Submitted By kimmyganda
Corregidor as Dark Tourism:
Basis for Designing Marketing Plan
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Hospitality & Tourism Management of St. Dominic College of Asia
A Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements Towards the Degree Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management
Gocotano, Mary Abigail C.
Sarte, Kimberly Anne A.
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management, this thesis entitled “Corregidor As Dark Tourism: Basis for Designing Marketing Plan” was prepared and submitted to the School of International Hospitality and Tourism Management by:
GOCOTANO, MARY ABIGAIL C.
SARTE, KIMBERLY ANNE A.
Approved by the committee on oral examination on April 16, 2015 with the grade of ________.
DR. JONATHAN R. ADANZA Adviser
ELEONOR D. AGUILANDO, MBA Panel Member
Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management
DR. ALEJANDRO D. MAGNAYE Dean
This study would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several individuals who in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable assistance in the preparation and completion of this study.
First, to the creator above, for all the guidance and strength that He has given to us to finish this study and power to keep us healthy and well-built to achieve this study.
To our Dean Alejandro D. Magnaye and to our professors, Mrs. Eleonor Aguilando, Mr. Jonathan R. Adanza and Prof. Agnes G. Azul who always supports us in everything that we do, for sharing their expertise in research study, invaluable assistance, genuine concern, recommendation and most of all for her encouragement and moral support to us.
To all of our panelist, for all their helpful and constructive comments, suggestions and questions.
To our Family, for their endless love and support, for giving us sense of purpose and direction to accomplish this study.
To our classmates and dearest friends, who were very supportive and their source of inspiration in numerous ways.
To our beloved school St. Dominic College of Asia, this study would be possible without supervision of the professionals in the institution and with their continuous strive for excellence to produce quality and globally competitive students and graduates.
The research entitled the Corregidor as Dark Tourism aimed to determine the tourist experiences in Corregidor. This collected different data and information from three hundred seventy (370) tourists to know what is the effect of dark tourism in Corregidor to their experience.
The researchers used survey questionnaire as the main form for gathering data. The questionnaires were answered by the tourists. The result of the study showed that most of the tourist has aware what is dark tourism . The tourist agree that dark tourism is associated with death, disaster and ghost. Their factors affecting the choice of dark tourism destination was poor in accommodation. In awareness, attractions, activities, and access their choice was very good. They choose education / historical value, adventure and activities as important and appeal in moderately important reason why they visit Corregidor as their dark tourist destination.
This study recommends that the tourism officials and the government must merge to promote Corregidor as dark tourism in social networking sites, TV ads, newspapers, and magazine. The sun cruises or municipality of Corregidor must hired tour guides who can speaks 2 to 3 languages like English, Japanese, Korea. The tourism officials must add features and food stalls such as playground, like burgers and refreshments. They must update their tourist arrivals yearly so that they can see what are things that they are going to improve and lessen. And the tourist must be knowledgeable about what is dark tourism particularly in corregidor which is one of the dark tourist spot in the Philippines.
(Keywords: Dark Tourism, Experience, Corregidor, Tourists)
TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract CHAPTER 1 - Introduction and Background of the Study
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitations pls include the page number
CHAPTER 2 - Review of Related Literature and Conceptual Framework
Foreign Related Literature
Foreign Related Studies
Definition of Terms CHAPTER 3 - Research Methodology
Data Analysis Procedure CHAPTER 4 - Presentation, Analysis of Data and Discussion of Result
Employment Status of Graduates
Relevance of Curert Job to Acquired Degree
Duration Prior to Employment CHAPTER 5 - Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary of Findings
Introduction of the Study
Travel to and experience of places associated with death is not a new phenomenon. People have long been drawn, purposefully or otherwise, towards sites, attractions or events linked in one way or another with death, suffering, violence or disaster (Stone, 2005).
