Premium Essay

Economic, Social and Political Change in 19th Century

In: Historical Events

Submitted By anonymous135
Words 957
Pages 4
The profound economic change that occurred in the early 1900’s was largely influenced and formed by the industrial revolution, in particular the second wave that occurred in the late 1800’s.
The revolution as a whole resulted in the change from economies based on agriculture and farming, to industry based profits. This second wave of the revolution not only refined and improved the prior inventions of iron and coal, but brought with it new highly developed technologies such as steel, electricity, oil and chemicals that lead to the creation of new industries that had not existed prior. The introduction of large scale steel and iron production, as well as advanced railway systems and the opening of the Suez Canal, allowed countries to export vast amounts of resources easily, therefore boosting economies. The introduction of electricity into society during this time also had a profound impact on the economic situation of many countries and individuals by allowing possible work hours to be increased dramatically. In 1914, Britain, Germany, France and the US owned 72% of the world’s manufacturing output, having a profound impact on the economies of the countries but also creating a climate of competition between the strong industrial powers. To a certain extent, this economic change throughout the world had a significant impact, and acted as a catalyst for increasing social and political change.

Political change was evident during the early 20th century given that dynastic rulers still governed solely over many of the imperial nations at the start of this period. But this was soon to change due to the growing discontent in both the middle and working class. During this time the middle class began growing discontent with the way that the upper class was running the country. They believed that they should have more political power, as they are the ones running the…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity?

...study the connection between the material culture that sprang to life after the Reformation in Europe and the urbanization that came with the Industrial Revolution in order to see if or if not it had any effects on constituting the European Identity. Starting first with analyzing the material culture of which the Italian Renaissance movement and then the Reformation planted its seeds, I want to follow the dynamics of social changes that slowly transformed the life in Europe from peasantry with only the Christian identity to nation-state citizenship with a European notion. In order to understand how the Industrial Revolution that started in the 19th century and spreaded across the continent affected Europe, it is first required to analyze the changes in the mentality of people that lived in Europe and the transformation the societies went through as a result of the Protestant Reformation that took place in the 16th century. Although the Industrial Revolution had basically been a drastic economic upheaval, it cannot be considered without its social causes and social results. How the humanist mindset that came up with the Renaissance had affected the daily lives of people and how this effect helped people to search for improvements in working and production have been widely discussed in several studies. In Medieval times, most of the peoples of Europe had depended on soil. Village life and agriculture were the way of living of most of the population. Trading was limited......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Colonialism

...Colonialism: A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colony's natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizer's way of life beyond its national borders. In the years 1500 – 1900 Europe colonized all of North and South America and Australia, most of Africa, and much of Asia by sending settlers to populate the land or by taking control of governments. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th – 16th centuries. The Dutch colonized Indonesia in the 16th century, and Britain colonized North America and India in the 17th – 18th centuries. Later, British settlers colonized Australia and New Zealand. Colonization of Africa only began in earnest in the 1880s, but by 1900 virtually the entire continent was controlled by Europe. The colonial era ended gradually after World War II; the only territories still governed as colonies today are small islands. http://www.answers.com/topic/colonialism#ixzz1lYMQdYfY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure, government, and economics of......

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Research Paper

...University Press, 2009. Pp. viii, 331. Allen’s book is an excellent example of the persuasiveness of the new economic history. It is solidly rooted in statistical data and uses sophisticated methods of economic analysis but its analysis is presented in plain English. He argues that the first industrial revolution occurred in northwestern Europe because its high wages during the early modern period encouraged technological innovation. Although high wages were initially a consequence of the demographic disaster of the Black Death, they were reinforced during the early modern period by the economic success of the region around the North Sea, first, in European trade and manufacturing, especially in wresting the textile industry from the Italians, and then in world trade. According to Allen, the first industrial revolution took place in Britain instead of the Low Countries primarily because of Britain’s abundant and cheap coal resources, combined with the central government’s ability to use mercantilist policies and naval power to reap the greatest benefits from an expanding European and world trade. Once it had taken the lead from the Dutch, and defeated the French, Britain used its comparative advantage to consolidate its dominant position through free trade until the late Victorian period when its technological innovations spread to its competitors. While he agrees that the political, cultural and scientific context of British industrialization was important to its primacy,......

