocessor, high speed static or numerical relays, data logger, optical instrumentation for monitoring vibrations, air gaps, and silt contained in water and so on. These measures would improve availability of hydro power stations and minimise outages. Routine maintenance activities are not included in these schemes. Only activities which aim at increasing the efficiency of the unit and improve availability or steps required to meet environmental norms, or aimed at renovating obsolete equipment controls and instrumentation, are included in R&M scheme.

Renovation and Modernisation and Life Extension of Thermal Power Plants (R&M and LE)
14.51. Coal-based thermal plants are the backbone of the Indian power sector. Most of the old and smaller size non-reheat type units are on the verge of retirement. R&M and LE is an economical option to supplement the capacity addition programme which was initiated in 1984 as a Centrally Sponsored Programme during the Seventh Plan. It continued till the Eleventh Plan and CEA has recommended for its continuance during the Twelfth Plan also.

Exploitation of Hydro Electric Potential
14.53. Hydro power plants, particularly storagebased, are generally planned for their ability to meet peak power demand. Estimated hydro potential in India is about 149 GW including the plants of less than 25 MW capacity. The total capacity developed and under development put together so far is about 32 per cent of this potential. A major part of the unexploited potential is in North-East and Himalayan regions. With the deployment of latest technologies we can harness the remaining potential without damaging the ecology. Table 14.18 shows

TABLE 14.17 Changing Structure of Fuel for Electricity Capacity (%) 2012 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Coal Oil Gas Hydro Renewables Nuclear Total Clean Energy (4 + 5 + 6) 56 1 9 20 12 2 2017 57 1 6 15 17 4 2030 42 0 3 13 33 9 2012 70 0 7 14 6 3 23 Generation (%) 2017 69 0 5 12 9 5 26 2030 58 0 3 11 16 12 39


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.18 Status of Hydro Electric Potential Development (In terms of Installed capacity—above 25 MW) Region Total potential Capacity developed Capacity Under development 5,416 400 570 2,713 2,852 11,951 Total Developed+ Under development (%) 20,895 (40) 5,952 (73) 9,937 (62.5) 5,621 (52.6) 4,052 (7) 46,457 (32) Capacity yet to be developed (%) 31,368 (60) 2,179 (27) 5,953 (37.5) 5,059 (47.4) 54,304 (93) 98,863 (68)

Northern Western Southern Eastern North Eastern All India

52,263 8,131 15,890 10,680 58,356 1,45,320

15,479 5,552 9,367 2,908 1,200 34,506

the status of hydro potential development in the country (above 25 MW).

Pollution and Ash Utilisation
14.56. An important positive development in the power sector is that the utilisation of ash has increased impressively from 9.63 per cent in 1996–97 to 56 per cent in 2010–11. This is the consequence of deliberative planning to reduce adverse environmental impact as the coal-based capacity expanded. There are 13 thermal power stations in the country which have achieved 100 per cent or more ash utilisation during the year 2010–11. The ash generation by coal/lignite-based thermal power stations is estimated to increase to 170 million tons per year by the end of 2010–11 and reach to a level of about 300 million tonnes per year by the end of the Twelfth Plan. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has issued notifications for achieving 100 per cent utilisation of fly ash. The quantity of fly ash which has to be disposed off in ash ponds shall be reduced significantly which will help in addressing problems of pollution. All project developers will have to meet the stringent requirement of environmental norms for setting up thermal power plants to minimise air and water pollution.

Peaking Power and Reserve Plants
14.54. The generation system must be designed to meet base load as well as peak load of the power system and have the ability to respond dynamically and efficiently to variations in demand within a short time. Since our system has wide variation in demand during peak and off-peak periods there is a need for peaking support with very high ramping rate. Peaking power can be provided by reservoir-based hydro plants or gas-based generation. Apart from the above, an optimal power system should have adequate reserves to meet the contingency of outage of certain operating generation capacity. It is important to set up these capacities to meet peaking power demand. It will be necessary to start up 2,000 MW of peaking gas-based plants, despite the limitations on availability of gas improvement. 14.55. Since it is expensive to carry unutilised capacity, and power from gas is likely to be especially expensive, the ability to meet peak loads is critically dependent on introducing time of day metering with a sufficient difference between peak and off-peak tariffs.

Captive Power Plants
14.57. A number of captive power plants (CPPs), including coal-based power plants of varied type

Energy 149

and size, exist in the country. These are either used in process industries or for in-house power consumption for large units. Capacity addition of around 13,000 MW of captive power is likely to be commissioned during the Twelfth Plan. Surplus power, if any, from CPPs is fed into the grid. The tariff for the surplus power is regulated. The captive power capacity generators find it profitable to supply electricity to the grid as the fixed cost has already been recovered by them from the power supplied for their captive use. The variable costs plus additional margins which is provided by the utility is found attractive by them for supplying power surplus to their use. 14.58. The installed capacity of CPPs has increased from 22,335 MW at the beginning of the Eleventh Plan to 36,511 MW (provisional) in March 2012, adding a total of around 14,000 MW addition of captive capacity during the Plan period.

TABLE 14.19 Fuel Requirement during 2016–17 Fuel Coal Lignite Gas/LNG Requirement 730 Million Tonnes 46 Million Tonnes 207 MMSCMD* Availability 550 Million Tonnes 46 Million Tonnes 102 MMSCMD*

Source: Planning Commission estimates based on Working Group Reports on Power and Petroleum and Natural Gas. *In addition, about 17,500 MW gas-based capacity is under various stages of construction for which additional gas requirement is about 84 MMSCMD.

Fuel Supply Problems
14.59. Although the pace of creation of generation capacity has picked up considerably, the fuel supply capability has not kept pace and serious fuel supply problems have arisen in the last year of the Eleventh Plan. Since 80 per cent of the additional generating capacity will be coal-based, resolution of coal supply to the power plants coming on stream will be crucial. With 50 per cent of the new capacity being created in the private sector fuel supply agreements have to be legally binding with credible penalties to reassure bankers and other financiers financing the establishment of capacity. The problems of coal supply are discussed in coal sector. 14.60. Availability of gas is also a problem as gas has yet to be ensured for 5,156 MW of gas-based projects commissioned during the Eleventh Plan period which are currently stranded/operating at a very low plant load factor (PLF) due to non-supply of gas. In addition to these projects, at least 2,538 MW of additional gas based capacity is expected to come up during the Twelfth Plan and as mentioned above, there is need for 2,000 MW of gas-based capacity to deal with peaking requirements. The requirement for coal, lignite and gas/LNG for power sector at the end of the

Twelfth Plan period has been shown in Table 14.19. Clearly domestic supply of both coal and gas needs to be augmented by imports. Since imports will be at much higher prices, some method must be found to make the higher priced fuel acceptable to generators. If domestic prices cannot be fully aligned with import prices, some resort to price pooling will be necessary and the scope for such price pooling must be urgently explored.

Expansion in Transmission System and Capacity
14.61. The large expansion in production and consumption of electricity has to be supported by a significant expansion and strengthening of the transmission network. Technological developments for transmission lines of 765 KV and 1,000–1,200 KV are of great relevance to reduce land requirement and transmission losses. Greater reliance will have to be placed on gas insulated substations which need about 20 per cent of the space required for conventional stations. This is an area where public investment can be supplemented by private investment and a good start has been made in the Eleventh Plan. It is important to build a policy framework within which more private sector investments will be forthcoming in the Twelfth Plan. A policy framework for public–private partnership (PPP) and a standardised documentation is being prepared for use by the States. 14.62. A total of about 1,07,440 ckm of transmission lines; 2,70,000 MVA of AC transformer capacity and 12,750 MW of HVDC systems are estimated as needed during the Twelfth Plan. Table 14.20 gives


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.20 Transmission Line at the End of the Twelfth Plan Period Transmission System Type/ Voltage Class HVDC Bipole lines 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV Total Unit At the end of Eleventh Plan Transmission Line ckm ckm ckm ckm ckm 9,432 5,250 1,06,819 1,35,980 2,57,481 Sub-Station 765 kV 400 kV 230/220 kV Total HVDC Bi-pole link capacity Back-to-back capacity Total MW MW MW 6,750 3,000 9,750 12,750 0 12,750 19,500 3,000 22,500 MVA MVA MVA MVA 2,5000 1,51,027 2,23,774 3,99,801 1,49,000 45,000 76,000 2,70,000 1,74,000 1,96,027 2,99,774 6,69,801 7,440 27,000 38,000 35,000 1,07,440 16,872 32,250 1,44,819 1,70,980 3,64,921 Expected addition during Twelfth Plan Expected by end of Twelfth Plan

the transmission programme to be taken up during the Twelfth Plan period and also gives the anticipated cumulative achievement at the end the year 2016–17.

Creation of a National Grid
14.63. The power system in the country is demarcated into five regions. Four regional grids have been operating in synchronous mode as a single system for the past few years. Only the southern grid is yet to be connected to the rest of the system. The high voltage link to connect southern grid is under construction and likely to be completed by January 2014. Once this is achieved, all the five regional grids will operate as a single system in synchronous mode. This will be the largest single such system in the world, both in terms of the grid size and system capacity of around 2,00,000 MW, though, at a given point of time, actual power flow may be lower than this level. 14.64. The capacity for transfer of power across regions at the end of the Eleventh Plan is shown in Table 14.21. The total capacity to transfer power which is currently about 27,750 MW and this is

expected to increase by 136 per cent to 65,550 MW by the end of Twelfth Plan. The specific line which is under construction for connecting the southern region is the Raichur–Sholapur 765 KV line. In fact, these are two single circuit lines and the total transmission capacity of these two lines would be about 4,200 MW. Three HVDC systems and a number of 765 KV lines and substations shall be implemented during Twelfth Plan. The Aurangabad–Wardha 400 KV QUAD DC, line which is part of the transmission system for evacuation of power from Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) has been planned and designed in such a way that the lines would be converted into a 1,200 KV S/C lines by a later date. 14.65. There is a three-tier structure for load dispatch, namely, State Load Dispatch Centre, Regional Load Dispatch Centre and the National Load Dispatch Centre. The Government of India notified Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO) as the designated entity to operate RLDC/NLDC with effect from 1 October 2010. A Forum of Load Dispatchers (FOLD) has been

Energy 151

TABLE 14.21 Inter-Regional Flow of Power at the End of Twelfth Plan Period Region Eastern/Southern Eastern/Northern Eastern/Western Eastern/North Eastern Northern/Western Western/Southern 132/110 KV Lines North Eastern/Eastern–Northern/Western Total End of Eleventh Plan 3,630 12,130 4,390 1,260 4,220 1,520 600 – 27,750 End of Twelfth Plan (Tentative) 3,630 17,930 12,790 2,860 14,420 7,920 – 6,000 65,550

constituted as approved by the Forum of Regulators (FOR) in January 2009 for harmonising practices across different load dispatch centres.

Evacuation of Power from the North-East
14.66. The North-East has very large potential for producing hydro power—close to 50,000 MW— but the pace of implementation has been poor. The evacuation of power from the North-East poses a major challenge for several reasons. First, the entire capacity has to be evacuated through a narrow strip of about 25 km in West Bengal. Although no forest clearance is needed, land acquisition issues could pose problems, which need to be tackled. Second, the number of hydro power plants coming up in the region, especially in Arunachal Pradesh, is expected to be spread over the Twelfth and Thirteenth Plans but the transmission system has to be devised as a onetime operation and may therefore have redundancy initially. This will increase the costs of transmission. Thirdly, a number of States including Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Manipur do not have adequate 132/220/400 KV systems and this may cause problems in evacuation of power. Fourthly, the distribution system is inadequate and consequently leads to large power losses. 14.67. The road map for the development of power sector, strengthening of overall transmission system and sub-transmission system of North-East Region (NER) and Sikkim was brought out in Pasighat Summit of North Eastern Council on 17 January

2007. As a follow-up to the recommendations of the summit, a subgroup under the chairmanship of Member (Power Systems), CEA was constituted to suggest the road map for strengthening the transmission system in the region. Subsequently a comprehensive review was taken at the Member (Energy), Planning Commission level to find out the modalities and source of funding to realise the objective. 14.68. Based on the recommendation of CEA and in consultation with each State of NER and Sikkim, Power Grid has prepared detailed project reports for comprehensive schemes for strengthening of transmission, sub-transmission and distribution system in each state of NER and Sikkim and also for interstate transmission system in NER in June 2010. The estimated cost of the above schemes is about `11,348.50 crore. The schemes were to be implemented in two phases by 2015–16. Considering the strategic importance of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, a separate scheme for strengthening of transmission system for these two has been formulated at an estimated cost of about `3,014 crore. The Planning Commission has conveyed its in-principle approval to this scheme recently. Funding for this project will be provided jointly by the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) and from the NonLapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR). For the strengthening of transmission systems in the remaining six states, Ministry of Power is exploring the possibility of tying up funds from the World Bank.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

14.69. Integration of Indian electricity grid with countries such as Bhutan and Nepal would result in optimisation of electricity resources on a large scale and provision of additional benefits and opportunities to the selling and buying countries. This will enhance hydro-thermal mix in generation, and reduce carbon emission and dependence on fossil fuels. An electric grid interconnection between India and Bangladesh through a Berhampur (India)– Bheramara (Bangladesh) 400 KV DC, 125 km line along with 1 × 500 MW HVDC back to back asynchronous link at Bheramara is being developed for facilitating exchange of power up to 500 MW between the two countries. The capacity of this interconnection can be upgraded in future. The asynchronous link ensures that any fluctuations or disturbances on one side would not affect the other side.

utilities. The viability of the power sector as a whole is therefore critically dependent on the health of the distribution sector. Unfortunately, as the Eleventh Plan experience amply demonstrates, the financial viability of the system is under severe strain. Poor financial health of utilities has resulted in underinvestment in the distribution network causing poor upkeep and maintenance. Consequently the quality of supply is hampered, leading to customer dissatisfaction and poor recovery. This, in turn, leads to further deterioration of financial health of utilities. This vicious cycle needs to be broken. 14.72. It is absolutely vital that the distribution system is made financially viable during the Twelfth Plan. The key focus of the Twelfth Plan must be to strengthen the performance of the distribution system to achieve improved financial viability of Discoms and to expand access to power in rural areas. This calls for concerted attempts at AT&C loss reduction, introduction of smart grid to allow effective demand side management (DSM), greater private sector participation to achieve management efficiency and so on. Since distribution is entirely the domain of States, the responsibility for improving distribution lies almost entirely with State Governments. The Central Government can incentivise action in a manner which allows the States leeway for experimenting with different ways of obtaining better results. 14.73. The Government had constituted the Shunglu Committee in July 2010 to study issues relating to the financial viability of the Ds and give recommendations on how to improve the situation. The Committee has since given its recommendations. In order to examine these recommendations, and suggest a strategy for the turnaround of the distribution sector in the Twelfth Plan, an Expert Group under the chairmanship of Member (Energy), Planning Commission was set up to look into the problems being faced by the State Discoms.

Challenges in Transmission Sector
14.70. The proposed rapid expansion of the capacity to transfer capacity poses some serious challenges, viz. right of way, flexibility in line loading and regulation of power and improvement of operational efficiency. Following measures may be implemented to meet the above challenges: • Upgradation of transmission lines • High capacity 400 KV multi, circuit/bundle conductor line • High Surge Impedance Loading(HSIL) line • Compact towers • Increase in current: High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) • Reduction in land for substation • Regulation in power flow/FACATS devices • Improvement of operational efficiency with condition based monitoring and private maintenance • Development of 1,200 KV AC system • Creating adequate evacuation and transmission facilities for renewable power including construction/strengthening of interstate transmission.

The Distribution System
14.71. The distribution segment plays a crucial role in the overall functioning of the power sector because it is the part of the system which generates the revenues needed to pay generation and transmission

Debt Restructuring Policy
14.74. The Expert Group gave extensive recommendations for improving the financial health of the discoms during the Twelfth Plan. Based on the

Energy 153

recommendations of the Expert Group, the Cabinet has approved a debt restructuring plan which can be summarised as follows: 1. a. 50 per cent of the outstanding short term liabilities (STL) as of 31 March 2012 to be taken over by State Governments by way of bonds to participating lenders shall be first converted into bonds to be issued by Discoms duly backed by the State Government guarantee. The State Government will take over the liability during the next two to five years by issuance of special securities in favour of participating lenders in a phased manner keeping in view the fiscal space available till the entire loan (50 per cent of STL) is taken over by the State Government. b. The State Government would provide full support to the Discoms for repayment of interest and principal. 2. Balance 50 per cent of the STL will be rescheduled by lenders and serviced by the Discoms with a moratorium of three years on principal and would be backed by a State Government guarantee. The best possible terms are to be extended for the rescheduled loans to improve viability of Discoms’ operations. 3. The restructuring/reschedulement of loan is to be accompanied by concrete and measurable action by the Discoms/States to improve the operational performance of the distribution utilities. In order to make the effort meaningful, the State Government/Discoms have to commit themselves and carry out certain mandatory and recommendatory conditions contained in part (c) of the Scheme. 4. To set up a Transitional Finance Mechanism in support of the restructuring effort of the State Government for their distribution utilities having the following features: a. For providing liquidity support by way of a grant equal to the value of the additional energy saved by way of accelerated AT&C loss reduction beyond the loss trajectory specified under Restructured Accelerated

Power Development and Reform Programme (RAPDRP). b. The eligibility of grant would arise only if the gap between ARR and ACS for the year has been reduced by at least 25 per cent during the year judged against the benchmark for the year 2010–11. c. This scheme would be available only for three years beginning 2012–13. d. Incentive by way of capital reimbursement support of 25 per cent of principal repayment by the State Government on the liability taken over by the State Government under the scheme. The amount to be reimbursed only in case the State Government takes over the entire 50 per cent of the shortterm liabilities corresponding to the accumulated losses outstanding as on 31 March 2012. Detailed guidelines for the Transitional Finance Mechanism as outlined above would be worked out by the Ministry of Power in consultation with Ministry of Finance. 5. The Scheme would be applicable to all State Discoms having accumulated losses and facing difficulties in financing operational losses. 6. For removal of difficulties in interpreting or implementing the Scheme, Ministry of Power may be authorised to issue clarification, after interministerial consultations, wherever required, with the approval of the competent authority. 14.75. Effective implementation of the restructuring package during the Twelfth Plan would send a powerful signal that the power sector is on the path of financial viability.

Restructured APDRP
14.76. The challenge of providing power to all involves considerable investment in distribution. The Working Group for the Twelfth Plan has assessed a total investment requirement for the distribution sector at `3.06 lakh crore. Some of the key initiatives proposed during the Twelfth Plan are: 1. The population norms under R-APDRP for including a city under R-APDRP may be relaxed


Twelfth Five Year Plan









by lowering the existing population threshold. More extensive coverage will bring uniformity in billing and customer service of the utility across all its service areas. R-APDRP may also cover assistance to private distribution companies. A National Electricity Fund (NEF) had been set up. This will now be operationalised. It will provide interest relief to the distribution utilities to cover loans taken from financial institutions for development of the distribution sector. Utilities and regulators shall make an action plan to eliminate the gap between the average cost of supply and average tariff realised through improved tariff implementation and adoption of multi-year tariff framework. Time of Day (TOD) metering shall be taken up by all the utilities for effective demand side management (DSM). Load shifting arrangement by regulators and improvement in energy efficiency and its measurement by BEE in the agriculture sector shall contribute towards DSM and ease out the pressure on utilities. Open Access shall be provided to consumers with more than 1 MW load in accordance with the Electricity Act, 2003. This was mandatory with effect from 1 January 1 2009 but it has not been operationalised due to reluctance of State Governments and the utilities to give the necessary freedom to large customers to choose their own sources of supply. In fact, under the law, the State electricity regulator should not set tariffs for large customers leaving them to be determined through negotiations. To improve safety, counter theft and improve aesthetics, underground cabling work shall be taken up by the utilities for towns under R-APDRP in selected areas. Moving towards a smart grid in a manner relevant to our needs will be a key focus area in the distribution sector in the Twelfth Plan. A number of pilot projects will be taken up. Phased installation of smart metres, extending SCADA system to 100 more towns, and integration of renewable into the grid.

The Role of Private Investment and Participation in Distribution
14.77. The experience of privatisation in Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, and Surat shows that transmission and distribution losses can be reduced, network efficiency increased, and service levels improved. The experiences in Bhiwandi, Maharashtra of franchising have also indicated positive gains with network losses going down from 63 per cent to 19 per cent in Bhiwandi and service levels improving. The Franchise model is now being expanded to Nagpur, Aurangabad, Jalgaon in Maharashtra and Agra in Uttar Pradesh. An alternative model is public–private partnership (PPP) in the distribution segment for which necessary concession agreements are being designed. The Twelfth Plan will have to place a major emphasis on expansion of Franchise or PPP or privatisation in different utilities as a strategy to reduce network losses and improve efficiency of service and consumer satisfaction.

Separation of Rural Feeders
14.78. An important initiative to improve the availability of power in the rural areas and have more effective management of power for the agriculture sectors where the requirements may be for limited hours, has been to separate rural feeders for lighting and agriculture loads. This was initiated by Gujarat utilities and has subsequently been taken up by Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and a number of other States. A World Bank study on the efficacy of these reforms is underway. According to the initial indications, the benefits have been found to be more in the field of improved lighting in the villages with varying degree of success on reducing T&D losses.

Universal Electrification
14.79. The RGGVY was started with an aim to provide electricity connections to all villages and free connections to BPL families (Annexure 14.1). It has certainly provided increased access of power to a large number of households as indicated in paragraph 3.1.8. Clearly, there is still a large population which is not using electricity either because of lack of network in the villages or absence of connectivity to

Energy 155

the household. There are also a large number of habitations left uncovered. To provide power to all during the Twelfth Plan would require dealing with the large backlog in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Assam and some of the North Eastern States. 14.80. Connectivity by itself is only a part of the programme. In many States there is also a real shortage of power. Besides, RGGVY focuses only on household supply and does not address the needs for providing electricity for small industries and agriculture, which need three-phase supply. This, in turn, requires strengthening of the rural network and not just the last mile connectivity to households, which is what RGGVY covers. States are often unable to invest in this. For effective universal access, the RGGVY programme will be restructured.

developmental plans. In the present scenario, R&D initiatives are particularly required in four different conventional sectors, viz. generation, transmission, distribution and environment. 14.84. Thermal, hydro, renewable energy and distributed generation are the key areas in the generation sector. Design and development of the equipment, real-time simulators and controllers, creation of data bank, automation pilot plant demonstration, development of alternative materials, equipment performance, biological efforts and exploratory studies are required in the transmission sector. R&D initiatives in smart grid and distributed generation are required for improvement of distribution sector. Major PSUs involved should be encouraged to do the necessary R&D. Further clean development mechanism for bulk utilisation of fly ash, control of SOx, NOx and mercury in coal-based thermal power plants need immediate attention for clean and green energy. 14.85. R&D in distribution and rural electrification needs more thrust. The key research areas may be AC/DC micro-grid demonstration for improving reliability and power quality, energy storage scheme for improving the reliability of sensitive loads, development of intra-operable standards and protocol for energy metering, load research, I.T. applications in distribution and smart grid and so on. R&D initiatives are also required for enhancing material strength and durability and for standardisation on their specifications. A key initiative for R&D in the Twelfth Plan may include setting up of a technical cell in CEA, which will focus on best practices, R&D in data collection and specific projects and technical support to States for consultancy and implementation. The research projects will include support to universities.

Human Resource Development and Capacity Building
14.81. The present power scenario demands a very comprehensive and pragmatic approach to attract, use, develop and conserve valuable human resources. Technically trained work force comprising of skilled engineers, supervisors, artisans, managers and so on are required in every sphere of the power supply industry. A growing concern over environmental degradation and depletion of the conventional energy sources has made the task of electricity generation even more challenging and therefore, quality standards of the staff are becoming increasingly vital. 14.82. For a capacity addition of about 1,00,000 MW (including renewables) in the Twelfth Plan, the additional work force requirement shall be of the order of 4 lakh out of which nearly 3 lakh will be technical. Therefore, all Central sector utilities, State sector utilities, and IPPs would need to create required training infrastructure for providing O&M training. Additional training infrastructure shall be created by organisations like NPTI and training institutes of other utilities. These should augment their existing training institutes for meeting the increased training requirement of the power sector.

