Free Essay

Effects of Having Relationships to Academic Performance

In: English and Literature

Submitted By genchan777
Words 5639
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Chapter I
Background of the Study
Every day, college students are facing a conflict of interest: to study or not to study. Their decisions are affected by various factors that are often not controlled by students like part-time jobs, involvement in organizational activities, etc. Another major factor that affects students’ academic performance according to researchers is dating or being in a relationship. Upon entering a relationship during college, one might be forced to choose to either study, or spend time with his partner. This may leave the student with a lot of stress that may affect the student including his studies.
The course Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Human Resource Operations Management (BSBA-HROM) is a course taken up by hundreds of students in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM). PLM is known for its quality education and high standards. Applicants are screened and went to several tests and interviews before being accepted. In this university, each student is required to have a general average of 2.25 at the end of every semester. Whoever fails to meet the required general average, might get kicked out of the university.
As a concerned fellow student, the researcher observed that despite the high grade requirement, some students still have time to enter relationships. Along this thought the study about the effects of having relationships to the academic performance of selected students in BSBA-HROM has been conceived.

Statement of then problem
1. What is the profile of the respondents in term of:
a. Gender
b. Age
c. Year Level
2. What are the effects to the respondents about being involve in an early relationship in terms of:
a. Commitment Level
b. Dating frequency
c. Advantages and disadvantages of dating
3. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents profile and the effects of having relationship to the academic performance of the students?
4. What implications could be drawn out of the result of the study?
There is no significant relationship between the respondents profile the effects of having relationship to the academic performance of the students.

Scope and Limitation
This study aim at looking on the effects of having relationships to the academic performance of selected students in BSBA-HROM. It will cover areas on commitment level, dating frequency and advantages and disadvantages of dating. The respondents are coming from the course Bachelor of Science and Business Administration Major in Human Resource and Operations Management in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) academic year 2014- 2015. The data collection will be done on March __ ,2015. The research will not be concerned on psychological factors like concerning emotions, depression, and mental stress.
Significance of the Study
The study at hand is beneficial to the following group of people:
Students: The results of the study will enlighten the students as to how being in a relationship in college are affecting their academic performance. Parents: From the study, the parents will be able to realize the importance of guiding their children when it comes to dating or having relationships.
Proffessors: From the study



Review of Related Literature and Studies
On Dating of College Students
According to Aristotle, humans are “social animals”, meaning we are sociable by nature. We seek a place in society and that is what psychologist Myers (2010) called “the need to belong”. People find security through the love and care they get the feeling of acceptance from people whom they trust and depend on.
Raman (2010) stated that being in romantic relationship involves physical contact which causes chemical arousal to the persons involved and at the same time gain love and confidence in which they are longing for. Koob & Bloom (1982) also explained this by stating that the individuals who are in love release a number of chemicals within the brain such as oxytocin, vasopressin and endorphins which cause “short-term” joy and pleasure.
“Half of all teens have been in a dating relationship and nearly one third of all teens have been in a serious relationship” (Teenage Research Unlimited, ascited in Luqman, 2009).
According to Furman (2002), romantic relationships become more and more significant to adolescents in their social world as they also develop from puberty towards late adolescence. This shows how prevalent is romantic relationship among adolescents.
Quatman, et. al., (2001) studied dating status, academic performance, and motivation in high schools in the US state of California, showing that students who dated more frequently had a lower academic performance. The overall results of the study show that adolescents who dated frequently whether boys or girls, or grade level, displayed consistently and significantly lower levels of academic achievement and academic motivation and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Frequent daters displayed more depressive symptoms, but their general self-esteem was unaffected by frequency of dating; nor was self-esteem affected. Adolescents believe that romance is more interesting than study. Frequent dating not only compromises direct academic success but also interferes with the kinds of internal sets that make academic learning a satisfying experience. The study supported a significant relationship between dating status and academic achievement, which can cause serious problems among university students according to Prisbell (1986). While having an intimate relationship may have benefits for emotional health, that being overly involved in dating is associated with a more negative effect on the psychosocial function and health of students (Baumeister,1995).
Luqman (2009) said that an adolescent relationship plays an important role to adolescents as it develops the ability for committed relationships. Additionally, Pelt (2004) stated that those relationships help develop personality. She also added that it is a way of knowing one’s unique qualities of opposite sex and at the same time choosing the right life partner. Moreover, researchers theorized that romantic relationship is essential to the development of adolescents in different aspects such as “transformation of family relationships, close relationships with peers, sexuality, and career planning” (Furman, 2002).
An article of Barber & Eccles (as cited in Luqman, 2009) talked about the importance of romantic relationships to adolescent development and its “long lasting” effects on self-confidence. It affirmed that romantic relationship teaches moral values on romance, “intimate relationships and sexuality”. In addition to this, healthy romantic relationship could possibly benefit student’s education (Phelps, 2007). Romantic relationship provides positive outlook of adolescents’ life which motivates the adolescents in achieving goals such as performing well in the studies. According to Zulueta & Maglaya (2004), “motivation constitutes the degree of an individual’s behavior as manifested by his interests, attitudes, and aspirations to satisfy his desired goal. It is an urge to satisfy goal object” (p. 212). Provided a positive romantic relationship, adolescents would strive hard on performing well in studies to bring a brighter future in their relationship.

