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Transformational leadership in nursing practice
Owen Doody and Catriona M Doody
Traditionally, nurses have been over-managed and led inadequately, yet today they face unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Organisations constantly face changes that require an increasingly adaptive and flexible leadership. This type of adaptive leadership is referred to as ‘transformational’; under it, environments of shared responsibilities that influence new ways of knowing are created. Transformational leadership motivates followers by appealing to higher ideas and moral values, where the leader has a deep set of internal values and ideas. This leads to followers acting to sustain the greater good, rather than their own interests, and supportive environments where responsibility is shared. This article focuses on transformational leadership and its application to nursing through the four components of transformational leadership. These are: idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; and individual consideration. Key words: Transformational leadership n Nursing n Motivation n Staff support n Personal qualities ffectivenursingleadershipisavehiclethroughwhich healthcare delivery and consumer demands can be fulfilled. Traditionally, nurses were over-managed andinadequatelyled;theynowfaceunprecedented challengesandopportunities(BowlesandBowles,2000). Thenotionofleadershipisconstantlychanging,withmany theoriesandframeworksavailable.Today’sorganisationsface ever-increasingchange,whichneedsamoreadaptiveflexible leadershipthatisbecomingincreasinglyimportantinthe21st century(Thyer,2003;Jooste,2004;Ralston,2005).Bass(1985) labelled this type of adaptive leadership as transformational, under which environments of shared responsibilities that influencenewwaysofknowingarecreated(Trofino,2000). TransformationalleadershipwasfirstdefinedbyDownton (1973) but it was the work of Burns (1978) that gained most currency. Burns distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership, feeling that one prohibits theotherandthattheyareatoppositeendsofacontinuum (Gellis, 2001; Judge and Piccolo, 2004). However, good
OwenDoodyisLecturer,DepartmentofNursingandMidwifery attheUniversityofLimerick,IrelandandCatrionaMDoodyis RegisteredIntellectualDisabilityNurseattheDaughtersofCharity Service,Ireland Accepted for publication: July 2012

Abstract

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leaders demonstrate both transactional and transformational characteristics(JudgeandPiccolo,2004),requiringamarriage of both styles complementing and enhancing each other (Bryant,2003;Rolfe,2011). Transformational leadership is a process that motivates followersbyappealingtohigherideasandmoralvalueswhere theleaderhasadeepsetofinternalvaluesandideasandis persuasiveatmotivatingfollowerstoactinawaythatsustains thegreatergoodratherthantheirowninterests(Burns,1978). Transformational leaders make it safe for staff to risk and extendtheboundariesofthinkinganddoing,creatingample conditions for energy, creativity and innovation to emerge (Porter-O’Grady, 1997), where supportive environments of sharedresponsibilityarecreated(Ward,2002;Bally,2007). Transformational leadership is viewed as the most effectivemodelofleadershipbecause,whileitrecognisesthe importance of rewards, it goes further to satisfy the higher needs of the follower by engaging this person emotionally andintellectually(Surakka,2008). This article focuses on transformational leadership and its application to nursing through the four components of transformational leadership identified by Bass (1995; 1998), Hall et al (2002) and Barbuto (2005): idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; andindividualconsideration.

Idealised influence
Idealisedinfluencebuildsconfidence,admiration,respectand trust(Bassetal,2003),providingemployeeswithasenseof mission (Northouse, 2010). For this to occur, nurse leaders needtoberolemodelswhotheirstaffseektoemulate(Hay, 2006;Iliesetal,2012).Whenaleaderisarolemodelforstaff, itbecomeslesslikelythattherewillberesistancetochangeor newinitiativesthataretobeimplemented(Wangetal,2011). Thisidealisedinfluencecanbeencapsulatedinthephilosophy andethosoftheservice/unitanditsmissionstatement.The leadershouldideallyinvolvestaff,familiesandserviceusersin thedesignandimplementationofthesestatements. However, even with this shared vision, leaders as role modelsmayfinditdifficulttoinvolveothersinthemission statement.Historically,staffwerepromotedontheirseniority, abilitytomirrorelementsofsupervisorsandtoconformto rules and regulations of the organisation (Porter-O’Grady, 1992).This historic selection process allowed for continuity and posed little threat to the viability of organisations; as mostmanagerswithinthissystemgainedtheirexpertiseand skill on the job, there was a tendency for them to reflect the existing hierarchical approach (Porter-O’Grady, 1992;

