Premium Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By nagrawal681
Words 2228
Pages 9
Business Communication in Government Organization

Organizational communication is an area of study that examines the complex communicative behaviors which occur in organizational settings. Organizational communication occurs when a group of people working together and communicate to each other in order to achieve individual or collective goals. Communication is been considered a functional part of an organizational system and in interpersonal context.

The purpose of organization communication ranges from completing a task or mission to creating and maintaining satisfying human relationships within the organization. The structure of an organization is determined in part by the network of channels or paths along which information must flow between members or sub-units within the organization.

Communication networks in government organization
In the past, the concern of management of large bureaucratic structure such as government organization, in which the major focus of the organizational communication literature, was formal and top-down communication. The government needs systems for controlling the flow of information in order to balance the structure.

Today, informal communication in which is generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication is primarily seen as a potential contribution to effective organizational performance. On-going, dynamic, and non-formal, if not informal, communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern government organizations.

Creating a climate of formal and informal communication
Communication climate can be defined as the internal environment of information exchange among people through an organization's formal and informal networks. Communication climate is open when information flows freely and closed when information is blocked. Open...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Men’s Fashion for the Over 50s Coming Back? * Vintage fashion is having a turn around * Being over 50 doesn’t mean shopping in supermarkets * High Street is bringing back old fashions enjoyed 30 years ago * Shops stocking clothes more suitable for men over 50 * Graphic-Tee’s are a thing of the past As a male do you enjoy going out shopping? The younger generation seem to enjoy fashion a lot more than our generation. It’s proven that more lately, fashion is becoming a thing for over-50 men, appearance is becoming more important to the mature population. The high street is bringing back old fashions that were enjoyed 30 years ago and are still enjoyed today and if you don’t enjoy shopping as a man, there’s always the rise of the internet. Being over 50 doesn’t mean you have to start shopping in supermarkets for your clothing, you want to go back to your youth, without looking like you’re trying to be a teenager. Shops are stocking clothes that are more suitable for mature men. It’s possible to find a vintage looking casual jacket to bring you back to your youth. Suddenly, the older generation are being seen in high street stores that the youthful fashion victims are: Next, Ralph Lauren and Fred Perry are all examples of these. Finally, these clothes are appealing to a wider range of people. Buying clothes from TU at Sainsbury’s and George at Asda is no more and it is more possible to buy clothes that suit everyone needs. Models over 50 are becoming more and more......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


... History of Fraud in America (Edited for use in MBA 590_ NCSU) Bob Jensen at Trinity University Colonial History Earliest "business" fraud in America centered around phony heath cures.  Armstrong and Armstrong (1991) document many of the snake oil ploys that commenced soon after the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. Medical frauds ranging from deceptive medicines to spiritual cures to bloodletting expanded over time to modern day cancer miracle cures and Internet charlatanism. Since early America was largely agricultural, various land schemes accompanied the growing market for deceptive rural living and farming products. As the original 13 colonies were established land was owned by men who had been granted land from the English King. They in turn sold land to individuals and established common areas. Although many of the early dealings were legitimate, it did not take long for land swindles to commence.  Swindlers were either buyers or sellers of land. Victims were often new immigrants and Indians who lived on the land before Colonial times.  One of the best known frauds was the 1626 purchase of Manhattan Island for trinkets valued at 60 guilders (approximately $24).  In this case the Carnarsie Indians from Brooklyn perpetrated the fraud since their land was not even connected to Manhattan Island.  But in most cases it was the white men who cheated the Indians and each other.  Land swindling grew rampant as America......