On Academic Performance
Bailey & Miller (1998) conducted a study that reveals that “happy” dating accounts for life satisfaction in college students, which can also have a positive effect in academic performance.
Paul and White (1990) observed that being in an intimate relationship involves trust, sensitivity, and responsiveness, being able to make a commitment, striving for equity and mutuality. For a student, it also means working to achieve academic balance.
According to Lucas & Curpuz (2007), “quality personal relationships that provide stability, trust, and caring such as romantic relationships can increase learners’ sense of belonging, self-respect and self-acceptance, and provide a positive climate for learning” (p. 16) and thus increase academic performance. According to the theory of incentive approach of motivation, the desirable properties of external stimuli – whether grades, money, affection, food, or sex – account for person’s motivation
Aspelmeir and Kerns (2003) conducted two studies and hypothesized that secure attachment facilitates exploration in college. This study also examined how types of insecure attachment differentially predict exploration. Attachment referred to close/romantic relationships as an attachment process, almost like a parentchild attachment that reflects a caregiver and the security that a child gets from his or her parent. Curiosity referred to the motivation to acquire information. Exploration referred to the motor inspection of situations, events, or objects. Motor inspection was used to acquire information and reduce subjective uncertainty. Results indicated that having a boyfriend/girlfriend was related to negative emotional and behavioral adjustment for those early adolescents who were unpopular among same sex-peers. According to Brendgen et al., (2002), for adolescent who were popular among same-sex peers, romantic involvement was not related to emotional and behavioral adjustment.
Moreover, theorists suggested that romantic relationship has a great role in the academic performance of adolescents. Vgotsky’s theory states that social interaction plays a very important role in the cognitive development of an individual and could not be understood without looking into the social and cultural context. Furthermore, Vygotsky’s ideas about “cognitive development” have become major influences in psychology and education today (Lucas & Corpuz, 2007). Theorists suggested that romantic relationship has a great role in the academic performance of adolescents. Parents, peers, and partners, on the other hand, cooperate, collaborate and enrich the learning experience (Lucas &Corpuz, 2007). In this way, adolescents who are more knowledgeable can help in the cognitive development of their partner.
However, romantic relationships are not always positive. According to Luqman (2009), there are instances in which romantic relationship may harm adolescents and because of this, they need adults who will guide them in developing healthy relationships. In the same way, Connolly & Johnson (cited in Weichold& Barber, 2008) said that even though romantic relationship plays an important role in the development of an adolescent, most romantic relationship in the adolescence stage last for only 6 months to 1 year. This situation implies frequent break-ups which cause anxiety among adolescents.
Monroe et. al (as cited in Furman, 2002) affirmed that breakups are mostly the cause of depression among adolescents. Furman (2002) also states that adolescents are mostly prone to problems in adjustment when they got involved in romantic relationships at an early stage of their adolescent life.
According to Erikson (as cited in Feldman, 2009) people proceed through eight stages of psychosocial development across their lives. He suggested that each stage requires the resolution of a crises or conflict and may produce both positive and negative outcomes. During the identity-versus-role confusion period an adolescent feels pressure to identify what to do with his life. These pressures come at a time of major physical changes and adolescent find a period an especially difficult one, thus peer group and close relationship becomes increasingly important in clarifying their personal identities. Erikson added that identity-versus-role confusion stage marks a pivotal point in psychosocial development, paving the way for continued growth and the future development of personal relationship.
In another way, romantic relationship gives more negative effects on the academic performance of adolescents. According to Manning et al., (2009), teens nowadays consider romantic relationship as the number one source of stress. It results from the break-ups or conflicts with partner. Even those who give more importance on academics, spending time with one’s partner may also serve as a distraction.
Crissey (2006) then added that having a romantic affair especially when you are just a student would not just give a "source of stress" but also a disturbance. Having a romantic relationship is really disturbing because a student will deal on managing time between the school and in the romantic side that somehow leads to give academic works a lesser priority
Stress is a continuous feeling of worry about work or personal life that prevents someone from relaxing. Campbell, as cited by Crissey (2006), pointed out that stress is a condition or effect that is bad and can cause some problems. For example, students who are having any romantic affair will have a higher percentage of stress than those who don't have because instead of focusing to their academic work and academic stresses, they also commit their time to their relationship.
Morris & Maisto (1995) added that anxiety which can be taken from “internal and external forces” brings about stress. They also described how someone or something frustrates individuals when it stands between them and their goals. This would cause a dilemma on “irreconcilable demands, opportunity, needs or goals”. They added that “delays, lack of resources, losses, failure and discrimination” are the primary cause of aggravation.