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PROFESSIONAL ISSUES
Murphy,2005).Tounderstandthepresentandfutureofnurse management, we need to understand its past and recognise someorganisationsareonlynowmovingbeyondtheeffects ofthishistoricprocess. Justasnursesneedtocontinuouslyupdatetheirknowledge andactfromanevidence-basedapproachratherthanpractice wisdom(DoodyandDoody,2011),thesameistruewhenit comes to nursing leaders. For nurse leaders to be effective, they have to be charismatic; charisma is based on personal attributessuchascharm,persuasiveness,self-confidenceand extraordinary ideas that arouse affection and commitment to the vision and goals to which the leader aspires (Ward, 2002; Sullivan and Decker, 2009). Nurse leaders should be admired for their high moral standing and sense of mission (Bass,1995;Northouse,2010).Thiscanbeexhibitedintheir approach and consistency in approach when managing staff andstaffissues. Within nursing, there are leaders at many levels, such as those in direct leadership roles at a unit level and those in higherleadershiprolesataservicelevel.Thiscanoftenleadto conflict and control-seeking, especially when final decisions need to be made.While staff ideas are transmitted through the direct leadership roles, it can place direct leaders in a vulnerablepositionwhentheyarestrivingtomeettheneeds ofstaffandclients,butarerestrictedbytheupperleaderswho have a greater emphasis on the strategic and organisational issues;thisoftenresultsinactionsanddecisionsbeingblocked due to budgetary constraints or other matters of which the directleaderisunawareof.Whiledirectleadersofferguidance and support to their staff, they are in a difficult position as theyhavetobalancethesupportrequiredbystaffwiththeir own vision and goals with how these fit with the overall organisation leadership style, vision and goals (Casida and Parker, 2011).They have to be confident and communicate their vision to staff while also identifying the constraints withintheirrolewhenasharedvisionrunsintodifficulty. theories(SullivanandGarland,2010).Contenttheoriesfocus on individual needs and what satisfies these needs. Perhaps the best known is Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs, under which satisfaction of needs on one level activates a needatthehigherlevel.Organisationsthatofferpermanent, part-time and job-sharing roles to create a family-friendly workplaceincreasejobsatisfactionandhavestaffwhostrive for a connective relationship to the service (Sullivan and Decker, 2009). Process theories emphasise how motivation workstosteeranindividualintoperformance,helpingleaders to predict employee behaviour in certain circumstances. Examples include reinforcement theory, equity theory and goal-setting theory (Sullivan and Decker, 2009). Nurse leadersneedtosupportin-serviceeducationandtrainingfor alllevelsofstaffinvolvedincareprovision,basedonidentified needs and continuing education development relevant to areasofpractice.Also,nurseleadersshouldensurethatallnew membersofstaffaregivenanorientationperiodtotheunit, itsvision,goalsandexpectations. Theremaybenocorrecttheoryofmotivation,soleaders should combine theories so their effects complement each other (Moody and Pesut, 2006). Leaders should move out of the realm of pure staff motivation, adopting inspirational leadershipasitinfusesanintrinsicdrivefuelledbyahigher purpose, creating enthusiasm and passion, driving staff independently to achieve the goals of the organisation (Salanovaetal,2011).Tobeinspirational,nurseleadersneed to paint a flowery vision of the future that is more fantasy thanreality(Bass,1997),wherefollowersmaybepersuaded tosacrificetheirownvaluesforthebenefitoftheorganisation orleader(BassandSteidlmeier,2006). However, few nursing leaders are truly inspirational, as their leadership skills are formed on the basis of traditional hierarchical systems and practice wisdom (Bishop, 2009). Whiletheystriveforeffectivemotivation,leadershiptraining needstooccurtoresultinacascadingeffecttosubordinates (OshagbemiandGill,2004;BassandRiggio,2006).Employees inaninspiredservicefeelpassionateabouttheethosandthe significance of their work contribution (Moody and Pesut, 2006),wheredutybecomespleasureandpleasureismerged withduty(Maslow,2000;Salanovaetal,2011).

