Premium Essay

Education and Federalism

In: Social Issues

Submitted By geospatial651954
Words 315
Pages 2
The two most talked about government programs on education are the No Child Left Behind under the Bush administration. That 2002 law required states to show yearly progress in the number of students who were proficient in English and math on standardized tests, although it allowed states to measure proficiency in their own ways. (Gabriel, 2011). THe other is President Obama's own signature education initiative, Race to the Top, similarly used federal money to leverage change that many Republicans had long endorsed -- charter schools and teacher evaluations that tied effectiveness in the classroom to tenure. (Gabriel, 2011). The pros of these policies, is that by tying federal money to them, that they appear to raise test scores among students on these standardized tests. Charter schools seem to raise education standards by the fact that most of them have specialized programs aimed at the government standards. I think the cons of these programs are that a good general overall education that children should get is ignored somewhat. In other words, teachers on concentrating more on teaching students so that they can do well on the standardized tests and ignore or gloss over other studies that give kids a well rounded education.
These programs seem to be consistent with Cooperative Federalism, where they designed and funded programs, and then left their implementation to the states. (Levin-Waldman, 2012). The programs were designed by federal government, but the states were to determine their efficientcy. In conclusion, this issue is very complicated. Does the federal government no better thatn the sate and local authorities on education matters. Are there other ideas out there that might be better suited to raising education standards.

Levin-Waldman, O. M. (2012). American government. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Gabriel, T. (2011, October 9)....

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...What is a federal form of government? What image do you have of when you think of federalism? \Do you think of the federal level of government? State government? Local governments? All three? Layer Cake, Marble Cake....21st Century View: Intergovernmental Relations Do democratic governments need to be organized as federal systems? Great Britain has a Unitary form of government How does this differ from the U.S.? Powerful central government with federal or central government mandates (laws) that are implemented (put into place) throughout the whole country= Unitary govt. Examples: National Health Policy throughout the whole country so that you can go from city to city in Great Britain and use your health card at any hospital. (Portability of health insurance in U.S.: can get care anywhere in our country) Current American example of an issue that is being discussed as a national issue: elections Should we have Congress pass federal rules for identification, times polls are open, voting ahead of time, etc.? Do you personally tend to look to the federal government to solve problems in the U.S. ? (synonyms for federal govt.: national govt. and central govt) OR Do you tend to focus on your state government or on your city or county (local) government? We do not have good political theories of when federal minimum national standards are appropriate...

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Patterson Ch. 3

...Chapter Three Federalism: Forging a Nation Chapter Outline I. Federalism: National and State Sovereignty A. The Argument for Federalism 1. Protecting Liberty 2. Moderating the Power of Government 3. Strengthening the Union B. The Powers of the Nation 1. Enumerated Powers 2. Implied Powers C. The Powers of the States II. Federalism in Historical Perspective A. An Indestructible Union (1789–1865) 1. The Nationalist View: McCulloch v. Maryland 2. The States’ Rights View: The Dred Scott Decision B. Dual Federalism and Laissez-Faire Capitalism (1865–1937) 1. The Fourteenth Amendment and State Discretion 2. Judicial Protection of Business 3. National Authority Prevails C. Toward National Citizenship III. Federalism Today A. Interdependency and Intergovernmental Relations B. Government Revenues and Intergovernmental Relations 1. Fiscal Federalism 2. Categorical and Block Grants C. Devolution 1. The Republican Revolution 2. Devolution, Judicial Style IV. The......