On the other situation, negative effects of romantic relationships are very evident in the report of Namaganda (2009) saying that “developing feelings of love, two weeks before exams can lead to lack of concentration during the time a learner should be revising and thus failure” (para. 6). Thus, GastoneByamugisha (as cited in Namaganda, 2010) a psychologist and lecturer at Kyambogo University said that heart-break is not the only cause of student’s failure in exams.
According to Chickering (1969), college life can be stressful, although it is undoubtedly one of the most memorable experiences in one's life. It represents a critical developmental period for both late adolescents and young adults.
College students are faced to new routines, different people, different sleeping and eating habits and heavier responsibilities. According to Wright (1967), University students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of university life They must adjust to being away from home, perhaps for the first time, and maintain a balance between high level of academic success and a new social environment. These daily stressors do not cause anxiety by themselves. Romano (1992) also stated that stress results from interactions between stressor and the individual's perception and reaction to them .
According to Zurilla and Sheedy (1991), The amount of stress experienced may be influenced by the individual's ability to effectively cope with stressful events or situations. Berger (1997) stated that a romantic relationship may ease environmental stress.
Santiago-Rivera, Gard, and Bernstein (1999) extended the research on the model of centrality (Bernstein, 1987) academic achievement were not clearly identifiable. Results indicated that the three most important issues were intimacy, achievement, and autonomy. The importance of these core issues was consistent over two time periods. A significant number of students reported stressful situations involving intimate relationships, moving away from home for the first time, and concerns about academic achievement. The central issues identified as most important by the SOCI were also consistent with those reported as important during the interview. The aforementioned complications of administering self-report questionnaires could be viewed as a limitation. This study explains that intimate relationships are important to college students but can make for stressful environments. This correlates between being in a committed relationship and academic performance. If an intimate relationship are indeed stressful, this stress can negatively influence academic performance in college students.
The studies reviewed were all related to college or adolescent dating and academic performance or achievement.
Myers (2010) also said that: For university students, relationships consume much of life. How much of your waking life is spent talking with people? One sampling of 10,000 tape recordings of half- minute slices of students’ waking hours (using belt-worn recorders) found them talking to someone 28% of the time – and that doesn’t count the time they spent to someone (Mehl&Pennebaker, 2003). In 2008, the average American 13- 17 year-old sent or received 1742 text messages per month (pp. 393-394).
Moreover, Furman, Brown &Feiring (1999) stated in their book entitled “The Development of Romantic Relationships in Adolescence” that romantic relationship at an early age is the cause of higher rates of drug use, minor delinquency, and psychological or behavioral difficulties, as well as lower levels of academic achievement that those who are not currently involved in a relationship or who delay romantic activity until later in adolescence.
While there are negative and positive sides of having relationships in college, some studies show that there is no significant relationship between dating and the academic performance of students.
Pham (n.d) where he studied about the relationships between dating and college performance of Loyola University students who were aged between 18-24 years old. It was hypothesized that dating and involvement will result in a lower grade point average. The variables were age, gender, class standings, dating status and levels together with the academic performance of the respondents. The data did not allow the rejection of the null hypothesis. It implies that dating and involvement in romantic relationship shows no significant relationship on academic performance of college students.
An investigation on the effect of early parenthood as a result of dating in college among Bohol Island State University (BISU) is found helpful – Candijay Campus female students was conducted by Balaba, Betos, Galvadores, Felisco&Atupan(2008). There were 25 unmarried mothers which were the respondents of the study. Average grades of the respondents before and after having a child were compared and the researchers discovered that academic performance was not significantly affected by the occurrence of early motherhood. Nevertheless, results of the study showed that the respondents found it hard to concentrate on their studies because of the problems they met being early parents. This study relates to the present study because it involves time management, motivation and anxiety. Early parents were motivated to study to provide a brighter future for their child. On the contrary, it is not easy for them to focus on their studies because of the problems they met as early parents and they find it hard to divide their time between studies and family.