Inspirational motivation
Inspirational motivation involves encouraging others to achieve the goals and aspirations of the organisation while alsoachievingtheirownaims(Bally,2007). Motivation is, without doubt, an important element of healthcare, as motivation affects performance and client care (Sullivan and Decker, 2009). Leaders communicate high expectations to employees, inspiring them through motivationtosharethevisionoftheorganisation(Northouse, 2010;Carney,2011). Nurseleadersshouldensurefrontlinestaffarerepresented on committees where executive decisions are made in an organisation. There is a tendency in some organisations to equate direct leaders as representative of frontline staff; however, as identified earlier, these leaders have difficulties balancing all perspectives. Ensuring frontline staff are representedoncommitteesprovidesresponsibilitiesaswellas opportunities for learning new skills and to be empowered (Laschingeretal,2003;Scherbetal,2011). While many authors have examined motivation and have developedtheoriesaboutit,thesecanbegenerallybedivided into two distinct groups: content theories; and process

Intellectual stimulation
Intellectual stimulation encourages staff innovation, challenging the beliefs of staff, the leader and service (Northouse, 2010).Transformational leaders encourage the proposalofnewideasempoweringstafftoapproachproblems in new ways using evidence-based practice (Barbuto, 2005; Gheith,2010). Library, computer and IT facilities should be available, which will reinforce continuing learning to enhance client care and promote best practice. A central consideration of transformational leadership is the formal and informal education/learning of all staff (Dignam et al, 2012) to adjust and keep knowledge in line with service and client expectations(GovernmentofIreland,1998)andtoencourage stafftobeinnovative(Northouse,2010).Practiceneedstobe evidence-basedratherthan‘howwealwaysdidit’(AnBord Altranais,2000).

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Even though organisations may encourage and support further education informally or formally, there is often no onus on nurses to share their learning with other team members who are not in a position to undertake studies. Therefore, the direct nurse leader should ensure that staff who undertake studies and courses share their knowledge with the team and provide articles or leaflets to support evidence-based practice (Clegg, 2000).While this may be difficult to implement in practice, responsibility should be placedonnurseswhoreceiveformalsupporttodisseminate information and knowledge through presentations and methods.Thisisessential,orteammembersmayfeeldevalued in comparison with the‘elite’ nurse, who receives support; staffwillseethisdisseminationasameansofsupportingtheir advancementwithintheircareerpathway. While intellectual stimulation is desirable, in the long term, continuously striving to create new ways of doing things runs the risk of staff stress and burnout (Wang et al, 2011).Additionally, a high employee turnover can result in long-term staff being a part of a motivational chain that is continuously being broken by lack of continuity and familiarityofteammembers(Force,2005).

Individualised consideration
Within individualised consideration, leaders encourage and support individuals to reach higher levels of achievement, assisting full actualisation (Northouse, 2010), by the leader

Table 1. Leadership competencies
Sofarelli and Brown (1998) 1. Management of attention 2. Management of meaning 3. Management of trust 4. Management of self Contino (2004) 1. Organisational management Managing Managing ■ Managing ■ Managing ■ Managing
■ ■

time information human resources change revenue and expenses

2. Communication/communication skills Communicating Communicating ■ Communicating ■ Communicating
■ ■

vision organisational structure continuous learning change

3. Analysis and strategic planning Analysis of internal data Drawing up strategy for external opportunities ■ Drawing up strategy for effective decision-making ■ Analysis for change strategy and drawing this up ■ Drawing up strategy for a business plan
■ ■

