Free Essay

Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kelvinmaina
Words 2669
Pages 11
Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism


Since the turn of the century, there has been an upsurge in the use of social media. As a result, many tourism organizations that include hotels, travel agencies, and airline companies have started using the internet as one of the important tools in marketing and communication strategies. Many businesses within the hospitality industry rely on good reviews from their customers, and social media is offering this as a natural marketing tool (Bennet, 2012). The use of social media have become very widespread, and the travelers use these sites consistently to brag about their great experiences as well as express displeasure with poor experiences. This is a natural way through which the social media is impacting the hospitality and tourism industry. After realizing the power of social media, businesses are also leveraging on the wide presence of customers in social media to communicate, engage, and market their services and products to the customers (Guzel & Sengun, 2015). The growth of social media has had immense impacts on social media that range from marketing, communication, and even corporate social responsibility. This paper conducts a literature review on the effects of social media on hospitality and tourism.
Literature Review
According to Mahmood A Khan (2012), the benefits of social media can be very helpful in marketing and management in hospitality and tourism. He states that social media has been an option for hospitality because it provides opportunities for managing and presenting business content and helps in identifying core values that draw clients and customers to the business. Most companies in this industry have developed strategies to integrate social media efforts with the overall marketing effort. According to Mahmood, the customers who are engaged in social media spend more money and return to the business more often. He further states that social media is helping companies in brand awareness and building brand equity.
In the management of the companies in the industry, Mahmood (2012) states list at least seven ways that social media is benefiting companies in the hospitality and tourism industry. These include soliciting endorsement, maximizing revenue per seat, managing reputation, reach out to new customers, bond with guests, recruit new staffs, and build a buzz. According to statistics that were compiled by Shea Bennett in 2012, the effects of social media on the business performance and customer choice and satisfaction cannot be underestimated. 52% of Facebook users stated that the photos that were shared by their friends on Facebook inspired their holiday choice and travel plans. Of all the customers who used social media to research travel plans, only 48% did not change their original plans after studying the social media reviews and photos. Of the entire population of customers on Facebook, 33% changed their hotels, 7% changed their destinations, 10% changed their resorts, and 5% changed their airlines. Amongst the information that was used to inform the decision-making on vacation destinations airlines, and resorts, the post-restaurant reviews made 40% contribution, post-vacation of travelers post hotel reviews made 46% contribution. 76% of the entire population on vacations stated that they had used post vacation photos on social networks, and another 55% had liked Facebook pages that were specific to vacations. Therefore, according to this statistics, it is evident that the hospitality and tourism industry has embraced the social media management of their business to help customers choose their business as well as improving their services to have positive reviews (Leung, Law, Hoof, & Buhalis, 2013).
Despite the myriad benefits that companies derive from social media, there are also adverse effects that social media have on the same companies. Mahmood conducted a research with his students he wanted to find the correctness and reliability of the reviews that were posted on social media sites. His students visited the destinations with online reviews. The results found out that 28% of the reviews were biased and reliable. It was further found that hotels have been posting negative reviews about rival hotels or posting very positive views about their own hotels. This shows a potentially damaging attribute o social media. There might be malicious individuals who wanted to tarnish the brand image of certain hotels. The rivals might also be involved in publicity battles where they want to portray their facilities as the best and that from their rivals as the worst (Mahmood, 2012). The impacts of these negative campaign are very damaging bearing in mind the number of people who rely on this information and reviews to make decisions that relate to vacations and hotels.
The use of social media has also facilitated the availability of customized advice in forum analysis. According to Baggio, & Costa (2010), a user can create a topic on social media sites like TripAdvisor and any other user with experience in the stated topic post comments. In such a site, there are Authors and Advisors. The authors are tourists who are very far from the destinations. The advisors may be local residents or fellow tourists who have information concerning the destination. In order to promote the integrity and trust on the information posted by the advisors, the advisors don’t have any form if the reward for offering the advice. In such cases where the information is being availed to the public or request with no payments and from trusted sources have generated a very important tool of marketing that is not controlled by the hospitality and tourism companies, and thus, the tourists can be able to manage their trips and vacations effectively and cost effectively. Initially, this information was availed to the consumers through paid adverts and the customers also had to pay in order to access this information (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). Some example of media where this information was published included among others the newspapers, magazines, and Television broadcasting. This information was limited on the number of people that it could reach, and it was also limited in the geographic region that the information it could cover. However, with the social media, all these bottlenecks of the traditional tourism and hospitality advertising has been addressed. The companies are relieved the cost of ensuring that one more customer accesses their information, and this has gone a long way to cut the cost of management for these companies. The other limitation addressed through this method is the limited on geography. According to Rudez & Vodeb (2015), through social media, the information, the reviews, and the ratings of hotels, restaurants, resorts, and airlines has gone global and can be accessed by any person across the world because social media. He states that social media has made the world a village in terms of access to information regarding vacation places, the cost, and services that are offered. Tourists are able to interact with locals and other tourists who are continents away and get the necessary customized information that they can use to plan for their trips and vacations.