A theme of dark tourism is becoming increasingly popular in a time when tourists have new needs and interests. A journey through the history is the way of finding new dark tourism destinations. Without good promotion of various cultural and historical values for tourism states lose a lot. With promotion of the destination, country would gain much, but many of them do not make efforts in this field.
Dark Tourism, according to Lennon and Foley (2000), is about a large number of sites associated with war, genocide, assassination, and other tragic events that have become significant tourist destinations such as Auschwitz in Poland has become a major attraction for tourists that want to visit Nazi death camps.
Furthermore, dark tourism sites present governments and other authorities with moral and ethical dilemmas. Recent tragic history often confronts the dynamics of commercial development and exploitation. Complex issues are raised surrounding the extent and nature of interpretation the appropriate political and managerial response and the nature of the experience perceived by visitors, local residents, victims and their relatives (Lennon and Foley, 2000).
Basing on Lennon and Foley (2000), interpretation of dark tourism, dark tourism covers a huge area of attractions that has death and disaster hence the title of John Lennon and Malcolm Foley’s book titled ‘Dark Tourism : The Attraction of Death and Disaster’. But in actual fact, not all sites or attractions that is related to death and disaster can be classified under dark tourism.
Dark tourism is a selective type of tourism or special interest tourism. This is a special form of tourism for which exists interest and motivation of the tourists. Dark tourism is a relatively new area of tourism research. It is defined by Foley and Lennon (1996) as “the phenomenon which encompasses the presentation and consumption (by visitors) of real and commoditized death and disaster sites. Their work was not, however, the first to focus upon the relationship between tourism and death, whether violent, untimely or otherwise. Sites associated with war and atrocities have long been considered within a broader heritage tourism context, particularly from an interpretative perspective, while the Thanatourism is also an extreme form of grief tourism that involves the dark contemplation of death at the time of its occurrence. It is a thriving phenomenon which has generated considerable interest within the tourism industry and has been generally described as “tourism involving locations associated with death and great suffering” (Gibson, 2006).
A south-east Asian country of over 7000 islands on the edge of the Pacific between Taiwan and Indonesia. For the dark tourist it is primarily the many WWII-related sites that may make the country interesting. The Philippines, then under US-administration, were invaded and occupied by Japan from April 1942.
Sites that are commodified for tourism include those related to the American defense of the islands (especially at Corregidor), the Japanese occupation and repression, including POW camps and the infamous POW 'death march' of Bataan – one of Japan's major war crimes.
The subsequent re-conquering of the islands by the USA, especially in and around the capital Manila as well as at Leyte, is celebrated through monuments too. Particularly famous is the group of golden statues, with General MacArthur the most prominent figure, wading through shallow water at the Leyte Landing Memorial. During post-war dark period of the dictatorship under Ferdinand Marcos, which was ended in 1986, a rather bizarre legacy remains: the Marikina Shoe Museum in Manila has on display a selection of hundreds of pairs of shoes that once belonged to the former dictator's flamboyant wife Imelda Marcos – who was not only a big squanderer of illegitimately acquired riches in general, but allegedly accumulated the largest private shoe collection ever (well over a thousand pairs in total), as was discovered after she and her husband had to flee into exile.
The Philippines is also home to numerous volcanoes. One of these, Mt Pinatubo, in 1991 produced the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, and one of the largest in recorded history, covering a huge area in ash and shrouding an even larger area in apocalyptic cloud of yellowish haze. The eruption even had a global impact: lowering average temperatures worldwide and depleting the atmosphere's ozone layer even further.
Background of the Study
Corregidor is a small rocky island in the Philippines which about 48 kilometers west of Manila which is strategically located at the entrance of Manila Bay; it was located 48 kilometers inland. With the length of it is 6.5 km, while the width was 2.0 km.g. This island fortress stands as a memorial for the courage, valor, and heroism of its Filipino and American defenders who bravely held their ground against the overwhelming number of invading Japanese forces during World War II (Retrieved from: http://www.corregidorisland.com, 2002).