4. Creation/vision Creating opportunity for employees Creating value for your customers ■ Creating quality through continuous improvement and error reduction ■ Creating relationships with strategic partners
■ ■

acting in an advisory capacity. However, self-actualisation is difficultandoftenunachievable(Northouse,2010). Leaderswithinorganisationsshouldcareforstaffandthere shouldbeastrongsenseoftheleaderactinginasupportive role,especiallyintimesofneed,asleadershaveadutyofcare fortheirstaff.Supportcantakeplacethroughregularpositive feedbackandstaffappraisals;ifthesearenotconducted,staff can become devalued and effective members can become tired of carrying other team members, leading to high absenteeism (Weberg, 2010). Leaders who provide positive feedback regarding performance increase self-esteem and performance (Riahi, 2011).Within the appraisal system, the nurse leader should look to draw up personal development plans,alongwithpeerreviewsand360°evaluations(Kerfoot, 2002). Compared to the traditional, singular, top-down method, 360° evaluations are believed to allow for a true evaluationofallteammembersinaconstructiveandeffective manner. However, they are time consuming, resourceintensive and should be treated with great caution.While thisformatisintendedtoalloweachmembertocontribute to the appraisal in an open manner and support open and effective teamworking, unless the aim, ground rules and appropriate facilitation mechanism are in place they can be counterproductive. Empowerment is one of the fundamental components of the transformational leader (Bowles and Bowles, 2000) whereby staff self-efficacy is increased, enabling them to completeworkmoresuccessfully(Tomey,2009).Productive leadersmustoperatethroughoutalllevelsoftheorganisation for empowerment to be effective (Laschinger et al, 2003). An empowerment strategy comprises many leadership competencies.Table 1listssomestrategiesintheliterature. Direct nurse managers can empower staff by holding team meetings regularly, where staff of each grade in the nursing team have the opportunity to voice their opinions and collectively create goals and strategies to deliver client care with greater effectiveness that is aligned with the organisation’s vision and mission. Duty rotas can become the responsibility of the team; this can make staff aware of the priority of the unit and the safe delivery of care with adequate staff levels.This empowers staff to take ownership fortheeffectivemanagementandefficiencyoftheunitfrom aday-to-dayperspective.Ithasbeensaidthatbecausedirect managersaremoreinvolvedinclientcarethantopmanagers, they have a greater knowledge of the goals and strategies that could improve care, contributing significantly to the aspirationsoftheorganisation(Dohertyetal,2010). The Royal College of Nursing (RCN, 2009) found an absence of agreed role definitions and role conflict existed because nurse leaders were constantly balancing different aspects of their role, while lacking formal preparation and skill development. While direct leaders have theoretical responsibility for the standard of nursing care, they lack authority to guarantee this (Bradshaw, 2010). The RCN (2009) recommended supernumerary status, titles that give clearidentity,anappropriateauthoritystructureandsupport, with the restoration of the traditional supernumerary, authoritative,ward-sisterrole. However,duetothehierarchyandbureaucracyinnursing,

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PROFESSIONAL ISSUES this may be difficult; nursing does not promote freedom or professional latitude and hence impedes innovation by nurse leaders (Clegg, 2001; Kuokkanen and Leino-Kilpi, 2001;Murphy,2005).Empowermentnecessitatesservicesto construct a supportive environment that values nurses and involves them in strategic, operational matters promoting opportunitiesforlearningandchanging,whichencompasses personalandserviceeffectiveness(DepartmentofHealthand Children,2004). Optimising team performance is a central matter for the transformationalleader(Riahi,2011).Nurseleadersneedto bemoreexpressive,forexample,throughwordsofthanksor praise, fair workload distributions, and individualised career planning,mentoringandprofessionaldevelopmentactivities tomotivatefollowersindividually(Simic,1998;Raffertyand Griffin,2004).