Words: 27796 - Pages: 112

Premium Essay

International Banking: Historical Synthesis of the Basic Problems and Developments of the Monetary and Credit Systems During the 19th and 20th Centuries

...MONETARY AND CREDIT SYSTEMS DURING THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES A requirement in English 2 ( Writing in Discipline ) Second Semester SY : 2012 – 2013 TF 7:00 – 8:30 am PRINCE JOHN A. ARCILLA AB – Economics 1 DR. YOLANDA T. TARIMAN PROFESSOR - ENGLISH II FEBRUARY 8, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE PRELIMINARY PAGE Title Page Table of Contents Outline CHAPTERS 1 Introduction Overview of the Topic 2 Discussion 3 Conclusion BIBLIOGPAPHY CURRICULUM VITAE ii INTERNATIONAL BANKING: HISTORICAL SYNTHESIS OF THE BASIC PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENTS OF THE MONETARY AND CREDIT SYSTEMS DURING THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES Thesis Statement: Our historical synthesis focuses on the economic and political aspects of banking, with questions of industrial management and the credit economy taking second place. OUTLINE I CURRENCY AND MONETARY HISTORY IN THE 19th CENTURY 1 From Silver and Bimetal Currency to Gold Standard 2 The Development of the Bank Note into a Legal Tender A Bank Notes and Issuing Banks in England until Mid-19th Century B Peel’s Bank Charter Act C The Banque de France in the 19th Century D Overcoming the Federal System of German Issuing Banks E The United States’ Arduous Journey Towards the Federal System II BANKS AND BANKING FROM THE EARLY PHASE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION TO THE MIDDLE OF THE 19th CENTURY iii 1 Bank Types at the Beginning of the 19th Century A Private Bankers B Public......

Words: 1509 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Revolutionary Socialism and Extreme Nationalism: Preludes to Nazism

...Theories of radical nationalism and socialism became popular in the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution had first started to really change things in Europe and in other Western countries. The quick changes in society during the 19th century created enormous social tensions and dissatisfaction among many. Workers, realizing that the wealthy had the most to gain from free market capitalism, turned to other ways of modernization including communism and socialism. Those who believed that they could achieve what they wanted by gradual reform of the existing political structure were socialists while those who believed that the old order needed to be completely replaced by force were communists. Others rejected the socialist emphasis on international class politics and proposed nationalism as another alternative to individualistic capitalism. Unlike socialists or communists, nationalists believed that there was nothing inherently wrong with capitalism. They just thought it should be regulated and made to benefit the nation as a whole in addition to the few individuals who owned the means of production. In either case, political philosophies that emphasized nation and class were responses to a changing world that had uprooted old social beliefs. Communism, which is also described as "Revolutionary Proletarian Socialism" or "Marxism," is both a political and economic philosophy. The Communist Manifesto is widely regarded as the founding documents of modern......

Words: 1427 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Labor Unions

...Labor Unions — Are They Still Relevent Labor Unions were formed in the mid-19th century in response to the changes brought on by the Industrial Revolution. The labor unions were established to help workers with low pay, unsafe working conditions and long hours—to name a few. Their main goal was to ensure that all working people were treated justly in the work force. “Working people have a lot of concerns in this economy. They want decent pay. They want benefits. And of course they want job security. All the reasons why they need union representation” (Crane, 2012). Is that statement still true today? Do labor unions want the best for the working person or are unions another example of something good gone bad? Many people believe Labor Unions were essential in the 19th century but now with government oversight and business practices, unions are no longer required. Labor Unions Needed Agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions during the Industrial Revolution. As the revolution progressed, business moved from a mom-and-pop model to a machine-and-factory production model. Families quickly moved from the rural areas to the cities. They hoped to improve their standard of living. This meant ever member of the family had to work, regardless of sex or age. People worked for long hours for low wages, in dangerous and repetitive conditions, and with little-to-no......

Words: 2423 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

19th Century Philosophers

... | | | |[pic][pic]Expand | | | |[pic] | | | |The most powerful philosophical mind of the 19th century was the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, whose system | |of absolute idealism, although influenced greatly by Kant and Schelling, was based on a new conception of logic and | |philosophical method. Hegel believed that absolute truth, or reality, exists and that the human mind can know it. This is so | |because “whatever is real is rational,” according to Hegel. He conceived the subject matter of philosophy to be reality as a | |whole, a reality that he referred to as Absolute Spirit, or cosmic reason. The world of human experience, whether subjective or | |objective, he viewed as the manifestation of Absolute Spirit. ......