Corregidor is one of the important historic and tourist sites in the country, as it played an important role during the invasion and liberation of the Philippines from Japanese forces during World War II. It was heavily bombarded in the latter part of the war, and the ruins left on the island serve as a military memorial to American, Filipino and Japanese soldiers who served or lost their lives on the island. Contrary to what most people think, Corregidor is part of the municipality of Cavite City and not of Bataan. Quite interestingly, the island is shaped like a tadpole.
Corregidor is one of the attractions associated with death, suffering and pain. The starting of this study is to know the better experiences of the tourist to visit a dark tourist attraction which adds to a better understanding of the place.
The purpose of this study is to seek answer on what provide a clear description of the research local to the experiences of tourist after a visit to dark tourist attraction, in Corregidor.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to describe the effects of Dark Tourism in Corregidor to the tourist experience. Specifically it seeks to answer the ff. questions: 1.) What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Nationality 2.) What are the factors on tourists’ decision making when choosing a tourist destination?
3.) What are the reasons why tourist visits Corregidor?
Significance of the Study The researchers believed that this study will be most beneficial to the following: * To the Local Host Committee, Local Tourism Office – for them to help the tourism economy.
* To the Local Government Unit of the Corregidor - to know the target groups and development to implement a quality tourist experience on dark tourism and develop facilities and service in their place.
* To the Community of Corregidor – the visits of tourists to Corregidor will become their big advantage, as these create more income and a better economy.
* To the Tourism Organizers, Managers, Planners and Promoters - for them to help provide employments and opportunities as guides and entrepreneurs.
* To the Future Researchers - who want to know the different sides of dark tourism to a particular place and to widen their knowledge and understanding that would be achieved from researches especially in the field of tourism management.
Scope, Delimitations and Limitations of the Study
This research focused on foreign and local tourists in Corregidor. The study wants to determine the experiences of dark tourism in Corregidor. Based on our research, the definition of dark tourism is limited according to Sharpley and Stone (2009). This study helped us to know the experience of dark tourism as based on the experiences of local and foreign tourists in Corregidor. The respondents consisted of 370 tourists, local and foreign from Corregidor.
The study focused on the tourists’ experiences so that the researchers would know if dark tourism has a big factor to the reasons why tourists visit Corregidor. Furthermore, researchers also determined the consumption of the tourist that will contribute to the experience and awareness of the place. Moreover, the study was conducted within Corregidor Island starting from June 2014 up to March 2015. The survey questionnaires were distributed by giving paper survey questionnaires to three hundred seventy (370) tourists in Corregidor.
Review of the Related Literature and Conceptual Framework
Related Literature and Studies
The existing literature on the motivations for dark tourism is fragmented (Stone, 2011). To bridge the gaps in existing literature, a deeper insight is required relating to the definition of dark tourism itself.
Traditionally this form of tourism has been studied on the premise that visitors of dark sites- also known as ‘dark tourists’- are fascinated with the concept of death. However, Thanatourism extends beyond a dark fascination with death and studies have shown that this is not the only motivation for visiting dark sites. Several factors take precedence over this alleged fascination and were subsequently identified.
The most commonly cited reason has been to obtain a sense of emotional heritage. Based on this motivation, it can be argued that the incentives for visiting dark sites are similar to those visiting a regular heritage site (Oren, 2011). Focusing on the sub category of battlefield tourism, visitor motivations stemmed from a sense of moral or cultural obligation to the dead and as a result, a visit to a dark site manifests as a ‘pilgrimage’ owing to a sense of heritage (Westwood, 2011). These visitor motivations were identified to be based on a sense of personal heritage owing to the participation of their relatives and kin in the First World War (Westwood, 2011).
The same phenomenon was observed with respect to slave tourism in which visitors were drawn to the Slave Castles in Ghana irrespective of transnational boundaries owing to shared cultural roots and a desire to identify with these sites and the events that transpired there (Chancellor, 2011). The motivation to visit sites connected with the personal heritage of the visitor was the highest and most significant reason of such actions (Oren, 2011). Hence, the motivations in this case arise from a sense of personal and cultural connection and the site is treated as a heritage site.