Table 2. Qualities of transactional nurse leaders
Sofarelli and Brown, (1998)
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Contino (2004)
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Conclusion
Overall, transformational leadership is favoured as leaders have the power to produce future generations of successful leaderswhohavetheproficiencytocreateeffectivesolutions tosomeoftheprofession’smostcrucialissues(Ward,2002). Balancing complex demands in unstable environments is attheheartofformulatinghealthierhealthcareorganisations that provide the quality of care that clients, families and communities deserve (Dixon, 1999). Leaders need to be knowledgeableandcompetentinstrategicplanning,sotheir efforts may be received and acknowledged at senior levels (Murphy,2005).Whiletransformationalleadershipiseffective regardless of culture, the level of effectiveness depends to some extent on cultural values (Spreitzer et al, 2005). Whereeffectivenessisseenastherelationshipbetweenone’s objectivesandoutputs,themoretheseoutputscontributeto theobjectives,themoreeffectivetheunitis(Surakka,2008) Whilemotivationandempowermentaredesirablewithin organisations, their level needs to be in line with the expertise of the workforce.Transactional leadership within nursing has to be considered in relation to the experience andcapabilitiesoftheindividual,astheremaybeoccasions wherealeaderisrequiredtointervenebeforemistakesoccur. This may be necessary to uphold best practice, safeguard clientsandcomplywithlegalresponsibilities;thisrecognises theleadershipthatenhanceseffectivenessmostisamarriage betweenbothtransactionalandtransformational(Stordeuret al,2000).Questionsarisewithinanorganisation,suchas:can we be highly orientated towards achievement while at the sametimebeinghighlyorientatedtowardsstaffwellbeing?It ispossiblethatmanyserviceprovidersviewthesetwogeneral domainsoforganisationalcultureasbeingadversarial(Hatton etal,1999).However,itmaybethatacultureofpromoting staff wellbeing would result in a greater willingness on the part of staff to aim to achieve a high-quality service. Future nurse leaders need to acknowledge and value staff contributions, within flexible work environments that are family-friendly. Continuingeducationneedstobeaccessibleandequitable forall.Performancereviewsshouldbealignedwithpersonal development plans for each staff member; these should acknowledgeeveryperson’scontributionsandareasforfuture

Clear purpose, expressed simply Value-driven Strong role model High expectations Persistent Self-knowing Perpetual desire for learning Love work Lifelong learners Identify themselves as change agents Enthusiastic Able to attract and inspire others Able to deal with complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity

Emotionally mature Courageous Risk-taker Risk-sharing Visionary Unwilling to believe in failure Sense of public need Listens to all viewpoints to develop spirit of co-operation Mentoring Effective communicator Considerate of the personal needs of employees Strategic

Sources: Tichy and Devanna (1986); Hall et al (2002); Stone et al (2004).

development that are aligned with the organisational vision andmission. Educationofleadersneedstooccurtoassistthechangeand developmentofleadershipwithinhealthcare,andanyaudits of practice should include leadership audits.It isimperative that creative, passionate, effective individuals with vision,  whowillchallengetheservice,arerecruitedanddeveloped withinservices. Although the four dimensions of transformational leadership are interdependent, they must coexist to yield performance beyond expectations (Hall et al, 2002; Kelly, 2003).Transformational leaders are people who can create significantchangeinbothfollowersandtheorganisationwith whichtheyareassociated(Griffin,unpublishedobservations, 2003).They lead changes in mission, strategy, structure and culture,inpartthroughafocusonintangiblequalitiessuch as vision, shared values and ideas, and relationship-building. They do this by articulating the vision in a clear and appealingmanner,explaininghowtoattainthevisions,acting with confidence and optimistically, expressing confidence in the followers, emphasising values with symbolic actions, leadingbyexample,andempoweringfollowerstoachievethe vision(Stoneetal,2004).Toachievethis,nurseleadersmust possessspecificqualitiesidentifiedinTable 2.  BJN Conflict of interest: none
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Key pOInTS n Transformational

leadership recognises the importance of rewards, but goes further to satisfy the emotional and intellectual needs of staff leaders create supportive environments where responsibility is shared and staff feel safe to take risks to become creative and innovate has four components: idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; individual consideration leaders have to be confident and communicate their vision to staff while acknowledging organisational constraints nurse leadership is now required by organisations, but this has been restricted by hierarchy and bureaucracy, and because nursing has not promoted professional latitude is needed to encourage the development of leadership