Project Implementation
14.86. Land is increasingly becoming a scarce resource and availability of land is posing a serious challenge for future power plants. The optimum utilisation of land is therefore crucial. Design changes are required to reduce land requirement. Similarly, availability of water has become scarce. To meet future water demand of thermal power, technical

R&D in Power Sector
14.83. The power sector being highly technologyintensive, R&D plays a major role in its


Twelfth Five Year Plan

measures for reducing water consumption, creation of large reservoirs/dams of potential rivers to retain flood water and encouraging coastal power plants will be undertaken. 14.87. Achievement of the generation capacity targets depends critically on supporting infrastructure in different transport sectors like railway, highways and roads, inland waterways and gas pipelines. Railways need to enhance their capacity for coal evacuation from coal fields by expanding proposed dedicated freight corridors and also ensure rail connectivity to all ports having coal unloading facilities. Roads and highways need to be augmented for transportation of over dimensional consignments and changes in Motor Vehicle Act may be required to accommodate consignments, with safeguards, of above 49 million tonnes and also include hydraulic axle trailers. Accordingly, load classification for roads and bridges may be reviewed and toll plaza building on highways may be designed keeping these requirements in view. 14.88. Coal handling arrangements at ports must be expanded to handle the larger quantities of imported coal required for power stations. Increase of draft, creation of roll-on/roll-off berths and mechanisation shall improve the load handling capabilities of ports. All these ports must be given priority in effective road/rail connectivity. 14.89. Adequate manufacturing capacities of main plant equipment including that for large supercritical thermal sets shall be available indigenously to meet the capacity addition requirement of the country during the Twelfth Plan. Regarding balance of plants construction agencies and construction equipment/techniques, the capacities and capabilities have to be further developed and enhanced. There is no shortage of key material except Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel, higher grade Cold Rolled Non Grain Oriented Steel and thick boiler steel plates. There is a need to set up plants to produce Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Steel, augment indigenous capacity for tubes and pipes, create short circuit testing facilities for transformers, augment manufacturing facilities for gas-insulated substations and create indigenous

capacity for thicker boiler water plates. It should be possible to set up domestic capacity in these areas which is internationally competitive.

Management of Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency
14.90. Improving energy efficiency is an important instrument for containing the demand for energy and several initiatives are possible in this area. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and the Ministry of Power (MoP) had introduced a number of schemes during Eleventh Plan for promotion of energy efficiency in India. The schemes of BEE include Standards and Labelling (S&L), Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings, Bachat Lamp Yojana (BLY), SDA strengthening, Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Agriculture and Municipal Demand Side Management (DSM) and Contribution to State Energy Conservation Fund (SECF). Schemes implemented by the Ministry of Power include Energy Conservation Awards and National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE). These schemes are estimated to have achieved savings equivalent to 11,000 MW of avoided power capacity during the Plan. Details of savings projected to be realised through various measures are given below, along with Plan for the period 2012–17.
Energy Efficiency in Equipment and Appliances 14.91. Large energy inefficiencies exist in consumer and industrial appliances. The S&L Programme was quite successful during the Eleventh Plan period and it is anticipated that by the end of the Eleventh Plan, total savings in avoided capacity addition would be 7,315 MW. Under this scheme, a large number of appliances were covered initially under the voluntary labelling categories, out of which four appliances/ equipment are under the mandatory labelling program. The Eleventh Plan has already envisaged coverage of 21 appliances under S&L. This programme will be continued and expanded during the Twelfth Plan. Efficiency in Transport 14.92. As on 2010–11, there were a total of 13.3 million passenger cars in India which consumed about

Energy 157

9 mtoe. An additional 1.1 million passenger cars are added every year. In the transport sector, a labelling scheme is envisaged which is aimed at achieving energy efficiency. This will cover: • Introduction of fuel economy norms effective from the first year of the Twelfth Plan. This will be mandatory from 2015 under the Energy Conservation Act. • Technical study for two- and three-wheelers and commercial vehicles (Trucks and Buses) to finalise additional S&L Programme. Norms for these will be modified. 14.93. The targeted energy saving by the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan is 4.3 mtoe in the sector.
Energy Efficiency in Industries 14.94. The total commercial energy consumed by industry including SMEs stands at about 40–50 per cent of the total commercial energy consumption in the country. Hence energy efficiency measures would yield substantial benefits in this sector. The projected energy saving potential in the Twelfth Plan is 13.18 mtoe which consists of a saving of 6.2 mtoe from the seven energy-intensive industries (DCs), 1.75 mtoe from SME sector and 5.23 mtoe from thermal power stations sector. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) 14.95. NMEEE is one of the eight Missions created by India’s National Action Plan for Climate Change and is based on the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.

The Mission will enable transactions in energy efficiency. Specific initiatives envisaged by the NMEEE include: • Perform Achieve and Trade scheme—a marketbased mechanism to enhance energy efficiency (see Box 14.3 for details). The scheme is expecting an energy saving of 3.5 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) in seven selective industrial sectors and 3.1 million tons of oil equivalents in thermal power stations by 2014–15; • Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE)—CDM roadmap, Standards and Labelling, ESCO promotion, capacity-building; • Financing Energy Efficiency—tax exemptions, revolving fund, Partial Risk Guarantee Fund; and • Promotion of performance contracting business model—enabling upgradation of existing buildings, streetlights, municipal pumping and so on through Energy Service Companies which invest in the upgradation and are paid through sharing of the resultant savings in the energy bill. 14.96. Fans and Lights are the major users of electricity in homes and offices across the country. Energy consumption by fans and lights is expected to occur rapidly because of increasing incomes and enhanced access to electricity. During the Twelfth Plan period the introduction of ‘super-efficient’ lights and fans will be incentivised so as to accelerate their development and adoption to enable lower the rate of growth of electricity demand while enhancing services to households.

Box 14.3 Perform, Achieve and Trade Mechanism
The Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) mechanism is a market-based mechanism to incentivise improvements in energy efficiency in eight energy-intensive industries (including TPS) by setting up standards and certification of energy saving achieved which can be traded. The vision for PAT scheme during Twelfth Plan covers the following points: • While implementation of the first cycle of PAT is to achieve the set target of 6.6 mtoe by 2014–15, widening and deepening the scope of PAT during the second cycle of PAT envisages including other energy-intensive sectors like efineries, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Automobile Manufacturing, Sugar, Glass and so on to reduce the threshold energy consumption limit; • Fiscal instruments like Partial Risk Guarantee Fund (PRGF) and Venture Capital Fund for Energy Efficiency (VCFEE) which have been proposed in NMEEE for successful implementation of PAT scheme will be expanded in order to provide confidence to the financial institutions and to equity investors to invest in energy efficiency products and companies.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

14.97. Major R&D programmes may be initiated in selective areas and selective sectors for developing new customised energy-efficient technology through indigenous development of applications of already available energy efficient technologies/concepts. 14.98. The total projected saving in the year 2016– 17, that is, end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan is of the tune of 11.43 mtoe in which 10.41 mtoe is contributed by thermal energy. The rest, which is equivalent to 11.96 BU of electricity saving is estimated at busbar in 2016–17.

Policy Reforms in the Power Sector
14.99. The Twelfth Plan must push for policy reforms in several areas, the most important of which are listed below: 1. Resolution of fuel supply problems related to availability of coal and gas for the plants expected to come on stream in the Twelfth Plan will be critical. These are discussed in the section on Coal and Gas in this Chapter. 2. The introduction of open access must have top priority. State Governments, SERCs and Discoms need to conform to the Electricity Act, which prohibits tariff regulation for consumers of 1 MW and above. These consumers must be free to purchase electricity through open access in a competitive market. Where cross-subsidy is required, an open access surcharge may be levied. The Act requires phased implementation of open access to all consumers. By the end of the Twelfth Plan, all consumers up to 0.25 MW may be covered. 3. There is a need to develop ancillary power markets and CERC should come out with a framework for implementation of such market. To facilitate further development of power market, jurisdiction issues regarding forward and future market products may be clarified in the policy/ Act. Development of markets can be expanded further by permitting short-term procurement for three months in advance by the Discoms. Also, long-term procurement and medium-term procurement by the Discoms may be encouraged and impediments, if any, may be identified and removed.

4. Strengthening of NLDC/RLDCs/SLDCs is vital for effective grid management and for implementation of open access. It is necessary to separate the management of POSOCO from PGCIL. The State Governments must take steps to upgrade and modernise the SLDCs which must be made functional and financially independent in accordance with the Electricity Act. 5. Spinning reserves need to be facilitated for grid stability at the regional level to accommodate infirm renewable energy injection into the grid. The State Governments need to contract additional capacity for this purpose. 6. Suitable incentives for low-cost transmission, linking the renewable energy generation sources, development of smart grid for evacuation and transmission of renewable power and creation of spinning reserves may be done through the National Clean Energy Fund. 7. There is a need to strengthen measures for increasing share of renewable energy over time. SERCs should provide long-term trajectory for renewable purchase obligations and issue relevant regulations within a specified timeframe. Further, for the procurement of renewable power, demand of more than one distribution licensee may be pooled at the State level or jointly among States and procurement through competitive bidding route under section 63(a) of Electricity Act 2003/National Tariff Policy should be made permissible. 8. Power procurement and allocation of power must be done in line with the Tariff Policy and the guidelines/standard bid documents (SBD) issued by Government of India under the Electricity Act, 2003. The National Electricity Policy (2005) may need to be suitably amended to ensure State Governments abide by these provisions. 9. Consumer Grievance Redressal Forum (CGRF) should be made a multi-member set-up comprising representation from all stakeholders. The office of Ombudsman should be funded by the SERCs. 10. Reforms in the distribution sector should include: a. Prepaid metres to those categories of consumers who are chronic defaulters, 100 per

Energy 159

cent spot billing, spot collection, semi or fully automatic meter reading and standardisation of metering protocols for extensive use of automated meter readings. b. Institution of Chief Electrical Inspectorate to Government of India/State Government (CEIG) to be strengthened and to work out a scheme for delegation of authority of mandatory inspection including self-certification to the CEIG to liberalise it from unnecessary controls. c. Separation of rural feeders to control losses and improve power availability. Dedicated feeders may be extended to energy-intensive consumers at their cost. 11. The State Government should clear all the outstanding dues to the utilities, and ensure timely payment of subsidy. State Governments with financially strained Discoms should be encouraged to undertake restructuring of the debt as per the package recently approved by the Cabinet. This includes restructuring of short-term loans of Discoms with poor financial health, sharing by concerned State Governments of the burden of the utilities to the extent of 50 per cent of such short-term loans, provision of special market bonds and relaxation of FRBM norms for the State Governments. Financial restructuring should be supported by regular revision of tariff through adoption of regulations suggested by Forum of Regulators, including automatic tariff adjustment with change in fuel prices and other reform measures to ensure regular revision of tariff and simultaneous investments in reducing AT&C losses. 12. There is a need for an independent oversight over programmes like RGGVY and R-APDRP on a concurrent basis. These should be incorporated in these schemes for the Twelfth Plan.

supply of coal has made it imperative to augment domestic production both from the public sector and the private sector and to expedite the reform process for realising efficiency gains through increased competition in the sector during the Twelfth Plan. An important feature of the Eleventh Plan was the attempt to augment domestic coal production from captive mines. However, the programme has slipped and expected production from captive blocks fell well short of the projected target of 104 million tonnes in the terminal year of the Plan because only 29 captive blocks could start production out of the 195 blocks allocated so far. The main impediments in the progress of captive mining are reported to be similar to those in other PSU-held blocks like delays in forest and environmental clearances, problems of land acquisition and R&R, allocation of a block to more than one user and so on. CIL will continue to play a major role in meeting the coal requirements of the country but the growth in CIL production will not be enough to meet the rising demand. Hence, efforts need to be made to ensure that additional captive coal blocks start producing in Twelfth Plan to meet the rising coal demand. It is also necessary to plan for larger imports of coal.

REVIEW OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN Coal Demand and Production
14.101. The target for coal production at the end of the Eleventh Plan was initially set at 680 million tonnes and revised downwards to 630 million tonnes at the time of the MTA. The actual achievement was only 540 million tonnes. Since demand in the terminal year (2011–12) of the Eleventh Plan was around 640 million tonnes there was a large demand–supply gap of 100 million tonnes which was only partially met by imports. This has adversely affected the coal supplies to end consumers, particularly the power sector. It is estimated that out of capacity addition of 41,894 MW, around 25,000 MW of coal-based capacity commissioned is being sub-optimally utilised because of inadequate availability of domestic coal. 14.102. The widening gap between demand and supply has to be met by imports because of which the share of imports in the total coal demand is likely to

14.100. Coal is the mainstay of India’s energy sector accounting for over 50 per cent of primary commercial energy supply in 2010–11. This share will actually increase to 57 per cent over the next 10 years. The gap between the demand and the domestic


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.22 Details of Coal and Lignite Production Sl. No. Parameter Tenth Plan 2006–07 1 Coal Demand (million tonnes) Coal Production (million tonnes) Imports Imports as per centage of total demand Lignite Production (million tonnes) 474.18 430.84 43.08 9.00 31.28 Eleventh Plan (2011–12) Initial 2 731.10 680.72 51.00 6.98 54.96 MTA 3 713.24 629.91 83.33 11.68 42.59 Latest 4 640.00 539.99 90.00 14.06 41.64 12.04 12.04 6.72 Eleventh Plan % CAGR Initial 7 9.53 9.58 3.43 MTA 8 8.98 7.89 14.11 Latest 9 6.98 4.62 15.88

0 1 2 3 4 5

Source: Ministry of Coal.

increase to around 14.06 per cent in 2011–12 as compared to just 9 per cent in the year 2006–07. Details of coal imports in Eleventh Plan are given in Table 14.22.

Lignite Production and Demand
14.103. The Eleventh Plan envisaged lignite production to reach 54.96 million tonnes in the terminal year of the Plan (2011–12) from 31.13 million tonnes in 2006–07 yielding a growth rate of 12 per cent. The projected production of 54.96 million tonnes was expected to come from lignite mines spread in three contributing States with their respective share as 24.23 million tonnes from Tamil Nadu, 22.26 million tonnes from Gujarat and 8.47 million tonnes from Rajasthan. However, actual production in 2011–12 was 43.10 million tonnes combined from all the three states. This shortfall is mainly due to non-starting of several mines under Private and State Sector and due to delay in commissioning of lignite-based power plants and certain mines under the Central Sector. As far as NLC is concerned, thinning of lignite seam thickness and the washout zone encountered in Mine I is the main reason for the shortfall of 2.42 million

tonnes in Tamil Nadu. Similarly, in Barsingsar Mine under NLC at Rajasthan, though the mine is ready in all respects to give full production, it was warranted to limit its production to cope with the demand of its linked TPS which has certain teething problems. The lignite based capacity addition in the Eleventh Plan is 1,490 MW against the target of 2,280 MW.

Coal and Lignite Reserves
14.104. The inventory of geological resources of India’s coal and lignite reserves as on 1 April 2010 has been shown in Table 14.23. This is 15.09 per cent higher than the reported reserves level of 255 billion tonnes in January 2007. Corresponding increase in lignite reserves level is 9.6 per cent from 38.27 billion tonnes reported level in 2007. The accretion of coal resources over the years has been shown in Table 14.24.

Review of the Central Sector Schemes
14.105. The schemes implemented with budgetary support from the Ministry’s plan covered regional/promotional exploration, detailed drilling in non-CIL blocks, Environmental Measures and

TABLE 14.23 Inventory of Coal and Lignite Reserves as on 1 April 2012 (billion tonnes) Proved Coal Lignite Source: Ministry of Coal. 118.145 6.18 Indicated 142.169 25.76 Inferred 33.183 10.02 Total 293.497 41.96

Energy 161

TABLE 14.24 Accretion of Coal Reserves (million tonnes) Reserves as on 1 January 2005 1 January 2007 1 April 2008 1 April 2009 1 April 2010 1 April 2011 Proved Category 92,960 97,920 1,01,829 1,05,720 1,09,798 1,14,002 Accretion in Proved Category – 4,960 3,909 3,891 4,078 4,204 Inferred Category 1,17,090 1,18,992 1,24,216 1,23,570 1,30,654 1,37,471 Indicated Category 37,797 38,260 38,490 37,921 36,359 34,390 Total Reserves 2,47,847 2,55,172 2,64,535 2,67,211 2,76,810 2,85,862 Reserves Accretion – 7,325 9,363 2,676 9,599 9,051

Source: Coal Directory of India.

Subsidence Control scheme (EMSC), R&D schemes, Conservation and Safety measures and development of transport infrastructure in the coal fields and so on.

Regional/Promotional Exploration
14.106. Exploration for coal and lignite in the country is taken up in stages. In preliminary exploration, geological surveys are undertaken by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) to identify potential coal and lignite areas. Regional promotional exploration aims at widespread drilling to establish broad framework of the deposits to facilitate planning for detailed exploration and subsequent projectisation and mine development. While regional exploration drilling target for Eleventh Plan was 1.94 lakh metres which was revised to 1.47 lakh metres, promotional drilling target was 4 lakh metres. Against the envisaged targets, achievement will be 1.14 lakh metres (about 78 per cent) in case of regional drilling, establishing 7.07 Bt of coal and 2.95 lakh metres (74 per cent) in case of promotional drilling, establishing 20.05 Bt of coal resources. 14.107. In case of lignite, regional exploration drilling achievement is likely to be 1.32 lakh metres against a target of 1.48 lakh metres during Eleventh Plan mainly by NLC and by other agencies, viz. GMDC and RSMML establishing 1.85 Bt of lignite resources. Achievement in promotional exploration is likely to be 2.74 lakh metres (78 per cent) against a target of 3.50 lakh metres establishing 3.22 Bt of lignite resources.

14.108. 2D HRSS surveys were not a part of the exploration programme of Eleventh Plan. However, in view of trends worldwide, these surveys were considered as a part of regional (promotional) exploration by Subcommittee on Energy Minerals. The National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), a premier organisation for geophysical studies in the country, was therefore, inducted to carry out these surveys in coal and lignite bearing areas. It is expected that a total of 31 Line kilometre ( in coal areas and 94 in lignite areas HRSS survey will have been carried out during the Eleventh Plan.

Detailed Drilling in Non-CIL Blocks
14.109. Detailed exploration surveys focus on establishing adequate geological resources data for projectisation and mine development. The blocks outside the purview of CIL have been proposed to be explored in detail for reducing the time lag between offering the blocks to potential entrepreneurs and starting of the operation by them through budgetary support. The cost of exploration, in turn, will be recovered from entrepreneurs who have been allotted the blocks. CMPDI and its contractual agencies including MECL have been able to progress well in detailed exploration activities and are expected to achieve 8.09 lakh metres against a target of 13.50 lakh metres in non-CIL blocks establishing 5.2 Bt of private coal reserves. 14.110. Regarding detailed exploration in CIL blocks as against a target of 5 lakh metres, the actual achievement has been 11.2 lakh metres (224 per cent)


Twelfth Five Year Plan

of exploratory drilling achieved by CMPDIL and by contractual agencies including MCCL and 9.01 billion tonnes of coal reserves were proved during the Eleventh Plan. SCCL has achieved 2.99 lakh metres of actual drilling against a target of 3.39 lakh metres and estimated 0.91 billion tonnes of coal reserve through detailed exploration.

awarding of contracts to set up washeries by the CIL. The coal washing capacity at the end of the Eleventh Plan is as indicated in Table 14.25.
TABLE 14.25 Coal Washing Capacity by the end of Eleventh Plan Period (in million tonnes)

Productivity and Benchmarking
14.111. Traditionally, the output per man shift (OMS) has been measured as tonnes in coal mines and it has improved significantly for all the three PSUs operating in coal and lignite mining. While overall OMS in case of CIL improved from 3.54 in year 2006–07 to 4.92 in year 2011–12 this was still lower than the target of 5.54 in the terminal year of the Eleventh Plan. In case of SCCL this has improved from a level of 2.39 to 3.80 over the same period, which is significantly higher than the target of 2.67. This significant improvement in overall OMS level is for both opencast and underground mining operations. This could be due to the outsourcing of some of the activities, particularly in the opencast mining operations. In case of NLC, the improvement is marginal because lignite production level could not increase due to delays in the completion of lignite-based power plants. One of the important areas to improve productivity is benchmarking of operations and equipment productivity. Productivity of equipment and machinery used in opencast and underground mining has significantly improved during the Eleventh Plan period.
Public Private Total Washed Coal Production

Coking Coal 24.22 5.66 29.88 7.18

Non-coking coal 17.22 78.74 95.96 40.95

Coal Bed Methane
14.113. The potential of Coal Bed Methane/Coal Mine Methane was recognised in a new policy of Government of India in 1997. The Ministry of Coal (MoC) and the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoP&NG) are working together for the development of Coal Bed Methane and the Government has offered 33 blocks in four rounds of bidding for CBM covering 17,416 sq. km of area. One block in Raniganj coalfield has commenced commercial production in 2007 and two blocks are in advanced stage of commencing production. The Director General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) is the regulator for CBM activities in the country. The CBM/CMM clearance house has been established in CMPDIL, Ranchi, in collaboration with United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) which will provide information for development of CBM/CMM in India. The current level of production, being only 0.2 mmscmd, is confined mostly to the private sector. There is no separate pricing regime for CBM and the gas prices are determined by the developer, subject to Government approval.

Clean Coal Technologies
14.112. Coal beneficiation is one of the prime clean coal technologies aimed at supplying washed coal to the pulverised coal combustion boilers of power plants. The MoEF’s directive aimed at restricting the use of coal of not more than 34 per cent ash content at thermal power stations located far away from pit heads and load centres and critically polluted areas, has also contributed to improvement in economics of operations of such power stations. The CIL envisaged building 20 new washeries with a capacity of 111 mt in the Eleventh Plan. However, coal washing capacity did not grow as planned due to delays in

Research and Development
14.114. A total of 29 R&D projects were implemented during the Eleventh Plan. Out of these, 16 projects have already been completed by September 2012. Remaining 13 projects are likely to slip into the Twelfth Plan period. Some of the major projects under implementation are:

Energy 163

• Development of CMPDI capacity for delineation of viable coal mine methane (CMM)/abandoned mine methane (AMM) blocks in the existing and potential mining areas having partly de-stressed coal in virgin coal seams. • Recovery and utilisation of coal methane in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields. • Development of immediate roof fall prediction system in underground mines using wireless network. • Demonstration of cost-effective technology for dry beneficiation of coal by all airjig. • Demonstration of coal dry beneficiation system using radiometric technique. • Assessment of prospect of shale gas in Gondwana basin with special reference to CIL areas. • Development of indigenous catalyst through pilot-scale studies of coal to liquid (CTL) conversion technology. • High resolution seismic monitoring for early detection and slope failures in opencast mines. • Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). • Integrated communication system to locate trapped miners in underground mines. • Development of self-advancing (mobile) goaf edge supports (SAGES) for de-pillaring operations in underground coal mines.

Also substantial time is taken by Railways to build the critical rail links and that is affecting the movement of coal to the end users. Four critical rail links that have been pending for years are the Tori–Shivpur– Katholia rail link in North Karanpura coalfield (CCL command area), the Bupdevpur Baroud rail link connecting coal blocks in Mand Raigarh coalfield, the Jharsuguda–Barpalli railway line in IB valley coalfield and the Sattapalli–Bhadrachalam rail link (SCCL command area). Commissioning of these lines would facilitate movement of around 125–130 million tonnes of coal to end users. Construction of Tori– Shivpuri line was delayed due to delays in getting forest clearance. Railways have changed the alignment of the line to bring down the forest land involved and MoE&F has cleared the project recently with certain conditions. Railway Board is yet to approve the implementation of the Bupdevpur Baround rail link. CIL, State Government and Railways are in discussion to implement other critical links in Mand–Raigarh area in joint venture to facilitate coal movement from the upcoming mines. The SCCL and Railways were not able to sort out the differences in the implementation of Sattapalli–Bhadrachalam link project but this issue has been resolved recently and SCCL has agreed to provide funds to the Railways to implement the project on turnkey basis.

Conservation and Safety in Coal Mines
14.115. Safety of miners and safe mining operations are of paramount importance in coal mining. These two schemes are under the statutory provisions of Coal Conservation and Development Act (CCDA) and were being implemented as a part of non-Plan scheme during the Tenth Five Year Plan through reimbursement of cess collected under CCDA. The Ministry of Finance has taken a view that cess collected under CCDA is a revenue of the Government of India, which is reimbursed back to coal companies for implementation of these schemes. Therefore, these schemes are treated as Plan schemes during the Eleventh Plan.

Environmental Measures And Subsidence Control
14.117. The purpose of this scheme is to improve environmental conditions in old mined-out areas, particularly Jharia and Raniganj coalfields through implementation of a number of schemes for mitigating the damage caused by unscientific mining, carried out before nationalisation of coal mines. Under the scheme, a Master Plan proposal for Jharia– Raniganj coalfields with a total outlay of `9,773.84 crore was taken up to deal with fire, rehabilitation of uncontrollable subsidence-prone inhabited areas and diversification of roads/railway lines within command area of BCCL and ECL. Recently, the Cabinet has approved the scheme. For implementation of the Master Plan, Jharia Rehabilitation and Development Authority (JRDA) for BCCL areas and Asansol Durgapur Development Authority (ADDA) areas have been notified as implementing agencies by

Development of Transport Infrastructure in Coal Field Areas
14.116. Development of infrastructure in coalfields is essential to ensure the timely evacuation of coal produced in mines to the rail heads or railway yards.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

the respective State Governments of Jharkhand and West Bengal. A High Powered Central Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Coal) with representatives from other Ministries/Departments, State Governments of Jharkhand and West Bengal and concerned coal companies, has been monitoring the implementation of the Master Plan. Demographic surveys and land acquisition by JRDA and ADDA are in progress.

Finance and Accounts, and Costing. The CIL is also in the process of adopting such a system in the near future.