Caroline Winnick (2008) mentioned that when teenagers begin dating before they are ready, it can lead to physical abuse. While the most common recipient of physical abuse tends to be female, male partners are also at risk. In a study done by the California Department of Education shows that 20 percent of high school females reported being physically abused by their partners. This abuse is usually hitting, kicking, slapping and pinching. Nationwide, a staggering 1.5 million high school students are physically abused each year by their partners. Sexual abuse is a big concern for dating teens. More than half of reported rapes are from teenage females between 12 and 24. Likewise, half of adult sex offenders committed their first sex crime before the age of 18. The effects of sexual abuse are devastating and long lasting. It can lead to destructive behaviors, depression and even suicide. More teens are dating and having unprotected sex. This leads to more unplanned teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who become pregnant are more likely to drop out and become involved in drugs. Teenage mothers are also more likely to suffer from post-partum depression. Teen pregnancy is also dangerous for the baby. Low birth weight and premature delivery are common in babies born of teenage mothers. As teens become sexually active, the chance of contracting an STD increase greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that teenagers contract 9.5 million cases of STDs per year. The likelihood of getting an STD also increases as number of sexual partners increase. Many teenage girls take birth control, but the only birth control method that prevents STD's is condoms.
According to Maria Janelli (2010), a freelance writer based in New York City, there are many disadvantages of dating in college. It can be stressful, particularly when juggled with all of the other new activities in which you'll be participating. Another disadvantage to dating while you're in college is that the college experience doesn't come close to mirroring reality. You live in small rooms or suites with many people who are all more or less on the same schedule: eat, go to class, participate in extracurricular activities, do homework, and socialize. The college experience is designed to take place almost entirely on campus. It is a self-contained world that is not like what you will experience after graduation. This artificiality makes it difficult to date someone or to date many people. In the "real world" when you date someone, you often don't share a living/school/work space with them. Dating in a contained and constrained college environment can be a difficult thing to do.
She also said that college is artificial. Another disadvantage to dating while you're in college is that the college experience doesn't come close to mirroring reality. You live in small rooms or suites with many people who are all more or less on the same schedule: eat, go to class, participate in extracurricular activities, do homework, and socialize. The college experience is designed to take place almost entirely on campus. It is a self-contained world that is not like what you will experience after graduation. This artificiality makes it difficult to date someone or to date many people. In the "real world" when you date someone, you often don't share a living/school/work space with them. Dating in a contained and constrained college environment can be a difficult thing to do.
According to her, when it comes to technology, another disadvantage to dating in college is that young people tend to rely heavily on technology. Social networking sites, online chatting, email and text messaging make it possible to date someone without really knowing the person. College culture today is such that communicating almost entirely via technology is acceptable. However, to have successful dating relationships, you have to get together face to face and communicate more directly with less interference from technology. This is easier to do after graduation, when communicating in person becomes as acceptable as communicating online.
Janelli said that the final reason to avoid dating in college is a very practical reason: college students typically don't have much expendable income, and dating can be expensive. Dinner and a movie for two people can cost as little at $30 or as much as $100. Add flowers or other presents to that mix, and the bill can be much higher. If you want to go out once or twice a week, then you can easily spend several hundred dollars a month on dating. Of course, not every date has to be dinner and a movie, and you can certainly find cheaper things to do.
On the other hand, Chip Marsden (2011) wrote the article ” Good Things About Teens Dating” she stated that seeking companionship is not exclusive to humans. In fact, it's common in the animal kingdom. Humans, however, with their complex brains and emotions, are subject to the peculiar phenomenon of love. Love, sex and eventual lifelong bonding are parts of the human experience and can all enhance life for those who approach them with due respect and maturity. A teen who can safely gain early experience in dating and romantic relationships, when her development is being greatly influenced, may mature into a more socially competent, experienced, and functional adult.
Also, he wrote that teens who date and experience a variety of relationships during the formative years of adolescence can develop a strong sense of what their strengths and weaknesses are in relationships and will be able to adjust over time. Adolescent relationships will confront teens with peer pressure, jealousy, arguments, reconciliations and a number of other important character tests that will confront them for the rest of their dating and romantic lives.
Young people who date will have the opportunity to learn early on what it is about dating that they like and what they'd like to avoid in the future. This includes the types of people who appeal to them as dates and potential romantic interests, the types of places they like to go on dates and the activities they find most enjoyable in the company of another person.
Lastly, Marlsden (2011) said that if approached maturely, teen relationships can be mutually beneficial and increase both the confidence and self-worth of both parties involved. Teens will learn that they have something to offer a relationship and that they are capable of giving and receiving feelings.