The management of companies in the hospitality and tourism industry has significantly since the advent and popularity of social media. Today these decisions are made with a close look at the social media. According to Engel et al (1999), the application of consumer decision-making model to the use of social media during the travel have been used to design the tourist’s decision-making process and dividing it into three phases. These are before the travel, during the travel, and after the travel. The managements analyze this type of the consumer interests and align their services with the customers’ expectations. Cox et al, in 2009 stated that it is not only the consumer tourists who are on social media to find information regarding hotels and restaurants, the management are also on the social media to find out what the consumers are expecting, to find out what the rivals are doing, and to assess their brand image. Such findings are used to improvement and for competition purposes by many management. The result is that the rise of social media, and especially in sharing tour and travels information, have led to a growth of many restaurants, hotels, resorts, and sightseeing facilities that meet or exceed customer demands to avoid the negative reviews and or to compete (Cox, Burgess, & Buultjensd, 2009).
Social media have also contributed immensely to human resource management in hospitality and tourism organizations. In this case, the social media sites like Linkedin, Twitter, and Facebook among others are used every day to screen candidates by tourist and hospitality companies. According to a study by SHRM (2011), the responding human resource professionals indicated the use of Facebook (58%) Linkedin (95%) and Twitter (42%) for recruitment purposes. Primarily, they targeted non-management salaried employees (82%) as well as other management positions that excluded upper management (77%). According to the same study, 82% used the social media information to screen the candidates while30% reported to have used data on social media to disqualify candidates. Furthermore, 85% of the respondents had used Linkedin, 78% had used Facebook, and 11% had used Twitter to screen candidates for upper management positions (41%) and 26% for non-management salaried positions. Even though this is found to have little impact on the entire management of the companies in this industry, the human resource managers are quoted saying that the social media provide the information that actually represent the character of the candidates and from the information have been able to create a pool of highly ethical and reliable human resource at the most cost-effective way. According to conducted in 2015, the hospitality industry has become notorious and a poor reputation as a source if permanent employment, offering low pay, menial work, anti-social working hours, and limited opportunities for career progression (Gibbs, Fraser MacDonald, & Mackay, 2015). This has resulted in a high turnover and a tremendous challenge for the companies to attract, recruit and retain qualified employees. Because of this challenge, a company that wishes to attract and recruit top talents in the industry can resort to social media to advertise their unique working conditions for employees and this will go a long was to brain drain from rivals. Hunt (2010), states that social media ought to be integrated and should supplement the existing hiring strategies and not replace them. This reason given, however, is that social media profiles might contain erroneous information updated by the users for personal reasons.
Social media have also been used in hospitality and tourism companies for selling rooms and booking of other services and products. There are online travel agents who use the social media to market facilities for their clients and then sell them online. Marcusen (2008), in 2008 wrote that within the industry, online hotel booking was the second largest sales item after air travels with regard to the revenue generated through online transactions. According to Buhalis (2008) even though hoteliers have been reluctant to adopt new technologies especially in ICT, the advantages that are resulting from information technology developments have affected the hospitality industry in terms of marketing possibilities as well as in sales opportunities. He states that the modern travelers are more aware of the opportunities offered online and, therefore, is more exigent. Also, in the recent research on online information searches the travelers are spending more time to locate more accurate information on social media and checking different providers before choosing the most appropriate in terms of price and other qualities and proceeding to make online reservations for these facilities (Inversini & Lorenzo, 2014). Therefore, the hoteliers and travels and tour guides and online tour agents have expanded their focus to the social media in a bid to sell their services to the online travelers.
The growing impact of social media can be manifested in the proliferation of web-based destination marketing strategies. Web-based destination marketing strategies are tools that are used by many hospitality and tourism companies for publicity, and they provide big opportunities. According to(2ndonthe2ndweb) the web-based marketing tools are being adopted widely, and the pressure is mounting on destinations to invest heavily on their websites to increase traffic. There are no conventional standards for assessing the success of web site tourism. Nevertheless, it is crucial that destinations increase the efficiency of their web sites and thus the need to develop strategies for assessing the web sites. The growth in the investment in the web site tourism can be attributed to the growth of web users and especially the social media users. There have been technologies that the destinations are using to make it possible for the social media users to be redirected to their web sites whenever they want to find specific information regarding the available destinations (Gururaja, 2011). Therefore, the growth of web-based destination marketing cannot be separated from the growth of and popularity of social media.
Extensive use of social media is increasing worldwide, and this is coming with implications in all industries; both positive and negative. The hospitality and tourism industry is one of the many industries that the effects of social media cannot be ignored. Social media is being used by the hospitality and tourism companies for marketing campaign activities that may include creating information, advertisement, and engaging potential customers. The travelers have also been using social media to gather information concerning the best destinations for visiting during their vacations. The travelers get the information from reviews that are done by locals and other tourists who have visited these destinations before. The customers have used social media to book accommodations in hotels as well as paying air tickets in different airlines. Despite these remarkable contributions of social media, competition and malicious efforts have been embraced to tarnish the brand image of companies. Nevertheless, companies in these industries cannot underestimate the benefits derived from social media and they are leveraging on these cost-effective benefits.