Words: 7463 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay


...STATE CRIMES PINCOME DROPOUT PUBAID DENSITY KIDS PRECIP UNEMPLOY URBAN 1 4003.1 12604 30.5 6.5 80.8 114 59.4 7.2 60 2 4398.8 19514 26.4 4.3 0.9 593 53.2 9.3 64.3 3 6861.2 14887 30 3.5 30.7 268 7.1 6.3 83.8 4 3796.9 12172 21.4 5.9 46 190 49.2 7.7 51.5 5 5705.7 18855 31.5 8.8 181.2 581 17.3 5.3 91.3 6 5705.7 16417 24 3.7 31.9 317 15.3 6.4 80.6 7 4642.2 22761 21.8 4.3 663.6 486 44.4 3 78.8 8 4347.4 17699 29 4.3 341.7 267 41.4 3.2 70.6 9 7819.9 16546 36.5 4.1 227.8 240 55.2 5 84.6 10 5661.2 14980 35 6.4 109.2 252 48.6 5.8 62.4 11 5731.9 16898 15.5 4.9 170.9 481 23.5 3.2 86.5 12 3738.2 12657 20.4 2.7 12.2 250 11.7 5.8 54 13 4810.4 17611 22.2 7.5 208.7 309 33.3 6.8 83.3 14 3770 14721 24.1 3.6 154.6 263 39.1 5.3 64.2 15 3819.8 14764 13.4 5 50.6 348 38.6 4.5 58.6 16 4514.7 15905 15.9 3.8 30.5 338 28.6 4.8 66.7 17 2804.7 12795 32.1 7 93.9 204 43.6 7.9 50.9 18 5043.3 12193 38.4 8.8 99 167 59.7 10.9 68.7 19 3420.3 14976 21.2 6.5 38.9 370 43.5 3.8 47.5 20 4897.9 19316 23.5 5.1 469.9 329 41.8 4.5 80.3 21 4371.3 20701 24 5.9 752.7 536 43.8 3.3 83.8 22 5342.7 16387 28.6 8.5 162.2 481 31 7.6 70.7 23 4024.7 16787 11.3 4.6 54.1 515 26.4 4 66.9 24 3267.6 10992 34.4 11.1 55.5 119 52.8 8.4 47.3 25 4292.2 15492 23.9 5.5 74.6 264 33.9 5.7 68.1 26 4144 12670 15.5 4.5 5.5 362 11.4 6.8 52.9 27 3866.8 15184 13.3 3.8 20.9 320 30.3 3.6 62.9 28 5672.5 17440 18.7 2.6 9.6 273 4.2 5.2 85.3 29 3186.1 19016 25.4 1.7 120.7 407 36.5 2.4 52.2 30 4712.5 21882 20.3 5.6 1033.9 357 41.9 ......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Patho Case Study

...Signature Assignment: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Case Study Case Study R.S. has smoked for many years and has developed chronic bronchitis, a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He also has a history of coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial vascular disease. His arterial blood gas (ABG) values are pH = 7.32, PaCO2 = 60 mm Hg, PaO2= 50 mm Hg, HCO3- = 30 mEq/L. His hematocrit is 52% with normal red cell indices. He is using an inhaled ß2 agonist and Theophylline to manage his respiratory disease. At this clinic visit, it is noted on a chest x-ray that R.S. has an area of consolidation in his right lower lobe that is thought to be consistent with pneumonia 1) What clinical findings are likely in R.S. as a consequence of his COPD? 2) How would the consequences of the COPD of R.S. (identified in question 1) differ from those of emphysematous COPD? 3) Interpret R.S.’s laboratory results. How would his acid-base disorder be classified? What is the most likely cause of his polycythemia? 4) What is the rationale for treating R.S. with Theophylline and a ß2 agonist? 5) What effects would his respiratory disease have on his cardiovascular function? ANSWERS: 1) 1. And 2. He is likely to have diminished breath sounds. He may or may not have wheezing depending upon the degree of bronchoconstriction and will almost certainly have crackles and bronchial breath sounds over the RLL. Since he is polycythemic and has hypoxemia,......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Reseacherwants Encyclopedia Britanica gggggggggggg rssssssssssssssssssssssfjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjj jjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjj jj jjjj jjjjj jjjjj jjjo eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eee eee eee eee ee ee e eee ef jfjfjfj fjfjfjf jfjfjfjfjfjf jfj fjfjf jfjfjfjfj fjfjfj we we dsf sdg srgr ge gergher yer yery we easf eafa dfsfd sdfsdfsd f sd f sd fs df f df df d f sd fs df sdf sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f sf sd f s fsd fs f d fs df sdf s df sdf sd fs df sdfs fs df s fs f sdf s df s sf sd f sd fs df sdf s f...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Life Is Funny

...didn’t any one to know that her husband was beating her. PPPPPP is always around when she is getting beaten by his dad. He tells his dad to stop, but he doesn’t listen until PPPPP calls the police one day to get rid of his dad. Another incident is when QQQQQ is raped by her dad as a little girl. On weekends she would go over her dads and she would come home crying and sick, because of what he did to her. Her mother never really listened to her, instead she was to busy counting her marbles and working, so her older sister had to tend to her needs and watch over her when she could, and keep up with chores. QQQQQQQ ends up getting pregant at 16 and WWWWW, her sister who is in college, tries to help take care of her along with QQQ new boyfriend, EEEEEE. One more time was with a young Indian girl who had trouble following the rules of her religion. She had made friends with the next door neighbor, GGGGG, who was 22221 years old and she being 33333. She isn’t supposed to be talking to him because he is not a boy in the family. He eventually commits suicide and she thinks it’s all her fault when it isn’t. She can’t talk to anyone about it because she wasn’t suppose to talk to him in the first place. She ends up talking to the guidance councilor, which is against her religion, so she stops meeting with the guidance councilor. 2. Something that came as a surprise to me is how the book came along. Each chapter was about a different person and ended up repeating it self. Each......

