Premium Essay

Effective Logical Fallacy

In: English and Literature

Submitted By dnwyllie
Words 581
Pages 3
Identify the Logical Fallacies

1. Mabel is not qualified to lead the school board because she used to drink liquor in her 20s.
• This is anAd hominem fallacy: It attacks the character of the arguer rather than the argument. It is an error in reasoning because you should focus on the argument.

2. A child can be either an athlete or a good student.
• This is an Either-or type fallacy: it presents someone with a limited choice when there are more choices. The error is that people will know they have more choices and discredit your argument.

3. Any change in health care will lead to socialism; we don’t want to live in a socialist country, so we can’t reform health care.
• Begging the Question: Using circular reasoning to prove a conclusion. This is done in the news a lot and this type of fallacy goes unnoticed. The error is that the claim is false so the conclusion is false and people will notice this.

4. All teenagers text while they drive; therefore, we should raise the driving age to 21.

• Hasty generalization: Using a part to make an inaccurate claim about a whole. This is wrong because if any part of the claim is wrong it will make the whole argument wrong.

5. If we don’t all drive hybrid cars, the world will end in the next decade because of environmental damage.
• Slippery slope: Suggesting that one event will automatically lead to a chain of other events. This is wrong because the claim that the world will end isn’t supported be any evidence and is far fetched.
6. Senator Range has been seen entering a strip club; therefore, his economic reforms are not plausible.
• Ad Hominem: It attacks the character of the arguer rather than the argument and is an error because you should focus on the argument. This is done especially in politics when they want to discredit a person instead of their work or what they are saying in their...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. • o Slippery Slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either. Example:If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers. In this example, the author is equating banning Hummers with banning all cars, which is not the same thing. o Hasty Generalization: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Example: Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course. In this example, the author is basing his evaluation of the entire course on only the first day, which is notoriously boring and full of housekeeping tasks for most courses. To make a fair and reasonable evaluation the author must attend not one but several classes, and possibly even examine the textbook, talk to the professor, or......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Fallacy

...Fallacy Summaries with Examples Name: Institution: Fallacy Summaries with Examples Appeal to Authority The fallacy of appeal to authority also referred to as the Fallacious Appeal to Authority, irrelevant Authority or Ad Vercundiam takes the following form, the first person is claimed to be an authority on subject S and hence makes a claim C about subject S hence making C true. The fallacy is mostly committed when the individual in question is not a lawful authority on the subject. This implies that if an individual A does not merit making reliable claims on a subject B, the argument becomes fallacious. The reasoning becomes fallacious when the individual under focus is not necessarily an expert hence the given cases makes the reasoning flawed since there is no justification for the claim since an unauthorized person made the claim. In the event that a person falls prey to the fallacy, then it implies that the individual is accepting a claim as being true in the absence of adequate evidence to do so. Additionally, the individual accepting the claim does so erroneously on belief that the individual making the claim is an expert which implies that the claim is reasonable to accept. Example 1 An argument about the morality of abortion Individual A: I strongly believe in abortion as being morally acceptable simply because a woman aught to have a right over her own body. Individual B: I strongly disagree. Findings from numerous medical researches say that abortion is......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Blood Diamonds

...sake of funding civil wars in Central and Western Africa. In addition, I felt guilt within me for patronizing diamonds without knowing the real price and deeper reality behind these precious stones. Without any doubt, the film was very effective in achieving its purpose and intention through the techniques that was used. In fact, it presented firsthand accounts of the survivors and the culprits of the African diamond-funded wars, including testimonies from industry experts and journalists. Moreover, it shows actual footages of rebel groups attacking the diamond areas. With these, the viewers are now aware of the deeper reality that these diamonds has caused violence, slavery and killing of millions of people. Definitely, the film changed my perspective about diamonds. I realized that behind the shining and shimmering beauty of these valuable gems are bloodsheds among many people in Africa. Furthermore, I realized that not all that glitters are considered to be treasures. This just proves that awareness is very important. In patronizing products, one should first be knowledgeable on how these products came into existence. Finally, if I were given the chance to make changes in the film, it would probably be the used of logical fallacies: appeal to emotion, begging the question and false dilemma. Reference Clarke, S. (Producer & Director). (2012). Blood diamonds: The true story [Video]. Available from...