Financial Performance of Coal Sector
14.121. The approved Eleventh Plan outlay of `37,100 crore for MoC was planned to be financed through an IEBR of `35,774.37 crore, and a GBS of `1,326.00 crore. The budgetary support sought for the Ministry’s plan schemes covered regional/promotion exploration, detailed drilling in non-CIL blocks, Environmental Measures and Subsidence Control Scheme (EMSC), R&D schemes, conservation and safety measures and development of transport infrastructure in the coal fields. These schemes were proposed to be funded by subsidence excise duty collected under CCDA, IEBR of CIL and budgetary support. Actual expenditure during the Eleventh Plan is `26,337.62 crore which is only 63 per cent of the approved outlay. This comprises `26,374.20 crore of IEBR of three PSUs namely CIL, SCCL and NLC and balance `1,500 crore GBS for Ministry of Coal funded schemes. The major shortfalls are in the reported expenditure of CIL and NLC whereas SCCL is expected to spend `3,707.59 crore against the approved IEBR of `3,340 crore. The financial performance of the coal sector is summarised in Table 14.26.

Integrated Coal and Lignite Resource Information System (ICRIS and ILRIS)
14.118. ICRIiS and ILRIS are coal and lignite resources structured on the UNFC pattern approved in October 2004 and are under progress at different data centres in CMPDI/Singareni and NLC. These projects need to be continued during the Twelfth Plan with enhanced outlays for successful completion, maintenance and regular updating.

Application of Information Technology
14.119. Information Technology (IT) has been used by the coal industry in India for improving productivity and decision making. Some of the applications already in use are: • Enterprise resource planning (ERP). • Real-time trip counting system at opencast mines with latest technologies like GPS, GIS, GSM, RFID, Wi-Fi and so on. • Proximity warning system for HEMM at opencast mines. • Truck movement monitoring system at weighbridges and coal handling plants mines with latest technologies like GPS, GIS, GSM, RFID, Wi-Fi, and so on. • Online underground air and gas monitoring systems (CH4, CO, Temperature). • UG communication system and miners’ tracking with warning system for the miners entering the unsafe areas. 14.120. An SAP-ERP system in coal mines in the country has been introduced by SCCL with effect from July 2008 covering business processes related to Purchase and Stores, Marketing and Dispatches, Quality Management, Human Capital Management,

14.122. Total demand for coal grew by around 6.6 per cent during the Eleventh Plan against domestic production growth of only 4.61 per cent, and the gap was filled from higher imports. The projected GDP growth targeted during the Twelfth Plan will lead to a high demand for coal in the next five years on a business-as-usual basis. However, increased efficiency measures, including introduction of supercritical technology in power plants will reduce the demand for coal. The trend growth for coal demand during the Twelfth Plan is therefore likely to be similar to that in the Eleventh Plan. 14.123. Ministry of Coal has projected two scenarios of coal demand during the Twelfth Plan. Scenario I

Energy 165

TABLE 14.26 Financial Performance of the Coal Sector (in ` Crore) Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Sector Approved CIL SCCL NLC–Power NLC–Mines Total NLC Total IEBR 6 Central Sector Schemes Total MOC 17,390.07 3,340.00 12,051.41 2,826.00 14,877.41 35,607.48 1,326.01 36,933.49 The Eleventh Plan Outlay MTA 16,090.68 3,802.07 6,140.61 2,334.39 8,475.00 28,367.75 4,225.80 32,623.55 Anticipated 13,460.78 3,707.59 6,246.36 1,483.67 7,730.30 24,898.40 1,416.19 26,314.59

projects a demand of 1,204 mt in the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan and Scenario II projects 980.5 mt. Scenario I implies 13.5 per cent CAGR and Scenario II implies a growth rate of 8.9 per cent. Scenario II is considered realistic, based on specific consumption in each consuming sector observed in the past few years. From this scenario, total coal demand will reach 980.50 million tones, an increase of 186 million tonnes over the Twelfth Plan period as shown in Table 14.27.
TABLE 14.27 Coal Demand during the Twelfth Plan (in million tonnes) Sector Eleventh Plan Twelfth Plan (2011–12) (2016–17) Annual Plan Demand Projection Demand Projection Scenario II 46.67 412.00 40.00 28.89 30.47 81.97 593.33 640.00 (6.6 %) 67.20 682.08 56.36 47.31 50.33 77.22 913.30 980.50 (8.9 %)*

14.124. The total demand by the power sector including that from captive power plants is expected to be 75 per cent of the total coal demand during the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan. The share of the steel sector is expected to be 6.85 per cent of the projected demand and the shares of cement and sponge iron sectors are expected to be 4.8 per cent and 5.1 per cent respectively and balance 7.9 per cent is estimated to be consumed by the brick and others sectors. Cumulative annual growth rate of coal demand during the Twelfth Plan is projected to be around 8.9 per cent. Coal demand for Eleventh Plan and Twelfth Plan is given in Annexure 14.2. 14.125. The total addition to electric generation capacity in the Twelfth Plan is targeted at 88,536.6 MW, which includes 69,280 MW of coalbased capacity. The estimates for coal requirements of the power sector have been computed considering the fact that 40,000 MW of capacity based on Supercritical technology will be added in the Twelfth Plan and efficiency measures are also being taken. Further, power generation capacities were running at very high PLF so far, in view of high demand–supply gap. With the planned increase of new capacities and the pace of setting up new power capacities getting accelerated, the PLF of the power plants is likely to go down. Taking all these factors together, it is estimated that the total demand for coal from the power sector may be 738.44 mt in the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan 2016–17. Taking into account

Coking Coal Power Utility Power Captive Cement Sponge Iron Others* Total non-coking Grand Total

* Annual average growth rate during the Twelfth Plan period. Source: Working Group on Coal and Lignite.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

the requirements of steel, cement and other sectors of the economy, the total coal demand is estimated at 980.50 mt. The quality of coal available from the MCL and IB valley mines has been poor and a large portion of coal during the Twelfth Plan will be provided by these mines. If the overall quality of coal available from domestic mines deteriorates, the total coal demand may go up.

the Eleventh Plan and envisaged production during the Twelfth Plan period are given in Annexure 14.3. 14.128. A number of initiatives are being taken to promote faster extraction of coal. The policy on competitive bidding for allocations of captive blocks has been finalised by the Ministry of Coal and is expected be made operational during 2012–13. This should result in allocation of new coal blocks.

Coal Production
14.126. The initial years of the Twelfth Plan are likely to see continuing constraints on coal availability reflecting the difficulties experienced in increasing production in the last two years of the Eleventh Plan. Delays in obtaining E&F clearances, land acquisition and R&R issues continue to plague coal production and remedial action is urgently needed. There is an urgent need to take effective measures to step up coal production. The Working Group on Coal in the most optimistic scenario (Scenario II) has suggested domestic production for the Twelfth Plan period from various sources as shown in Table 14.28.
TABLE 14.28 Coal Production (in million tonnes) Sector Eleventh Plan (2011–12) 435.84 52.21 36.04 15.91 540.00 Twelfth Plan (2016–17) Projection Scenario II CIL SCCL Captive Blocks Others Grand Total Source: Ministry of Coal. 615.00 57.00 100.00 23.00 795.00

Import Requirements
14.129. The level of imports at the end of the Twelfth Plan is projected to increase from 137 million tonnes of Indian quality coal at the end of the Eleventh Plan to 185 million tonnes at the end of the Twelfth Plan based on total coal demand of 980 million tonnes and domestic supply of 795 MT. If domestic supply does not match the target growth rate of 8 per cent per year, the import demand will be higher. The projected level of imports of around 185 million tonnes is large keeping in mind that international trading in coal is only around 900–1,000 million tonnes (15–16 per cent) of the total consumption of over 6,000 million tonnes world over, and there are competing requirements from other countries like China who have large coal-based capacities. The international availability of coal is going to be restricted due to concerns on climate change. International prices of coal are also likely to remain high because of taxes which are being imposed by several coal-producing countries including Australia and Indonesia.

Underground Mining
14.130. Only 15 per cent of India’s coal production is from underground mines. The industry aims to reach a total coal production of 30 per cent from underground mines by 2030. There is a clear trend towards underground mines as this has positive implications for the environment. However, the extraction of coal from the underground mines is lower than that from the opencast mines. In forest areas, underground mining is clearly feasible and will sharply reduce the impact of ecological degradation. It is, however, feasible only if the pool reserves and the seam thickness permits its exploitation accordingly. The share of coal production for underground mines in major coal producing countries is given in Table 14.29.

14.127. The incremental production envisaged in the optimistic Scenario of the Twelfth Plan works out to 255 million tonnes over the production level of 540 million tonnes during the Eleventh Plan. Major contribution has to come from the CIL, which is expected to add incremental production of 185.5 million tonnes yielding a cumulative annual growth rate in coal production of 8 per cent. This is much higher than the actual growth rate of 4.6 per cent achieved in the Eleventh Plan. Details of coal production in

Energy 167

TABLE 14.29 Share of Underground Production in Total Production Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Country China USA Australia India Percentage (%) 90 33 20 10

14.131. Considering the emerging hurdles in forest clearance and land acquisition in future, serious efforts need to be made to increase the share of underground production considerably by the end of the Twelfth Plan by focusing on long wall technology and productivity in underground mines. Indian coal companies must accept the challenge of transplanting the international best practices with more effective management. CIL can have joint ventures or formulate PPP projects with appropriate terms with renowned international players to shore up the underground production level in the Twelfth and the Thirteenth Plans.

Lignite Demand and Production
14.132. The Twelfth Plan envisages lignite demand of 68.60 million tonnes in the terminal year 2016–17 of the Plan which includes production from Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Rajasthan—27.20, 21.60 and 19.80 million tonnes respectively. The additional lignite-based power generation capacity during the Twelfth Plan is envisaged as 2,280 MW. It is stated that projected lignite production of 68.60 million tonnes would almost be adequate to meet the growing demand for various sectors consuming lignite. The projected shortfall would be around 10 million tonnes which needs to be met by either taking up new mines or improving the production levels from the existing mines.

Ministry of Coal issuing a notification for pricing of coal on GCV basis with effect from 31 January 2012, replacing the earlier system of pricing on the basis of useful heat value (UHV) which takes into account the heat trapped in ash content also, besides the heat value of carbon content. The revised GCV system has 17 bands of calorific values with a bandwidth of 3,000 kilo calorie each instead of the existing seven grades of A, B, C, D, E, F and G. The revision to GCV is likely to increase the prices of domestic coal to some extent. This is desirable adjustment because domestic thermal coal continues to be underpriced compared to internationally traded coal prices. International coal prices of thermal coal are currently about three to four times higher than domestic coal but this reflects the fact that imported coal is of higher calorific value and better quality. After adjusting for these differences, international coal prices are a little over twice the domestic prices as shown in Table 14.30. It must also be noted that the volume of coal traded is small compared to international production which makes international prices a less reliable guide. Table 14.30 compares domestic coal prices of thermal coal in India with the domestic sale price of thermal coal in other countries. The comparison shows that Indian coal is underpriced even on this basis. It is necessary to plan for a steady upward price adjustment over the Twelfth Plan period.
TABLE 14.30 Price Comparison of Domestic Coal with other Countries Country Calorific Value K (Cal/Kg) 5,000–6,000 5,000–6,000 3,500–4,000 Price (US $ per tonne) 70 40 26 Price (in `/Mk Cal) 636 363 342

China USA India

Coal Pricing
14.133. Globally, pricing of coal is based on gross calorific value (GCV) of coal. The Integrated Energy Policy which was based on the Integrated Energy Policy Report of the Planning Commission, and was approved by the Cabinet in December 2010, had proposed adoption of this pricing system. This was finally implemented in January 2012 with the 14.134. The price differential between domestic and imported coal creates distortions in the power sector. Since Coal India is not in a position to provide domestic coal to meet the demand of all power generating units expected to come on stream in the Twelfth Plan, increased reliance on coal imports is


Twelfth Five Year Plan

necessary. However, power generators supplying power with PPAs at a regulated tariff will not be able to pass on the higher cost of imported coal. There is a need to consider a mechanism of price pooling under which Coal India undertakes to meet the full FSA requirement using a combination of domestic and imported supplies, pooling the price of its imports with its domestically produced coal to give coal to power generators at a uniform price.

Coal Movement Constraints
14.135. Currently the share of rail in movement of coal in the country is around 52 per cent. The share of other modes of transportation is 15 per cent by merry-go-round (MGR), 7 per cent by belt/rope and 27 per cent by road. Against this, the coal movement matrix in the terminal year of the Twelfth plan (2016–17) is envisaged to show a 58 per cent share of rail, 25 per cent share of road, 11 per cent of MGR and 6 per cent of belt/rope. This includes planning for movement of 800 million tonnes of indigenous coal and coal products and 166 million tonnes of imported coal which is equivalent to about 250 million tones of domestic coal. To realise this objective, average wagon requirement is envisaged at 446.4 rakes per day out of which 165.6 rakes per day will be required for imported coal. The annualised growth in rail loading is expected to be 7.1 per cent. 14.136. Some of the important identified railway infrastructure projects are at North Karanpura, Mand–Raigarh and at Ib Valley coalfields. These projects were initially proposed during the Eleventh Plan but could not be implemented due to delays in land acquisition and clearance from Environment Ministry. The current status of these projects is given in paragraph 14.116. In addition to these, a few more feeder lines have been suggested for improving rail movement during the Twelfth Plan in potential coalfields. Completion of these projects should have top priority in Railway Planning.

of clean coal technologies. While coking coal washing has been in practice for quite some time in the country, washing of non-coking coal, particularly for power generation, has come into focus only recently. Use of washed non-coking coal has increased manyfold over the last 10 years. Currently coking coal washing capacity is around 29.88 million tonnes comprising of washery capacity of 22.18 million tonnes of CIL, 2.04 million tonnes of SAIL and 5.66 million tonnes of TISCO. However, the actual total washed coal production from all these washeries is much below the capacity at 7.03 million tonnes, with an approximate raw coal feed of 15.5 million tonnes. It has been observed that performance of CIL managed washeries is not satisfactory and the output of washed coal from CIL washeries is only 3.89 million tonnes. 14.138. Non-coking coal washing capacity in the country is around 96 million tonnes, comprising of 17 million tonnes of CIL and 79 million tonnes of others. In this case also, the output of washed coal is below capacity at around 36 million tonnes, with a raw coal feed of around 52 million tonnes. Thus, utilisation of existing washery capacity is suboptimal and suitable measures need to be taken to optimally use existing capacity. The CIL proposes to set up 20 more washeries with an aggregate capacity of around 111 million tonnes in the Twelfth Plan. 14.139. Considering the need to increase the level of washed coal, it is proposed to enhance washeries capacity in Twelfth Plan period. Coking coal washing capacity is likely to increase from the existing level of around 30 million tonnes in 2011–12 to 49 million tonnes by the end of 2016–17. Similarly the non-coking coal washing capacity is planned to increase from about 96 million tonnes by the end of the Eleventh Plan to around 175 million tonnes by the end of the Twelfth Plan. 14.140. There has been some progress in dealing with the problems of oversized coal. Coal companies are establishing Coal Handling Plants (CHPs) and feeder breakers. Coal India Ltd. is now supplying almost 99 per cent of crushed coal to the power sector. Further, deployment of surface miners in different projects

Coal Quality and Beneficiation
14.137. Coal washing is one of the practices being promoted as a measure to encourage implementation

Energy 169

is also helping in producing sized coal for supply to the consumers. A total of 212 CHPs (74 major CHPs and 138 mini CHPs/Feeder Breakers) with a total capacity of about 277 million tonnes per annum are operating in different subsidiary companies of the CIL. Further, 50 surface miners deployed at CCL, SECL and MCL produced about 103 million tonnes of sized coal in the year 2010–11, which has helped augment supply of sized coal.

of 16.64 billion tonnes. Similarly a drilling target of 54.46 lakh metres is envisaged for detailed drilling in the Twelfth Plan which includes 19.03 lakh metres in non-CIL blocks. The envisaged coal resource establishment under detailed drilling is 76.80 billion tonnes including 16.22 billion tonnes under detailed drilling in non-CIL blocks.

Royalty on Coal and Lignite
14.144. According to a decision taken by the Government, royalty rates have to be revised periodically once in every three years. Based on the above decision, Ministry of Coal had set up a Committee to suggest revision in royalty rates in 2009. The Committee suggested ad-valorem royalty on coal and lignite instead of the earlier system of combination of specific and ad-valorem duty on various grades of coal. The Government has accepted the suggestion and approved the suggested royalty regime based on ad-valorem basis with effective royalty rates of 14 per cent on raw coal prices and 6 per cent on lignite with effect from April 2012.

Exploration for Coal and Lignite
14.141. Coal and lignite exploration efforts should not only aim at expanding the resource base through regional exploration but also at upgrading the known resources remaining under ‘Indicated’ and ‘Inferred’ categories through detailed exploration to facilitate their projectisation for mining. Significant accretion of resource in coming years is envisaged in the intermediate and deeper levels (beyond 300m of depth). As such there is also an emerging need to fully bring out the potential of coal resources which are at greater depths, for other forms of exploitation like CBM, underground gasification (UCG) and so on to augment the coal resources. 14.142. With ever increasing demand of steel in the country the requirement of coking coal is projected to increase from 69.47 million tonnes to 85.06 million tonnes at the end of the Twelfth and the Thirteenth Plans. There is a need to focus exploration efforts on the prime coking coal resources available beyond 300 m of depth to bring them to ‘Proved’ category. 14.143. Against a target of 1.94 lakh metres for regional exploration during the Eleventh Plan, 1.14 lakh metres (78 per cent) of drilling will be achieved and 7.07 billion tonnes of coal resources are likely to be established. In promotional exploration, against a target of 4 lakh metres of exploratory drilling, 2.72 lakh metres (68 per cent) are expected to be achieved, establishing 20.05 Bt of coal resources. The Twelfth Plan envisages taking up 1.05 lakh metre regional explorations drilling to establish resource base of around 6.8 billion tonnes. The corresponding programme under promotional exploration envisages promotional drilling of 4.80 lakh metre covering an area of 1,204 Sq. Km. to establish resources

Amendment to the Coal Mines Act
14.145. The Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 does not allow private companies to mine coal for sale to third parties though captive mining is allowed for specified end use sectors. This is a limited opening which is helpful but unlikely to attract big investment. Unless large investment and technology in the sector comes in, mining coal by a host of small players would not increase production to desired levels. 14.146. Development of large coal blocks holds the key to rapidly increase production. There are political sensitivities in opening up the coal sector to private investment, but it is simply not logical to keep private investment out of coal, when it is allowed in petroleum and natural gas. Besides, the energy security of the country needs full involvement of all concerned in producing coal. Hence, amendment to the Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act is needed. A Bill to amend the Act for this purpose was introduced in Parliament in 2001 but has not been pursued. Allowing private sector mining does not involve privatisation of Coal India but only entry of new mining


Twelfth Five Year Plan

companies. This issue needs to be considered in the interest of energy security.

New Initiatives to Expand Coal Availability
14.147. Given the importance of coal to India’s energy security, it is necessary to give priority to a number of policy initiatives in the Twelfth Plan which can address obvious weaknesses: 1. Coal exploration must be stepped up to ensure availability of more coal mining blocks for both private and public sectors. Either CMPDIL ought to be made an independent organisation, or a new independent organisation should be created to develop and maintain the repository of all geological information in the country on the lines of CEA for power sector, or the DGH for petroleum and natural gas sector. 2. To expedite clearances, a coordination committee at the Centre and State level may be set up (single window concept), involving senior representation from the concerned departments for quick environment clearances. Even if statutory clearances can only be given by the relevant agency, the establishment of a coordinative mechanism will expedite the decision-making. 3. Enactment of a central legislation to ensure uniform R&R policy and speedy land acquisition on appropriate terms is absolutely necessary. 4. There is a need to incentivise coal availability from captive coal mining blocks. The decision to allocate all future coal blocks on the basis of transparent bidding should be implemented in the first year of the Twelfth Plan. Further, we must create an institutional mechanism for planning and development of common infrastructural facilities with participation of coal mining companies and the respective State Governments. 5. In several cases, development of captive coal may be in a position to produce coal in excess of their requirement. At present the terms of allocation of coal blocks do not permit sale to a third party except with permission. If they could be encouraged to produce more than their consumptive use it would avoid the need to import much more expensive imported coal. This will 6.


8. 9.

be done by making surplus coal available to CIL subsidiaries at a price which provides adequate incentive for the captive block owners. The principle on which such coal should be priced can be approved by the Cabinet. Coal companies should develop a comprehensive plan for increasing the share of production from underground mines and suitable policy initiatives such as cost plus pricing, fiscal incentives and so on need to be introduced to improve the potential returns currently available from underground mining activities. It is suggested that the share of underground mining be increased from the existing 10 per cent to a considerable level by the end of the Twelfth Plan in the next five years. In view of the availability of increased coal imports for the Twelfth Plan period the Ministry must ensure that mechanisms are in place which will be up and appropriate mix of long-term and sport contracts. A coal sector regulator should be set up on a priority basis. Finally it is not clear whether the present structure on which the operating coal companies are subsidiaries of CIL as the holding company is desirable. The industry would be better served if the subsidiaries were spun off as separate public sector companies encouraged to develop their own strategies of coal development including joint venture activity and acquisition of assets abroad. A High Level Committee should be appointed to examine this option and submit a report within six months.

Benchmarking of Productivity
14.148. The Twelfth Plan envisages an improvement in productivity per person from 4.92 tonnes per person in CIL to 7 tonnes per person and from 3.8 tonnes per person in SCCL to 4.93 tonnes per person. This will still leave India well below other producers, as countries like USA, Australia and China have productivity levels of about 14 tonnes per person for combined underground and opencast mines. The targets set to realise the productivity level mentioned above envisage productivity levels of 14.0 tonnes per person for CIL and 14.83 tonnes per person in SCCL in the terminal year of the Plan for opencast

Energy 171

operations, and only 1.10 and 1.83 tonnes per person for CIL and SCCL, respectively for underground operations . Thrust would be given on improvement of operational efficiency of the coal mining companies by establishing benchmarks for different mining operations and work force productivity comparable with international standard. The productivity norms of different heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) benchmarked earlier for both availability and utilisation in different coal companies would be examined so that these become comparable with international standards.

REVIEW OF THE ELEVENTH PLAN Demand for Petroleum Products
14.150. Demand for petroleum products grew at an annual rate of 4.15 per cent during the Eleventh Plan period which is close to the upper-case scenario that was envisaged at the start of the Eleventh Plan as shown in Table 14.31. The elasticity of POL demand with GDP growth during the Eleventh Plan has been 0.53 which is slightly higher than 0.49 for the Tenth Plan. The use of FO/LSHS and LDO in power, fertiliser and general trade has declined. Also, increased availability of natural gas has replaced naphtha that was extensively used in the fertiliser industry. LPG consumption in India has increased from 10.85 million tonnes in the year 2006–07 to 15.36 million tonnes in the year 2011–12, growing at a rate of 7.21 per cent per annum CAGR.

14.149. Managing the petroleum and natural gas sector will present critical challenges in the Twelfth Plan. The demand for petroleum products is expected to expand while the scope for increasing domestic production is limited. Oil prices in world markets are expected to be volatile but generally high. The oil and gas import bill is likely to be around 6–7 per cent of GDP during the year 2011–12. Unfortunately, domestic prices of certain petroleum products have not been adjusted in line with world prices, with the result that there is large ‘under-recovery’ by the oil sector. Important steps were taken in 2012 to adjust diesel prices and to put a limit on highly subsidised LPG, but even after these adjustments, under-recoveries remain large and the subsidy provided in the budget covers only a fraction of this. Continuing this scale of under-recovery is simply not viable. Prices of sensitive petroleum products like diesel, kerosene and LPG will therefore have to be adjusted periodically to reduce the under-recoveries which are currently borne by the Government and upstream oil companies. This is not consistent with developing a healthy petroleum sector capable of investing in exploration and production.

Exploration, Production and Refining Sector
14.151. Both oil and gas production targets have slipped by large percentages during the Eleventh Plan period. Against the crude oil production target of 206.73 MMT in the Eleventh Plan, the actual achievement is only 177 MMT, that is, 14 per cent below the target. The actual natural gas production was 212.54 BCM as against the production target of 255.76 BCM, with a shortfall of about 17 per cent of the Eleventh Plan targets. The balance recoverable reserve position as on 1 April 2011 of O + OEG was about 2015 million tonnes, which has increased by 10.5 per cent from 1,847 million tonnes as on 1 April 2007. 14.152. In contrast to the large slippage in oil exploration and production, addition to refining capacity is likely to be 88.42 per cent of the target. Some of the refinery projects like MRPL expansion and Paradip refinery projects have also slipped into the Twelfth

TABLE 14.31 Consumption of Petroleum Products Consumption Actual Working Group Eleventh Plan Base Upper 2007–08 128.95 116.35 117.56 2008–09 133.6 119.1 121.95 2009–10 137.81 121.99 127.79 2010–11 141.75 126.97 136.59 2011–12 147.98 131.77 141.79 CAGR (%) 4.15 2.93 4.45


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.32 Physical Performance of Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Item Crude Oil Production (MMT) ONGC OIL PVT. JVC Gas Production (BCM) ONGC OIL PVT. JVC Refining Capacity (MMTPA) Hydrocarbon Reserve Accretion (O + OEG) Eleventh Plan Target 206.73 140.06 18.99 47.71 255.76 112.39 16.42 126.95 240.96 1,847 Actual 2007–08 34.12 25.94 3.10 5.08 32.42 22.33 2.34 7.74 148.97 – Actual 2008–09 33.51 25.37 3.47 4.67 32.85 22.49 2.27 8.09 177.97 – Actual 2009–10 33.69 24.86 3.57 5.26 47.50 23.10 2.42 21.99 185.39 – Actual 2010–11 37.68 24.42 3.58 9.68 52.22 23.10 2.35 26.77 193.39 – Actual 2011–12 38.09 23.72 3.85 10.53 47.56 23.32 2.63 21.61 213.07 Total in the Eleventh Plan 177.09 124.30 17.57 35.22 212.54 114.33 12.01 86.20 213.07* 2,014.81#

* Refining Capacity estimate as on 1 April 2012. # HCRA as on 1 April 2011.

