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Journal of Business Research 60 (2007) 277 – 284

Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies
Ana Maria Soares a,⁎, Minoo Farhangmehr a,1 , Aviv Shoham b,2 a School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal b Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel

Received 1 March 2006; received in revised form 1 August 2006; accepted 1 October 2006

Abstract
Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential [Ogden D., Ogden J. and Schau HJ. Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: toward a microcultural perspective. Academy Marketing Science Review
2004;3.]. However culture is an elusive concept posing considerable difficulties for cross-cultural research [Clark T. International Marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. Journal of Marketing 1990; Oct.: 66–79.; Dawar N., Parker P. and Price L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3): 497–516.; Manrai L. and Manrai
A. Current issues in the cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1996; 8 (3/4): 9–22.;
McCort D. and Malhotra NK. Culture and consumer behavior: Toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in International
Marketing. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1993; 6 (2): 91–127.; Nasif EG., Al-Daeaj H., Ebrahimi B. and Thibodeaux M.
Methodological problems in cross-cultural research: An updated review. Management International Review 1991; 31 (1): 79–91.; Lenartowicz T. and Roth K. A framework for culture assessment. Journal of International Business Studies 1999; 30 (4): 781–98.]. This article examines different approaches to...

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