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fallacy

...Click a fallacy on the left and drag it over to the correct example on the right. Repeat until all fallacies are correctly matched with their corresponding examples. Congratulations! You have completed this activity. Apple Polishing Of course, Cory, a generous, kind and giving brother, would let us play with his racetrack. Ad Hominem Todd agrees with the referee's call and says the referee made a good decision when he called the pass incomplete; however, this cannot be considered true because Todd is the head coach for the opposing team. Two Wrongs Make a Right On the way to his car, George noticed he was not charged for his second gallon of milk. He decides not to return to the store because if he had overpaid on the item, the store would not have returned his money. Slippery Slope If I do not pass Critical Thinking, I will not be able to move to the next course. If I do not move to the next course, I probably will not be able to continue in school, and if I do not continue in school, I will not earn my degree. Straw Man We might as well forget what Bishop Simon has to say about abortion and ethics. After all, he is a Catholic bishop so it is natural he would have those views. Begging the Question Critical Thinking must be a difficult class because Andrea said so. Red Herring I know you didn't get all your homework done because the Internet is out. But, if you had done the work days ago, you wouldn't be worried now. Appeal to Popularity I read the other day......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bad Bet

...well, never mind that. When are you going to pay me for that bet? Moe : When it rains cats and dogs. [rhetorical analogy] Mack : You mean when you actually take a shower? [rhetorical analogy] You know I won that bet fair and square. A bet is a bet, now give me my $20. Moe : You , I and everyone else who watched the fight knows he was drunk when he got in the ring. Or were you drunk when you watched it? [rhetorical question] Mack : Moe, pay me already. Why you making such a huge problem? It’s only $20. [rhetorical question] Moe : I don’t know about you, but $20 is a lot nowadays, especially how the economy’s going. [circumstantial ad hominem] Mack : Good god, man! [hyperbole] How much is too much for you? [line-drawing fallacy] Jest yesterday you were bragging how the boss gave you a bonus [inconsistency ad hominem]. Moe : I never said such thing! Mack : Yes, you did. Moe : What proof do you have? [misplacing burden of proof] Mack : My memory is like the memory of an elephant. [hyperbole] Moe : Then why couldn’t you remember your wife’s birthday? Mack : That was one time! [question begging] Moe : Yeah well, if I pay you back, Jack would come to me and ask for his money and then Joe will come asking for his money and then that kid I borrowed that quarter from will track me down and ask for his quarter back. [slippery slope] Next thing you know, I’m living in a newspaper fort! [hyperbole] Mack : When will you pay me back then? Moe : Ask me when I......

Words: 419 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

En1420: Module 3 Identifying, Organizing, and Analyzing Your Sourcesen1420: Module 3 Identifying, Organizing, and Analyzing Your Sources

...EN1420: Module 3 Identifying, Organizing, and Analyzing Your Sources Exercise 3.1: Identify the Logical Fallacies Each statement below contains a logical fallacy. Identify the fallacy and briefly explain, in one or two sentences, why it is an error in reasoning. 1. Mabel is not qualified to lead the school board because she used to drink liquor in her 20s. • Ad hominem: committed by attacking the person who's making an argument, rather than the argument itself. One of the most common fallacies, it is a direct attack on a person's character rather than focusing on his or her arguments. Stating that Mabel used to drink that why she is not qualified it a person attack. 2. A child can be either an athlete or a good student. • Either/Or: An oversimplification that assumingly reduces several alternatives to a mere binary opposition, basically means you only have two choices. You only have two choices of being a athlete or a good student. You can choose to be bad student if you wanted. 3. Any change in health care will lead to socialism; we don’t want to live in a socialist country, so we can’t reform health care. • Slippery Slope (Bad Precedent): assuming that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable chain of undesirable events. Changing health will lead to socialism is an extreme statement. 4. All teenagers text while they drive; therefore, we should raise the driving age to 21. • Hasty Generalization: drawing conclusions from too little of evidence and often......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hukh

...Anna Kathrina B.Viesca BS Biology 2-2 Philo 101 November 09, 2015 Fallacies 1. False Cause Christian got a failing grade and didn`t graduate on time because he took a picture beside the oblation statue in their university. 2. Argument Against the Person I absolutely don`t listen to Reggie’s arguments on education, he`s an idiot. 3. Appeal to Tradition Dave: For 11 years, the men in our family manage our funeral service and became an embalmer. Therefore, it is my duty to become an embalmer. Claudine: Do you want to be an embalmer? Dave: It doesn`t matter. It is our family tradition. Who am I to break it? 4. Black or White Cheska got the highest score in Physics. She either study hard or cheat during the examination. 5. Complex Question Are you still a chain smoker? 6. Appeal to Pity I`m positive that my work will meet your requirements. I really need the job since my mother needs to undergo a surgical operation in the heart. 7. False Dichotomy Your grades show you just aren`t trying. Either study more or drop out of school! 8. Appeal to Novelty The android operating system just released “Marshmallow”. It is better than anything else because it`s the latest android version. 9. Apple Polishing Saleslady: You should definitely buy this car. You look so good in it. You look at least 5 years younger behind that wheel. Customer: I`ll take it. 10. Poisoning the Well Mayor Lustre is a very good talker. Yes talk, he can do very well. But when it comes......