Plan due to delays in providing captive power equipment by BHEL to these refineries. Table 14.32 gives the target and achievements of various physical parameters during the Eleventh Plan period.

exploration, in the ninth round of NELP (NELP-IX), 34 exploration blocks were offered in October 2010, of which 18 PSCs have already been signed with the awardees. Details of blocks awarded under the nine NELP rounds are shown in Figure 14.1.

New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) Programme
14.153. The NELP programme is a major initiative aimed at attracting private investment into oil and natural gas. There have been nine rounds of bidding, starting with a first in 1998, and a total investment of US$ 15.88 billion has been made by various operators in E&P sector till 2010–11. Out of 235 Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs), 73 were signed during the Eleventh Plan period. To step up the pace of
60 No. of PSC signed 50 40 30 20 10 0 I II III IV 24 23 23 20

Equity Oil, Gas from Overseas Assets
14.154. Oil PSUs (OVL OIL, GAIL, IOCL, BPCL and HPCL) have invested `59,108 crore (US$ 13 billion) up to 31 March 2011 on acquisition of assets abroad, mainly in oil producing assets. There are nine major production assets in Russia, Sudan, Brazil, Syria, Vietnam, Venezuela and Colombia. Production from overseas oil and gas blocks is presently about 10.22 per cent of India’s domestic production. The

52 41 32 20 18

V VI NELP rounds




FIGURE 14.1: Exploration Blocks awarded in NELP Rounds

Energy 173

TABLE 14.33 Share of Overseas Hydrocarbon Production Year Total Domestic oil and gas (MMTOE) Overseas production of OVL (MMTOE) Overseas production as a percentage of Domestic (%) 2007–08 66.53 8.8 13.23 2008–09 66.35 8.78 13.23 2009–10 81.19 8.87 10.93 2010–11 89.93 9.43 10.49 2011–12 # 85.64 8.75 10.22

Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas/ONGC Videsh Ltd. (#) Prov.

share of overseas vis-à-vis indigenous production of oil and gas is given in Table 14.33.

Policy Initiatives during the Eleventh Plan
14.155. Various policy initiatives were taken to address the issues relating to attaining hydrocarbon energy security. Major policy initiatives taken by the Government during the Eleventh Plan are as follows.
Regulatory Measures 14.156. The Government has set up Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board with effect from 1 October 2007 to regulate downstream activities of oil and gas sector under the PNGRB Act, 2006. However, the mandate of PNGRB is fairly narrow and deals largely with pipelines. PNGRB is currently empowered to give authorisation to entities for laying, building, operating and expanding any pipeline as common or contract carrier and expanding city gas distribution projects. Allocation of Natural Gas 14.157. Natural gas produced from NELP blocks is subject to Government-prescribed allocation to different uses and also Government approval of the pricing formula. The Government has prioritised allocation of gas produced from NELP blocks in the following order:

14.158. An Empowered Group of Ministers has allocated 93.336 MMSCMD of gas on a combination of firm and fallback basis from the blocks producing gas under NELP.
Strategic Storage of Crude Oil 14.159. The Government is in the process of creating strategic crude oil storage capacity for 15 days at Vishakhapatnam (1.33 million tonnes), Mangalore (1.50 million tonnes) and Padur (2.5 million tonnes) through a Special Purpose Vehicle, namely, Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserve Ltd. (ISPRL). The storage would be further upgraded at other suitable locations by an incremental capacity of 12.5 million tonnes during the Twelfth Plan period. Promoting Bio-Fuels 14.160. A programme of 5 per cent blending of ethanol with petrol is already underway with effect from November 2006 targeting 20 States and 4 UTs. Subject to availability, the percentage of blend can be enhanced to 10 per cent as specification for petrol with 10 per cent ethanol blend is already given by the BIS. At present, the EBP Programme is successfully running in 14 States and three UTs; OMCs have been able to contract 55.87 crore litres of ethanol against the requirement of 105 crore litres of ethanol for 5 per cent blending in the entire notified area. Pricing of Petroleum Products 14.161. In 2002, the Government dismantled the Administered Pricing Mechanism, and announced that prices of all petroleum products would be deregulated. This decision, however, was not fully implemented after the prices of crude oil in international market rose sharply leading to increase in international prices of petrol, diesel, LPG and kerosene.

• • • •

Fertiliser plants producing subsidised fertilisers LPG plants Power plants City Gas Distribution (CGD) for CNG and domestic PNG • Steel, petrochemicals, refinery, captive power plants and CGD for industrial and commercial customers


Twelfth Five Year Plan

On 25 June 2010 the Government announced that the price of petrol was fully deregulated and the oil companies were free to fix it periodically. However, diesel price deregulation was deferred to be implemented later. Prices of LPG and kerosene remained under price regulation by the Government. The continuance of price control reflects the political sensitivity of the issue despite the evident economic desirability of implementing the Integrated Energy Policy. 14.162. The under-recovery by oil companies because of the inability to adjust oil prices is shown in Table 14.34. The amount of under-recoveries on sensitive petroleum products was `1,38,541 crores (excluding the under-recoveries of `4,890 crores incurred by OMCs on sale of petrol) in the year 2011–12 including the under-recoveries incurred by OMCs on petrol. The total under-recoveries by the Government and oil PSUs amount to `4,43,197 crore during the Eleventh Plan period. That has seriously affected the profitability and viability of the oil marketing companies. The under-recoveries of the oil companies in 2012–13 will rise to `1,52,937 crore as per Refinery Gate price effective from 1 July 2012 if prices are not adjusted.
Pricing of Natural Gas 14.163. Gas price for NELP Blocks is supposed to be determined through an arm’s length process by contractor, and is subject to approval by the Government. Accordingly the price of RIL KG Basin gas was fixed at $4.2/MMBTU ex-Kakinada in 2007 by EGoM and the price was expected to be valid till March 2014. The purchase price of

long-term LNG imported from Qatar for Petronet LNG has been linked to Japanese Crude Cocktail (JCC) and varies on a monthly basis. It is sold at prices fixed by resellers. Spot RLNG prices are based on market conditions, which are currently hovering around US$12–13/MMBTU. Following the fixation of the KG basin gas price at US$4.2 per MMBTU, the administered price of gas from nominated fields awarded earlier to ONGC/OIL, which varied depending on the field, were raised to US$4.2 per MMBTU, except for the North-East where it is US$2.52 per MMBTU. 14.164. The NELP of the Government of India provides freedom to price the gas by the operator at a market-determined price for gas produced from the NELP blocks, subject to the Government approving the pricing formula. However, questions have arisen regarding the interpretation of various clauses in the existing contracts. There is a need to review the provision of pricing under PSC to clarify the extent to which producers will have the freedom to market the gas. Clarity is obviously essential if we are to attract private investment into exploration and production. Legally, gas as a resource belongs to the Government and the Government has the right to fix an appropriate price. However, if the intention is to attract private investment into this sector, the Government should state clearly what degree of pricing freedom will be given. Ideally, private investors would expect freedom to price the gas at a level at which there are willing buyers, which in turn will be determined by the price at which consumers can import. On the other hand, the CBM policy envisages a different contractual regime. In order to encourage this

TABLE 14.34 Under-Recoveries on Petroleum Products (` crores) Petroleum Products Petrol Diesel Domestic LPG PDS Kerosene Total Source: PPAC. 2006–07 2,027 18,776 10,701 17,883 49,387 2007–08 7,332 35,166 15,523 19,102 77,123 2008–09 5,181 52,286 17,600 28,225 1,03,292 2009–10 5,151 9,279 14,257 17,364 46,051 2010–11 2,227 34,706 21,772 19,484 78,190 2011–12 – 81,192 29,997 27,352 1,38,541

Energy 175

emerging source of gas, its pricing should be left to the market without the need for Government approval. 14.165. There are a number of other issues regarding existing PSC. First, questions have been raised regarding investment multiple which determines the profit share of Government and the investor after allowing recovery of investment cost. It has been argued that this incentivises greater capital intensiveness, and a stronger profit share based on production would be better. This assessment needs to be weighed against the argument that the IM enables Government to insulate the contractor at higher levels of investment, which increases the possibility of oil/gas being discovered. There are also concerns on the need to improve the provisions under the PSC to make them more transparent and also fully safeguard the interests of the stakeholders. Second, the existing management system has not led to an effective supervision over the projects. There is a need to consider alternate mechanisms. Several other issues have been raised also. Government has, therefore, appointed a Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. C. Rangarajan, Chairman, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister to review existing PSCs and recommend changes for the future. 14.166. Finally, the Twelfth Plan is likely to see a continuation of high oil and gas prices in the world markets and our dependence on imports for both oil and gas is also likely to increase. There is an urgent need to align domestic oil and gas price to market price for sound development of the sector and to send the right signals to consumers and producers. This would also enable the oil PSUs to generate internal resources to fund new projects and create growth momentum. Price reform along these lines would also permit entry of private companies for marketing of petroleum products which would help expand competition. Price adjustment in the petroleum sector has to be carried out keeping in mind the need for ensuring affordability for the poor and vulnerable sections. This can be done in various ways. It does not require generalised subsidies.

TWELFTH PLAN STRATEGY Demand of Petroleum Products
14.167. Demand of petroleum products is projected to increase at an annual rate of 4.7 per cent during the Twelfth Five Year Plan. This will increase consumption of POL products from 147.98 MMT in 2011–12 to 186.21 MMT by 2016–17. The demand for diesel will continue to be dominant followed by MS and LPG. The demand estimates of petroleum products in Twelfth Plan period are given in Table 14.35.

Supply of Petroleum Products
14.168. Oil production during Twelfth Plan is likely to increase marginally and then decline by 3.26 per cent by the end of the Plan. As a result, import dependence in petroleum products is expected to increase from 76.6 per cent at the end of the Eleventh Plan to 77.8 per cent by the end of the Twelfth Plan. The crude oil production profile for the Twelfth Plan, based on established reserves, present status of different fields, input implementation schedules and the health of reservoirs is as given in Table 14.36.

Natural Gas Demand
14.169. The demand of natural gas during the Twelfth Plan is likely to grow by about 19.2 per cent to meet the incremental requirement of power, fertiliser and other industries. The CNG and city gas sector will also see a quantum growth in natural gas use. It is expected that by the end of the Twelfth Plan about 300 cities are likely to be covered under city gas distribution. Yearly estimates of natural gas demand are given in Table 14.37.

Natural Gas Production
14.170. Domestic production of natural gas during the Twelfth Plan will depend upon the output from gas fields discovered under NELP by various operators. As majority of new gas prospects are in deep water, the investments, technology and pricing of gas for developing these fields would be important. The estimated gas production by different operators has been given in Table 14.38. However, the projected production from Private/JV producers may need to be reviewed during the Plan period, as


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.35 Demand of Petroleum Products Products 1. Petroleum Products (’000MT) LPG MS NAPHTHA/NGL ATF SKO HSDO LDO LUBES FO/LSHS BITUMEN PET COKE OTHERS Total POL 15,358 14,993 11,105 5,536 8,229 64,742 415 2,745 9,232 4,628 6,145 4,869 1,47,997 16,986 16,091 12,353 6,009 7,949 65,040 400 2,691 7,954 5,254 6,765 5,445 1,52,937 18,363 17,527 11,417 6,587 7,631 68,654 400 2,772 7,902 5,541 7,514 6,127 1,60,436 19,675 19,083 11,417 7,202 7,326 72,589 400 2,857 7,899 5,732 8,345 6,109 1,68,635 20,857 20,766 11,022 7,849 7,033 76,904 400 2,945 7,872 5,971 9,268 6,085 1,76,972 21,831 22,588 11,022 8,540 6,751 81,599 400 3,036 7,872 6,114 10,294 6,162 1,86,209 7.3 8.5 –0.1 9.1 –3.9 4.7 –0.7 2.0 –3.1 5.7 10.9 4.8 4.7 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 CAGR (%)

Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. TABLE 14.36 Projection of Crude Oil Production in the Twelfth Plan (in MMTPA) 2012–13 ONGC OIL Pvt./JV Total 25.045 3.92 13.34 42.305 2013–14 28.27 4.00 13.30 45.57 2014–15 28.002 4.06 12.70 44.762 2015–16 26.286 4.16 12.10 42.546 2016–17 25.456 4.20 11.50 41.156 Total 133.059 20.34 62.94 216.339

Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. TABLE 14.37 Natural Gas Demand for Twelfth Five Year Plan (in MMSCMD) Sector Power* Fertiliser** Demand(Price Elastic) – Sub Total City Gas Industrial Petrochemicals / Refineries/Internal Consumption Sponge Iron/Steel Demand (Relatively price Inelastic) – Sub Total Grand Total Demand Source: *Ministry of Power, **Ministry of Fertilizers. 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 CAGR (%) 91 43 134 13 16 25 6 60 194 135 55 190 15 20 54 7 96 286 153 61 214 19 20 61 8 108 322 171 106 277 24 22 67 8 121 398 189 106 295 39 25 72 8 144 439 207 106 313 46 27 72 8 153 466 17.9 19.8 18.5 28.8 11.0 23.6 5.9 20.6 19.2

Energy 177

TABLE 14.38 Projection of Natural gas production in Twelfth Plan (BCM) 2012–13 ONGC OIL Pvt./JV Total Total MMSCMD 25.266 3.30 23.71 52.276 143.22 2013–14 25.472 3.80 32.38 61.652 168.91 2014–15 26.669 4.00 39.4 70.069 191.97 2015–16 28.215 4.27 40.43 72.915 199.77 2016–17 38.676 4.45 41.46 84.586 231.74 Total 144.298 19.82 177.38 341.498 187.12 (Average)

Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

the production profile from their exploration acreage gets approved by the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons.

number of discoveries made under NELP are yet to be appraised and developed. The DGH needs to monitor their evaluation and development quickly.

Exploration Activities
14.171. During the Twelfth Plan period, 13,8974 kilometres of 2D seismic and 82,488 square km of 3D seismic are likely to be acquired by ONGC, OIL and private/JV companies. Also, 1,310 exploratory wells are likely to be drilled during the Twelfth Plan period. These exploratory efforts are likely to result in hydrocarbon reserve accretion of about 727 million metric tonnes of oil and oil equivalent gas in the country. The break-up of exploration programme by ONGC, OIL and Private/Joint Venture companies is given in Table 14.39. The role of DGH as the upstream advisor and supervisor for the Government is very important. Efforts will be made to increase the capacity of the DGH, as also efficiency in decisionmaking. It can play an important role in obtaining various clearances for the upstream operators from multiple agencies of the Government. This has to be viewed particularly in the light of the fact that a large

Pricing and Under Recoveries of Petroleum Products
14.172. Although important steps have been taken in the first year of the Twelfth Plan to adjust diesel prices and to cap the subsidy on LPG, this has not eliminated the under-recovery of oil companies. The increase in under-recoveries of OMCs is adversely affecting the financial position of OMCs and may affect mobilisation of funds for new projects during the Twelfth Plan period. Currently, the under-recoveries of OMCs are compensated by the Government from fiscal budget, discount on crude and products by upstream oil companies and part absorption by OMCs. The OMCs are expected to incur underrecoveries of `8,32,737 crore during Twelfth Plan period. If no further adjustment occurs, and if global prices stay at present level, the total under-recovery in the Twelfth Plan period will be over `8.32 lakh crore which is simply not viable (Table 14.40)

TABLE 14.39 Breakup of the Exploration Programme for theTwelfth Plan Activity Seismic Surveys 2D Seismic Surveys 3D Exploratory Wells Reserves Accretion IIH Ultimate Hydrocarbon Reserve Accretion Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Unit km Sq Km Nos MMTOE MMTOE ONGC 28,170 24,163 611 1,080 360 OIL 6,850 8,364 174 78.14 26 Private/JV 1,03,954 49,961 525 728 341 Total 1,38,974 82,488 1,310 1,886.14 727


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 14.40 Likely Under-Recoveries on Petroleum* Products (` Crore) Sensitive Petroleum Products Diesel PDS Kerosene Domestic LPG Total 2012–13 86,910 28,880 38,182 1,53,973 2013–14 90,820 27,725 42,054 1,60,598 2014–15 95,053 26,617 44,931 1,66,601 2015–16 99,673 25,552 47,531 1,72,756 2016–17 1,04,664 24,528 49,618 1,78,810 Total 4,77,120 1,33,301 2,22,316 8,32,737

* Price of Petrol is made market determined. It assumes oil prices at US$ 100 per barrel with exchange rate of US$ = `55.

Addition to Refining Capacity
14.173. With grass-roots refineries at Bhatinda (9 MMTPA), Paradip (15 MMTPA) and expansion of some of the existing refineries, the total refining capacity is projected to be around 218.37 MMTPA by the year 2012–13 and is expected to touch 313.57 MMTPA by the end of the Twelfth Plan as shown in Table 14.41. Majority of new refining capacity would be added from expansion of existing refineries at low costs.

Alternate Sources of Hydrocarbons
14.174. The development of alternate sources of hydrocarbons such as coal bed methane, gas hydrate, shale gas, oil shale and so on are some of the areas which require greater attention. Oil companies would also need to focus on development of renewable energy sources including biodiesel, ethanol, wind, solar, biomass and so on to make the hydrocarbon use for various activities carbon neutral by the companies.

TABLE 14.41 Projected Refining Capacity during Twelfth Plan (MMTPA) 2012–13 IOC BPC (Mumbai) Kochi BORL–Bina HPC (MR + VR) Maharashtra Refinery HMEL (GGSRL) MRPL ONGC (Tatipaka) CPCL NRL Sub Total PSU RIL-DTA and SEZ, Jamnagar EOL, Jamnagar NOCL, Cuddalore Sub Total Private Total Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. 54.2 12.0 9.5 6.0 16.5 0.0 9 15 0.066 12.1 3 137.4 60 19 2 81 218.4 2013–14 69.2 12.0 9.5 6.0 17.2 0.0 9 15.5 0.066 12.1 3 153.6 60 20 6 86 239.6 2014–15 69.2 13.5 9.5 7.2 17.2 0.0 9 16 0.066 12.1 3 156.8 60 20 6 86 242.8 2015–16 74.0 13.5 15.5 7.2 17.2 0.0 9 16.5 0.066 12.1 3 168.1 60 30.8 6.1 96.9 265.0 2016–17 77.0 13.5 15.5 9.0 23.2 9.0 9 18 0.066 18.3 8 200.6 60 38 15 113 313.6

Energy 179

Coal Bed Methane (CBM) 14.175. The prognosticated CBM resources in the country are about 92 trillion cubic feet (TCF), out of which only 8.92 TCF has so far been established. The Government of India has awarded 33 CBM exploration blocks. Commercial production of CBM has already commenced in Raniganj (South) in West Bengal. CBM production by the year 2016–17 is expected to be around 4 MMSCMD. This is quite low compared with the resource potential estimated by the DGH. In spite of the fact that more than a decade has lapsed since the award of CBM blocks, the evaluation and development continues to be behind schedule. Efforts are required to enhance the production of CBM through suitable policy measures. There are also delays in approving prices for CBM projects shortly to go into production. This needs to be expedited. Simultaneous Operations of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) and Oil and Gas 14.176. At present there is no mechanism to work together simultaneously for the exploration and exploitation of coal, coal bed methane, shale gas and oil and gas production in same block/ acreages due to the fact that both coal and oil and gas sectors are governed by different administrative ministries. Regulations and Acts do create conflict of interest for the simultaneous exploration and exploitation of coal, CBM, coal mine methane and also underground Coal gasification along with coal and oil and gas. There is a need for the operators to work under similar contractual regime for simultaneous operations of CBM, Coal and shale gas and CBM, oil and gas and shale gas in the same area. A policy framework for this will need to be developed expeditiously in the year 2012–13 itself. Shale Gas Exploration 14.177. The Government has initiated steps for development of shale oil and shale gas from on land sedimentary basins. MoU has been signed between Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Department of State, USA on 6 December 2010 for cooperation in resource assessment, regulatory framework, training and so on. A multi-organisation

team (MOT) has been constituted involving DGH, ONGC, OIL and GAIL for collection of required G&G, geochemical and petro-physical data for assessment of shale oil and shale gas prospects in Indian on land sedimentary basins. The involvement of private sector in this initiative will be enhanced as well. A policy of regulatory framework is to be put in place for shale oil and shale gas development.
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) 14.178. ONGC has signed an Agreement of Collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining, Russia on 25 November 2004 for implementation of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) project in India. The Vastan Mine block belonging to GIPCL in Surat district, Gujarat has been selected for UCG Pilot project. The total financial implication of the project is about US$ 15.32 million. ONGC will be asked to complete this pilot at the earliest. National Gas Hydrate Programme 14.179. An MoU was recently signed in the area of marine gas hydrate research and technology development between the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Germany and DGH for research on methane production from gas hydrate by carbon dioxide sequestration. The NGHP programme has also been going on for a long time, with no tangible results so far. Efforts will be made for better monitoring and conclusion of this programme at the earliest. Flaring of Natural Gas 14.180. Currently about 3 per cent of gas produced is flared by the ONGC and Oil India Limited. The total volume of gas flared is estimated to be around 3.5– 4.0 MMSCMD. There is a need to stop such flaring through use of this gas by the local industry and/or gathering it either through compression or by liquefaction mode and then re-injecting the gas into pipeline. A separate mechanism to reach a zero flaring of gas and its commercialisation can be developed to stop such wasteful flaring of gas.

Focus on Research and Development
14.181. The need to develop domestic capability in the exploration, production, refining and processing of oil and natural gas has led to the creation of R&D


Twelfth Five Year Plan

institutes by oil sector organisations. While in-house institutions can make a significant contribution to the activities of their parent PSUs, they are not subjected to any peer review. They have also been unable to attract private sector business and have remained dependent on captive assignments. On the other hand, the existence of in-house institutions has restrained the PSUs from outsourcing their assignments to outside institutions/niche area experts. The objective should be to ensure that R&D centres of the oil sector PSUs develop into world class institutions, with induction of fresh capital and top scientific personnel. 14.182. Efforts will be intensified to obtain the latest technology from global centres of excellence while at the same time strengthening our own capability. Several alliances were signed with international organisations and Governments during the Tenth and the Eleventh Plan periods. Diplomatic efforts were also made through JWGs and other forms of MEA assistance to increase interaction between Indian and foreign experts. These efforts will be renewed, and fresh initiatives taken. Some of the key areas for R&D development to strengthen domestic capability are in exploration, geo-data processing and interpretation, drilling technology, reservoir

studies, ocean technology, oil and gas production technology, well logging technology, biotechnology and geotectonic, quality improvements of the products, improving energy efficiencies of various processes, and yield maximisation of distillation. The experience of Brazil in having developed scientific and technical know-how as well as manpower domestically, tailor-made to suit their geological requirements is a good example to follow. 14.183. Various oil and gas sector organisations plan to invest `6,326 crore during the Twelfth Plan period as R&D of oil and gas sector activities as indicated in Table 14.42. Some of the focus areas in oil and gas sector are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Producing waxy crude Smart horizontal well completions 4D Seismic mapping Long heated insulated pipeline for crude evacuation Improving energy efficiency in refineries Product yield maximisation Exploration of unconventional energy resources, viz. shale gas, CBM, UCG and so on Oil shale and study of gas hydrates in eastern and western offshore areas of India

TABLE 14.42 R&D Expenditure by Major Oil and Gas Companies Company 2009–10 (Actual) Expenditure ` crore Indian Oil BPCL HPCL CPCL RIL EOL ONGC OIL GAIL EIL Total 89.65 26 2.1 0.3 41 – 219.95 22.49 16.17 11 428.66 0.34 0.27 0.06 0.54 0.06 per cent of R&D expenditure/Revenues 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.02 Eleventh Plan (Actual) Expenditure ` crore 317.83 155.38 24.5 7.4 1,640 12 1,289.32 108.63 17.23 46 3,618.29 Twelfth Plan (Estimated) Expenditure ` crore 955 429 315 14 2,000 25 2,156 257 71 104 6,326

Source: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

Energy 181

Infrastructure and Capacity Building
• The unlicensed offshore areas and Deccan basins are technologically challenging due to higher water depths and sub-basalt sediments, respectively. It is important to access latest technology from global centres of excellence to address the specific needs of these balance areas. The Government would endeavour to encourage technology alliances with our upstream companies, and also attract service industries to set up base in India. • Strengthen and empower technical and scientific manpower for better decision-making and capacity-building in oil sector specifically the E&P companies. Deployment of large qualified workforce will be necessary during the Twelfth Plan for exploration and production sector. • Both ONGC and OIL would step up efforts, to raise oil and gas production from the near stagnant levels of the past one decade or so. These companies ought to enhance production by reducing their R/P ratios. They would also be encouraged to quickly appraise their entire licensed areas to enhance reserves. In the offshore nominated areas, technology is likely to play an important role. The Government would also encourage them to induct cutting-edge technology in these acreages, often available only as in-house with global players, on risk–reward basis. • The Integrated Energy Policy had laid down that there is a need for an independent upstream regulator. The Government needs to distance itself from routine contract administration, as well as capex/pricing decisions. As long as the Government itself is the upstream regulator, the reasoning that the DGH provides it technical advice does not lend it independence. Audit issues and contractor–Government conflicts may get much reduced if an independent regulator were to be put in place. Further, in order to make marginal offshore oil and gas discoveries viable, offshore infrastructure needs to be shared between operators. The DGH would issue regulations to encourage operators to collaborate on mutually beneficial terms. • Development of strategic and commercial gas storages by the E&P and marketing companies to address price volatility, balancing of seasonal gas •

• • •

• •

requirement by various sectors at different locations in the country. Development of strategic crude oil storage beyond 5 MMTPA capacity. The Government would be open to private sector involvement in building and operating strategic storage, on the condition of the crude being available for release, at its discretion. Strategy for refining capacity additions considering current market situation Marketing and distribution infrastructure facilities for the petroleum products Additional development of new LNG import and regasification capacity both on the East and the West coasts of India. Gas Pipeline transportation infrastructure both on the East and the West coasts and also in southern and northern parts of the country for supply of gas throughout the country. Facilitating development of city gas distribution in about 300 identified cities in the country. Improving efficiency of operations of various oil and gas sector installations. Benchmarks for refineries, pipelines process plants, buildings and any other installations to be developed by all the organisations and to be monitored periodically. Develop capacity building for 5 MMTOE per year of energy from renewables and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. This is with an aim to become carbon neutral for oil sector companies. Developing LNG import capacity based on Floating Storage and Regasification units (FSRU) in coastal cities of the country which are not connected to gas pipelines to expedite the city gas supply. Deploy the CSR resources for creating health and education infrastructure. Help communities in creating opportunities for clean and sustainable energy supplies for cooking and lighting for better quality of life in areas of operations from CSR funds.