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Capital Punishement

...This page has been blocked html { border-top: 10px solid #555555; } body { background-color: #eeeeee; font-family: “Helvetica Neue Light”, “Helvetica Neue”, Helvetica, Arial, “Lucida Grande”, sans-serif; color: #666666; padding: 0; margin: 0; } #content_container { width: 800px; margin: 0 auto; } #header { width: 90%; margin: 0 auto 50px; height: 250px; text-align: center; } #column1 { width: 58%; float: left; padding: 10px; } #column1 p { margin-left: 10px; } #column1 div { width: 320px; float: left; padding-left: 10px; font-size:11pt; } #column1 div p { margin: 10px 0px; } #technical_details { width: 36%; float: left; padding:10px; margin-top: 60px; ......

Words: 271 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...<!-- callie theme by wildthemes. do not remove credits, themes take alot of time and effort to make, you will be reported if you're seen using this theme with no credits.--> <!--This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. taking credits off/stealing/using my themes as a basecode is illegal.--> <!--IMPORTANT: for infinite/endless scrolling/show all posts on your blog, go to customize -> scroll down to advanced -> change posts per page to 15.--> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html xmlns=""> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> /* SNOWFLAKES BY NAEIVE */ // Set the colors for the snow. Add/remove as many colors as you like // var snowcolor=new Array("#ffffff","#b1c9cf","#c5dce2","#cccccc","#9b9b9b") var snowmax=40 var snowtype=new Array("Times") var snowletter="*" var sinkspeed=0.3 var snowmaxsize=40 var snowminsize=8 var snowingzone=1 // Do not edit below this line // var snow=new Array() var marginbottom var marginright var timer var i_snow=0 var x_mv=new Array(); var crds=new Array(); var lftrght=new Array(); var browserinfos=navigator.userAgent var ie5=document.all&&document.getElementById&&!browserinfos.match(/Opera/) var ns6=document.getElementById&&!document.all var......

Words: 2883 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Alien Script

...ACT ONE:   1 EXT. SKY – DAY                    1   It is a deep clear blue sky with the just the slightest wisp of a cloud in the distance.   We hear the voice of a YOUNG MAN as he intones the words . . .                                                                    YOUNG MAN (V.0.)                                 In the beginning, there was the brilliant star                                 of heaven in the bright desert sky . . .   There is an incredibly loud Thoomp! like someone pulling their thumb out of a bottle. A flaming ball appears in the sky leaving a white vapor trail behind it as it plummets to Earth.   The burning eyes of our narrator, the Young Man, look up into the sky and watch the descent of the flaming ball.   2 EXT.DESERT - DAY                 2   Our view moves down from the sky to the blistering hot sands of the desert shimmering in the midday sun.   The flaming bail disappears in the distance in a silent puff of dust.   The wind blows away the dust and whistles across the barren expanse of desert.   The Young Man’s eyes peer way into the distance at the rippling horizon. There is a black spot. It’s a person . . .   The Young Man’s eyes widen.   From the wasteland a figure appears. It is a man standing very straight with his chin thrust forward . . .   He is DR. IVAN HOOD, D.O., a tall, well-built, 32-year-old man with sandy windblown hair. He wears the dirty white jumpsuit of an astronaut. On his breast...

Words: 4293 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Rgb to Color Name Mapping

...Shades of Black and Gray (see also Gray vs Grey) | Color Name | Credits | R;G;B Dec | RGB Hex | CSS Hex | BG/FG color sample | Grey | N | 84;84;84 | 545454 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | Grey, Silver | V | 192;192;192 | C0C0C0 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey | X | 190;190;190 | BEBEBE |   | ### SAMPLE ### | LightGray | X | 211;211;211 | D3D3D3 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | LightSlateGrey | X | 119;136;153 | 778899 | 789 | ### SAMPLE ### | SlateGray | X | 112;128;144 | 708090 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | SlateGray1 | X | 198;226;255 | C6E2FF |   | ### SAMPLE ### | SlateGray2 | X | 185;211;238 | B9D3EE |   | ### SAMPLE ### | SlateGray3 | X | 159;182;205 | 9FB6CD |   | ### SAMPLE ### | SlateGray4 | X | 108;123;139 | 6C7B8B |   | ### SAMPLE ### | black | N,V,X | 0;0;0 | 000000 | 000 | ### SAMPLE ### | grey0 | X | 0;0;0 | 000000 | 000 | ### SAMPLE ### | grey1 | X | 3;3;3 | 030303 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey2 | X | 5;5;5 | 050505 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey3 | X | 8;8;8 | 080808 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey4 | X | 10;10;10 | 0A0A0A |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey5 | X | 13;13;13 | 0D0D0D |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey6 | X | 15;15;15 | 0F0F0F |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey7 | X | 18;18;18 | 121212 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey8 | X | 20;20;20 | 141414 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey9 | X | 23;23;23 | 171717 |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey10 | X | 26;26;26 | 1A1A1A |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey11 | X | 28;28;28 | 1C1C1C |   | ### SAMPLE ### | grey12 | X | 31;31;31 | 1F1F1F |   |......