Words: 3398 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

A Critical Assessment on Nigerian Federalism: Path to a True Federal System

...ASSESSMENT ON NIGERIAN FEDERALISM: PATH TO A TRUE FEDERAL SYSTEM BY: IRABOR PETER ODION 07037830536 DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL STUDIES, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECHNICAL) POTISKUM, YOBE STATE BEING A PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 4TH ANNUAL NATIONAL CONFERENCE ORGANISED BY COLLEGES OF EDUCATION ACADEMICS STAFF UNION (COEASU) FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECHNICAL) POTISKUM CHAPTER HELD AT I.B.B HALL F.C.E (T) POTISKUM, YOBE STATE 31ST OCTOBER, 2011-4TH NOVEMBER 2011   ABSTRACT  It is no gain saying that Nigeria is one of those countries that operates a federal system of government along side with the western world. Given the territorially delineated cleavages abounding in Nigeria and the historical legacy of division among ethnic groups, regions, and sections, the federal imperative was so fundamental that even the military government- characteristically Unitarian, hierarchical, and centralist- attached importance to the continuation of a federal system of government. But it must be said here that, while the system benefit most western countries, the reverse is the case for Nigeria considering the high level of political instability, ethnic crisis, and ethno/religious crisis among others The reason is not far fetch; Nigeria is operating a federal system in an awkward manner and this has make frictions and clashes possible which are currently posing a threat to her political development. To this end, this paper seeks to analyze Nigerian federalism from......

Words: 6625 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

How Has Dual Federalism Changed

...Federalism is the process by which two or more governments share power over the same geographic area(About the US Government System of Federalism and How It Works). Normally the two governments are the National government and the State(s) government. Federalism has changed a lot over the years; starting from Dual Federalism and ending with New Federalism. A common, simple way that Federalism is explained is through cake and a game of tug-a-war. The State(s) government on one side and the National government on the other side.(New Federalism) Dual Federalism is also known as divided sovereignty political arrangement, in which power is divided between the federal and state government. “This stage got its name “dual federalism” because the functions...

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...BOOK Arguably, New Federalism paved the way toward yet another phase, which has come to be referred to as the era of unfunded mandates. An unfunded mandate works very similarly to Creative Federalism. The national government decides it wants to create a program and then expects the states to comply, but in this case it does not provide the states with the needed funding. The states are then forced to pay for nationally mandated programs on their own. Another example of an unfunded mandate is No Child Left Behind, a law passed by Congress in 2002 that requires schools to meet certain educational outcomes, as usually demonstrated through standardized tests. The law expanded the federal government's role in education, which had traditionally been a state function. The law also requires states to demonstrate academic progress in their schools; provide the federal government with a range of information (a report card) on things like student achievement and performance by school districts; ensure that teachers meet minimum qualifications; and annually test students in grades three through eight in English and mathematics (with other subjects to be added later). The issue of unfunded mandates has been a contentious one. Critics claim that it forces states to spend money they do not have. They also claim that it forces them to pursue policies they do not necessarily agree with or at least do not consider a priority. To this extent, it distorts their priorities As an example,......

Words: 2108 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...FEDERALISM, THE FIRST 215 YEARS 1 The Evolution of Federalism and How it has Shaped American Behavior as well as how State and Federal Relationships Influence our Policies Steven M Professor Tracy POL110040VA016-1154-01 (US Government) May 9th, 2015 FEDERALISM, THE FIRST 215 YEARS 2 Abstract This paper will examine the evolution of Federalism from its’ beginnings to what we see in place today. Before we get to far though, let’s define Federalism. Longley (n.d.) stipulates that “Federalism is the process by which two or more governments share powers over the same geographic area.” For us in the states, this would be representative of the powers held by the Federal and State governments. We will also examine factors of Federalism that have shaped American behavior as well as covering how the relationships between the Federal Government and the states influences the foundation of American policies. FEDERALISM, THE FIRST 215 YEARS 3 The Evolution of Federalism and how it has Shaped American Behavior as well as how State and Federal Relationships Influence......

Words: 1683 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Significance of Federalism

...Assess the significance of Federalism. The founding fathers had to make a compromise that would satisfy the 13 independent colonies, meanwhile providing a secure central base. This resulted in The United States government adopting federalism. Even though federalism isn’t mentioned in the constitution, the principles of federalism are mentioned in various articles. For example article 1 section 8 displays the power available to congress. It contains the ‘elastic clause’ that potentially gives the federal government so much power over the states. And the amendments provide a list of ‘can’t do’s’ for the states. For example states can’t enter into treaties with foreign powers. As the aspects of federalism is displayed in the codified constitution, signifies the importance for the US to collectively follow this system. However, Federalism is a method of government that also allows the states to maintain their sovereignty, without the fear of intervention of the central government, unless they violate or clash with the constitution. This is evident as each state has its own constitution and its own executive, legislature and judiciary all working within the limits set by the national constitution; executive; legislature and judiciary. An example of a state constitution that has relevant articles to its needs is Idaho. For instance in their constitutions article 16, section 1 the constitution talks of the need for the Idaho legislature to pass laws that protect livestock from......