Words: 464 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Marketing

...Name] [Instructor Name] [Course Name] [Date] Identifying Logical Fallacies * Ad Hominem It is a Latin phrase which is described as an attack on the person rather than focusing on the argument. For example: You should not listen to Professor Miller’s arguments for faculty salary increase. The only reason he is arguing for a pay raise is because he himself will benefit from it (Van Vleet 15). In this example, it is clear that the speaker attacks Professor Miller personally rather than the actual argument for faculty salary increase, by blaming him that he is being selfish for increase in salary. In this sentence, cold-heart is ad hominem associated with scientists. * Slippery Slope Adverse consequences because of a change in policies, processes, actions or law, is usually known as slipper slope. For example: We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they will be charging $ 40,000 a semester (Nizkor). In this example, as a consequence of agreement with increase in tuition fee presently, it is eminent that further increase would also occur in future. * Begging the Question Things that you can not prove but still you think of them as true. For example: The belief in God is universal. After all, everyone believes in God (Nizkor). In this sentence, the speaker first answers the question that is followed after the answer. * Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc This fallacy assumes that a second event is the resultant of the first......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Humn

...sentence there is a fallacy of attacking the motive is caused by the senator in a sentence. Second answer is Look Who's Talking (Tu Quoque) because in this sentence speaker he is unknown about the benefits of exercise. On my third answer I choose the correct answer again here the answer is bandwagon argument because here the fallacy is committed by threat of rejection by one's peers is substituted for evidence in an argument. On my fourth question correct answer is Straw Man here the fallacy is made upon the misinterpretation of Mr. Equalminded's idea’s or position. My fifth answer was also correct where there was a fallacy of appeal to force. Where coercion was made by the speaker. On my sixth answer the correct answer was begging the question where the premise is directly giving the conclusion. My seventh answer was wrong where the correct answer was Equivocation. And since I know the correct answer now I can say that Equivocation is the fallacy committed by using words that have two meanings. On my eighth answer I chose the correct one again which is two wrongs make it right were the fallacy is committed by connecting two wrongs ideology sentences to provide a conclusion. My ninth answer was again correct where I chose Personal Attack (Ad Hominem) because it was committing a fallacy. On my tenth answer I was wrong again where I chose band wagon but the correct answer was red herring. Now I know it is a red herring because the sentence is causing the fallacy......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Crt 205 Fallacies

...Identifying Fallacies CRT 205 Identifying Fallacies 2. This is an example of an ad hominem fallacy, the author attacks Andrea Keene, and therefore the claim is false. This could also be an example of Straw Man fallacy, while the effects of fertility drugs are not exaggerated, suggesting that one or more of the infants dies “agonizingly” every time is exaggerated. 3. Straw Man fallacy, this is where the author distorts and exaggerates the position. When she said that it is far better to be a widow than a divorcee because all divorcees are “rejects” who have been “publicly dumped” and are avoided “like they have leprosy” she is distorting the truth and exaggerating. 5. This is also a Straw Man fallacy, the author is exaggerating by saying “Then anytime anyone wanted a picnic, he would have to park at the edge of the park and carry everything in—ice chests, chairs, maybe even grandma.” This is also an example of a false dilemma, the author is limiting the outcome to two alternatives when other alternatives may be available. 6. The author stated that “The protestors would of course deny…” This is an example of circumstantial ad hominem fallacy because the author suggests that the Christian groups “would of course” deny any anti-Semitic motivation because they are Christians. The author continues and suggests that there would be no debate if there were a modern Christian scene depicted. 8. The fallacy is “For without these sources those demands will not be met, and......

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Logical Fallacies

...Logical Fallacies American InterContinental University - Online PHIL201-1204A-02 October 20, 2012 Earl Barnett Logical Fallacies Fallacies are statements that might sound reasonable or sketchily true but are actually weak or dishonest. I will discuss and give me interpretation of some common logical fallacies. Mere Assertion & Circular Reasoning Mere Assertion is an argument that lacks factual support. It’s merely an opinion that is formed more so by belief then logical evidence. For example, “Robert is a vampire; I can feel his cold blood when I touch him.” This argument has no real logic behind it, only reasoning that makes sense to the person stating it. Circular Reasoning is an argument that aids support to a statement by repeating itself in a bolder definition. For example, I am human because my mother is human and my mother is human because I am human. Using the method of circular reasoning states that because I was conceived by my mother I am human as well. Both statements in my argument prove each other to be true, which makes my conclusion and premises the same. Ad Hominem & Red Herring Ad Hominem is an argument used to negatively portray ones character. This method of argument redirects ones attention from a certain topic by providing unrelated accusations about the person in support of the topic. For instance, in a court dispute over which parent should be granted full custody of their child, the defending lawyer states that the......