Bennet, S. (2012). The Impact of Social Media on Travel and Tourism. The Jourbal of SocialTimes.
Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the internet-the state of etourism research. Rourism Management, 609-623.
Cox, C., Burgess, S., & Buultjensd, J. (2009). The Role of User-Generated Content in Tourists; Travel Planning Behavior. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 743-764.
Engel, J. F., Blackwell, L., & Milliard, P. (1999). Consumer Behavior. International Journal of Hospitality, 171-188.
Gibbs, C., Fraser MacDonald, & Mackay, K. (2015). Social media usage in hotel human resources: recruitment, hiring and communication. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality, 170-184.
Gururaja, R. (2011). Impact of Social Media on Tourism and Hospitality. MC Journals, 24-28.
Guzel, S. G., & Sengun, G. (2015). The Effects of Social Media on Tourism Marketing: A study among University Students. ABSR Online Journal, 1-13.
Inversini, A., & Lorenzo, M. (2014). Selling rooms online: the use of social media and online travel agents. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 272-292.
Baggio, R., & Costa, C. (2010). Social Media and ourism Destination: TripAdvisor Case Study. Advances in Tourism Research, 26-38.
Leung, D., Law, R., Hoof, H., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social Media in Tourism and Hospitality: A Literature Review. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 3-22.
Mahmood, A. K. (2012). Social Medi's Influence on Hospitality & Tourism Management. Journal of Business and Hotel Management, 1-7.
Marcussen, C. H. (2008). Trends in European internet distribution of travel and tourism services. Retrieved from
Rudez, H., & Vodeb, K. (2015). Students' use of Social Media During the Travell Process. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 179-190.
Society for Human Resource Management. (2011). SHRM research spotlight: social networking websites and online search engines for screening job candidates. Retrieved from Society for Human Resource Management: 2_Social Media Flier_FINAL.pdf
Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of soial media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 179-188.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism

...Effects of Social Media on Hospitality/Tourism Name: Institution: Date: Introduction Since the turn of the century, there has been an upsurge in the use of social media. As a result, many tourism organizations that include hotels, travel agencies, and airline companies have started using the internet as one of the important tools in marketing and communication strategies. Many businesses within the hospitality industry rely on good reviews from their customers, and social media is offering this as a natural marketing tool (Bennet, 2012). The use of social media have become very widespread, and the travelers use these sites consistently to brag about their great experiences as well as express displeasure with poor experiences. This is a natural way through which the social media is impacting the hospitality and tourism industry. After realizing the power of social media, businesses are also leveraging on the wide presence of customers in social media to communicate, engage, and market their services and products to the customers (Guzel & Sengun, 2015). The growth of social media has had immense impacts on social media that range from marketing, communication, and even corporate social responsibility. This paper conducts a literature review on the effects of social media on hospitality and tourism. Literature Review According to Mahmood A Khan (2012), the benefits of social media can be very helpful in marketing and management in hospitality and tourism. He......

Words: 2669 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Social Media in Hospitality

...Social media in hospitality, is it changing the business fundamentally? Jesse van der Heiden 406279 Professional writing Stenden University April, 2015 Present day, social media are fundamentally changing the way tourists and travellers search, read, trust and as well as find information about tourist destinations. Furthermore, social network applications for e.g. trip Advisor, Facebook and Pinterest allows guests to participate in business operation and functions. This means that, tourists and travellers provide a huge amount of information about their travel experiences. Many organizations use social media as a tool to connect to millions of potential guests. Therefore, this paper will analyse the importance of social media for the hospitality industry. The first paragraph aims to address the use and impact of social media in hospitality. The second part of this paper will focus and give more insight on the impact of social media on travellers’ behaviour and using social media from a customers’ perspective. Thirdly, the kinds of social media in the hospitality industry will be discussed. As last, conclusions will be drawn while taking personal perspective, studies and theory into consideration. Use and impact of social media in the hospitality Hospitality company participation in social media has been shown to be a cost-effective tool for interaction and involvement with potential guests. Social media that is easy accessible, straightforward and appealing......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ewom Literature Review

...actual, or former customers about a product or company, which is made available to a multitude of people and institutions via the Internet’ (p.39). Hospitality and Tourism Industry has also been affected by this relatively new eWOM, where former visitors or customers express their opinion on destinations and places they have visited. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on the eWOM, its impact on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry and on the potential benefits it has for businesses and destinations. This review will contain information gathered and analyzed from different peer reviewed articles and studies to support the credibility of this paper. The eWOM in contrast of the traditional WOM has different types of electronic media channels that have an impact upon interpersonal relationships. There are the synchronous type and the asynchronous type, the first one include instant messaging, chatrooms and newsgroups. While asynchronous includes blogs, emails, virtual communities and websites (, 2006). All these are use to spread experiences and opinions about a product or a place, they can be positive or negative depending on the experience of the author. The eWOM as mentioned in the introduction has a great impact on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry e.g. on choosing a travel destination or hospitality facilities. According to Park, D.H. and Kim (2008) travel reviews are useful...

Words: 2040 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Social Media

...CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction This study is about how Antipolo’s social media affect by its own cause. In this Introduction we will relate the social media in Antipolo City. Antipolo is a city in the Philippines located in the province of rizal. It is the largest city in CALABARZON region.The city is popular for being a pilgrimage site. It prides itself as the "Pilgrimage Capital of the Philippines." The Marian image of the Our Lady Of Peace and Good Voyage or the Virgin of Antipolo, which was brought in from Mexico in 1626, and enshrined in the Antipolo Cathedral has a continuous following among Filipino Catholics since the Spanish era. A popular custom of pilgrims to the Virgin of Antipolo is the trek going to its shrine on the eves of Good Friday and May 1, from various locations in Rizal Province and Metro Manila. Some pilgrims would begin the trek from Quiapo Church in Downtown Manila following the procession of the image. There is also an existing custom to have new cars blessed at the church in the belief that this will ensure the safety of the car and its passengers. Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. But somehow social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content. They......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Creating Brand Image of Bangladesh Through Developing Tourism Sector