n Transformational

n It

n Transformational

n Adaptive

n Education

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...English 102 04/18/13 Road to Success Once, the American educational system was viewed as the best in the world. Other countries would study our methods and try to copy them in their own countries. Today the American education system is no longer the best in the world. With decreasing test scores and poor academic achievement, people have questioned why there have not been any changes in our education system. It’s important for the upcoming generation to get an education and take back the number one rank in public education. It should be the major concern for this country, because children are the future of this country. Other industrialized countries are ranking higher in test standardized test scores compared to the U.S. Because the educational systems of other countries are better than ours, we could learn from their educational successes. The United States could benefit from implementing three things; better teacher training, emphasis math & science, and create a system of academic student tracking. America is the land of the free and the land of many opportunities. It’s a place where many people from around the world come to have a better life. America has many opportunities to offer, but it lacks on one thing, a comprehensive education system. Each year America is falling behind other countries and it’s getting worse as time goes on. The only thing we were number one in is having the most medals in the London Olympics. Furthermore, in a recent study done......

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...variation in unemployment rates among states is in response to the minimum wage of those states. States with minimum wage legislation that set the minimum wage higher than the federal minimum wage of $5.15 per hour will have a higher unemployment rate than states whose minimum wage legislation is the same as the federal minimum wage of $5.15 per hour. Simply stated, as minimum wage increases, unemployment rates will also increase. I also hypothesize that states with lower education levels well have a higher unemployment rate than states with higher education levels. Education levels are defined, for the purpose of this study, as the percent of the population with specific degrees achieved. As more of the population gets more education in any given state, unemployment rates will decrease. Significance of Question The obvious importance of this question applies to economists and legislatures of individual states. The conclusions of this data could affect change in current minimum wage legislation and education requirements that states have in place. But it is important outside that realm as well. The question goes back to national statistics and policies. If the conclusions are statistically significant, legislatures on a national level could look at the current federal legislation, referendums and initiatives, in hopes of lowering the national unemployment rates, which include the state numbers addressed in this paper. Unemployment rates are something that every......

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...Introduction: Entering the education field has been a very motivated decision for me. This particular decision is completely based on the former experience I had had all the way to the moment I decided I will connect my future with it. Nowadays, when parents are very busy the workers of the educational field are the people, who teach the young generation what is beautiful and what is ugly, what is right and what is wrong and million other things. Every person some day used to be an ordinary pupil that had teachers. The schooling experience of every person may develop either positive or negative attitude towards education in general. It is a fact of common knowledge that one of the most important parts in the educational process is the teacher. Choosing the education field has to be connected with a “calling” of a person, because it requires a lot of professional and personal qualities and constant self-perfection. My personal experience in school taught me that a teacher could really make a difference in the process of education. A teacher may develop respect to the subject, to the teacher’s personality and to the education in general. A pupil may even see the difference in the manner of explaining and presenting the material teaching the same subject. I discovered this difference when I had a substitute teacher coming to class and making my most hated subject one of the most interesting in the whole school program. I decided that I do want to make children love teaching......

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...Education Introduction: Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology. The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twain's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have a profound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — though family teaching may function very informally. Etymology: The word "education" derives from the Latin educare, meaning "to nourish" or "to raise". Education systems: Schooling occurs when society or a group or an individual sets up a......

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...Education is culture, and different educations show different societies’ culture. Americans regard education as the means by which the inequalities among individuals are to be erased and by which every desirable end is to be achieved. While Chinese education is for foundation education, but students may be not learn much. But all in all, different education systems account for the different phenomenon, because different society backgrounds and different culture helps human create a different country in the world. The different society structure plays an important part in the education system. In China, all those who can enter the University have received an elite education and before enrollment they have devoted themselves to hard studying. Therefore, they are good at getting high marks on mathematics, psychics and so on. However, they are lack of chances to practice skills in real world thus having no social experiences. In that case, after graduation, most students find it difficult to find a satisfactory job though many of them get a job through the relationship net. While in America, the education system pays more attention to social skills than to marks .Students have developed the ability to be independence in life and work. After university, they show great capability of thinking, innovation and creation which make them keep pace with the modern world. They are competent for the challenging work and can gain a good job in America with ease. There is a huge......