Words: 2060 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

His 301 Week 1 Quiz Assignments

...HIS 301 Week 1 Quiz 1. During what era of the Court did the justices dramatically expand the liberty protections afforded to individuals under the Fourth Amendment? • New Deal Era • Rehnquist Court • Taney Court • Warren Court 2. Which model of federalism maintains the theory that the national government and the state governments are coequal sovereigns? • Competitive federalism • Cooperative federalism • Dual Federalism • Hierarchical federalism Click here to download HIS 301 Week 1 Quiz 3. Under the leadership of which of the following Chief Justices did the Supreme Court render many decisions advancing civil liberties, especially in the criminal context? • Warren • Rehnquist • Marshall • Jay 4. Assume that a state and the federal government hold concurrent jurisdiction over an issue and furthermore, both have enacted statutes to regulate the subject. However, the state statute is contrary to the federal law. The state law is • Invalid as preempted by the federal law under the Supremacy Clause. • Valid. • Invalid as preempted by the Necessary and Proper Clause. • Invalid as violating the dormant Commerce Clause. Want to see the complete Quiz..?? Click HIS 301 Week 1 Quiz Assignments 5. In which era did the Court begin to expand the powers of the federal government? • Rehnquist Court • Marshall Court • Pre-New Deal • Taney Court Want to check out the complete......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Did John Locke Influence The Constitution

...Dual federalism is when the states have their own responsibilities and the national government has their own responsibilities because it comes based from the tenth amendment where “All powers not constitutionally given to the federal government are reserved to the states”. In dual federalism the state would handle state matters and the federal government would handle national matters. By the 1930’s the New Deal policies and etc. came in and were used to improve the economy after 1937 Cooperative federalism came into play. In cooperative federalism both the State Government and State Government cooperate with each other to address social problems. Cooperative Federalism helped power struggles between the state and national government. Cooperative Federalism was used until the 1970’s when Creative Federalism started but to this day Cooperative federalism is still seen when it comes to welfare, health, education, highway safety and the...

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Survey of American Government

...Brittany Meppelink Survey of American Government Analysis #1 Summary of “Obama and the Death of Federalism” In the article, “Obama and the Death of Federalism”, Robert Robb stated that today, the lines between federal government and the state and local governments are hopelessly blurred together. The Democratic and Republican Parties acquire nothing good of the federal government in today’s society. During the presidency of Ronald Reagan, Reagan wanted to organize the blob- the state government operated as service delivery mechanisms for the federal social welfare programs resulting in no political accountability- with his new federalism plan. Sadly no agreements were made, so the plan never processed through. To this day, President Obama proposes to feed the blob. Between the state and local communities, they have more knowledge and insight on how to do things efficiently and correctly than the federal government. In conclusion, the federal government is broke resulting in harming the American economy. Reaction of “Obama and the Death of Federalism” This article made me very upset. Why do we have a federal government when all its doing is threatening the American economy and being selfish about its self rather than contributing to the state and local governments? Robert Robb makes a good point when he stated “if there’s loose change to be had… reduce the deficit, not further expand its reach.” I think if the federal government wants to shape up then it......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...particular institutions and individuals and define how they are to be used – Protect against the concentration of political power in one institution or individual – Define the limits of political power 3 The Role of a State Constitution: Influence of U.S. Constitution • Texas’s constitution is heavily influenced by the U.S. Constitution – Political power is derived from the people – Both constitutions feature a separation of powers • Legislative, executive, and judicial branches – A system of checks and balances limits the powers of each branch, as a way to protect against tyranny – Certain individual rights must not be violated 4 The Role of a State Constitution: How U.S. Constitution Is Different • The idea of federalism is also embodied in the constitutions of the U.S. and Texas • Important differences distinguish the two – Supremacy clause: the U.S. Constitution and federal laws are the supreme law of the land – Necessary and proper clause: the federal government has all the authority it needs to carry out its powers 5 The First Texas Constitutions • Six different constitutions governed the state prior to the current constitution • Each reflects different national priorities, different issues of the time, and the different values of the writers 6...