...acknowledge our respected course teacher Mr. Ishtiaque Arif to give us such an essential task to do an informative report. In this report we mainly focused about how we can create a brand image of Bangladesh through developing our tourism sector. Table of Contents Chapter | Topics of Discussion | Page | 1 | * Introduction * Tourism in Bangladesh | | 2 | Major Tourism attraction of Bangladesh * Cox’s Bazar * Kuakata * Shundarban * St. Martins Island * Maheskhali * Bandarban * Paharpur * Mohastanghar | | 3 | Marketing Tourism Sector of Bangladesh * Setting Vision, Mission and Values * Tourism Destination Management * Tourism Marketing | | 4 | Tourism Marketing Promotion * Branding in Tourism * Use websites as a marketing tool * Using social Media for social marketing * Sustainable tourism marketing * International Marketing | | 5 | * SWOT Analyis of tourism in Bangladesh * Recommendation to develop the tourism industry of Bangladesh | | 6 | * Conclusion | | 7 | * References | | Introduction: Tourism has become a very important and dynamic sector both in the world economy and particular in the developing countries. Its growth affects not only the activities directly linked to tourism but also...

Words: 6685 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Hospitality Sector

...Overview This Research Paper evaluates the various techniques and modes of business communication followed in the hospitality sector. The main objectives of the research are listed below: 1. To understand and evaluate the communication system of a specific organization under Hospitality sector. 2. To evaluate the communication system during a crisis. 3. To evaluate the communication system that is used to convey any change in the organization i.e. Change Communication. The organization in focus for the study is Accor Hospitality, which is based in Hyderabad. Data for the purpose has been collected through Telephonic interview. The Table given below displays the various contents of the research paper. 1. Introduction to effective communication 2. Hospitality Industry 3. Introduction to Accor Hospitality 4. Interview Questions & Answers 5. Conclusion and new trends in communication INTRODUCTION The word “communication” derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ that means to impart, to Participate, to share or to make common. It is a process of exchange of facts, ideas and opinions as a means that individual or organization share meaning and understanding with one another. In other words, it is a transmission and interacting the facts, ideas, opinion, feeling and attitudes. It is the ability of mankind to communicate across barriers and beyond boundaries that has ushered the progress of mankind. It is the ability of fostering speedy and......

Words: 2813 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014

...Rodolfo Baggio Marianna Sigala Alessandro Inversini Juho Pesonen Editors Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014 eProceedings of the ENTER 2014 PhD Workshop in Dublin, Ireland. January 21, 2014 Preface The advent of Information and communication technology (ICT) has had a paramount impact on tourism. The effects of this revolution continue to change the nature of contemporary tourism on a day-to-day base. The globalization of information, open innovation, better access, collaboration in a generation of information and technological convergence, have all contributed to the design of a new scientific paradigm. Thanks to our passion for research and to the continuous advancements in the technological ecosystem as well as the possibility of better understanding human activity and behavior we are on the threshold of a new era of the social science of tourism. This new social and technological paradigm affects tourism and human mobility in a way that gives the research process unheard-of possibilities. The current level of technological development allows for the construction of objects that are smaller, more intelligent and embedded in the environment and even wearable. These objects, which record and learn our habits are connected to the Internet and they have computing capabilities. They can also be interconnected and generate large quantities of information to benefit the environment in which they are located as well as the travellers that......

Words: 49996 - Pages: 200

Premium Essay


...2015 TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA 5/11/2015 2015 TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA 5/11/2015 SMARTPHONE BASED SERVICES SMARTPHONE BASED SERVICES LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL | May 09, 2015 Jameni  Jabed  Suchana Lecturer Dept. of Tourism and Hospitality Management University of Dhaka Subject: Submission of Report. Dear Madam, While making the report we come across many hurdles and pleasant experiences. But the valuable experiences we have gained during the period will undoubtedly benefit us in the years ahead. This report has given us an opportunity to apply our theoretical expertise, sharpen our views, ideas, and communication skills, and bridge them with the real world of practical experience, which will be a good start for our future professional career. We realize that certain information enclosed in this report is not imaginary but real and should attach academic interest. We hope you would find the report in appropriate manner. We appreciate your cooperation and we hope you will call upon us with any queries occasioned by this report. We have tried sincerely to comprehend and translate our knowledge in writing this report. We enjoyed this project work and gladly attend any of your calls to clarify points, if necessary. Sincerely Yours Group : GLADIATORS Section: B (7th batch) Dept. of Tourism and Hospitality Management ACKNOWLEDGEMENT | Completion of this task has made us......