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...Education "Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your confidence." The above cliché can be regarded as one of the best definitions on education which sums up the essence of this so-called concept. Generally, individuals believe that a person who enters a university with their competent knowledge as an educated person who should be honoured and welcomed with open hands. I myself is a university student who is reading for the degree. Through the fleeting period that I stayed at my university, I was truly unfortunate to feel that a bundle of my fellow students are not even able to grasp the true meaning of this so-called concept. It is pathetic that they endeavour to comment on the subject aggressively though they are totally an ignoramus to it. The sole blame should not be put upon them because the certain responsibility for this incapability of accomplishing the apex of education lies on the hands of the authority. Thus in order to devastate this poisonous outcome with its roots, first the authorities should take measures to inculcate the behaviour of a true educated person in the hearts and minds of the students despite the knowledge provided through the study materials. It says that "There is strength in numbers". Without complaints, I too admit that Unity is the most indispensable component to march along the path of life without fear, but it should be perceived that unity does...

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...The ISLLC standards are very vital to the growth of the school leader. An efficient leader is one who knows what to accomplish and how to achieve it. The school leader has to coach the teachers, students, and the community for the ideas that the education community has in store. With all the essential testing that is taking place within the education system; the school leader has to be equipped for the inconceivable. They have to be well-informed and adaptable for the unimaginable. The standards help to strengthen the wisdom and consciousness of the school leader. They guarantee that the leader will be a strong resource to the school. The unwrapping process helped me to enhance my perception of the importance of the standards. The purposes of each standard are very vital to educating forthcoming administrators. The ISLLC standards are very vital to the growth of the school leader. An efficient leader is one who knows what to accomplish and how to achieve it. The school leader has to coach the teachers, students, and the community for the ideas that the education community has in store. With all the essential testing that is taking place within the education system; the school leader has to be equipped for the inconceivable. They have to be well-informed and adaptable for the unimaginable. The standards help to strengthen the wisdom and consciousness of the school leader. They guarantee that the leader will be a strong resource to the school. The unwrapping process......

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...people believe that education is not important, but they are wrong. In my opinion, it is an indispensable part of a personal, social, and professional life of a human being. part of life both personally and socially. It gives us knowledge about the world. Education can be in any form-knowledge from books, parents, teachers, and friends; therefore, education is the form of learning in which skills, knowledge, and habits are transferred from one generation to the next. Senator Patty Murray said, “A good education means learning to read, write and most importantly learn how to learn so that you can be whatever you want to be when you grow up.” There are many reasons why education is important to me. First, thanks to the education I received in school, I learned to read and write. Reading opened the door to learning about math, history, science, literature, geography and much more. Writing allowed me to express myself and communicate with other people. In addition, education provided me with better work opportunities, economic stability, and a more stable life than my parents had because they do not have an education. Education not only prepares me as an individual in the professional field, but also lets me create my personality and become an independent and critical human being. Another reason education is important is because it teaches you to respect diversity, to be tolerant and supportive of others; as a result, I can live in harmony in our society. Education allowed me......

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...April Joy L. Secdeto They say "Education is the key of success". The best to reach our dream is to set our goals and priorities the importants things. And education can give us better life in the future. Dreaming is the easiest part of our life, they say its free to dream, but fulfilling our dreams is the hardest part. It takes time and courage to do it and sometimes you think that you can't or just give up. I never heard someone dreaming of failure or to be unsuccessful, we wish for all the best. I know we all have a dream .... And now where here to step in our dream, I know some of you even me this not the course we want, we have no choice, because its our parents wants for us and because we are a good daughter we follow them, we know parents know the best. Although we don't want this course we took this opportunity to study because we know that this is the key or the only way to our success. For us this just a first step to start. Having seventeen years doing of homework and project is not easy. And i know its not enough to reach my dream. So, don't waste this chance. Through education we can learn more and improve ourselves and through education it helps the formation of characters with desire to become a successful person. Education is not what you learn, it is whay you do with what you learn....