Words: 5320 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay


...International Journal of Market Research Vol. 54 Issue 4 Children’s attitudinal reactions to TV advertisements The African experience Ayantunji Gbadamosi Robert E. Hinson University of Ghana University of East London Eddy K. Tukamushaba Irene Ingunjiri Strathmore University Hong Kong Polytechnic University This paper is aimed at exploring African children’s attitudinal reactions to television advertisements . A total of 65 children from four African countries – Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda – participated in 12 focus group discussions on the subject matter . Findings suggest that they like television advertising in relation to its entertainment features – especially when the messages feature children characters, cartoons, music, celebrities and humour – and those promoting foods . They also derive excitement from advertising messages that are presented in Pidgin language and/or humorously integrated with local languages . However, they have an aversion to messages that terrify them and those they consider boring . This paper supplements the existing literature on the attitudes of children to advertising, but from Africa as a different contextual platform . It also suggests directions for the effective use of marketing communications strategies in relation to television advertising for marketers and other bodies with special roles in communicating with children such as government agencies and NGOs . Introduction Advertising to children as a topic has......

Words: 9881 - Pages: 40

Free Essay


...HTML & CSS Design and Build Websites Jon Duckett John Wiley & Sons, Inc. HTML & CSS Design and build Websites Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 ©2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana ISBN: 978-1-118-00818-8 Manufactured in the United States of America Published simultaneously in Canada 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 7486011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by......

Words: 83244 - Pages: 333

Free Essay

The Last Leaf

...A Clockwork Orange (UK Version) Anthony Burgess Introduction A Clockwork Orange I first published the novella A Clockwork Orange in 1962, which ought to be far enough in the past for it to be erased from the world's literary memory. It refuses to be erased, however, and for this the film version of the book made by Stanley Kubrick may be held chiefly responsible. I should myself be glad to disown it for various reasons, but this is not permitted. I receive mail from students who try to write theses about it or requests from Japanese dramaturges to turn It into a sort of Noh play. It seems likely to survive, while other works of mine that I value more bite the dust. This is not an unusual experience for an artist. Rachmaninoff used to groan because he was known mainly for a Prelude in C Sharp Minor which he wrote as a boy, while the works of his maturity never got into the programmes. Kids cut their pianistic teeth on a Minuet in G which Beethoven composed only so that he could detest it. I have to go on living with A Clockwork Orange, and this means I have a sort of authorial duty to it. I have a very special duty to it in the United States, and I had better now explain what this duty is. Let me put the situation baldly. A Clockwork Orange has never been published entire in America. The book I wrote is divided into three sections of seven chapters each. Take out your pocket calculator and you will find that these add up to a total of twenty-one chapters. 21 is the symbol...

Words: 61684 - Pages: 247

Free Essay

Ah May Kailangan Ka Pa Ba?

...Voiceless (former Stop in the Name of Love!) Written by: Denny R. HaveYouSeenThisGirl Property of CREDITS Word Copy Compiled by: Purpleyhan of Wattpad Written year 2011. AUTHOR'S NOTE: Hi! I'm Denny, the epal author of this story. XD Umm... enjoy reading the story kahit sho-shonga shongang katulad ko. XD sa offline readers, sana magkatime po kayong magleave ng comments pagkatapos niyong mabasa ang story. Pede po kayong magpost sa website ko o kaya naman sa facebook page ko: I accept any comments from you guys kahit constructive criticisms. That'll be a good help for me to improve. Kung may problems po sa copy na ito, please report it to me sa e-mail ko: or sa DO NOT COPY, DO NOT REDISTRIBUTE, DO NOT PLAGIARIZE, DO NOT PRINT AND SELL, DO NOT BUY A DONUT. (pero joke lang yung sa donut XD) Ayun, shaddap na talaga ako para makabasa na kayo XD enjoy! **** Prologue It's so noisy... Can someone turn it off... Please stop making noises... Stop, listen to me please... With all the voices around me, even if I try speaking... I'll end up feeling so... "Voiceless" ...can someone hear me? - - - - - - - - Her name's Momoxhien Clarkson. She loves Syntax...

Words: 74218 - Pages: 297