It was also noted that visitors with heritage-based motivations considered themselves to be ‘representative pilgrims’ and felt that they were paying homage to the dead on behalf of other people who could not be there physically (Westwood, 2011). The same phenomenon was observed amongst visitors of Slave Castles in Ghana who saw themselves as less of tourists and more as witnesses to history and travellers on a pilgrimage (Chancellor, 2011) irrespective of transnational boundaries and united by a common ethnic history. As a result a collective, communal feeling of shared heritage also acts as an incentive and strengthens the desire to visit dark sites.
The ‘see it to believe it’ phenomenon
Other motivations with these sites were identified as ‘a sense of validation’ or a desire to understand the magnitude of the situation and even further (Westwood, 2011). This phenomena of ‘see it to believe it’ is among the most common motivations for Thanatourism (Oren, 2011). Tourists felt the need to validate the tragedies of these sites for themselves and reflect on the scale and magnitude of the happenings. Visiting these sites is an exercise in self education which is focused on internalized understanding of the dark history of these sites. This motivation may or may not stem from a sense of personal or cultural heritage. However, it has been identified as a major inducement for Thanatourism.
Dark Tourism: Towards A New Post-Disciplinary Research Agenda
Over the past decade or so, dark tourism research – that is, the social scientific study of tourism and tourists associated with sites of death, disaster or the seemingly macabre – has witnessed a burgeoning of the literature base. Much of this research has a profundity that can undoubtedly, will contribute to broader social theories and to our understanding of cultural dynamics. Arguably, however, some dark tourism research has been characterized by a banality that either illustrates deficient conceptual underpinning or provides for limited disciplinary synthesis. Thus, in order to assuage any structural deficiencies in dark tourism as a coherent body of knowledge, it was suggested (Stone, 2011) that scholars need to transgress traditional disciplinary borders and interests, and to adopt post-disciplinary research approaches that are characterized by increased reasonableness, flexibility and inclusivity (Tourism Anthropology, 2011).
Confronting Mortality Moments: Death, Dying And The Consumption Of Dark Tourism
The twentieth-century battlefields of Europe, sites of genocide at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the Killing Fields of Cambodia or the ruins of New York’s Ground Zero; each are locations that have become infamous for their association with death and tragedy. However, within contemporary society, those visitors who actively seek out these macabre sites and attractions have received increasing academic and media scrutiny. Indeed, the rather superficial label of ‘dark tourism’, or its academic namesake ‘thanatourism’, has been applied in order to both identify and analyse this phenomenon of visiting sites of death, disaster and tragedy Lennon & Foley (2000). Consequently, whilst the media are said to have elevated the subject of dark tourism to that of myth or even meta-myth Seaton & Lennon ( 2004), academic discourse is now attempting to understand the motives of these dark tourists and the implications of such visits (Stone 2005). Dark tourism, a term first coined by Foley and Lennon (1996, 1998) typifies ‘the presentation and consumption (by visitors) of real and commodified death and disaster sites’. In doing so, the subject area, in research terms at least, has become validated and popularized and, as such, death related tourist activity has been scrutinized under its various manifestations and ‘shades’ (Stone 2006). Additionally, Rojeck’s concept of ‘Black Spots’ (1993), Dann’s ‘milking the macabre’ (1994), or Blom’s morbid tourism (2000), have all contributed to the wider dark tourism debate. Nevertheless, whatever term used to describe this death related tourist activity within contemporary society, for ‘industry practitioners’ at least, labelling such activity may imply certain negative connotations because of wider morality and mortality subtexts (Stone 2006).
Dark Tourism: Demand Side
Stone and Sharpley (2008) stated that the motives for visiting death-related sites have not yet been fully or systematically examined, thus, allowing only weak conceptualizations of dark tourism. This lack of detailed knowledge can be attributed to a number of reasons.