Reforms Required in the Oil and Gas Sector
14.184. Given the challenges in managing the oil and gas sector, it is necessary to focus on the agenda of critical reforms needed in this sector in the Twelfth Plan period. They are listed below:


Twelfth Five Year Plan

• Eliminate the uncertainty that has arisen regarding gas pricing from NELP production sharing contracts by implementing a new design of contracts. The recommendations of the Rangarajan Committee may be an important input in finalising this policy. Appropriate steps should be taken to resolve conflicts in existing contracts where interpretation of the contract terms is open to multiple options. • Operationalise a road map to move petroleum product prices received by marketing companies to prices aligned with global prices. This may not be possible immediately, but it can be achieved by the end of the Twelfth Plan for diesel and petrol. • Phasing out subsidies on domestic LPG and PDS kerosene. Subsidised LPG is now capped at nine cylinders per household with the rest being available at market price. Consideration should be given to converting the subsidised supply to an equivalent cash transfer targeted to those who need it. • Kerosene supplies can be progressively reduced considering improved electricity access provided under RGGVY and LPG connections provided in rural areas. • Rationalise tax structure in sales of petroleum products considering thermal value for its use in transport, industry, power, households and other sectors. Unified State taxes and removal of tax anomalies for efficient use of petroleum products. • Incentivise exploration and production of domestic non-conventional fuels like shale gas, CBM, coal mine methane, underground coal gasification and so on. • Promote development and production of biofuels by the oil sector E&P and marketing companies at commercial level. Appropriate policy and integration issues facilitating bio-fuels development be provided by both the State and the Central Governments. • Expand exploration and production of domestic oil and gas sources for which quick decisionmaking for awarding and development of NELP blocks is necessary. • In order to attract efficient E&P companies globally to bid for our acreages, it is vital to provide seismic and other technical data of the acreages

• •

on offer. It is proposed that the entire unlicensed sedimentary area be surveyed, so that 100 per cent exploration coverage may be achieved during the Plan period. NELP was launched as a stopgap arrangement until a National Data Repository was ready to facilitate an all-year round acreage award policy. The Government will introduce an Open Acreage Licensing Policy so that the target of full exploration coverage by the end of Plan period may be achieved. Provide ‘Declared Goods Status’ for natural gas/ LNG so that it is available at uniform price in most of the States. Natural gas prices charged to producers must also be determined by market forces. There is a need for clarity on fiscal incentives on exploration of natural gas under NELP. The concept of uniform gas price across consuming sectors also needs to be examined afresh as the desire to keep prices low for certain sectors tends to distort pricing; it is inconsistent with the principle that the price of gas will be determined by market forces. Develop a policy framework to exploit shale gas. It is proposed that a new policy for exploration and production of shale gas be launched, and acreage be speedily awarded during the Plan period. Coal mining leases acreages often have methane or even oil/gas deposits. Similarly, oil and gas lease/ PSC acreages have the possibility of coal/methane production. The Government should put in place a policy for simultaneous exploitation of CBM, coal, coal mine methane, oil and gas in a unified manner wherever such resources are available. Acquisition of equity oil and gas abroad including conventional and shale gas assets. Contracting LNG imports both on long- and short-term basis considering market price affordability.

14.185. The need to increase total domestic energy production in order to reduce import dependence, combined with the need to move away from fossil fuels in the longer run in view of climate change considerations, points to the need for stronger efforts to increase the supply of energy from renewables.

Energy 183

All over the world, investment in renewable power sources has been increasing. India has been a late entrant into the field of renewable energy, but it is beginning to make rapid strides in this sector with an annual growth rate of 33 per cent in 2010 against the global growth rate of 26 per cent during the same period. It must be emphasised however that these increases are from a very low base since renewables at present account for about 1 per cent of the total commercial energy used. Nevertheless, it is important to make a start and to gain significant experience in this important sector keeping in mind its potential over the longer term. 14.186. An important limitation on the extent to which we can shift to renewables is the high unit cost at present, compared with other conventional sources. However, unit costs of renewable energy, especially solar energy, are coming down and the marginal cost of conventional energy based on fossil fuels is likely to remain high and rise. These trends suggest that over the next 7 years the unit cost of energy from renewable sources such as wind and solar may come close to the unsubsidised cost of conventional energy. Since India has a large potential of both wind and solar energy, the exploitation of
350 312 Gigawatts 300 250 200 72.4%

this potential should form an important part of our long-term energy strategy. 14.187. The potential for renewable power has been revised upward over time. In the early 80s, India was estimated to have renewable energy potential of about 85 GW from commercially exploitable sources, viz. (i) Wind: 50 GW (at 50 m mast height) (ii) Small Hydro:15 GW (iii) Bio-energy: 20 GW and (iv) solar radiation sufficient to generate 50 MW/sq. km using solar photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. These estimates have since been revised to reflect technological advancements. Initial estimates from Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) suggest that wind energy potential at 80 metres height (with 2 per cent land availability) would be over 100 GW. Some studies have estimated even higher potential ranges up to 300 GW. The MNRE has initiated an exercise for realistic reassessment of the wind power potential, whose results are expected by the end of 2013. 14.188. Some of the key issues facing renewable power generations are: 1. Regional Concentration of Renewable Energy Potential: Because renewable energy
80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0%

150 100 50 0 27.3% 56 14.3% 50 22.5% 49 13.0% 26 Spain Others


30.0% 20.0%

16 India

10.0% 0.0%

World Total Wind power

US Solar PV


Germany Biomass

% Growth in 2010

* Excludes Hydro. Source: REN21, Global Status Report, 2011. FIGURE 14.2: Renewable Power Capacities, Top Five Countries, 2010


Twelfth Five Year Plan

is location-specific and not evenly distributed there are problems on scaling up grid connected renewable power. For instance, wind potential is mainly confined to the wind resource rich States of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The States of Gujarat and Rajasthan have excellent solar radiation and the other suitable states for solar power are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and so on. Similarly, small hydro power potential is mainly available with the Himalayan States and northeastern States. The intermittent nature of Solar and Wind Power in the absence of an adequate balancing mechanism limits the flexibility of the State grid to absorb this power. 2. Insufficiency and High Cost of Evacuation Infrastructure: Utilisation of variable renewable energy requires a robust transmission infrastructure from remotely located generating plants to the load centres. Further, combining geographically dispersed renewable energy sources to reduce variability requires much larger, smarter and upgraded transmission network. A recent study conducted by the Power Grid Corporation Ltd. has identified the requirement for strengthening of both intra-state and interstate transmission system for facilitating transfer of renewable energy from renewable-energy–rich potential States to other States as well as for absorption within the host States. The study has estimated that for capacity addition plans for the Twelfth Five Year Plan period, an investment of around `30,000 crore would be required for creating renewable power transmission infrastructure. 3. Regulatory Issues: Renewable power, especially solar, is significantly costlier than conventional power, thus making its adoption by the cashstarved utilities difficult unless it is incentivised through Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and introduction of Renewable Energy Certificate (REC). This would enable States to procure a fixed percentage of their power portfolio from renewable power. 4. Financial Barriers: Renewable energy technologies require large initial capital investments,

making the levelised cost of generation higher than it is for many conventional sources. These technologies need to be supported until technology breakthroughs and market volumes generated are able to bring the tariff down at the grid parity level. Moreover, high technology and project risks perceived by financers for renewable projects make access to low-cost and long-term funding difficult. Thus, there is a need to generate instruments for low-cost and long-term financing of such projects from both domestic as well as overseas resources and also banks to adopt separate exposure limits for renewable energy sector. 5. Low Penetration of Renewables for Urban and Industrial Applications: Solar applications for heating water in urban, industrial and commercial applications is one of the most mature and viable renewable energy technologies available worldwide. Better market penetration of such technologies can lead to better demand side management for commercial as well as household usage. With already matured technology and rapidly growing industry, solar water heater installations have witnessed a massive growth throughout the world but the installations in India have remained low on account of poor adoption due to high upfront cost and poor quality standards of collectors. Moreover, the binding regulation in building codes that encourage adoption of such technologies are seldom implemented and only few States have such regulations.

14.189. Progress in grid interactive renewable power generation capacity, especially of wind-based power was broadly in line with the targets of the Eleventh Plan. However, actual renewable energy generation has been substantially lower. Wind-based power generation has suffered the most partly also because of the lack of evacuation infrastructure in the resource rich States and partly because of lack of enforcing mechanisms and incentives for operational performance of the wind turbines. Incentives such as Accelerated Depreciation have not yielded the desired results and the recommendation now is to enforce generation-based incentive. Achievement

Energy 185

TABLE 14.43 Eleventh Plan Power Capacity Addition through Grid Interactive Renewable Power Source Wind Small Hydro Biomass Power Waste to Energy Bagasse Cogeneration Solar Power Total Source: MNRE, GoI. Target (MW) 9,000 1,400 500 80 1,200 50 12,230 Actual (MW) as on 31st March ’2012 10,260.00 1,419.17 626.00 46.20 1,369.70 939.74 14,660.81

in capacity addition has been satisfactory for most sectors except in waste to power. The details of targets and achievements during the Eleventh Plan for grid interactive renewable power have been given in Table 14.43. 14.190. Solar and wind sectors have been facing following key challenges: 1. Globally, development of storage technologies has not been in line with the technology developments in wind and solar, due to which capacity utilisation of grid connected solar and wind has been relatively poor.
14 12
` Crore per MW

2. Though most of the States have come up with the RPO obligation, proper enforcement and monitoring is an issue. 14.191. Although private investments in wind power have increased, technological improvements and economies of scale have not reduced the costs in the industry. On the contrary, the cost per MW of wind power has increased from `4.3 crore/MW in FY 2003–04 to `5.7 crore/MW in FY 2010–11 (Figure 14.3). Rising land acquisition costs and turnkey project approach has resulted in the increase of project cost. Small hydro power, in spite of using mature and indigenous technology, has witnessed


10 8 6 4 2 0 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 Solar 5.0 4.8 3.8 5.4 4.3 3.2 6 4.9 4 6.7 5 5.7 4.8 7.6

Wind energy Source: MNRE.

Biomass energy

Small hydro

FIGURE 14.3: Cost of Renewable Energy Technologies Per MW


Twelfth Five Year Plan

the same trend partly because of the rise in land costs and partly because of costs associated with delays for obtaining clearances for the sites where project development is difficult. 14.192. The cost of renewable power as against various sources of renewable energy is given in Table 14.44. The cost of wind power is already quite competitive. Solar power is much more expensive but costs are coming down. At the time of selection of the first batch in the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNUSM) the tariff for solar P.V. was `17.91 per Kwh and for solar thermal it was `15.31 per unit. In Batch II the tariff has come down to `8.77 per unit for solar P.V. Thus, although renewable power sources are significantly costlier than conventional power, the costs are clearly declining and over the next 5–10 years renewable energy may well be fully in line with the cost of new electricity capacity based on conventional energy sources if no subsidy is involved.
TABLE 14.44 Cost of Power for Various Renewable Energy Sources Source Estimated initial capital cost (` in crore/MW) 5.50–7.70 5.75 4.0–4.45 4.20 10.00–13.00 Estimated cost of electricity generation (Financial) (`/kWh) 3.54–4.88 3.73–5.96 5.12–5.83 4.61–5.73 10.39–12.46

generation. The issue of unwillingness of public sector banks to finance small scale off grid renewable based business models need to be addressed. The detailed overview of targets and achievements for the Eleventh Plan for off-grid renewable power has been given in Table 14.45.
TABLE 14.45 Power Capacity Addition through Off Grid Renewable Power Source Waste to Power (Urban + Industrial) Non-bag Cogen Gasifiers Acro-Gens/Hybrid Systems SPV Systems Total Source: MNRE. Target (MW) 58.00 255.00 67.00 1.75 20 401.75 Actual (MW) 85.15 336.59 63.23 1.14 46.64 532.75

Small Hydro Power Wind Power Biomass Power Bagasse Cogeneration Solar Power

Source: CERC (Terms and Conditions for Tariff Determination from Renewable Energy Sources) Regulations, 2012 dated 27 March 2012.

Off-Grid Renewable Power
14.193. Off-grid renewable sector has the advantage that it is potentially much more competitive with conventional power because it avoids the investment in transmission to remote locations. Off-grid renewable power has made progress during the Eleventh Plan, but lack of scalable business models and nonavailability of institutional finances have stalled the pace of its progress. Policy interventions are required to incentivise creation of financeable business models like rice husk gasifiers based electricity

14.194. Progress of the scheme for electrification of remote villages/hamlets through renewable generation has not been satisfactory. Only 57 per cent of the targeted villages have been electrified so far. Initially no target was fixed for the grid solar photovoltaic system during the Eleventh Plan. Under National Action Plan on Climate Change, Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched which aims to install 20GW solar power, 2 GW of off-grid Solar, 20 million sq. metre of solar thermal collector area and 20 million rural households to have solar lighting by 2022. Under off grid solar application scheme of Jawaharlal Nehru National solar Mission, a total target of 100 MW of solar photovoltaic system and power plants for sanctioning was fixed for 2010–11 and 2011–12. Against this the ministry sanctioned projects aggregating to 118.07 MWp. During the Eleventh Plan SPV systems of standalone power projects aggregating to 46.64 MWp capacity were installed against a target of 20 MWp. 14.195. Another thrust area for the Eleventh Plan was ‘optimizing energy plantations by raising plants on degraded forest and community land’. A detailed analysis for availability of wasteland in India was carried out based on the information available. IISc,

Energy 187

TABLE 14.46 Eleventh Plan Financial Allocations and Expenditure: MNRE (` in crores) Programme Component Grid-connected and Distributed Renewable Power Renewable Energy for Rural Applications Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Applications Research, Design and Development in Renewable Energy Supporting Programmes Total BE 1,779 910 216 481 682 4,068 Expenditure 1,839.82 910.95 147.28 340.33 559.98 3,798.36

Bangalore has estimated the waste land available in the country. Suitability of those areas for high yielding plantation and for Juliflora plantation has been estimated but policy models along with implementation guidelines to promote energy plantations have to be worked out. 14.196. The approved outlay for the Eleventh Plan for New and Renewable Energy programmes was `10,598.31 crore comprising of GBS of `4,068 crore and `6,530.13 crore of IEBR. The likely expenditure at the end of Eleventh Plan is `3,798.36 crore (Table 14.46).

by 2016–17. For this the corresponding renewable power requirement would be 132 BU or 52,000 MW considering the conservative average capacity utilisation factor of 30 per cent. The present installed capacity of renewable power is around 25,000 MW and, consequently, the renewable power capacity addition required for the Twelfth plan would be about 30,000 MW. The component wise break up of physical targets for the Twelfth Plan is given in Annexure 14.4. 14.199. For the Twelfth Five Year Plan, in addition to reorienting various existing policy initiatives, several new measures have been identified that are deemed essential to accelerate the pace of deployment of renewable energy in the country.

14.197. Renewable energy has to play an expanding role in achieving energy security and access in the years ahead. The areas on which attention should be focussed during the Twelfth Plan are: • Grid interactive and ff-Grid/Distributed Renewable Power • Renewable Energy for Rural Application • Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Applications • Research, Design and Development for New and Renewable Energy • Strengthening of Institutional Mechanism for enhanced deployment and creation of public awareness. 14.198. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) norms envisage that the share of renewable electricity in the electricity mix which was 7 per cent in 2011–12 should reach 12 per cent

Schemes Spilling from the Eleventh Plan
Grid Connected Renewable Power 14.200. A capacity addition of 30,000 MW of Grid connected renewable power is proposed of which 15,000 MW is envisaged to come from wind power, 10,000 MW from solar capacity and 5,000 MW from other types of renewable sources. Institutional mechanisms to accelerate adoption of Renewable Power by States in the form of RPOs are sought to be enforced by bringing in an amendment into the Electricity Act, 2003. Accelerated depreciation benefit for wind power projects will come to an end at the end of the Eleventh five year plan. Tariff for Solar power under JNNSM is expected to continue falling due to enhanced indigenisation and local manufacturing. Further, to ensure volumes GBI support will be continued in the Twelfth Five Year Plan. It is also


Twelfth Five Year Plan

proposed to restrict the upfront subsidy support for Small Hydro plants to 10 MW size of hydro plants from an existing size of 25 MW.
Off-Grid Distributed Renewable Power 14.201. An ambitious capacity addition target of 3,400 MW has been proposed, which is almost five times the targets of the Eleventh Plan for off-grid renewables. Cogeneration in non-bagasse industry is supposed to contribute maximum (2,000 MW) of the overall ambitious targets proposed by MNRE. 1,000 MW of off-grid solar capacity addition has been proposed in line with the targets of phase-2 of Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission. The financing for incentives for such projects would be sourced from a pool of funds originating out of National Clean Energy Fund, CSR activities and tax-free donations. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications for Cooking 14.202. The biogas technology has now reached a stage of becoming robust and mature enough for meeting cooking energy needs with additional advantages of meeting good organic fertiliser needs for sustaining crop yield and productivity and soil health. It is recommended to continue biogas and solar cooker program. Additionally solar cooking could be promoted under mid-day meal programme. Renewable Energy for Rural Electricity Access 14.203. Some of the existing models for providing off grid electrification have shown notable response. Consequently, models like Solar home lighting systems through banking system, entrepreneur based biomass gasifier models for providing electricity for lighting, and mini micro hydro systems would continue to be supported.

is at its peak precisely when demand is highest. However, that may not be the case with wind power. Effective utilisation of such power will require focused efforts towards balancing wind power with other power capacity which can be moderated to stabilise supply and also the development of efficient storage technologies. For this reason, special emphasis needs to be given on pumped water storage hydro plants. Central Government may consider providing assistance to the states for creating spinning reserve at the regional level by setting up of storage technologies. In the long term, other hybrid technology options such as gas with solar/wind, which are at a nascent stage, need to be developed. As the cost of power through conventional generation rise in the long term and technological developments in future increase the commercial viability of hybrid options, the cumulative financial benefits realised from using these options to meet peak demand requirements would outweigh the financial push provided to them in the present scenario.
Off Grid Solution for Industrial, Commercial and Buildings Applications 14.205. Existing scheme on solar water heaters will continue with a review of capital subsidy. Additionally green building programme and solar city initiative will be expanded to add new cities.

Major New Initiatives
14.206. The following are some of the new initiatives in the area of renewable energy: 1. National Institute of Solar Energy: The existing Solar Energy Centre would be converted into an autonomous institution for undertaking applied research, demonstration and development in solar energy including solar hybrid areas. 2. National Bioenergy Corporation of India: National Bio Energy Corporation of India (NBECI) will be set up to implement bioenergy mission including cook stove programme. 3. Renewable Energy Development Fund: In order to address the financing constraints for the grid connected as well as the off-grid applications of renewables, it is proposed to create a Renewable Energy Development fund. The fund will plug the gap between the sector financing needs and

14.204. Renewable energy has to be seen as a complementary option to the current conventional power generation and it has special characteristics in terms of variability in availability. Solar power is available only during the day and the availability of wind power varies depending upon the time of the year and also intra-day depending on wind conditions. These characteristics imply some special efforts at balancing with other sources to ensure a reliable supply to the grid. Fortunately solar power

Energy 189

the amount that falls short of the banks’ obligations to their lending to this priority sector. 4. National Bioenergy Mission: Biomass energy for electricity generation has turned out to be one of the most attractive source of power which is scalable, has the largest potential for improving energy access and which can be linked to generating additional rural income. In view of the success of such biomass-based off-grid renewable models in rural areas of Bihar, it is proposed to launch the Biomass Mission with an objective to create a policy framework for attracting investment and to facilitate rapid development of commercial biomass energy market based on utilisation of surplus agro-residues and development of energy plantations. 5. Renewable Power Evacuation Infrastructure: Special emphasis will be placed on creating evacuation infrastructure and transmission facilities for renewable power in a time-bound manner to support the large expansion in consumption and production of renewable power. Judicious planning of transmission system, that is, creating pooling substation for cluster of renewable power generators and connecting them with receiving station of STU/CTU at appropriate voltage level, will lead to optimal utilisation of transmission system. 6. National Biomass Cook Stove Programme: The proposed initiative plans to universalise access of improved biomass cook stoves by providing assistance in exploring a range of technology deployments, biomass processing and delivery models leveraging public-private partnerships.

14.208. To ensure lowest cost procurement of renewable energy, particularly wind and solar power should be through an open competitive bidding process. This has proved successful and in line with the ultimate objective of reaching grid parity earlier. This is particularly true of solar, which is at present costly, however it is expected to achieve grid parity in the Thirteenth Plan period in conjunction with the objectives of JNNSM. The competitive bidding process adopted for selection of projects has already resulted in significant reductions in base tariffs notified by CERC. The tariff for solar energy is expected to continue falling due to technological development and focus on indigenisation and local manufacturing for future projects, thus paving way to grid parity in due course of time. 14.209. There is a need to create a special sectoral exposure limit for the renewable energy sector by the banks. Additionally, creation of special instruments like tax-free RE bonds on the line of infrastructure bonds would facilitate low cost and long term lending to the renewable sector. Priority-sector status may also be granted to the renewable sector in view of the social and environmental benefits of the projects. This will act as a major policy push for the offgrid applications, which face maximum barriers in receiving low cost finances. 14.210. India’s strategic focus would need to be augmenting of decentralised renewable energy capacity in the rural areas where it is having large social impact. Off-grid renewable energy applications have significant potential of reducing furnace oil/ diesel/kerosene consumption in the country and can significantly contribute to oil import substitution. A cluster based approach for village electrification needs to be adopted. Under this approach, tariff-based bidding mechanism for such clusters inviting participation from business models would bring down the tariff by a significant amount. The difference that the consumers in the clusters are willing to pay and tariff discovered through the bidding mechanism can be financed through annual viability gap funding. The choice of technology can be left to the entrepreneurs, which would

Policy Approach
14.207. The logic of subsidising new initiatives is that once they gain criticality of mass in terms of manufacturing capacity they should be able to survive without receiving any subsidy or fiscal incentives from the government. In keeping with this approach the objective should be to move away to the extent possible from capital subsidies and fiscal incentives to performance based incentives. Attaining the proposed higher deployment levels for wind energy, GBI support will require to be continued during the Twelfth Plan period.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

encourage entrepreneurs to constantly innovate their products and services to bring down the cost of producing electricity. Such projects would also be encouraged in the areas with grid availability but with lack of reliable supply so that power can be fed into the grid when the grid is energised and can be supplied to households when the grid is down. However, proper regulatory framework needs to be developed which can be adopted at state level, and has clear cut guidelines on monitoring, evaluation, multi-year operation and maintenance and ensures grid compatibility for such projects. Moreover, a sufficient financing mechanism for meeting out the viability gap requirement and an institutional mechanism to create an ecosystem for deployment of such projects needs to be put into place. 14.211. India is the second largest wind turbine manufacturer next to China. The installed manufacturing capacity in India ranges around 6,000 MW per year, with large export potential. The manufacturing base for wind turbines and its components has expanded to 16 manufacturers with 43 models of varying technologies and capacities. Till the year 2000, most of the machines were of 500 kW or lower capacity. Today, there are about 14 models from 5 different manufacturers of capacity 2 MW and above, the largest capacity being 2.5 MW. Larger machines have resulted in a steady increase

in the Capacity Utilisation Factor (CUF) from 10 per cent–12 per cent in 1998 to 22 per cent–25 per cent in 2012. Technology is moving towards better aerodynamic design, use of lighter blades, direct drives, permanent magnet technology, and variable speed gearless operation using advanced power electronics. The health monitoring of wind turbines is now computer-controlled and on realtime basis. 14.212. Improvements in wind turbine technology and its installations at higher hub heights are working towards induction of higher capacity turbines. At the higher hub heights, wind potential is estimated to be substantially higher compared to the normal wind turbines at 40–60 metres hub heights. It is estimated that average capacity factor in USA has grown by about 25–30 per cent over the last decade. Even in India, the low capacity, older machines at highly favourable locations, need to be replaced by newer, and high capacity ones. Higher hub heights will enhance wind energy outputs, and will also be cost efficient.