Words: 897 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Logic

..."Oh, shut up!" says Claudia, blushing."1 may read the astrology column, but I certainly don't believe it. I just read it for fun. But, the fact is, during the past twenty-five years there have been thousands of alleged sightings of UFOs, and not a single one has led to any solid evidence of their existence. What do you make of that?" "I think we should look at this situation the other way around," Ralph says."Up until now, nobody has shown that UFOs don't exist, so I think we should give those people who claim they have seen them the benefit of the doubt. We should believe in UFOs and extraterrestrials until the sightings are proven false." "Well, okay. Let's suppose,just for the sake of argument, that I admit the existence of UFOs and t~eir little green drivers. How are we supposed to respond to them? What are we supposed to do?"C1audia asks. "For starters, we should extend an open invitation to them," answers Ralph."They may come from a dying planet where millions of their compatriots desperately strug­ gle for survival.Their sun may be burning out, their water supply exhausted, and their soil poisoned with toxic chemicals. Surely they deserve a second chance on a new planet." "Maybe so," Claudia says in a patronizing tone."And now that you mention it, we probably have a legal obligation to let them in. Our current immigration laws say that we have to admit at least ten thousand applicants annually, from every major nation. If those aliens would just sign the right papers,......

Words: 9519 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Module 1

...EN1420: Module 3 Identifying, Organizing, and Analyzing Your Sources Exercise 3.1 Identify the Logical Fallacies Each statement below contains a logical fallacy. Identify the fallacy and briefly explain, in one or two sentences, why it is an error in reasoning. 1. Mabel is not qualified to lead the school board because she used to drink liquor in her 20s. 2. A child can be either an athlete or a good student. 3. Any change in health care will lead to socialism; we don’t want to live in a socialist country, so we can’t reform health care. 4. All teenagers text while they drive; therefore, we should raise the driving age to 21. 5. If we don’t all drive hybrid cars, the world will end in the next decade because of environmental damage. 6. Senator Range has been seen entering a strip club; therefore, his economic reforms are not plausible. 7. Everyone else is getting rid of TV, so we should too. 8. Because of the recent shootings in schools and theaters, we can conclude that these are inherently dangerous places that need more regulation. 9. If you want a successful child, you should enroll him or her in as many early learning classes as possible. 10. Music education is useless because it just teaches kids how to play music. Choose your answers from these eight fallacies. Note: Some of these will be used more than once.  Begging the question  Either-or  Slippery slope  Ad hominem  Creating false needs  Red......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Traditional Fallacy

...he could make them do whatever he wanted them to de. Even the one with power in the empire were not allowed to deny or disagree with the emperor, or else they would suffer the same fate as every one else. However with time people revolted and revolution came after decades breaking this tradition of monarchy, and making every individual free with their rights. Now every individual is said to be a free human who has natural rights. But even in these modernized societies after all that human race has experienced, and has been through the fallacy of appeal to tradition still exists. Appeal to tradition is the fallacy that a standpoint, situation or action is right, proper, and correct simply because it has “always” been that way, because people have “always” thought that way, or because it continues to serve one particular group very well. It is the notion that if an idea has been around for a while than it should be followed and is true. This fallacy is one of the major reasons that have been recognized for the oppression of women all around the world. This is particularly the matter in less developed and modernized societies. The women of these societies are oppressed as they are not supported by their families for education, instead they are against it. They do not think it is necessary for a women to be educated, because according to the tradition women are obliged to support their families and raise children. Basically there duty is to perform well...

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Effects of Stereotypes

...You are in a restaurant and there is a woman there with six kids of different ages. You automatically think that she is obviously on welfare to support all those children. By making assumptions about her situation, you have just stereotyped her. Stereotyping is when you associate a person with a certain category or group of people based on fallacious arguments (Mosser, 2011, 4.1). As humans, we fall victim to being stereotyped without even knowing it. Sometimes it can be blatant, liken if you hear someone speaking derogatory about you, or you feel the unwanted stares from others. But what we don’t realize is that when we commit these fallacies, we run the risk of hurting the very people we are stereotyping. The stereotypes that we encounter in our everyday lives can have lasting effects on ourselves as well as those around us. As an African American woman in charge of a successful business operation, I am a walking stereotype. A typical stereotype that I face every day is that I am a woman, and as such, am incapable of running a business. Now, unlike the women in the article, “Stereotyping Has Lasting Negative Effect” by April Kemick (2010), I never let peoples’ stereotypical implications affect my success. The article goes on to show that women who are stereotyped are irrational, aggressive, and suffer an inability to focus (Kemick, 2010). The type of fallacious argument used here would be hasty generalization. As with most fallacious arguments, hasty generalizations......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5