One clear alternative is to examine why tourists go to such sites, in other words, their motivations for visiting these ‘attractions’. Motivation refers to the inner forces which arouse and direct human behavior (Boo & Jones, 2009). Inherent in the concept of tourist motivation are human needs – which require satisfaction, as well as the need to maintain a balance between under-stimulation and over-stimulation.
The research conducted by Biran el al. (2011) reveals that motivations could be grouped into four factors, namely: ‘see it to believe it’ (participants’ interest in seeing the site out of a need to believe that such atrocities really happened); ‘learning and understanding’ (participants interest in being educated about Second World War and the atrocities that took place in Auschwitz); ‘famous death tourist attractions’ (general interest in sites of death, willingness to see the real site, and feel empathy with the victims); and ‘emotional heritage experience’ (the desire to connect to his/her heritage and have an emotional experience) (Ballantyne et al., 2012).
Other motivations identified through empirical studies include educational reasons, the popularity and awareness of a site and interest in war and military itself (Dunkley et al., 2011). The study conducted by Braithwaite and Lieper (2010), at the ‘Death Railway’ on the Kwai River, however, found motivations of recreational purposes since a lack of knowledge about the site meant that some tourists were not aware of what exactly they were visiting. However, the situation is more complex than Leiper suggests. The motivations of distinct visitor groups cannot be classified as same. For example, the Australians are usually experiencing dark emotions linked to the war; whereas, the Thai people and other visitors are just having fun in what is a resort town of Kanchanaburi.
Sather-Wagstaff (2011) explored ‘memoryscapes’ of 9/11 and how tourists construct and disperse knowledge through per formative activities, which makes painful places salient and meaningful both individually and collectively (Hughes, 2008), when exploring Tuol Sleng Museum of genocide crimes in Cambodia, recorded that tourists may visit a site merely because it is a ‘must-see’ site. Consequently, the awareness, as well as the knowledge of a site may influence the different motivations visitors might have, in line with the findings of Braithwaite and Lieper (2010).
To conclude, two key points made by Seaton (2012) are that there is ‘too much emphasis on the conceptualization of dark tourism and not enough on the individual visitor perfectives’ and that dark tourism ‘is not a single concept’. In other words, there is a need for more empirical researches that undertake the consumption of dark tourism, more comparative observations and meanings and differentiated motive identification. Consequently, this study responds to these key points and aims to fill the gap in research of people’s motivation to visit sites associated with death and suffering.
Dark tourism: Supply side
Foley and Lennon (1996) coined and popularized the concept of dark tourism as an area for research, but there have been other attempts to describe the phenomenon of visiting sites associated with death and atrocity, such as Thanatourism (Seaton, 1996); Fatal Attractions, Black Spots (Rojek, 1993; Morbid Tourism (Bloom, 2000); Atrocity Tourism (Ashworth & Hartmann, 2005); or Difficult Heritage (Logan & Reeves, 2009). It is only in recent years that this phenomenon has been collectively referred to as dark tourism and appears to have become widespread and more popular, both in terms of visits to sites and in the context of academic research. Travel to sites, attractions and events linked with death, suffering, violence or disaster has occurred for as long as people have been able to travel (Stone, 2005). Examples are the religious pilgrimages to sites of death and violence during the Middle Ages or the medieval public executions (Seaton, 1996).
Shining Light On Dark Tourism
Pilgrimages to places associated with death have occurred as long as people have been able to travel. In other words, it has always been an identifiable form of tourism, though socio-cultural contexts in which death-related travel transpired have obviously changed throughout the ages. This latter point is beyond the scope of this paper, though (Seaton, 2010) argues dark tourism was traditional travel that evolved through profound shifts in the history of European culture and influenced by Christianity, Antiquarianism, and Romanticism. However, as general participation in tourism has grown, particularly since the mid-twentieth century, so too has the demand for and supply of dark tourism (Sharpley, 2009). Similarly, (Carr, 2010) noted how war-tourism sites can control or censor dissonant accounts of the past. In particular, she examines touristification tensions within the Channel Islands’ war heritage and the Nazi occupation it serves to represent. Ultimately, Carr suggests that wartime narratives in the Channel Islands, which are delivered through fragmented and contested memorialization at various bunker sites, are directly analogous to other formerly-occupied western European countries,rather than being identified with a British Churchillian paradigm—namely, that the British was not a nation of victims, but of victors.