14.213. The indicative Twelfth Five Year Plan outlay for the various Ministries/Department in the energy sector is given in the Table 14.47 below:

TABLE 14.47 Indicative Twelfth Five Year Plan Outlay for the various Ministries/Departments in the Energy Sector Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the Ministry/Department GBS Ministry of Power Ministry of Coal Ministry of Petroleum and NG Ministry of Renewable Sources of Energy Sub-Total 1-4 Department of Atomic Energy (Power, Industry and Minerals Sectors) R&D Sub-Total DAE TOTAL (Energy) 21,737 19,878 41,615 1,24,771 65,572 10,10,764 1,07,187 11,35,535 54,279 4,617 5,147 19,113 83,156 Twelfth Plan (2012–17) Projections IEBR 3,86,517 1,08,244 4,36,541 13,890 9,45,192 Total Outlay 4,40,796 1,12,861 4,41,688 33,003 10,28,348

Energy 191

Eleventh Plan Physical Progress of RGGVY Projects under Implementation Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 State/UT Name (Number of Districts) Andhra Pradesh (22) Arunachal Pradesh (16) Assam (23) Bihar (38) Chhattisgarh (14) Gujarat (25) Haryana (18) Himachal Pradesh (12) Jammu & Kashmir (14) Jharkhand (22) Karnataka (25) Kerala (7) Madhya Pradesh (32) Maharashtra (34) Manipur (9) Meghalaya (7) Mizoram (8) Nagaland (11) Orissa (30) Punjab (17) Rajasthan (33) Sikkim (4) Tamil Naidu (26) Tripura (4) Uttar Pradesh (65) Uttarakhand (13) West Bengal (17) Total (546) Electrification of Un/De-Electrified Villages (Achievement) 0 1,313 7,829 22,029 857 0 0 78 148 1,7905 61 0 504 0 616 1,172 89 79 14,226 0 3,999 25 0 127 27,759 1,511 4,169 1,04,496 Intensive Electrification of Electrified Villages (Achievement) 25,562 825 11,672 4,267 10,512 14,457 2,744 1,059 2,380 5,505 24,575 37 17,942 32,528 401 1,537 338 725 21,207 0 29,083 375 9,992 463 2,982 9,028 18,357 2,48,553 No. of Connections to BPL Households (Achievement) 27,02,273 21,646 8,07,290 21,49,834 9,15,407 8,02,818 1,94,442 10,078 44,014 12,72,755 8,34,196 17,238 7,17,394 11,60,732 28,814 62,768 14,743 28,514 27,48,137 53,925 10,43,522 9,366 5,02,956 80,986 10,44,494 2,30,558 19,26,383 1,94,25,283

Sectoral Coal Demand/Off-take for Annual Plan 2012–13 (In Million Tonnes) 2006–07 Actual 17.37 17.88 35.17 39.02 37.66 39.39 40.00 46.67 22.03 21.08 23.47 23.20 29.44 16.99 16.58 15.92 16.80 17.23 16.05 30.62 46.67 Actual Actual. Actual Actuals BE Provi. 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 BE 22.00 30.00 52.30 31.70 35.50 67.20 2016–17

Sl. No.



Coking Coal

Steel/Coke Oven (indigenous)



Sub-Total Coking:

II 307.92 19.74 17.47 2.96 51.49 57.50 72.54 77.18 2.94 3.09 2.63 20.92 19.78 22.89 21.27 20.09 20.80 25.98 28.80 85.00 332.40 362.08 380.13 405.00

Non Coking 460.00 28.89 30.47 90.00 412.00 28.89 30.47 81.97 512.00 30.24 35.30 100.00 682.08 47.31 50.33 77.22


(i) Power Utilities (Gen. Req.)




Steel DRI




LTC/Soft Coke*

9 28.13 0.99 428.70 463.87 3.25 504.29 3.18 465.27 0.93 29.31 32.94 0.85 511.37 549.03 2.61

Cokeries/Coke oven (NLW)* 38.47 0.76 542.86 582.25 2.21 584.78 624.78 649.36 696.03 40.00 40.00 40.00 0.73 593.33 640.00 720.54 772.84 913.30 980.50 43.00 56.36


BRK and Others


Captive Power



Sub Total Non-Coking:

Grand Total(I + II): including middlings


Note: (i) *Included in BRK and Others.

Annual Plan 2012–13—Company-wise Production—Ministry of Coal 2006–07 Actual 30.47 24.21 41.32 52.16 43.21 88.50 80.00 1.05 360.92 37.71 1.77 7.04 17.61 5.79 430.84 457.00 492.76 6.54 5.49 5.77 533.00 21.17 29.87 35.03 7.21 7.28 7.21 2.02 1.84 3.30 40.60 44.54 50.43 51.33 1.81 7.03 34.60 6.97 533.06 379.46 403.74 431.26 431.32 1.10 1.01 1.11 1.06 88.01 96.34 104.08 100.28 93.79 101.15 108.01 112.71 112.00 106.00 1.00 447.00 51.00 3.55 8.40 38.25 5.80 554.00 540.00 575.00 795.00 17.75 36.15 39.80 100.00 43.51 44.70 45.74 43.65 45.50 59.62 63.65 67.67 66.25 68.50 44.15 43.24 47.08 47.52 51.00 25.22 25.51 27.51 29.04 30.00 30.20 49.00 64.50 43.80 113.75 103.00 0.75 436.00 51.00 24.06 28.14 30.06 30.81 33.00 31.00 Actual Actual Actual Actual Target Provi. 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 Target 33.00 31.00 55.00 70.00 45.00 117.00 112.00 1.10 464.10 53.10 18.00 2016–17 Target 45.00 37.00 92.00 82.00 45.00 145.00 167.00 2.00 615.00 57.00 23.00












Other Public Sector




Grand Total


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Physical Targets of Renewable Programme for the Twelfth Plan Programme 1. Grid-interactive Renewable Power(MW) Grid Interactive Solar Grid Connected Wind Other Renewable Sources Off-grid/Distributed Renewable Power (MWe) Cogeneration from bagasse Solar Off-Grid Applications Waste to Energy Bio Gas Based Decentralised Power Others (Biomass Gasifiers, Micro-hydel) Renewables for Rural applications (Cooking) Biogas Plants (million) National Biomass Cook stoves Programme (million) Solar Cookers (Box type + Dish type) Solar Cooking in schools for mid-day scheme (Schools in lakhs) Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Applications Solar Water Heating Systems (million sq.m of collector area) Solar Air Heating System (sq m.) CST based systems for community cooking (sq.m.) CST based system for air-conditioning (125 systems, 30TR) CST based systems for process heat (225 systems, 250 sq.m. area each) Solar Cities New Solar Cities in addition to existing target of 60 cities and pending liabilities. Model and Pilot Solar Cities. Green Townships. Tourist/Religious/ Important Places Alternate Fuel Vehicles (in numbers) Power Generation from Hydrogen Stationery Power Generation (KW) Hydrogen/H-CNG Stations (nos) Demonstration projects for Hydrogen/H-CNG vehicles Power Generation from Fuel Cell Stationery Power Generation (KW) Back- up units for telecom towers (MW/nos) Fuel cell Vehicles Proposed Twelfth Plan Targets 30,000 10,000 15,000 5,000 3,400 2,000 1,000 200 50 150 0.7 3.5 3.5 5.0 6 50,000 40,000 37,000 53,750 15 25 150 100 2,75,000 4,000 10 500 10.0 10/2,000 100





6. 7.


Source: MNRE.

INTRODUCTION Issues and Challenges
15.1. India’s transport sector is grossly overstretched. The pace of economic development after the economic reforms has imposed a heavy burden on this sector. To meet the requirements of the economy during the Twelfth Plan it will have to address several challenges. 15.2. First, capacity needs are expected to double every decade in the medium term. It will consequently require large step-up in investments for capacity creation. The congestion and shortage of capacity is exhibited in all transport sectors. The National Highway network and the rail links along the North-South East-West corridors have very high traffic. In spite of expansion of ports capacity to more than a billion metric tonne by the end of the Eleventh Plan, a number of major ports have very high dwell time and are running at more than 90 per cent capacity. Of India’s National Highways, less than one-third are two- or four-lane and a very large length of these are not able to support the 10.2 tonne permissible load per axle trucks are allowed to carry. While airport capacities have expanded significantly and kept pace with passenger demand, there is a need to expand the freight capacities to meet the growing requirements of the economy. Transportation of key commodities such as coal, iron ore, iron and steel and POL put heavy demands on transport system. Over the next 20 years, the demand for transport (both domestic and import) of these commodities could well increase by a factor of four to six which would require investment in rail capacity and other modes. Apart from transport, there is severe lack of capacity in the allied activity of warehousing. 15.3. Second, the transport efficiency is low. The cost of rail and coastal shipping in the country is higher than many economies. Even the road costs and transit time across different modes are large. Partly, it is because the average speeds of movement of all the modes: Rail, Road, Coastal Ships is lower than those in more efficient economies. The average speed of freight trains is 25 km per hour which is nearly half that of the U.S. The other nature of inefficiencies relate to poor handling equipments at the ports, inadequate rail infrastructure, absence of modern technologies in several areas and high handling costs resulting from a variety of factors including thefts. 15.4. Third, there is an important distortion in the overall transport movement of goods. A study conducted by RITES indicates that there is a discernible gap between the way in which the traffic is actually moving today and the way in which it should move. A comparative assessment of the impact arising out of the two different scenarios of modal mix, that is, Actual and Optimal (applying break-even distances based on resource cost) on the transport system during the base year (2007–08) in terms of flows, cost and throughput reveals that there is a significant scope for modal switch from Road to Rail in the case of miscellaneous/other commodities up to the extent of 78 per cent.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

15.5. The country transports nearly 57 per cent of the total goods by road, as compared to 22 per cent in China and 37 per cent in the U.S. In contrast, the share of rail is only 36 per cent compared to 48 per cent for the U.S. and 47 per cent for China. Despite the fact that a large part of India’s freight traffic comprises bulk materials and moves over long distances that can be served efficiently by rail and waterways, the share of shipping through waterways is nearly 6 per cent as compared to 14 per cent in U.S and 30 per cent in China. This is imposing high cost on the economy by way of much higher dependence on fossil fuels and high level of green house gas emissions. On the basis of mode-wise share of originating loadings in 2007–08, the indicative CO2 emissions from the major modes are given in Table 15.1.
TABLE 15.1 CO2 Emissions from Various Transport Modes Freight Transport (gm/tkm) Road Rail Shipping 160 29 31 Rail Airways Passenger Transport (gm/pkm) Passenger Cars 175 75 229

States of Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir, the network, particularly in the Hilly areas, is nonexistent. These areas require extensive road and rail network for their integration with the markets. 15.8. Fifth, safety is a major area of concern especially in the road transport. Over 1.3 lakh people are known to die annually in road accidents alone and their number is rising. This is about 10 per cent of the world figure, though India’s share in number of vehicles in the world is only 1 per cent. The World Health Organisation has forecasted road traffic injuries to rise and become the fifth leading cause of death by 2030. Safety levels in railways are also in need of urgent improvement. 15.9. Sixth, there is a near absence of an integrated regulatory regime for overseeing tariff setting, cost of operations, anti-competitive practices and accountability to consumers. There is a division of power between the Central Government and the State Governments. Some areas are reserved exclusively for Central Governance, while there are a few sectors that are subject to joint governance. An examination of the existing laws, policies and regulations indicate that they are a result of an ad hoc approach, which is exacerbated by the overlapping power of the Central and State Governments. The regulatory framework in different sectors has been developed without proper coordination among the sectors. Sometimes only a set of laws and/or policies govern a particular sector without a regulatory body to oversee the development and operations. The absence of a sectoral authority in the transport sector as a whole has led to fragmented and ineffective centres of governance.

15.6. On environmental considerations, hence, there is a need to encourage rail and shipping. Added to this is the lower cost of accidents associated with rail transport compared with road. 15.7. Fourth, there is a need to provide transport access to large unserved areas of the country. A number of States in the North-East have very little rail network. A number of airstrips in the NE region are not in use. While there have been efforts to expand the airlines network and the number of flights to the North East Region, its intra-regional connectivity is still low. A programme for development of roads in the northeast including Trans-Arunachal Highway has been taken up to improve road connectivity. It requires large financial and physical resources and management expertise to complete the projected network. Similarly, the expansion of rail network in the North East and several other parts of the country has been limited in the last six decades. Large areas of Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan have no access to rail network. In the Himalayan

15.10. The challenges in the transport sector need to be addressed in a comprehensive manner with a set of policies, laws and regulations. This requires transport reforms. Some of the major initiatives required are mentioned below. 15.11. First, a more integrated approach is required to be taken of transport as a whole. Our vision for transport should be guided by a modal mix that will lead to an efficient, sustainable, economical, safe,

Transport 197

reliable, environmentally friendly and regionally balanced transportation system. Choices will need to be made on the priorities to be placed on different investments. Decisions on road expressways, dedicated rail freight corridors (DFCs), high speed trains and movement through inland waterways or coastal shipping must be taken holistically so that the objective of speed and efficient energy usage is achieved. Policy decisions should be based on life cycle energy costs of different transport modes. 15.12. While, pursuing the above objectives, two important initiatives could be taken: 1. Transportation by containerisation would need rapid expansion. While a number of initiatives in this regard have been taken earlier, the share of container transport is still low. Considering the international experience, major efforts are required to expand container traffic including expansion of the network of dry prots (ICDs). 2. Intermodal connectivity to be given thrust during the Twelfth Plan, by developing India’s Inland Waterways which totals about 14,500 kilometers in length along with coastal shipping. Strategies, such as setting up coastal terminals at major ports, providing adequate road and rail connectivity to inland water and coastal terminals and non-major coastal ports, lowering the manning scales and vehicle specifications for coastal ships and other measures would be taken during the Twelfth Plan. 15.13. Second, the sector requires large increase in investments. Larger and focused investments will be able to address the two key issues of rapid increase in capacity and improvement in efficiency of infrastructure. The Interim Report of the National Transport Development Policy Committee (NTDPC) has strongly focused on need for capacity expansion of the railways over the next 20 years. All projections for the growth in demand for both freight and long distance passenger services suggest that overall economic growth could be stymied if appropriate strategic choices are not made now to facilitate significant capacity expansion of the railways, as has been done in China over the past decade or so. Such an

expansion will not take place in a business as usual scenario. If consistent economic growth of 7–10 per cent per annum is to be achieved over the next 20 years, there is a pressing need for unprecedented capacity expansion of the Railways for both freight and passenger traffic in a manner that has not taken place since independence. It is of utmost importance that a vision similar to that of NHDP is laid down for the Railways now so that we may expect a transformed railway network by 2030. 15.14. It is estimated that the infrastructure sector will need investment of one trillion dollars in the Twelfth Plan. Of this, major share will be in the transport sector. Given the limitation of public resource, private investments will have to be emphasised and expanded. A Public–Private Partnership (PPP) regime has already been put into operation in road sector very successfully. While in Ports, Airports, Railways and Inland Waterways, there have been efforts in private investments in varying degrees, there is a need to step up an investment particularly in the railways. There will be a special focus required for increased investment in the railways from public resources, as well for safety, modernisation and expansion. It is estimated that the share of private investments, of the total infrastructure investments in the economy was nearly 40 per cent by the end of the Eleventh Plan, the rest being public investments. This needs to be increased to 50 per cent to 60 per cent during the Plan. 15.15. Third, transport reforms are needed in pricing and fiscal areas. In several sectors, the transport pricing policies are unsustainable. The Railways have not revised their passenger tariffs for several years, despite sharp increase in fuel prices and other operating costs. They are further making investments in uneconomic lines, despite lack of resources. This thin spreading of the financial resources has delayed completion of viable projects and thus, led to further deterioration of their finances. There is an urgent need to undertake a review of projects and prioritise them as well as to abandon or not to commence work on the many unremunerative projects which have not made substantial progress till now. Similarly, the taxation policies on aviation fuel have led to uneconomic


Twelfth Five Year Plan

operations of the airlines. For coastal shipping lines, similarly, benefits as available in other major economies to the coastal shipping lines need to be provided. 15.16. Fourth, transport safety has been a neglected area in the past and credible institutional framework to address these issues at Centre, States and city level is required. The entire transport system must be designed to accommodate the individual who has the worst protection and lowest tolerance of violence. The Twelfth Plan period would be used to setting appropriate institutional structures that create a demand for scientific work in safety issues; have proper legislation and regulation; monitoring and measurement by setting up national databases of relevant information to monitor and assess various aspects of safety policies, technologies and knowledge needs. The National Transport Policy Development Committee (NTDPC) has recommended setting up institutes for road, railway, water and air safety to ensure the safety professionals are abreast of international knowledge and findings as well as provision for funding and establishment of multidisciplinary safety research centres at academic institutions. It has also recommended establishing National Boards for Road, Railway, Water/Marine and Air Safety. There is a strong need to put into action the recommendations of the Sundar Committee on Roads and the Kakodkar Committee on Railways. 15.17. Fifth, transport access is critical for inclusive growth, economic development, access to markets and participation in the political process. Development of rural roads, expansion of rail infrastructure in large unserved areas will, therefore, need special emphasis during the Twelfth Plan. Every minute a woman dies in child birth, but many of these deaths could be avoided with timely access to transport. Gender responsive infrastructure interventions can free up women’s time by lowering their transaction costs. This, in turn, will increase girls’ school enrollment and facilitate women’s participation in income generation and decision making activities. 15.18. Social inclusion requires that needs of the differently abled are kept in mind while developing the economy. It will be, therefore, important that

the transport sector makes special arrangements for their needs, so that they are able to access it conveniently and thus fully participate in our social and economic process and contribute to it. 15.19. Sixth, human resource development would be a key factor in achieving the objective of creating a well-developed and efficient transport system in the country. The NTPDC report has pointed to a severe lack of expertise in the country in almost every sphere of transportation which makes it necessary for a quantum jump in capacity augmentation for all modes. The quantitative improvements to infrastructure need to be made in the context of more qualitative considerations of safety, emissions, energy efficiency, climate change impact and social equity. The Committee has recommended setting up national institutes for research and statistics, multidisciplinary research institutions, State and city level institutions and centres of excellence in existing academic institutions. These suggestions will need to be implemented during the Plan. 15.20. Seventh, connectivity of the North-East, both within the region and with the far eastern region, including Myanmar, Bangladesh and Thailand, would be one of the focus areas for economic development of the region and expanding economic activities including trade and commerce. Inland Water Transport connectivity with Bangladesh will need to be specially emphasised. Simultaneously, connectivity of the North East region through rail, road, air with the neighboring countries and its rapid expansion within the region would also need special focus during the Plan.

15.21. Indian Railways is the fourth largest railway network in the world in terms of route kilometers. As on 31 March 2011, it has a total route length of 64,460 km of which 21,034 km is electrified. The total track length is 1,13,994 km of which 1,02,680 km is broad gauge, 8,561 km is meter gauge and 2,753 km is narrow gauge. Considering the requirements of the economy and size of the country, the expansion of the railway network has been inadequate. Indian Railways have added 11,864 km of new lines since independence.

Transport 199

It has not been able to cover major areas in many states and has very little presence in the North-East States and the Himalayan region. However, during the same period the length of broad gauge route kilometer has been doubled from 25,258 km to 55,188 km through new lines as well as gauge conversion of 21,658 km from meter and narrow gauges to broad gauge. Gauge Conversion has been instrumental in adding capacity in the system despite a relatively low addition of new lines. The network needs extensive modernisation, increase of speeds, improvement in safety and modernisation of rolling stock to meet the needs of a rapidly growing economy.

Review of the Eleventh Plan
Financial Performance 15.22. The Eleventh Plan period has seen steady deterioration in Railway’s financial position (Table 15.2) which is in sharp contrast with the Tenth Plan performance when the Railways had achieved a remarkable turnaround in financial performance. The Revenue (gross traffic receipts) have gone up by 7.7 per cent (CAGR) during the period 2007–08 to 2011–12 whereas the Total Working Expenses has gone up by 12.6 per cent (CAGR) during the same

period leading to decline in the net revenue which has shown a negative growth rate of –17.9 per cent (CAGR) during the above period. After accounting for dividend, the net excess has reduced from `13,431 crore in the first year of the Plan to only `1,201 crore in the terminal year of the Plan. In 2009–10, the balance had reduced to a token figure of less than a crore. One of the major reasons for increase in the working expenses during the Eleventh Plan period has been the increase in wage bills by nearly `73,000 crore due to the implementation of the Sixth Pay Commission. However, in the first year of the Twelfth Plan (2012–13) Indian Railways have targeted a revenue surplus of `15,557 crore and operating ratio of 85 per cent.
Investments in Eleventh Plan 15.23. Lack of surplus has impacted the capacity to generate resources for investment in the system (Table 15.3).

15.24. During the Eleventh Plan period (2007–12), the Ministry of Railways had an investment target of `2,33,289 crores comprising of `63,635 crore as GBS, `90,000 crore as internal generation and `79,654 crore as Extra Budgetary Resources (EBR) through

TABLE 15.2 Overview of Financial Position of the Indian Railways (in ` Crores at current prices) Sl. Description No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Gross Traffic Receipts Net Ordinary Working Expenses Appropriation to Pension Fund Appropriation to Depreciation Reserve Fund Total Working Expenses Net Revenue Total Dividend Payable Excess/Shortfall Operating Ratio (per cent) Ratio of Net Revenue to capital at charge and investment from capital fund (per cent) Terminal Year of Tenth 2006–07 62,731 37,432 7,416 4,198 49,047 14,453 4,247 10,206 78.7 19.0 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011-12 (RE) 1,03,917 75,650 16,800 6,160 98,610 7,144 5,652 1,492 95 4.43 Twelfth 2012–13 (BE) 1,32,552 84,400 18,500 9,500 1,12,400 22,233 6,676 15,557 85 12.10

71,720 41,033 7,979 5,450 54,462 18,334 4,903 13,431 75.9 20.71

79,862 54,349 10,490 7,000 71,839 9,714 4,718 4,456.78 90.50 8.80

86,964 65,810 14,918 2,187 82,195 5,544 5,543 0.75 95.30 4.51

94,536 68,139 15,820 5,515 89,474 6,346 4,941 1,405 94.60 4.40

Source: Explanatory Memorandum to the Railway Budget for Various Years.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 15.3 Investment in Railways during Eleventh Plan (In ` Crore at current prices) Eleventh Plan Gross Budgetary Support Internal Generation Extra Budgetary Resources Total Approved Outlay 63,635* 27.3 % 90,000 38.6 % 79,654 34.1 % 2,33,289 2007–08 8,668 29.9 % 14,948 51.6 % 5,364 18.5 % 28,980 2008–09 10,110 27.8 % 18,941 52.1 % 7,284 20.0 % 36,336 2009–10 17,716 44.7 % 12,196 30.7 % 9,760 24.6 % 39,672 2010–11 19,485 47.9 % 11,528 28.3 % 9,680 23.8 % 40,693 2011–12 (RE) 21,060 45.3 % 9,091 19.4 % 16,316 35.1 % 46,467 Total for Eleventh Plan 77,039 40.1 % 66,704 34.7 % 48,404 25.2 % 1,92,147 Excess/ Shortfall 13,404 21.1 % (–)23,296 (–)25.9 % (–)31,250 (–)39.2 % 41,142 2012–13 (BE) 24,000 41.8 % 18,948 31.5 % 16,050 26.7 % 60,100

*Includes 13572 crore as additional budgetary support for national projects

market borrowings. The actual expenditure against this originally approved outlay for the Eleventh Plan period comes to `1,92,147 crore—comprising of GBS of `77,039 crore, internal generation of `66,704 crore and EBR of `48,404 crore. Thus there was a shortfall of `41,142 crore (17.6 per cent). The anticipated utilisation under GBS would be `77,039 crore against the projected outlay of `63,635 crore which is an increase of 21 per cent over the estimate whereas internal generation and EBR components were lower by 25.9 per cent and 39.2 per cent respectively. It is evident that the internal generation and borrowings have not kept pace with the investment requirement.
Physical Targets and Achievements 15.25. The Eleventh Plan targets and achievements for freight and passenger business are summarised in Tables 15.4 and 15.5. It will be seen from Table 15.4 that as against the original target of 1,100 MT for the terminal year of the Eleventh Plan, the actual achievement is 970 million tonnes which is 11.8 per cent lower than the original target and 5 per cent lower than the revised target of 1,020 MT. In NTKM terms, the achievement has been 639.77 billion which is 8.9 per cent lower than the original target of 702 billion and 5.1 per cent lower than the revised target of 674 billion. In terms of growth rates of traffic, as against the projected growth in originating freight traffic of 8.6 per cent, the actual growth was only 5.8 per cent (CAGR) and in NTKM terms, it was 6.1 per cent as against a target of 7.8 per cent. The performance in NTKM is better because of marginal increase in lead.