Words: 7798 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Boom Babies

...has had the effect of markedly increasing not only international trade, but also cultural exchange. Safety and Security - the condition of being free from harm or risk," which is essentially the same as the primary definition of security, which is "the quality or state of being free from danger. Diversity - the condition of having or being composed of differing elements,  an instance of being composed of differing elements or qualities Service – it is the main point in being a hospitality and tourism student because being able to give service is the main goal in this industry. It aims to give knowledge, assist, help and provide to those who are in need. Technology – it is important in the tourism industry because our age is evolving, dynamic changes tend to happen always. We need to be ready and constant to change; we need to develop technology because as of today, technology is our daily life stream. Legal Issues – it is very profound nowadays because something you do can be legally issued. An example is in the internet, when you post something that is inappropriate or harm/insult someone you can be issued by legal laws and you’ll be in trouble, same goes as for tourism industry, you must be careful in anything you do. Changing Demographics – changing demographics is very crucial in the tourism industry, because today some countries change names and other locations elevate due to the tectonic plate movement, information now changes, as a part of the tourism community......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Tourism Management 31 (2010) 1–12 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Tourism Management journal homepage: Progress in Tourism Management A review of innovation research in tourism Anne-Mette Hjalager University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrsvej 9-10, DK-6700 Esbjerg, Denmark a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 27 January 2009 Accepted 31 August 2009 Keywords: Innovation Innovation systems Knowledge Clusters Policy a b s t r a c t Over the past two decades, there has been increasing focus on the topic of innovation in tourism. This article reviews the research contributions. Various categories of innovation – product, process, managerial, marketing and institutional – are addressed. Important determinants of innovation are acknowledged, including the role of entrepreneurship, technology push and the existence of territorial industry clusters. Representation of knowledge is also identified as a critical factor for both the occurrence and nature of innovations. The review reveals that there is still only limited systematic and comparable empirical evidence of the level of innovative activities and their impacts and wider implications for destinations and national economies. An agenda for future research is emerging, suggesting that there is quest for both formal quantification and for qualitative studies of the foundations, processes, implications and policies of innovation in tourism. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd....

Words: 13279 - Pages: 54

Premium Essay

Electonic Word of Mouth in Hospiatlity & Tourism Sector

...ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH IN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Stephen W. Litvin College of Charleston Ronald E. Goldsmith Florida State University Bing Pan College of Charleston Stephen W. Litvin is Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management in the School of Business and Economics, at the College of Charleston (South Carolina); Ronald E. Goldsmith is the Richard M. Baker Professor of Marketing at Florida State University; and Bing Pan is Assistant Professor and the Director of the Office of Tourism Analysis at the College of Charleston. Address correspondence to: Steve Litvin, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424. Phone 843-953-7317; Email Submitted June, 20, 2005 to Tourism Management Revised and resubmitted May 09, 2006 Second revision October 1, 2006 ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH IN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Abstract Interpersonal influence and word-of-mouth (WOM) are ranked the most important information source when a consumer is making a purchase decision. This influence may be especially important in the hospitality and tourism industry, whose intangible products are difficult to evaluate prior to their consumption. When WOM becomes digital, the largescale, anonymous, ephemeral nature of the Internet induces new ways of capturing, analyzing, interpreting, and managing online WOM. This paper describes online......