These Studies Conducted by different researchers were found helpful to this study. They are arranged from most helpful to relevant.
The research conducted by Toreon (2011) is found very useful by the researcher. In his study on the Effect of Romantic Relationship on Teacher Education Students’ Academic Performance at Bohol Island State University. The study used a descriptive survey method employing convenience sampling for each year level. The variables of the study were students’ grade, intensity, level of involvement in a romantic relationship and, self-esteem. Findings describe significant effect of romantic relationship on academic performance. Intensity and level of involvement also exhibited a significant relationship on the students’ academic performance. It was also found out that a student who is involved in romantic relationship for more than two years have better score as those involved for 3 to 6 months. It was further found that the basic characteristic of the individuals who are most successful at love is high self –esteem. It has been determined that those high in self-esteem experience romantic love more as been found in the number of years of being attached to each partner.
The research conducted by Toreon (2011) is very helpful because it was conducted in the same country therefore; culture and practices are the same as the study being conducted by the researcher.
On the other hand, another helpful study about the relationship between dating status and academic achievement on grades 8, 9 and 10 in Santa Clara University in California were studied by Quatman, Sampson, Robinson and Watson (2001). The result of the study showed that higher frequency in dating would imply a lower academic performance because most of the romantic experiences showed higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels in academic motivation. However, this study focuses on younger population. The results may not be the case in the more mature age group.
In another study, a dissertation of Crissey (2006) focused on the differences of gender on the high school academic outcomes which were influenced by romantic relationships. The study found out that when students divided their attention to education and romance, there was a negative outcome on the academic performance especially when they take too much concern on their romantic relationships. This situation occurs mostly on girls because of the “school romantic climate where romance is more valued. On the other hand, the study showed that boys’ “academic well-being” is being slightly affected. The increased risk of sexual activity mainly affects this situation (Crissey, 2006). However, data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (as cited in Allen, 2010) revealed a different result in which males’ academic performance is negatively affected by the romantic climate
A relevant study is the dissertation of Stefan (2006) which is a qualitative study on the impact of romantic relationship on the academic performance of high school girls applies merely on the western culture. Results of the study showed that there is really a “social pressure” for teenage girls who are involved in dating. She also found out this societal pressure means that girls are engaged in this kind of dating situation merely “because of some influences peers, magazines, televisions”, etc. Sometimes, if a girl doesn’t engage herself in dating, some may considered her as "weird", maybe because in the western society today, there's no more thing such as Maria Clara's, which refers to those who are a little bit conscious in dating as well as engaging in romantic relationships. She said that majority of the people would expect girls to already have a dating partner especially when girls reach into their adolescent stage. She also added that this dating is usually considered as a threshold or the first step towards romantic relationships. After conducting her study, she concluded that dating/romantic relationships have "negative and positive" outcomes into the academic performance of someone involved – positive in the sense that dating gives inspiration/motivation for girls to do well in their academic works, if and only if girls will know how to manage time wisely and properly and that girls will not take dating seriously. However, it is negative on the other hand because it will just cause "distraction".
The findings of the study made by Phelps (2007) noted that the influence of partners, parents and peers of African American Youth to their school achievement. He considered dividing the samples by race and he found some difference that each variable influence to the romantic relationship for the Anglo and African American subsamples. He concluded that effects of academic achievement vary on race. Part of the result of his study is that peers also affect to the academic performance of the respondents. For the African American, it is their peers’ academic orientation that affects the academic performance while for Anglo Americans, both peers’ academic orientation and behaviors towards romantic relationship affects their academic performance.
The result of the study of Phelps (2007) implies that factors assumed to affect academic performance of students such as personal relationships vary in each race. Moreover, Furman (2002) stated that there has still been a great interest of romantic relationships because this interest sparks from the observation that these relationships are significant to adolescents’ lives. A lot of research has been made about this topic but most of these studies center on Euro-American youths or mostly Western societies. Western culture has differences to Asian culture especially on the social aspects. Example would be perceptions on dating.
Western culture has differences to Asian culture especially on the social aspects. Example would be perceptions on dating. To the researchers’ knowledge, the researcher hasn’t found some studies focusing on the Asian’s romantic relationships