Growth rate of freight traffic is lower than the growth rate in GDP during this period. This was contributed by a sharp drop in exports of iron ore, problems in mining of iron ore leading to inadequate domestic movement and poor growth in coal movement due to slowdown in coal production, particularly in the last two years of the Plan. The freight basket of railways needs diversification to include manufactured goods through containerisation so that slow down in the core sector of the economy (coal, steel and so on) can be compensated.
Passenger Business 15.26. The originating passenger traffic achieved in the terminal year of the Eleventh Plan is 8,139 million which is 3.2 per cent lower than the original Eleventh Plan target of 8,400 million but 0.75 per cent higher than the revised target of the Eleventh Plan. In terms of growth rates, against the targeted CAGR of 6.2 per cent, originating passenger traffic grew at the rate of 5.5 per cent (Table 15.5). In terms of Passenger Kilometers (PKM), the volume achieved is 1,062 billion which is higher than the original target but lower than the revised target. The CAGR of PKM was 8.8 per cent which was much higher than the original target of 5.9 per cent. This indicated a very significant expansion due to higher leads of non-suburban traffic. It increased from 215.5 km in year 2006–07 to 229.3 km in year 2008–09 and has maintained the higher level. Railways are making large revenue losses in passenger traffic both in suburban as well as non-suburban segments (Table 15.6). Non-revision

Transport 201

TABLE 15.4 Performance of Freight Business during Eleventh Five Year Plan Item Tenth Plan Actuals in Terminal Year 2006–07 728.4 Eleventh Plan Targets for Terminal Year 2011–12 1 100 Eleventh Plan 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 Revised Targets in Mid-Term Review for Terminal Year 2011–12 1 020 794.21 833.31 887.99 921.5 970 CAGR

Originating Tonnage (Million Tonnes) Growth ( %) NTKM (Billion) Growth (%)

8.6 475 702 7.8

7 674 7

9.03 511.8 7.7

4.92 538.23 5.16

6.56 584.76 8.65

3.77 605.99 3.63

5.26 639.77 8.67

5.8 6.1

of tariff for several years has led to poor financial health of this segment.
Infrastructure Capacity Creation—Targets and Achievements 15.27. The Eleventh Plan attempted a paradigm shift from the earlier incremental approaches to one of significant infrastructure capacity addition to handle the quantum increase in traffic levels and to sustain mobility on the network by setting ambitious targets as compared to the performance during the Tenth Plan. The targets in respect of new lines and electrification have been exceeded (Table 15.7). However, in respect of doubling of lines which is a major

component for improving Railways’ capacity, there has been a shortfall as compared to original targets and in case of gauge conversion there has been a shortfall as compared to the revised targets.
Throw-Forward of Infrastructure Projects 15.28. One of the major problems in the Railways has been excessive sanctioning of new projects annually, much beyond the resources available which only increases the throw-forward (number of projects under implementation) (Table 15.8). There is an urgent need for a policy to limit the throw-forward to a certain proportion of their annual expenditure on these projects.

TABLE 15.5 Performance of Passenger Business during Eleventh Five Year Plan Item Tenth Plan Actuals in Terminal Year 2006–07 6,219 Eleventh Plan Targets for Terminal Year 2011–12 8,400 (CAGR = 6.2 %) 924 (CAGR = 5.9 %) Eleventh Plan Revised Targets in Mid-Term Review for Terminal Year 2011–12 8,200 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 CAGR

Originating Passengers (Million) Passenger KM (Billion)






5.5 %








8.8 %

TABLE 15.6 Losses in Passenger Services Year Losses (`crore) 2004–05 6,159.41 2005–06 6,022.66 2006–07 6,449.22 2007–08 7,067.67 2008–09 13,901.22 2009–10 18,960.67 2010–11 19,964.03


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 15.7 Capacity Creation during Eleventh Plan Item Tenth Plan Achievement (km) 920 4,289 1,300 1,810 Eleventh Plan Original Target (km) 2,000 10,000 6,000 3,500 Revised Target for Eleventh Plan during Mid Term Appraisal (km) 2,000 6,000 2,500 4,500 Eleventh Plan Achievement (km) 2,205 5,290 2,756 4,501 Improvement over Tenth Plan (%) 139.6 23.4 112 148.7

New Lines Gauge Conversion Doubling Railway Electrification

Rolling Stock Procurement and Production 15.29. During the Plan, acquisition of wagons has exceeded the target but fallen short in coaches while in diesel locomotives and electric locomotives the revised targets have been achieved. The performance, however, represents a large jump over the Tenth Plan achievements (Table 15.9).

during the first four years of the Eleventh Plan. The improvement in productivity during the Plan indicates increased congestion on the Railway track system. 15.33. The productivity of employees and of the network is important for assessing the operational efficiency. Table 15.11 gives an international comparison. It is clear that the network productivity of Indian network is good in passengers traffic. In terms of employees’ productivity in freight Indian Railways is 1/3rd that of China and about 1/4th that of Russia

15.30. The emphasis in the Eleventh Plan period has been on manufacturing high horse power electric and diesel locomotives, EMUs/MEMUs and Metro coaches based on GTO/IGBT technology.
Track Renewal 15.31. Arrears of track renewal have been brought down from 6,200 km in the beginning of the Eleventh Plan to 3,500 km at the end of the Eleventh Plan. Around 18,000 km of track renewals have been carried out in the Eleventh Plan period. Productivity 15.32. Table 15.10 gives an assessment of the performance of Railways and productivity improvements

Initiatives Taken During Eleventh Plan
Freight and Passenger Business 15.34. Railways have taken several initiatives during the Plan for expanding the share of freight traffic. These include introduction of freight marketing of select commodities by third parties, introduction of liberalised wagon investment schemes to attract private investment in special purpose and

TABLE 15.8 Throw Forward of Infrastructure Projects as on 1 April 2012 Infrastructure New Lines Gauge conversion Doubling Electrification DFC Project Total Number of Works in Progress 132 42 174 39 2 389 Length in km 14,212 9,880 9,015 4,700 3,338 41,145 Cost (` crore) 1,23,767 35,051 49,295 4,100 95,860 3,08,073 Throw Forward 1 April 2012 (` crore) 89,792 18,659 38,766 6,229 93,860 2,47,306

Transport 203

TABLE 15.9 Rolling Stock Performance during Eleventh Plan Item Tenth Plan Achievement 36,222 12,202 622 524 Eleventh Plan Original Target 62,000 22,500 1,800 1,800 Revised Target for Eleventh Plan during Mid Term Appraisal 62,000 19,863 1,019 1,205 Achievement in the Eleventh Plan 63,481 17,085 1,288 1,218 Improvement over Tenth Plan (%) 75 40 107 132

Wagons Coaches (including EMU/MEMU/DEMU Diesel Loco Electric Loco

Note: This includes acquisition, as well as, railways’ own production.

high capacity wagons, freight incentives policies including dynamic pricing concept and so on. On the passenger front, during the Eleventh Plan, 323 pairs of new trains have been introduced, services of 111 trains have been extended and frequency of 63 trains increased. 2,813 coaches have been added for expanding passenger carrying capacity. High capacity, air-conditioned double-decker coaches, low-priced, fast train services such as Garib Rath and facilities in trains services for ladies, students and marginalised groups have been introduced.

Traffic Facility Works, Strengthening of High Density Network (HDN), Augmentation of Terminal Capacity and Development of Logistics Parks 15.35. A substantial amount of traffic of Indian Railways moves on the route connecting four metropolitan cities—Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. These 7 main routes along with feeder routes totalling 17,383 Route km have been identified as high density network (HDN). A total of 124 works costing about `14,000 crore including doubling, third and fourth lines, bye passes, flyovers, crossing stations,

TABLE 15.10 Productivity Performance Productivity indicator Wagon Utilisation NTKM/VU/Day (Broad Gauge (BG) Wagon Km/Wagon/Day (BG) Wagon turnaround in days) (BG) Track Utilisation NTKM/route Km (million) Passenger Km/route Km (million) NTKM/Engine Day Online (goods-BG) Diesel Electric Human Resources Productivity NTKM/employee (million) PKM/employee (million) 0.34 0.49 0.37 0.55 0.39 0.60 0.44 0.66 0.47 0.73 2,68,410 3,61,543 2,64,137 3,84,981 2,70,912 4,25,329 2,85,008 4,43,386 3,02,245 4,53,960 9.67 13.47 10.19 14.63 10.43 15.53 11.07 16.35 11.34 17.36 3,238 230 5.49 3,539 248.9 5.23 8,687 253.7 5.19 9,022 256.2 4.98 9,247 262.1 4.97 Tenth Plan (2006–07) Eleventh Plan 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 15.11 Benchmarking Indian Railways with Chinese and Russian Railways Railways Employee Productivity (Annual) NTKM (million)/ Employee Russia China India Source: UIC Statistics 2009–10. 1.81 1.23 0.44 PKM (million)/ Employee 0.15 0.38 0.66 Network Productivity NTKM (million)/ Network Length 21.87 39.66 9.39 PKM (million)/ NetworkLength 1.80 12.38 14.12 Wagon Productivity (Annual) NTKM (million)/ Wagon holding 5.52 4.31 2.73

intermediate block stations, automatic signalling works, yard remodelling and so on were planned to augment capacity on the HDN. A total of 128 works for development and modernisation of freight terminals have been sanctioned since the year 2007–08 and are in progress at different locations.
Information Technology Initiatives 15.36. The Eleventh Plan emphasised the need to ‘use IT for improved customer services’. More than 5,071 locations have been provided with Unreserved Ticketing System (UTS). The Passenger Reservation System (PRS) is now available at more than 2,438 locations and is planned further to be expanded to facilitate the passengers to buy tickets closer to their homes and work places. Proliferation of e-ticketing has helped in reducing queue lengths at reservation offices. To facilitate dispersal of tickets, PRS counters have been provided at 151 Post Offices. Complete roll out of Rake Management System (RMS) module has enabled online monitoring of freight train operations and improved intra and inter-zonal coordination. Terminal management system has been introduced at 1,653 terminals. The e-payment facility is being availed by 440 freight customers and accounts for more than 40 per cent of freight earnings. Other IT initiatives undertaken to improve operational efficiency are Crew Management System, Control Office Application, e-Procurement and so on. Energy Management, Energy Efficiency and Measures to Improve Environmental Friendliness 15.37. Reduction in empty wagon movement by adopting a new maintenance regime of premium

examination and rationalisation of coaching links for increased maintenance intervention of 3,500 km (from the earlier limit of 2,500 km) are some of the important operational improvements. On fuel efficiency front, increased production of 3 phase electric locos with 14 per cent to 15 per cent energy regeneration feature during braking, fuel efficient 3 phase diesel locos with 10 per cent higher fuel efficiency than conventional locos and adoption of 3 phase EMUs regenerating about 25 per cent to 30 per cent of energy during braking are some of the important initiatives taken up during the Plan period. A 10.5 MW capacity wind farm has been commissioned to provide captive power to Integral Coach Factory at Chennai and more wind farms are planned in other states 2.6 million incandescent lamps are being replaced with CFLs in households to conserve energy. 15.38. For availing electric power at lower tariff, Indian Railways has set up a 1,000 MW power plant at Nabi Nagar through a JV with NTPC. It is expected to be operational by the beginning of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. This plant will supply 90 per cent of generated power to 164 substations of Indian Railways located in Eastern and Western regions and will result in a saving of `400–600 crores per year to the Railways due to lower tariffs. Another 1,000 MW captive power plant is being set up at Adra through a JV with NTPC. 15.39. To improve sanitation and to prevent discharge from toilets while the train is in Railway Station premises, speed actuated discharge toilets

Transport 205

have been provided in all LHB type coaches and a select number of ICF coaches. Field trials for biodegradable and environment friendly toilets (in collaboration with IIT/Kanpur and DRDO) are on. On successful completion of these trials toilets would be introduced in passenger coaches in a phased manner.

The Twelfth Plan
Strategies 15.40. The Twelfth Plan aims at faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth. This will require continued work in several areas and a change in strategy in others. The expanding requirements of the economy will need much faster expansion of the freight network along with its ability to carry larger freight per wagon, improve efficiency of the Rail system to deliver it faster and expand the network. There will also be need to improve the share of the Railways in the overall national freight market. With increasing incomes, passenger traffic will increase but plan for expansion must factor in the fact that demand will be for better quality services for which passengers will be willing to pay.

create matching terminal and handling capacity, and facilitate integration of rail with other modes of transportation. Enhancing project execution capabilities would be critical for speedy capacity creation and improved returns on investments. Along with new capacity addition, improving productivity of existing network and assets would also be crucial to increase transportation output. 15.43. It has to be clearly realised that the modernisation of Indian Railways cannot be achieved by simply relying on additional General Budgetary Support (GBS). Even the norms and methodology of GBS allotment should be clearly defined. There is a case for larger GBS but the requirements are so large that the Railways have to plan for much stronger revenue growth. Clear Strategies would need to be formulated and executed to identify segments where it can play low-cost strategy by playing on volumes, taking advantage of economies of scale and segments where it can play differentiation strategy by providing high quality services and command premium prices.
Physical Targets for the Twelfth Plan Freight Traffic Projections 15.44. Traffic projections for the Twelfth Plan are given in Table 15.12. It is targeted that during the Twelfth Plan, the rail share in freight should go up by at least 2 per cent. The targets for originating freight tonnage may need to be reviewed on an annual basis or during the mid-term review to ensure the target of 2 per cent increase in originating tonnage. Given that the level of traffic growth achieved in the last Plan has been 5.8 per cent for originating traffic and 6.1 per cent for NTKM, it will require a major increase in efforts and a conscious strategy to move the road traffic over to the rail. This is going to be a challenging task. Technological and Logistical Measures for Improving Freight Movement Efficiency 15.45. An important component of the strategy for increasing the freight movement efficiency will be introduction of new technologies aimed at

15.41. The rail network will have to develop a strategy to be part of an effective multi-modal transport system to ensure environmental-friendly and economically efficient transport movement. The Twelfth Plan will strive towards achieving a gender equal Railway Transport System designed to meet the needs of both men and women. Priority will be accorded to women’s safety and security. Simultaneously, the network will have to be expanded to other areas where so far there has been little presence, especially in the Himalayan region and some of the tribal areas. One of the most important components of this strategy will be stepping up private investments in the Railways. 15.42. Investment needs to be prioritised in the important areas, viz. Dedicated Freight Corridors, high capacity rolling stock, last mile rail linkages and port connectivity. Development of logistic parks would also need to be taken up on priority basis to


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 15.12 Traffic Projections Loading MT (million) CAGR NTKM (billion) CAGR Lead 665 664 690 737 2012–13 1,038 2013–14 1,119 2014–15 1,206 7.8 per cent 795 7.7 per cent 663 661 660 857 927 2015–16 1,300 2016–17 1,405

improving axle load of wagons, expansion of long haul, use of GPS and RFID technology for tracking purposes and technological innovations to improve efficiency of operations. 1. Proliferation of 25 tonnes axle load running: Along with this, feasibility of 30 tonnes axle load running and induction of 30 tonnes axle load wagon needs to be planned. 2. Raising the current axle load regime from 22.82 tonnes to 23.5 tonnes on selected routes: It is observed that 98 per cent of Indian Railways loading comes within a gross weight of wagons being equivalent to 94 tonnes which translates to 23.5 tonnes of axle load. The new BOXNHL wagons primarily designed for coal have sufficient volumetric capacities for loading additional 2 tonnes of coal. 3. Expansion of Long Haul 4. Use of GPS technology and RFID technology for tracking purposes and use of Distributed Power Systems. 4. There is also a need to create multimodal logistics parks to reduce the cost of interfacing and costs of intermodal transfer and overall production. Logistics parks are network hubs, critical for efficient multimodal transport as they allow transshipment between modes and consolidation of freight. Earmarking land for logistics parks at about 15 to 20 key interchange points around major key urban and industrial centres, ideally on the proposed rail Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) routes; and providing infrastructure such as power, utilities, road/DFC linkages and rail sidings. 5. Containerisation would be a major strategy to gain share of the freight market (Box 15.1).

Passenger Traffic Projections 15.46. The CAGR of passenger traffic during the Eleventh Plan has averaged around 5.5 per cent. The number of passengers travelling annually will thus increase from 8.9 billion in the first year of the Plan to 11.7 billion by the end of the Plan (Table 15.13). The projections for Passenger Kilometers have also been made based on past trends (Table 15.14). The growth in PKM is expected to be 10.8 per cent per annum with an increase to 1,760.4 billion PKM (2016–17) from 1,195 billion PKM (2012–13). Measures to Upgrade Quality of Passenger Services 15.47. To meet the requirements of passenger services a number of steps are planned in the Twelfth Plan. Some of the important areas proposed to be taken up are mentioned below:

1. Enhancing accommodation in trains: Augmenting the load of existing services with popular timings and on popular routes to 24/26 coaches would help generating additional capacity and availability of additional berths/seats for the traveling public. 2. Enhancing speed of trains: At present, speed of Mail/Express trains is below 55 kmph. Segregation of freight and passenger traffic, enhancing the sectional speeds, and rationalisation of stoppages are important measures for speed enhancement. The speed of passenger trains is quite low at present primarily because of the coaching stock in use and due to multiplicity of stoppages en-route. There is scope for speeding up of these services by replacing trains with conventional stock by fast moving EMUs/ MEMUs/DEMUs. Enhancing the sectional

Transport 207

Box 15.1 Containerisation In Railways
Due to the economic and technological attributes of the railways, it has always been a challenge to attract consignments which are less than at least a thousand tonnes. Container trains combine the operational efficiency of unit trains with the commercial flexibility of booking 20 tonnes or even less at a time.. According to the Total Transportation Study (TTS) conducted by RITES for the Planning Commission, the volume of non-bulk traffic in 2006–07 was 227.17 million tonnes out of the total traffic of 2,386.97 million tonnes. Indian Railways set up Container Corporation of India (Concor) in 1988 as a public sector company to spear head containerisation. It commenced operations in 1989 at which stage Indian Railways transferred all Inland Container Depots (ICDs) and container related business to Concor. From the 7 ICDs it took over from Indian Railways at inception, Concor has now expanded the network to more than 44 ICDs and 14 domestic and port side terminals and has 213 rakes of flat wagons. Using IR’s network and haulage, it has pioneered the concept of multi-modalism through its core activities as a carrier of rail borne container traffic and terminal operation. Anticipating higher container traffic at Indian ports, Railways liberalised the entry of private players in the area of rail-based haulage of containers in 2005. The response has been quite good with 15 new entrants. These 15 new operators have procured 132 rakes and developed 9 new terminals. Sizeable on-track competition has emerged in some of the exim sectors as well as the domestic sector. Competition also led to an increase in the growth of rail based intermodal traffic at a rate of 15.5 per cent in the period 2007–08 till 2011–2012 although there has been a negative growth rate in the domestic sector during 2011–12 due to introduction of container class rate for some of the commodities moved normally by conventional wagons. There is a need to expand containerisation business and improve Railways share in transport sector. Policies in the Twelfth Plan will aim at this.
TABLE 15.13 Passenger Traffic Projections for Twelfth Plan Year Projected Passengers Originating (Million) Suburban Nos. 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 4,545 4,855 5,186 5,540 5,917 Ratio 51.25 51.07 50.89 50.71 50.53 Non-Suburban Nos. 4,323 4,651 5,005 5,385 5,793 Ratio 48.75 48.93 49.11 49.29 49.47 Total 8,868 9,506 10,191 10,925 11,710 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 TABLE 15.14 Projection of Originating PKM for Twelfth Plan Year Projected PKMs Originating (Billion) Suburban Nos. 159 170 182 194 207 Ratio 13.32 12.97 12.54 12.15 11.76 Non-Suburban Nos. 1,036 1,146 1,268 1,404 1,553 Ratio 86.68 87.07 87.46 87.85 88.24 Total 1,195 1,316 1,450 1,598 1,760

Note: Originating passenger traffic projections have been made based on average correlation with GDP calculated for the preceding 5 years.

speeds is another enabling factor in speeding them. 4. Introduction of tailored services: The traveling requirements of various sectors and various classes of passengers differ. Between major cities and metros, fast services with very limited stoppages are preferred. Introduction of non-stop services and services with higher accommodation between popular destinations would better serve passengers’ requirements.

15.48. Strategies for decongesting major passenger terminals: This would be done through development of alternative terminals in suburban areas of major cities and expeditious operationalisation of the Dedicated Freight Corridors resulting in segregation of passenger and freight traffic. Spin off effects in the form of larger number of passenger services, faster passenger services, quicker freight movement, and help in decongesting major terminals would be achieved. There are international examples of efficient passenger and freight operations which have relevance for Indian Railways (Box 15.2).


Twelfth Five Year Plan

Box 15.2 Business Models for Passenger and Rail Freight Logistics: The JR East and Deutsche Bahn Ways
JR East is the largest among the four Japanese railway companies and amongst the most successful operators of rail passenger business in the world. It operates urban, high speed and regional railways. On a daily basis, JR East handles 17 million passengers, runs 12,761 trains which cover 7,10,600 Km. per day. Its average delay is less than 1 minute including all kinds of delays, even those due to snow and typhoons. JR East runs the famous Shinkansen high speed trains. Out of a total operating Km. of 7,512.6, Shinkasen lines cover 1,134.7 Km. and conventional lines cover 6,377.9 Km. An important aspect of JR East business is that it earns 30 per cent of its revenues from non-transportation business. This translates to nearly 8.13 billion dollars from non-transportation business out of its total business of 27.7 billion dollars. Non-transportation business includes station space utilisation (15.4 per cent), shopping centres and office buildings (8.3 per cent) and other services (8.4 per cent). The non-transportation business, also called the life-style business is aimed at maximising the values of JR East’s tangible and non-tangible assets such as railway network and stations. It has renovated a large number of stations in the past two years including the iconic Tokyo station which is being modernised. It includes building two towers of more than 4,30,000 sq.m of office buildings and hotels, 1,500 sq.m of shopping floors and development of pedestrian decks and restoration and conservation of the old Tokyo station. An alternative model of earning revenues and running the business profitably is that of Deutsche Bahn (DB) of Germany. It consists of 3 divisions and 9 business units including passenger transport which covers long distance, regional and urban passenger transport; infrastructure which includes track, station and electrification and the third Division being Schenker, world’s leading logistics service company covering areas of rail freight transport, global logistics services and rail technology and services. In 2011–12, the total revenue of DB was 37.9 billion Euros with an EBIT of 2.3 billion Euros. Like JR East, substantial part that is 48 per cent of the revenues of DB comes from non-rail business. DB is increasingly becoming active in markets outside Germany with 41 per cent of the revenues coming from international operations. It runs 26,000 passenger trains per day which carry 2.7 billion passengers per year in trains and buses. It is also the fifth largest provider of energy in Germany. As part of its freight and logistics business, DB is spread to more than 2,000 locations in over 130 countries with 412 million tonnes of freight transported by rail per year, 96 million shipments sent per year via European land transport and more than 5 million sq.m. of storage space around the world (figures as in December 2011). It is interesting to note that Germany has 33,600 Km. long rail network which is three times as long as the German Autobahn (Highway) network.

Parcel Business 15.49. One of the important areas to be taken up for rationalisation and expansion will be the parcel business. The annual earnings from parcel services were `1,377.38 crore (2010–11). These are projected to grow at a rate of 12.8 per cent during the Plan. The strategy to expand this will include innovative pricing. Escalation in freight rate for parcel traffic should be based on the Wholesale Price Index and increase in the cost of fuel. Concessional pricing based on marginal costing principle can be tried out for parcel express trains in empty flow direction. Differential pricing is needed for different types of parcel services, especially for use of passenger trains using parcel vans. This will help Railways to shift parcel traffic from passenger trains to exclusive Parcel Express trains.

Increase in rake loading; Introduction of High Capacity Parcel Vans; Development of dedicated parcel terminals; Mechanisation of handling; Provision of end logistics with value added services; Introduction of premium super fast parcel express services between major production and consumption centres with guaranteed transit and assured supply on the nominated day of loading; and Computerisation of Parcel Management System
Expansion of Fixed Assets 15.51. The targets for creation of fixed assets during the Twelfth Plan have been shown in Table 15.15. Upgradation of balance 1,575 RKM of Iron Ore route for 25 tonnes of axle load (5,425 km done in the Eleventh Plan) and upgradation of Feeder Routes of DFC to run 25 tonnes of axle load will be the areas of focus.