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cognitive Computing

...immersed in its Revolution, the uncertain political situation discouraging investments in industrial innovations. By 1848 France, now an industrial power, was still behind England, despite great growth under the Second Empire. Other European countries were far behind. These countries lacked the wealth, power and opportunities of the French, British and Belgians. In other nations industrial expansion was held back by political conditions. Germany, for example did not begin its industrial expansion until after national unity in 1870, despite vast resources of coal and iron. Once begun, Germany’s industrial production grew so rapidly that by the turn of the century they were producing more steel than Britain and led the world in the chemical industries. The rise of U.S. industrial power in the 19th and 20th centuries left the Europeans way behind. The Japanese too joined the Industrial Revolution with great success. The eastern European countries were even further behind in the 20th century. The Soviet Union became a major industrial power after the fiveyear plans, condensing into a few decades the industrialization that had taken Britain a century and a half. In the mid 20th century the Industrial revolution spread to countries such as China and India. 4 2. The Second Industrial Revolution Despite overlapping with the “old”, there was evidence of a “new” Industrial Revolution in the late 19th and 20th centuries. As far as basic materials were......

Words: 10404 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Jose Rizal

...Rizal Law and 19th Century Philippines LEARNING MODULE RATIONALE In this module, we will discuss the historical context of the Rizal Law. Before we tackle Jose Rizal’s life and works, it is important discuss its legal basis and the issues surrounding it for us to understand why we need to study this course and what we must achieve in studying it. Historians agree that every historical actor is a product of his time, therefore it is equally important and beneficial for our study to learn the historical context of Jose Rizal – the social, economic and political milieu of his time in order to contextualize our study of his life and works. Doing away with historical context, might mislead us from a genuine reading and understanding of Jose Rizal’s life and works. In order to achieve this, we will start our study by having a glimpse of the 19th century Philippines or the last century of Spanish colonial regime in the Philippine. LEARNING OUTCOMES The following are the learning outcomes we are expected to achieve at the end of the lesson: Understand the historical background and rationale of the Rizal Law and the Historical context of 19th Century Philippines • Explain the rationale of the Rizal Law • Discuss the historical context of the Rizal Law • Describe the Spanish colonial government by reading excerpts from selected works of propagandists • Relate the passage of Rizal Law to nation-building, patriotism and nationalism. • Examine the economic and socio-political milieu......

Words: 3162 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

What Was the Enlightenment and How Did It Influence the Politics of the 19th Century?

...Enlightenment and how did it influence the politics of the 19th century? The Enlightenment was, in its simplest sense, a body of writers and writings of 18th century Europe which advocated reason and the belief in human rationality above all else and challenged long-standing values and institutions which were based on traditional and religious beliefs. The political ideas of the Enlightenment, which can be best understood against the backdrop of 18th century absolutism and the dominance of Christian world-views, denounced the ‘divine right of kings’ and called for reform in governance (Gieben and Hall, 1992:23). These were the ideas that influenced 19th century politics, and gradually led to the switch from all-powerful monarchies to the democracies of the modern world. In this essay I shall give a brief overview of the Enlightenment whilst focusing mainly on its political ideas and put these ideas in context by describing the political landscape of the time. I will then discuss how these political ideas shaped the politics of the 19th century. I will limit myself to looking at the influence of the Enlightenment on European politics as that is where its affect was most sharply felt and was the main location for the Enlightenment movement (Gieben and Hall,1992:72). The Enlightenment was the emergence of new ways of thinking which came about mainly in 18th century Europe, although Enlightenment ideas can also be seen in the 17th century, for example in the writings of......

Words: 1324 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Development of Political Party Models in Western Europe: Katz and Mair’s Approach to Modern Party Organization

...The Development of Political Party Models in Western Europe: Katz and Mair’s Approach to Modern Party Organization Introduction In recent years more than ever, it has become clear that European party systems and European politics itself are characterized by an extensive change. With the economical, cultural and social changes in most of the countries and with the rapid expansion of the European Union, parties face a big number of alterations according to which they have to adjust their focuses and structures. The long term consequences of these changes are varied; some parties quickly emerge, others suddenly decline, the level of volatility is rising and it is evident that generally the vulnerability of political parties is constantly growing. The changes also shape the electorate’s behaviour as is demonstrated by the falling levels of party identification since the 1990s. The increasing number of effects of socio-economic, cultural and technological developments appear to have eroded the once steady cleavage structures in most European societies, on which voting loyalties were based and not only reformed the structures of political parties but also redefined the relationship between them, the states and societies (Mair&Smith:1990:1). This change has resulted in the demand for attention in recent years to be turned towards the research of political party organization and the study of different party models both with regard to the theoretical importance of them......