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...Technological Advancement In Education Education Essay Contents Introduction – Thesis statement: Advances in the technology are very helpful in transforming the way people are educated. From the abacus which made teaching math easy millennia back, to word processor which changed the way research paper are being written and presented. The technological progress of humans has a positive impact on education. Technological change has given shape to education from the very beginning, but with the addition of digital revolution it has popularly increased the speed at which education is transforming. From the past 20 years, there have been changes in technological education that few people ever dreamed. . Many colleges and universities have started offering distance learning programs before the discovery of internet where these programs were difficult to find at that time. Due to this reason, many people who lived in villages and towns lack access to these universities and colleges. There is no doubt that technology has greatly involved in our daily lives and mainly when we are talking about education field. There is almost no escaping from the fact which is produced by the researchers. Education has been widely affected by the integration of technologies as it is a fast way to reach mass number of students. Literature Review – There are basically three main theoretical frameworks presented in the educational technology literature which are Behaviorism, Constructivism and......

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... Education is the process of facilitating learning. Knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are transferred to other people, through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves in a process called autodidactic learning. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly and formally divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education. Although education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, attendance at school often isn't, and a minority of parents choose home-schooling, sometimes with the assistance of modern electronic educational technology . Education can take place in formal or informal settings. Etymology Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō from ēdūcō which is related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō . History Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.......

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...Achieving Our Potential The majority of individuals recognize that education allows us to analyze, understand and appreciate our environment while giving us the life skills to survive in this globalized world. According to Merriam’s Dictionary, the definition of education is “any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual.” Although most people have similar ideas as to what education is to them, I learned that not everyone’s opinion is comparable. As a student changes over from middle school to high school, they are given more of a voice because they are able to choose classes, although it is only a select amount. Allowing high school students to select a class gives them the opportunity to explore and learn a different subject. Also, students begin to discover their hidden talents. Tied together, required core classes and the classes students may choose from, help expand their prospect. Also, classes join into each other and benefit one another, sparking student interests and understanding of the classes themselves. I wondered what a high school student’s outlook on education would be and senior, Esther Herrera, gave me her opinion. “I am 17 and I think education is extremely important. I will admit that I do not always find school the most fascinating way to spend my time, but it is necessary.” The students begin to define themselves by the subjects and areas they are most interested in and their desire to......

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...“In many parts of the world today religious education is facing dramatic challenges.” (catholicireland.net, 2012). We live in a world where society is greatly affected by the ways and customs of different religions and cultures. The questioning of the relationship between religion and education in Ireland has been a sizeable debate recently. The increase in immigration etc. has resulted in new and diverse religions and cultures being introduced into Irish society. Naturally this means that change is imminent. When people first heard that I would be studying to become a religious education teacher their reactions were mostly what I had expected. The look on their face said it all for most people. I could tell they were thinking that religious education was not a real subject. That is was merely a subject where you could catch up on homework or sit back, relax and watch a movie. Of course my natural instinct was to defend the subject as I knew why I wanted to and was going to study to become a religious educator. However as I found myself trying to explain, it was challenging to try and find the words to define what the subject is and what it entails. It was difficult to do this without sounding like a “holy joe” as the expression goes. It made me realise that I needed to sit down and think in detail the meaning of religious education and also what I think the future of religious education in Ireland looks like? Will religious education still be a subject in Ireland in years......

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...Education Education is so multifaceted that it is difficult for me to know where to begin discussing it, or how to prioritize the many factors. Relaying my own experience is easy: I had a standard classroom approach, supplemented by inordinate reading. In only the briefest and least memorable instances did I receive any individual tutoring. Education is commonly thought of as the job of schools. Adults cry "educate our children!" Everyone has opinions about the best way to do the job. It is of urgent importance, and all the numerous factors are much studied, debated, and new (or old) ideas continually tested or retested. Some people say "it's as simple as . . . " and then name their pet peeve or passion. My view is not of an education specialist, but of one who loves sharing what I learn, and owes much to educators. Since I don't have an educational theory neatly worked-out, nor an outline of my perceptions, my intent is to address each educational ingredient that comes to my mind. After I've said what I think about each topic, readers may have a fair comprehension of my philosophy. First comes sensitivity. If a person be insensitive, be it from numbing cold, exhaustion, drugs, genetic makeup, or upbringing, then the process of education is bogged down, and results come only after great efforts. Sensitivity in my integrated meaning is broad, covering literally the senses, so that deaf and blind people are less sensitive, as well as people whose senses work......

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