15.50. The Parcel business will be expanded apart from the other initiatives, with the help of capacity augmentation. This will involve the following:

15.52. It is planned to undertake 19,000 km of track renewals including 1,500 km renewal for replacement

Transport 209

TABLE 15.15 Creation of Fixed Assets during the Twelfth Plan Eleventh Plan Actuals (Km) New Line Eastern and Western Dedicated Freight Corridor Gauge Conversion Doubling Railway Electrification 2,205 Work in Progress 5,290 2,756 4,501 Twelfth Plan Physical Target (Km) 4,000 3,338 (Double line except 400 km) 5,500 7,653 6,500

Rolling Stock Requirement 15.54. With the expansion of the freight network and passengers demand, the requirement of rolling stock will increase substantially (Table 15.16).

of 52 kg rails with 60 kg rails on Group A routes. During the Plan, 17,500 km of renewal will become due apart from 3,500 km which is due at the beginning of the Plan.
Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) 15.53. Two Dedicated Freight Corridors (Box 15.3) are expected to be commissioned by March 2017.

15.55. A range of technological solutions are being implemented for improving the quality of wagons, coaches and locomotives. Some of the measures planned in this regard include transfer of technology from USA for track-friendly bogies of advanced technology capable of carrying enhanced axle loads of 25 tonnes and higher axle loads while exerting lesser forces on the track. Keeping the huge demand for passenger travel in mind, it has been planned to have a complete switchover to new manufacture of only LHB design coaches by the end of Twelfth Plan. This will help in introduction of AC/non-AC trains at speeds more than 130 kmph by induction of LHB design coaches and raise the crash worth quotient of coaching stock on Indian Railways through larger deployment of LHB coaches and incremental

Box 15.3 Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) – A Game Change for the Indian Rail Sector
The Dedicated Freight Corridors on the Western and the Eastern routes is a strategic capacity augmentation initiative taken by Railways and involves construction of 3,338 kms of dedicated freight lines to carry predominantly coal and steel on the Eastern corridor and containers on the estern corridor. The ports in the Western region covering Maharashtra and Gujarat would be efficiently linked to the Northern hinterland and similarly on the Eastern side, coal would move to the power plants in the North. The Project completion cost is estimated at `95,860 crore. A major part of the project is being financed through multilateral/bilateral debt. World Bank funding of part of Eastern DFC is estimated at US $2.73 billion (`13,625 crore) and JICA funding of 504 billion Yen (`31,486 crore). Dankuni–Sonnagar section of Eastern DFC (`10,022 crore) is to be implemented through PPP. The balance requirement would need to be met through Budgetary Support. Both Eastern and Western DFCs are targeted for completion in the terminal year of the Twelfth Plan. Dedicated Freight Corridor can be justifiably called an innovation in rail transport in India because of a number of reasons. The average speed of freight trains will go up from 25 kmph to 70 kmph which will reduce the transit time by less than half from the present leves. Railway technology would get a major up-gradation with the help of heavy hauled freight trains of 15,000 tonnes capacity and 1,500 meters length. The axle loads of DFC routes will also go up from 25 tonnes to 32.5 tonnes which would enhance the track loading capacity from 8.67 tonnes per meter to 12 tonnes per meter. Wagons with much better pay load to tare ratio would also get introduced through this technology. Newer technology in signaling, train communication, track-maintenance and operations would get introduced in the Indian Railways system. The capacity released by freight trains can be used for running more passenger trains at higher speeds after upgrading the existing mixed corridors of Indian Railways. In addition, this initiative is expected to offer significant reduction of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in transport sector of India. Pre-feasibility studies have also been completed on the four new Freight Corridors, viz. North-South, East-West, East-South and Southern corridors and Preliminary Engineering cum Traffic Survey is being undertaken by RITES. Based on the outcome of the PETS a beginning would be made in the Twelfth Plan in implementation of the new corridors in a phased manner.


Twelfth Five Year Plan

TABLE 15.16 Rolling Stock Requirement during the Twelfth Plan Type of Stock Requirement* on Additional Account (2012–13 to 2016–17) 25,440 1,500 1,800 76,396 Requirement** on Replacement Account (2012–13 to 2016–17) 7,626 500 210 29,263 Total Requirement (2012–13 to 2016–17) 33,066 2,000 2,010 1,05,659 Anticipated Acquisition 2012–2017 24,000 2,000 2010 1,05,659

Coaches Diesel Locos Electric Locos Wagons (in Vehicle Units)

* Requirement of coaches includes EMUs, MEMUs and DEMUs. ** Requirements on replacement account for all rolling stocks are based on actual over age arising and the trend of average condemnation.

enhancement in ICF coaches. In case of locomotives higher horsepower capacities and more fuel efficient technologies are being inducted (see Box 15.4). 15.56. With new sections in BG coming on the Indian Railways network either due to gauge conversion or due to new lines, need for branch line operations of passenger trains is increasing. This is best addressed by DEMUs since they are low cost, do not require massive infrastructural investments and they release locos for freight and passenger operations on main line. With a new factory coming up at Haldia which is slated to manufacture up to 400 DEMU coaches per annum, there would be possibility of large scale deployment of DEMU services in the North East, North Bihar, Eastern and North Eastern UP, Gujarat, J&K and many other far-flung areas of the country. Similarly for the electrified sections,

EMU/MEMU services would be enhanced with enhancement of technology. A factory is being set up at Kachrapara for manufacturing EMUs/MEMUs and Kolkata Metro coaches which will be operational during the Twelfth Plan.

Signalling and Telecom
15.57. Initiatives in Signalling and Telecom will include deployment of proven and reliable on-board train protection system, isolation of run-through line and provision of complete track circuiting of station sections, and computerised real time monitoring of assets and use of conditions based productive maintenance system. It is also envisaged to increase Line Capacity through use of suitable technology options, viz. Automatic Block Signalling, Intermittent Block Signalling, Automatic Train Control with Cab Signalling, Integrating Train Controlling and

Box 15.4 New Generation Locomotives
Ministry of Railways is planning to set up a factory with a foreign partner selected through international competitive bidding for supply of 12,000 HP Electric Locomotives. This will be a major jump over the current 6,000 HP locomotives. During the ten-year period of supply programme, the proposed factory at Madhepura will supply 800 electric locomotives with performance guarantees based on international best practices. This locomotive will have very high energy efficiency and will constitute a part of India’s response towards mitigation of the emission of green-house gases. Successful execution of this project by the JV route will usher Indian Railways into a new era of reforms and will provide impetus to PPP funding of railway projects. Ministry of Railways is also procuring 200 number, 9,000 HP electric locomotives under the JICA loan for Western DFC. These locomotives would be mainly used forcontainer train operations on the Western DFC. A factory is also planned at Marowhra for manufacture of diesel locomotives with a capacity of 5,000 HP as against current usage of 4,000–4,500 HP by the Indian Railways. The Madhepura and Marowhra factories are likely to be awarded during 2012–13.

Transport 211

Signalling System; and switch over to systems and equipment of higher reliability and safety levels and built in design redundancy.

achieving zero accidents at level crossings, minimum detention to road and punctual train operation. 15.60. Railways have prepared a Corporate Safety Plan, 2003–13. Railways have also appointed a High Level Safety Review Committee (Kakodkar Committee) for suggesting measures on Railways safety which has submitted its report. Their recommendations will also be considered during the Plan for strengthening overall safety environment of the Railways. According to this report, the present safety environment on Indian Railways is inadequate largely due to poor infrastructure, paucity of resources and lack of empowerment at the functional level. The committee has recommended setting up of a statutory Railway Safety Authority. The Committee has also recommended adoption of Advance Signaling System based on continuous track circuiting and cab signaling similar to European Train Controlling System Level-II and total elimination of all level crossings within five years. Following key areas related to safety will need to be taken up during the Plan: 1. Development of Train protection and Warning System (TPWS) and Anti Collision Device (ACD)/Train Collision Avoidance systems (TCAS). 2. Provision of improved safety systems with audio visual warning to road users in advance of approaching trains. 3. For moving towards a fault tolerant zero defect regime, computerised real time monitoring of assets and use of condition based in predictive maintenance systems shall be necessary. 4. Development of ‘crashworthy’ structural design capable of absorbing high impact loads in unfortunate case of collision/accidents. 5. All the furnishing materials in the coaches to have superior fire retardant properties in line with international norms. 6. Mobile Communication and Train Radio Communication (MCTRC). 7. Replacement of 2,000 km of overhead alignment which is an outdated technology for block and control working.

New and Renewable Energy Projects
15.58. It is proposed to develop renewable energy projects and have strategies for more clean energy in the total consumption basket. Some of the strategies in this regard will include: Grid connected Solar Panels at major stations; Provision of roof top Solar Panels on passenger coaches running in Close Circuits; Provision of solar Panels, Solar Water heaters, Solar Pumps and so on. in Hospitals, Running Rooms, Rest Houses; and LED based lighting and Display Systems. In addition to above, it is also proposed to develop wind energy for meeting the above requirements.

Safety Performance
15.59. There are 14,896 unmanned and 17,839 manned level crossings on Indian Railways network as on 1 April 2011. These level crossings contribute to 30 per cent of fatalities in Railway mishap and statistically contribute to about 40 per cent of accidents of Indian Railways. Accordingly, Indian Railways Vision: 2020 envisage elimination of all unmanned level crossings by provision of subway, diverting road traffic from unmanned level crossing gates to existing ROB/RUB and manned gates by constructing diversion road, closure of very low Train Vehicle Units (TVU) gates, manning of unmanned level crossing gates; upgradation of infrastructure, provision of interlocking of gates, lifting barrier and so on, in the next five years. Railways also envisage provision of ROB/RUB in lieu of manned level crossings with heavy traffic density (high Train Vehicle Units that is above one lakh in about 2122 in number and those level crossings located in station yard/limits about 842 in number). Railways have also planned to eliminate level crossings along the Eastern and Western DFC network. It has been decided to replace level crossings with TVU>50,000 with ROBs and TVUs

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Economic Growth & External Sector Behavior

...Executive Summary The report entitled “Analysis of Economic Growth and External Sector Behavior” mainly focuses on the study of the structure of the external sector of Bangladesh and its impact on GDP. It involves economic models developed to determine the impact of each sector-Export, Import, Foreign Aid and Remittance, on GDP of Bangladesh. It also involves an analysis of the behavior of these factors in three SAARC countries and the application of the regression model developed. The economic model was developed based on the past behavior of GDP and the external sector. It indicated that Remittance is the sector having the most significant impact on GDP and aid the second most significant. While imports negatively affect economic growth, exports have played a very important role over the period. The remittance of Bangladesh has been increasing over the last few years. Hence, its impact on GDP has also been rising. In the span of 34 years export as percentage of GDP increased from 2.2% to 15.4%. Hence, performance was moderately good. The economy has been suffering from ever increasing trade deficits, despite several export promotional measures. Large import payments mainly account for this problem. Foreign aid shows large fluctuations over the period Finally, an analysis was conducted on the behavior of the external sectors in the SAARC countries using the regression model. Export was found to be the dominant sector in India, while imports had the minimum impact on GDP.......

Words: 12238 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Global Recession, Oil Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria

...Volume 01 Issue 06 GLOBAL RECESSION, OIL SECTOR AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA. BY S. O. OLADIPO ( Department of Economics and Accounting Bells University of Technology, Ota. E-mail address: AND PROF. J. O. FABAYO Department of Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife ABSTRACT This study investigates global recession and the oil sector, based on its effects on economic growth in Nigeria. No doubt the global economy has been experiencing some disturbances. Major economies of the world have been affected and so has the major sectors of these economies especially the ones that has a direct bearing with international trade been affected. The oil sector particularly has been one of the hit. For a country like Nigeria whose international trade is majorly in oil, the effect has become an issue. Empirical analysis using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) reveals that there was a negative relationship between GDP and oil produced (domestic consumption and export) which is significant at 5% lever of significance i.e. (P < 0.05). The result also showed that there exists decline in the oil sector due to the global recession despite all measures given by government to curb it effects. It was Jan 2012 recommended that the federal government needs to deregulate the sector for efficient performance, and also come up with more rigorous policies that will reduce this effects on the real sector most especially the oil sector whose contribute the largest portion......

Words: 5684 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Macro-Economic Issues Role of the Public Sector

...2012 Prince Masuku Economics 3/5/2012 2012 Prince Masuku Economics 3/5/2012 Macro-economic issues role of the public sector Macro-economic issues role of the public sector CONTENTS PAGE Contents Page Introduction… 1 The present situation and a comparison with previous years… 2 The proposal/ initiatives from the State of The Nation Address… 5 Reaction of other political parties… 6 Impact of the President’s proposals on the national budget… 6 How did the budget address these issues?.. 7 Conclusion… 8 INTRODUUCTION Unemployment occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought for work. In South Africa, unemployment is extremely high and it is seen as one of the most pressing socio-political problems facing the government. The has been a lively debate on the extent, nature and cures of unemployment in South Africa but the outcome has rather been inconclusive. Unemployment in South Africa is so widespread that it demands an explanation. Unemployment is potentially a matter of serious concern - for its effects on economic welfare, production, erosion of human capital, social exclusion, crime, and social instability. However, its potential costs depend on the nature of the beast. The question we address is this. Is unemployment in South Africa largely voluntary or involuntary? The answer has important ethical and policy implications. If unemployment is largely voluntary...

Words: 2051 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Current and Future Economic Issues Impacting Healthcare Sector

...Current and Future Economic Issues Impacting Healthcare Sector S. Ruff Dr. Merle Point-Johnson HAS 510 June 15, 2015 Abstract Not unpredictably, the increases in health care spending and the share of GDP dedicated to health care have raised up concerns about the negative influence of health care cost inflation on the U.S. economy. In an era of global economic markets, these concerns are reinforced by the status of the U.S. as a spending outlier among competing nations. The major concern is that rapid increases in health care spending can affect major economic indicators such per capita GDP, employment and inflation. The effects are likely to occur across all sectors of the economy, governments, businesses and households as all these interrelated sectors play an important role in the delivery, financing and consumption of health care in the US. Yet, the view that rapidly rising health care costs harms the U.S. economy is not without nonconformists, and some projecting economists opinion increases in health spending as having a neutral, or perhaps even a positive, economic effect. Pauly (2003) has contended that increasing health care expenditure naturally consequences in rapid growth in the health care and associated sectors, and in employment and incomes for workers in those sectors. Particularly, health care firms are largely U.S. owned. A related argument is that as total per capita GDP rises, consumers may......

Words: 2825 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Public Sector Economics

...Public Sector Economics Exercises 1. Florida Taxation a. The 5.5% corporate flat tax levied in Florida is a PROPORTIONAL tax because it is based on gross income of corporations. This tax is levied at the identical 5.5% rate across all levels of gross income on corporations registered or doing business in Florida, so by definition, the tax is proportional. b. Florida’s 6% sales tax is REGRESSIVE since all consumers, regardless of earnings are required to pay the same tax rate. There are arguments that consider the sales tax proportional because the same rate is evenly applied across low-, middle-, and high-income taxpayers. However application of the sales tax is regressive because the percentage of tax paid decreases with respect to total income as income levels increase. Lower-income tax payers pay the same dollar amount for particular goods as higher-income individuals, but at lower-income levels the tax represents a greater proportion of overall income and therefore the tax is actually, in application, regressive. Sales taxes on essentials like food, clothing, and housing also take up a larger percentage of lower-income individuals budget. The argument for proportionality of the tax is that higher-income individuals actually purchase more goods and more expensive goods. Because sales taxes in general do not take into account the economic or personal circumstances of the purchaser, and that the tax is not a personal income levy, both low- and highincome......

Words: 4438 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

The Effects of Banking Sector and Stock Market Development on the Malaysian Economic Growth: an Empirical Investigation

...BANKING SECTOR AND STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENT ON THE MALAYSIAN ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION BY HAFSAH AHMAD A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ECONOMICS KULLIYYAH OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA MAY 2005 1 ABSTRACT This study investigates the long-run relationship between financial development (banking sector and stock market development) and economic growth in Malaysia. Six variables based on Malaysian quarterly data from 1978:1 to 2002:4 are employed, namely real GDP per capita, investment rate and ratios of credit, deposit, market capitalization, and value of shares traded to GDP. Two dynamic frameworks are adopted - Vector Auto regression (VAR) with error correction formulation for causality analyses and dynamic OLS (DOLS) procedure for estimation of growthfinance long-run relation. Causality analyses show that there is bi-directional causality between financial development (banking sector and stock market development) and economic growth. Analyses on growth-finance long-run relations indicate that banking sector development and stock market development individually have an independent positive effect on long-run economic growth. They enhance economic growth through both channels – the volume and efficiency of investment, with the latter being the main source of their independent effect. The study also shows that banking sector......

Words: 4882 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Relationship Between Economic and Financila Sector Development

...DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns Roengchai Tansuchat, Chia-Lin Chang, Michael McAleer WORKING PAPER No. 4/2010 Department of Economics and Finance College of Business and Economics University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800, Christchurch New Zealand WORKING PAPER No. 4/2010 Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns Roengchai Tansuchat1, Chia-Lin Chang2, Michael McAleer3 January, 2010 Abstract: This paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE, Dow Jones and S&P500 index returns, are analysed using the CCC model of Bollerslev (1990), VARMA-GARCH model of Ling and McAleer (2003), VARMA-AGARCH model of McAleer, Hoti and Chan (2008), and DCC model of Engle (2002). Based on the CCC model, the estimates of conditional correlations for returns across markets are very low, and some are not statistically significant, which means the conditional shocks are correlated only in the same market and not across markets. However, the DCC estimates of the conditional correlations are always significant. This result makes it......

Words: 11901 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Privatization in Bd

...Privatization on Service Sector Preface We know that the countries which are developed today are getting very strong in service sector day by day. Without having a very significant service sector it is impossible to retain the development of the economy of a country. Service sector is the accelerator of an economy. And Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries of the world with a huge number of different problems but most importantly with an emerging service sector. Really this is a great tonic for this underdeveloped country on the way of development. So to utilize this potential setting up of a lot of service organization is needed. But the service organization should not be public rather private. Because we all know about the poor service quality and negative profit of the public service organizations of Bangladesh. So the privatization of service sector is one of our desired initiatives. It is one of the leading aspects with a very bright potential to boost-up the economy of this third-world poor country. Prepared by: Md. Abdul Hai – 07882860 Essence of Privatization Despite a significant degree of public ownership in health, education, communication, utilities and energy sectors in the pre-independence period, Bangladesh inherited basically a private sector dominated economy at the time of independence in 1971. A set of three inter-related reasons are put forward as rationale for privatization in Bangladesh. These are: • Improvement of the governments’......

Words: 7769 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Egovernment Strategies the Case of Uae

...eGovernment Strategies The Case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) This article provides an overview of eGovernment and its role in revolutionising existing governmental systems. It argues that in order for eGovernment initiatives to truly succeed, we need to develop public trust and confidence to promote diffusion and participation. The article relates this to the recently announced UAE eGovernment Strategic Framework 2011-2013. The framework attempts to promote the electronic transformation of all government services within a period of three years. An important component of the strategic framework in question is the use of the existing national identity management infrastructure and the development of a government-owned federated identity management system to support Governmentto-Citizen (G2C) eGovernment transactions and promote trust and confidence on the Internet. Dr. Ali M. Al-Khouri United Arab Emirates Keywords eGovernment, identity management, federated identity, identity card. Government-owned identity management systems that provide secure, unique and tamper-proof digital identities should become a primary component of national eGovernment strategies. Such federated identity systems can gain higher levels of trust, confidence and encourage public participation and has the potential to enable new levels of collaboration between different government agencies. European Journal of ePractice · Nº 17 · September 2012 · ISSN:......

Words: 6736 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Business Environment

...words ‘Business’ and ‘Environment’. In economic sense ‘Business’ means human activities like production, purchase or extraction or sales of products or services that are performed to earn money. Meanwhile ‘Environment’ means the aspect of surroundings. Business environment is the set of conditions institutional, political, economical, legal or social that is uncontrollable and affects the functions of the organization. Business environment consists of two components: external environment and internal environment. Internal environment includes of 5 M’s like management, money, machinery, material and man. On the other hand, External environment consists of demo-graphical factors, socio-cultural factors, political factors, geo-physical factors, government and legal factors. 5. Understand the organizational purpose of business 1.1 Identify the purpose of different types of organizations There are different types of organizations and mainly all kinds of organizations are divided in three sectors: public sectors, private sectors and voluntary sector organizations. The purposes of those organizations are not same. Public sector is owned and run by the government for the people. People pay taxes to the government and this money is used to finance most of the public sectors. The main purposes of public sectors organizations are to provide essential public services and to use resources well for the benefit of the community. Private sector businesses are owned and run by......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Vision 2021 and Bangladesh

...Tamnun E Mursalin "Digital Bangladesh" is currently the most commonly used words in politics, media, among the intellectuals and the civil societies. Since our Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina in her party's election manifesto pledged to develop a digital Bangladesh by 2021, it has given a great hope to the citizens of Bangladesh. It turned out to be an opportunity for our prime minister to be in the United States during the time of election, and experiencing the Obama election campaign. Her learning has helped Awami League wining the election in Bangladesh in 2008 with Obama-like campaign strategy-the call for 'change', which has been responded widely by the Bangladeshi citizens. However, the focus here is Digital Bangladesh, widely accepted by Bangladeshi people from all walks of life. Not too many people understood the concept of digital Bangladesh but they believed it, as something related to information technology. It has been widely accepted by a good number of young voters, believing that the concept of Digital Bangladesh will solve most of our national crisis involving corruption, unemployment, illiteracy, poverty and price-hike. Even though without knowing Bangladesh has already gone through a bit of experience on digitization through few national level of ICT projects, such as, Chittagong Customs Automation System, selection process of teletalk mobile user through internet, project initiated by the pervious government on machine-readable digital passport system and......

Words: 1838 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Public Sector Accounting

...PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING Assignment 5 ------------------------------------------------- Melina Subastian / 296511 Number 3: Based on five public sector accounting techniques, which one do you prefer as the best to be applied? Explain your answer! First of all, I think it is necessary to observe the five techniques that can be applied in public sector accounting in order to decide which one is the best to be applied. 1. Budget Accounting. This technique presents the budgeted amount and the actual amount recorded in pairs (double entry). 2. Commitment Accounting. This accounting technique recognizes transactions and records them at the time the order was issued. This can be used in conjunction with cash accounting and accrual accounting. 3. Fund Accounting. The technique is performed with the concept of fund. It treats a working unit as an accounting entity and budget entity which stands alone. 4. Cash Accounting. In this technique, revenues are recorded when cash is received, and expenses are recorded when cash is removed. 5. Accrual Accounting. This technique differentiates between cash revenues and rights to earn cash, and cash expenditures and obligations to pay cash. In my opinion, accrual accounting technique is the best technique to use for public sector organizations. In this technique, revenues and expenses are recognized when earned or incurred, regardless of whether cash is received or spent. The use of the accrual basis in the public sector is one...

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Managing Change

...Managing Change Initiatives: Fantasy or Reality? The Case of Public Sector Organisations Ebrahim Soltani University of Kent Business School, Canterbury, UK Pei-chun Lai University of Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK Abstract It is becoming a commonplace statement that change initiative programmes are key tools to organisational long-term success. To this end, the last two decades have witnessed a surge of interest in the take-up of various change initiative programmes. Organisational change initiatives, we are told by many commentators, can maximise shareholder value (i.e. economic value theory) and develop organisational capabilities (i.e. organisational capability theory). Specifically, in recent years, as companies have been confronted by the conditions of heightened competition, globalisation, advancements in communications and information technologies, economic recession and simultaneously search for excellence, so the desire to take up change initiatives has interested the majority of leading organisations. At the same time, however, the analysis of the prospects for the majority of change management tools reveals so many deep-seated barriers to change with the consequence of little success in practice. This paper explores this apparent contradiction, arguing that, despite a heightened interest in the take-up of change initiatives, very few change programmes produce an improvement in bottom-line, exceed the company’s cost of capital, or even improve......

Words: 14539 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay

Pakistan Public Sector

...A public sector organization is responsible to the government. This is in contrast to organizations from the private sector, which are controlled by private parties. An example of the organization of the public sector is the public school system Introduction Pakistan International Airlines PIA is known as airline seat in Karachi, which is the national carrier of Pakistan. The main hub is Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, while their side blocks. The airline was founded on 23 October 1946, Eastern Airlines, originally based in Calcutta for the division of British India. And later he earned four Douglas DC-3s. The airline was nationalized January 10, 1955 and changed its name to Pakistan International Airlines. Its first international flight...

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Privatization and Nationalisation of Companies/Firms in Zambia

...suggesting which of the two would be viable for future policy consideration in Zambia. The term privatization is often loosely used to mean a number of related activities, including any expansion of the scope of private sector activity in an economy and the adoption by the public sector of efficiency enhancing techniques commonly employed by the private sector. The term privatization may be taken to mean a financial transaction-the sale of a publicly owned asset to the private sector or the transfer of the authority to make resource allocation decisions from the government to the market place (Gabel, 1987). While acknowledging that no definition of privatization is water tight, for the purpose of this essay, privatization will be defined as the transfer of productive asset ownership and control from the public to the private sector (Ibid). In Africa, many governments have embraced the idea of privatization, brought to the fore mainly as a part of the adjustment and stabilization programs of the mid-eighties and the nineties. Privatization now frequently features in government policy statements and in conditionalities from donors. The past decade has also seen the World Bank and other donors get increasingly involved in lending operations towards parastatal sector reforms that included privatization components (Landis, 2000). Privatization is therefore a capitalist principle among others. On the other hand, nationalization occupies a central place in the socialist policy.......

Words: 2869 - Pages: 12