Words: 3756 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

The Role of the Concept of Need and Inequality Social Policy

...‘need’ and inequality have been at the centre of discussions and debates on social policy. Since the 19th century it has widely been accepted that the state has some responsibility towards attempting to fulfil some of civil society’s needs and the needs of those most at risk. Changing definitions and attitudes surround the concepts of need and inequality; this means any discussion of these instantly encapsulates the political and ideological debates which affect all aspects of social policy. Titmuss (ed. 1987) writes that ‘collectively provided services are deliberately designed to meet certain socially recognized ‘needs’; they are manifestations’ this means any changes within these are interrelated with those in society. Miller (1987) draws from Titmuss’s work explaining that the inequality which creates need is formed from the very nature of an advanced industrial society as ‘the costs of economic growth and stability are not evenly distributed’ he describes the welfare state as ‘compensation for the vulnerable who pay the prices of ‘progress’ (1987). This essay seeks to examine the concept of need within social policy by looking at how it became recognised in the 19th century and how it was defined in the 20th century. This will include looking at what social legislation has been borne out of its recognition. I will also look at the changing attitudes towards inequality and the left/right political and ideological debate over the relationship between inequality and need......

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Russia

...of significant social development in Russian society? Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication on 2nd March 1917 marked the end of Tsarism’s iron grip on Russia and the subsequent revolution was the clearest possible sign of political and social upheaval. Finally, its people had tired of their nation’s own backwardness and were looking for improvements to an archaic system which they had endured for hundreds of years. Seldom does a revolution succeed without violence being an integral part of its development, and the Russian revolution was no exception. However, there are economic and political factors that helped contribute to the outbreak of this civil disobedience, which must be considered. Underpinning these issues is the stark difference in the social dynamics of Russia between the early 19th century and the early 20th century. The social dichotomy that had presented itself was one that no other European power had experienced. Russia was the only European super-power to still employ serfdom by the time of its termination, for its roots had been deeply embedded in Russian culture. Historian Jonathon Bromley believes the longevity of serfdom was because it “served the economic interests of the nobility and the political interests of the Tsarist state.” This implies that the economic policy and political foundations of the country were predicated on its social structure; therefore social stability was pivotal in preserving the Tsarist regime. The deeply entrenched social structure......

Words: 5215 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Marxism

...is an economic and socio-political worldview that contains in a political ideology for how to change and improve the society by implementing socialism. * It is based upon a materialist interpretation of history, taking upon the idea that social changes occur because of the struggle between the different classes within a society. * Marxist analysis leads to conclusion that capitalism leads to oppression of the proletariat, who not only make up the majority of the world’s populace but spend their endless lives working for the benefit of bourgeoisie or the capitalists who are the wealthy ruling class of a society. * According to Christopher Pierson, for Marx, Capitalism was a social and economic system in which the wealth of the capital-owing bourgeoisie was derived from the exploited labour power of a property less working class of proletariat. * A key reason why the Marxist theory of Liberal Democratic state was defined by a range of other writer’s was that in Marx’s and Engels lifetime there were few if genuine, full-developed liberal democracies. * Liberal Democracy is a political system where periodic free and fair elections takes place with free political competition while fundamental civil liberties are protected by law, defines P Dunleavy * This essay aims to look upon the Marxists critique of Liberal democracy and capitalism. Moreover, the factors which led to the alienation of the proletariat. CLASSICAL MARXISM * Marx’s own political......

Words: 1353 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Movements

...Social Movements The world has experienced profound change and transformation in economical level as well as changing of the political and social structure. Especially since the mid-20th century, accelerating urbanization; the processes such as modernization and changes in the community show its impact on the region. Besides with the addition of globalization this impact can influence beyond the continent with common communication channels. All these changes and the social transformation made the social actors’ role questionable. Since the 1960s, the deep and rapid transformation, which also effected the anti-system protest movement. For instance, in 1960, students, the new left and the civil rights movement; LGBT 1970s and 1980s, the environment, women, peace and human rights movements; 1990s and 2000s 'global justice movement' have emerged one after the other, and have increased as well. (Demiroğlu, 2014) Movements are relatively long-term collective engagements in producing or guiding social change. In other words social movements mean expressing inappreciativeness and be the voice that needs to be satisfied. Indeed, in the 19th century the term social movement was often used to describe the actual course of social change, especially change bringing broader social participation. 19th century class struggle of the European workers' movement and the revolutionary masses had brought the issue to the center of political life. In this process, the deteriorating war......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4