Definition of Terms:
GWA – It means General Weighted Average. It is a type of evaluation to assess the students’ academic performance each semester The minimum grade requirement in PLM is 2.5 which is equivalent to 85% of the total grade each semester.
Dating – is an agreement between two people to meet socially for companionship, beyond the level of friendship, or with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as a partner in an intimate relationship or marriage.
Adolescence – it is the period where teens are exploring. Usually this is the time in pre- adulthood where people seek for companionship.

Conceptual Framework
To have a guide towards explaining the effects of having relationships on the academic performance of selected PLM students, the researcher will use two important theories which will also introduce the main variables of this study.
The first theory to be considered is the “Need to Belong” theory (Baumiester & Leary, 1995) which asserts that all humans share a common need to be connected with others, and common sense signals that individuals’ lives are better for being connected. Furthermore, Baumiester & Leary (1995) proposed that the “need to belong” has two aspects: (1) people want a stable and enduring context of concern and caring, (2) people need frequent interaction with the same person.
As stipulated in the first aspect, people want a constant perspective of being loved and cared. Myers (2010) supported this theory by stating that people who find supportive person whom they can disclose makes them feel accepted and prized. He added that this situation is associated with the arousal of behavior (i.e., irrepressible joy and happiness) to the persons involved which causes them to be driven by their goals in life. However, Myer (2010) stated that there are certain external situations (factors) which occur in the course of relationship and these situations thwarted the need to belong. Consequently, Baumeister and Leary (as cited in Gere & MacDonald, 2010) affirmed that these threats would lead to them to focus their attention on their “relationships and social connections”, which, by consuming limited cognitive resources, may lead to impairments in processing in other domains.
Results of the study of DeWall, Baumeister, & Vohs (as cited in Gere & MacDonald, 2010) supported Baumeister and Leary’s proposition by showing negative impact of the threat to belongingness on the performance of different cognitive tasks.
In the meantime, as what Baumiester & Leary (1995) proposed in the second feature of the need to belong, a person has to frequently interact or get in touch with with the same person or group in order to accomplish the state of full belongingness. This aspect gives rise to the second theory which will be used in this study. “Social Exchange” theory according to Wang (2004), explains how interactions are maintained by exchanging benefits to each person involved in the relationship. Moreover, Wang (2004) introduced the concept of “cost and reward” which are the basis of this theory. She stated that rewards are the things which are received and give benefit to the receiver. Meanwhile, costs are the things which are lost at the course of giving sources. Cost is associated with the giver of sources.
Figure 1 shows how the “Need to Belong” theory and Social Exchange theory. The “Need to Belong” theory explains that people need to connect to others in order to satisfy their need to belong. It also proposes two aspects in achieving the need to belong. The satiation of the first aspect (which is the desire to have an enduring and stable relationship and have a context of concern and caring) in achieving the need to belong affects the cognitive tasks of the person affiliated according to their reactions. Meanwhile, the second aspect of achieving the need to belong is frequent interaction with the same individuals or group of persons. The “Social Exchange” theory explains the behavior of how these interactions with other people will be satisfied or maintained. It suggests that individuals who frequently interact with others will also exchange more benefits and costs. Material or non-material things that each one gives will become costs on the part of the giver while these will become benefits on the part of the receiver. This entails that if the things which they usually give in the course of their interaction, were also the things that they require in accomplishing the complex cognitive tasks, frequent interactions will affect those tasks.