Words: 2242 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Federalism and No Child Left Behind

...Federalism is the foundation of our government. Our text states, “Federalism is commonly defined as a system of government in which an overarching government operates at the national level and shares its sovereign power and authority with various subnational governments (Lemay, 2006, pg 87). Federalism is further described as both a political and structural arrangement. There are varying approaches to Federalism as well as different models. Federalism has changed over the years as far as how much the “overarching” government has to do with the “subnational governments”. One such area is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, aka NCLB. Many articles and books state that the No Child Left Behind Act was or is the most monumental education change or education initiative taken in decades (Simpson and Patricia). There are arguments for NCLB and against, and has been a hot bed for debate since the enactment of the legislation in 2002 by President G. W. Bush. Before we look at the pro and con argument of NCLB we must first understand what the change was for. The legislation was based on four simple principles; • Shift control to local and state districts • Increase accountability of schools • Increase funding of academic programs • Increase flexibility in school choice for parents It should be noted that each of these has many facets to them and are not simple by nature. The NCLB has mandated varying aspects in order to for the principles to apply. I will first look......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Has Federalism Evolved

...How has federalism evolved? Federalism is defined as state and federal governments sharing power meaning that the exercise of power is by at least two levels of government within the same country. In the case of the United States of America, power is shared between the national government and the subsidiary government. Federalism has been constantly changing especially through the twentieth century until the present day with power shifting between state and the national government. Such free-flowing shifts of power is often critically debated as some states may resist national policy that does not affect their citizens favourably. For example, people living in mountainous and extremely rural areas often blame the federal government for their economic woes as national economic policy is not flexible enough to cater for the great diversity across the country and so would prefer for more power to lie with the state. The argument against more state power however is the case of ensuring civil rights for all, as in the 1960s the national government introduced civil rights for blacks which was heavily resisted by the Southern states. A positive feature of federalism is that constant shifts allows more pragmatic policy making. If proposers of a policy feel it will not be accepted at state level it will be decided at a national level and similarly the opposers of a policy may prefer using state veto to prevent it being passed. This explains why throughout the twentieth century,......

Words: 1546 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Assess the Significance of Federalism in the Usa

...Federalism is a system of government where power is distributed between local and nation government. In the USA, it is split between state governments and national (federal) government. This system of government was introduced to the USA in the Constitution. The Founding Fathers wanted to unite the states without giving the federal government, or any individual state, too much power. As this was not the case when the states were under the control of Britain, or under the Articles of Confederation, it was seen as very important when writing the constitution. In contrast, the UK is traditionally a unitary state with all laws for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales all being decided in Westminster. However, UK government could now be described as quasi-federal after large devolution to the Northern Ireland and Wales Assemblies, the Scottish Parliament, and the European Union. From 1780 to 1920, federalism was how it was laid out in the constitution, and is now described as ‘dual federalism’. States had the most power, because the constitution stated that the “powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” This meant that the federal government were only involved in matters strictly mentioned by the Constitution. This is illustrated by the fact that at the time of President Washington, there were only three federal departments: the Treasury, War, and State.......

Words: 1151 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Federalism Defined, Pros & Cons

...Federalism is also known as a division of governmental power. With Federalism all government offices work for the people and not one another. Created by our founding fathers this system was designed to ensure that all people of this country would be assured to the freedoms of which we hold so dear, but also to ensure that no one person could become a tyrant. On the other hand the federal government does have some powers over the States, and Cities, yet these are inherited as history has shown us giving states free range is not always the best idea. The civil war is a great example of where states wanting to succeed from the USG, allowing them to not adhere to any of the constitutional laws enacted by Congress, such as the abolition of slavery, and their desire to create their own currency. By spreading the power between the federal government, and local government the citizens are encouraged to stay active in their government, and the policies they put in to place.  Some of the benefits of federalism includes a lot of which many people may take for granted. Our highway system is one that everyone benefits from. Even if they do not drive, any goods they may purchase from a store, was transported on these highways. If this was left up to the states to govern, then we could be driving on one side of the road in one state, and have to switch over to the other side when entering a different state. With our federal government financing our highway system they make sure that......

Words: 459 - Pages: 2