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Effects of Study Habits on Academic Performances of Students

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter discusses the related concepts and finding from various literature and studies from books, journals, and online resources to support the necessity of the causes and effects of study habits on children.
What is Development?
Many people use the terms “growth” and “development” interchangeably. In reality they are different, though they are inseparable; neither takes place alone. Growth refers to quantitative changes – increases in size and structure. Not only does the child grows larger physically, but the size and structure of the internal organs and the brain increase. As a result of the growth of the brain, the child has a greater capacity for learning, for remembering, and for reasoning. He grows mentally as well as physically. Development, by contrast, refers to qualitative changes. It may be defined as a progressive series of orderly, coherent changes. “Progressive “signifies that the changes are directional, that they lead forward rather than backward. “Orderly” and “coherent” suggest that there is a definite relationship between the given stage and the stages which precede or follow it. As Anderson has emphasized, “Nor is development merely a matter of adding inches to stature, or ability to ability; instead, it is a complex process of integrating many structures and functions”. Because of this integration, each change is dependent upon what preceded it, and it, in turn, affects what will come after. (Elizabeth Murlock, 1972)
People change whether for good or for bad. As a result of their experiences. And adults are not only much more complex than the children.

Types of Change
Changes in Size – This includes physical changes in height, weight, circumference, and internal organs, and mental changes in memory, reasoning, perception, and creative imagination.
Changes in Proportions- The child is not a miniature adult either physically or mentally.
Disappearance of Old Features- When certain physical features, such as the thymus gland and baby hair and teeth, lose their usefulness, they gradually atrophy, as do some psychological and behavioral traits- babyish locomotion and fantastic extensions of the imagination.
Acquisitions of New Features- Some new physical and mental features develop from maturation and some develop from learning. New physical features include second teeth and primary and secondary sex characteristics; new mental features include the sex urge, moral standards, and religious beliefs.
On the ladder of age, each step will read his to be more matured. And age seems to be the key which unlocks all the forbidden doors of life. We all change from the moment that conceived to the time of death.

Rate of Development
Development, whether physical or mental, is not a uniform process. It is most rapid during the 9 months before birth when the individual grows from a microscopically small germ cell to an infant of approximately 7 pounds in weight and 20 inches in length. It has been estimated that his weight during that time increases eleven million times.
Physical development continues at a rapid rate throughout babyhood to the age of 3 years. The increase is not limited to size but also includes body proportions. To realize how rapidly the changes occur, all one has to do is to compare a 3-year-old with a newborn infant. During this period, one can almost see the baby grow from week to week.(Douglas Bernstein, 1988)
From 3-6, the child continues to grow rapidly, though not so fast as before. From about the age of 6 until just before adolescence, his growth slows down somewhat. He develops at a more even rate, with changes occurring in proportions more than in actual size. This stage is followed by a spurt of rapid growth which lasts 2 or 3 years. By this time, the individual will have reached maturity. He will measure between 5 and 6 feet, give or take a little, and will weigh between 85 and 250 pounds. All of this change occurs in about one-fifth of the entire life span.
Development is related with physical or mental and every stage of development, it is consist of age that each of us will somehow be matured.

Maturation
Intrinsic maturing – maturation- is the unfolding of traits potentially present in the individual because of his hereditary endowment. It is, as Gesell has said, the “net sum of the gene effects operating in a self –limited life cycle” Gesell adds, “Here lies an important key to his constitutional individuality”
In phylogenetic functions- functions common to the race – such as crawling , creeping, sitting, and walking, training per se is of little advantage. Controlling the environment in such a way as to reduce opportunities to practice may, on the other hand, retard development. By contrast, in ontogenetic functions – functions specific to an individual- such as swimming, roller skating, tricycle riding, or scaling inclines, training is essential; without it, development will not take place. No hereditary tendency can mature fully, however, without proper environmental support. As Caldwell has emphasized, “The milieu in which development occurs influences that development”.

Learning
Learning is development that comes from exercise and effort. Through learning, the child acquires competence in using his hereditary resources. He must, however, have opportunities to learn. A child with superior neuromuscular organization, for example, may have a high aptitude for musical performance, but if he is deprived of opportunities for practice and systematic training, he will not develop his hereditary potential.
Some learning comes from practice or the mere repetition of an act. This, in time, brings about a change in the person’s behavior. Such learning may consist of initiation, in which the child consciously copies what he sees others do. Or it may consist of identification, in which he attempts to adopt as his own values, attitudes, motives, and behavior of persons whom he admires or loves.
Learning may come from training; that is, from selective, directed, and purposive activity. The child is directed in his behavior by adults or older children who attempt to mold his behavior into patterns that will contribute to his welfare and be acceptable to his social group. (Gesell, 1972)

Definition of Terms
Acquisitions - something or someone acquired or gained
Aptitude - inclination, tendency ; capacity for learning
Atrophy - decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue; arrested development or loss of a part or organ incidental to the normal development or life of an animal or plant
Coherent - having clarity or intelligibility; understandable
Constitutional - Essential
Development - the act, process, or result of developing
Endowment - natural capacity, power, or ability
Growth - the process of growing ; progressive development
Intrinsic - originating and included wholly within an organ or part
Milieu - the physical or social setting in which something occurs or develops
Ontogenetic - of, relating to, or appearing in the course of ontogeny
Phylogenetic - based on natural evolutionary relationships
Progressive - of, relating to, or characterized by progress
Qualitative - of, relating to, or involving quality or kind
Quantitative - of, relating to, or expressible in terms of quantity
Spurt - to gush forth : spout Thymus gland - It is pinkish-gray in color and blends in with the surrounding tissue as you age.

CHAPTER I
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Introduction
The level of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If the student’s grades are high, it is concluded that the student might learned a lot. If the student’s grades are low, then the student is learning lesser. However, No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interaction of so many factors – gender, age, year level, social status and the likes. In reality, almost all environmental and personal factors may be a variable of academic performances of students. It may also be the effects of some factors like the educational attainment of parents, IQ study habits, number of siblings, birth order, etc.
Many factors affects the academic performances of students as stated above like gender and age. As for gender and age, academic achievement is strongly influenced by demographic and psychological factors. As for educational attainment of parents, some researches shows that children whose parents are more involved in their education have higher levels of academic performance than children whose parents are involved to a lesser degree. The influence of parent involvement on academic success has not only been noted among researchers, but also among policy makers who have integrated efforts aimed at increasing parent involvement into broader educational policy initiatives However, the researchers would like to study about the probable connection of study habits and other reasons or factors affecting the scholastic performances of students of Fourth year students in Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. The study of on this area thus becomes a real and gripping motivation for the researchers to conduct this study.

Background of the study
Study habits can be defined as buying out a dedicated scheduled and un-interrupted time to apply oneself to the task of learning, practice, or enlightenment. Study habits are important on the part of the students so that it can make use of their time effectively and purposely instead of wasting their time with insufficient study accomplishments.
The researchers wanted to know the effects of study habits in the academic performance of High school in Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. They wanted to know the different kinds of study habits, how they affect the performance of students, and to help the teachers raise the level of performance of their students through the development of proper study habits.
Statement of the problem
The researcher’s main objective in this project was to determine “The effects of study habits in the Academic performance of High School Students in Science.” Most specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:
1. What are the effects of study habits in the academic performance of Fourth year high school students in CEFI?
2. What is the academic performance of the fourth year high school students of Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. ?

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