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“the Effects of Having Boyfriend/Girlfriend Relationships in the Academic Performance of Selected High School Students

...The Shahada is the gnosis of God and all his messenger(s). It is to accept the one and only Almighty Creator and his last messenger Mohammed (peace upon him). The concept of one God is called Tawheed. Importance of shahada it is enough to say that you have reached the side of safety. When someone says that ‘I am a Muslim’ it means he or she accepted and admitted Kalimat at-Tawheed, Kalimat ash-Shahada, "ashhadu an la ilaha illa Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasulullah". To become a Muslim means accept the shahada, or else you are not a Muslim. By saying "I am a Muslim" you have passed the first level. Then you have to go to the second level. It means you have said, "O Allah I admit that you are the Creator and I am your slave." Slave, not servant. In the law, testimony is a form of evidence that is obtained from a witness who makes a solemn statement or declaration of fact. Testimony may be oral or written, and it is usually made by oath or affirmation under penalty of perjury. Unless a witness is testifying as an expert witness, testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is generally limited to those opinions or inferences that are rationally based on the perceptions of the witness and are helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony. Schools of Thought in PsychologyFrom structuralism to cognitivism, numerous schools of thought have emerged throughout psychology's history. Many of these theoretical outlooks have dominated the field at certain......

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 Gemma M. Fernandez
 Submitted to: 
 Dr. Celedonia Hilario
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