Words: 8988 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

The Missing Link in the Loop of Movies, Destination Image and Tourist Behavior

...Social Distance The Missing Link in the Loop of Movies, Destination Image, and Tourist Behavior? Journal of Travel Research Volume 47 Number 4 May 2009 494-507 © 2009 SAGE Publications 10.1177/0047287508326534 hosted at Asli D. A. Tasci The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Visual information, especially delivered through movies, is believed to have an influence on destination image and consumer behavior. Based on the theory that knowledge about an object might cause feelings toward the object, visual information through movies can be assumed to affect not only destination image but also social distance between groups and, thus, to affect tourist behavior regarding the destination. With a quasi-experimental design, this study investigates if there is a relationship between visual information from movies and consumer-behavior variables, including destination image, destination desirability, visit intention, and social distance, taking Turkey as a case in point and a promotional movie as the stimuli. Results provide partial support for potential impact of movies on the consumer-behavior variables included in this study. Implications and future research suggestions are provided. Keywords: A destination image; visual information; social distance; stereotypical image; Turkey mong the several factors that impact destination image, the influential role of information provided by the visual media, such as movies, has been......

Words: 10268 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Contemporary Hospitality Industry

...Contenporary Contemporary Hospitality Industry Understand the current structure of hospitality industry. Analyse current scale, scope and diversity of hospitality industry. The hospitality industry employs seven percent of the working population. In terms of gross value added (GVA) the sector contributed £40.6bn to the UK economy in 2011 or 4.2 percent of the country’s total GVA. In 2012 there were 181,500 individual business sites operating across UK. Hospitality and tourism is one of the UK’s most diverse sectors all connected to service sector. Besides different size of operations and customers, there are different sub-sectors of the industry: * Pubs, bars and night clubs * Hotels, Hostels and B&B * Restaurants, Bistros, Cafes and Coffee shops * Casinos and Gambling * Take-Always and Mobile catering * Travel services * Tourist Services * Membership clubs * Contract catering * Hospitality services * Events * Visitor attractions According to State of the Nation Report 2013, in 2012 most of the hospitality businesses were private companies (59 %). Following 20 % were sole traders and remaining were mostly partnerships (15 %). Restaurants, hotels, pubs, bars and nightclubs represent the greatest number of businesses and equal 70% GVA. When measured by the number of employees, industry is predominately made up of small businesses; almost half employ less than five people and only one percent of businesses employ......

Words: 3323 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

The Tourism Industry

...would be recommended so that organizations can remain or become competitive in the market. First of all, the focus would be on the tourism industry, especially the shift in travelers’ preference to trips which are deemed to enhance one self’s physical and mental welfare (Future Foundation, 2015). Secondly, technology and its relationship with customized staying experience within the hospitality industry will be explored. In addition, the topic on revenue management will...

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Undergraduates' Perceptions of Tourism and Hospitality as a Career Choice

...Undergraduates' Perceptions of Tourism and Hospitality as a Career Choice Scott A. Richardson Griffith University Gold Coast, Australia E-mail: ABSTRACT This study explored undergraduate tourism and hospitality student’s views of the industry as a career choice. Three hundred and seventy-nine tourism and hospitality students, from eight Australian institutions, completed a questionnaire rating the importance of twenty factors in influencing their choice of career, and then the extent to which they thought tourism and hospitality, as a career, offers these factors. A number of factors have been identified as being significantly different. From the results it is clear that students generally do not believe that a career in tourism and hospitality will offer them the factors that they find important. Key Words: Career choice, Undergraduates, Perceptions, Tourism, Hospitality INTRODUCTION The tourism and hospitality industry worldwide, and in Australia in particular, has been confronted with the problem of attracting and retaining quality employees which has lead to a shortage of skilled personnel to staff the ever-growing number of tourism and hospitality businesses (Andorka, 1996; Bonn & Forbringer, 1992; Breiter, 1991; Deery & Shaw, 1999; Dermady & Holloway, 1998; Emenheiser, Clay, & Palakurthi, 1998; Ferris, Berkson, & Harris, 2002; Freeland, 2000; Heraty & Morley, 1998; Hinkin & Tracey, 2000; McDermid, 1996; Powell, 1999; Tourism Division,......

Words: 6459 - Pages: 26