Dark Tourism As A New Mediating Institution
A dominant Freudian paradigm of contemporary Western bereavement studies has been for individuals to let go of their attachments to the dead and move on. The dead are not banished from the lives of individuals, nor are the dead, generally, seen as a threat or jeopardy to living—though violent death may perturb a collective consciousness. Hence, the concept of mortality mediation defined here, as a social filter that protects, maintains, and influences life/death relationships is an important one. The dead require a channel to communicate with the living, as do the living require a filter in order to communicate with the dead. However, the act of mediating with the other dead that is, transmitting information about dead people has historical pedigree. The dead, especially the significant dead, have long been mediated or filtered to the living through literature, folklore, architecture, the arts, archaeology, religion, and more recently through popular culture, the mass media and the internet.
Dark Tourism as Narrative
Narratives about both the long and recent dead are imparted at dark tourism sites through formal interpretation. The dead are communicated and socially filtered through tourism information and (re)presentations as well as marketing descriptions. Of course, broader issues of authenticity, dissonance, and political imperatives are bound up within dark tourism interpretation and these have been covered elsewhere (Sharpley & Stone, 2009). Nevertheless, the imparting of formalized and specific narratives at dark tourism sites is a first step in the overall mediation of mortality process, whereby, death and suffering is presented and interpreted in order to be consumed, as a tourist experience.
Dark Tourism as Education
By providing particular narratives, the dead can be encountered for educational purposes. For example, at a Body Worlds exhibition, tourists congregate with the real dead and learn about not only death and disease, but also about life and health (Stone, 2011b). Similarly, tourists to Ground Zero are presented with an opportunity to learn about the events leading up to, during, and after 9/11. It is here where the Other Dead mediate their significant dreadful demise with educative narratives of tolerance and forbearance. Likewise, at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the Holocaust Dead teach tragic tales of persecution and genocide and display the conditions in which human survival became almost impossible. Even at the London Dungeon, or what has been termed the lighter side of dark tourism (Stone, 2009c), educational narratives are integral to the overall ‘death design’ of the tourist attraction. Particularly, the dungeon attraction provides ‘edutainment’ to help comprehend past methods of torture and incarceration, as well as learning about deeds of the disgraced dead, such as, Jack the Ripper or Dick Turpin.
Dark Tourism as Entertainment
Death and tourism may appear an anomalous conjunction; yet, dark tourism provides a safe socially sanctioned space to consume an otherwise taboo topic. The dead at some dark tourism sites, like much else from the past, mediate their presence through the act of entertaining present-day visitors. For instance, the London Dungeon explicitly depicts death, dying and the dead. Consequently, visitors are entertained in Baudrillardian fashion through simulated acts of killing, including hanging and the cutting of throats (Stone, 2009c). However, other types of dark tourism can also act as entertaining ‘death mediators’. At Body Worlds, for example, the dead are artistically posed within an entertaining and educative exhibitory space. In turn, Body Worlds corpses are turned into ‘stars of the show’ and the morbid tourist gaze becomes a core activity.
Meanwhile, it would be discourteous to suggest tourism to either Ground Zero or Auschwitz-Birkenau is deemed entertaining. Yet, however, tourism at these sites is, for many, part of a broader leisure travel itinerary (Stone, 2010, 2012). Whether individuals are in New York to visit other iconic landmarks, or in Poland to visit medieval Krakow, both Ground Zero and Auschwitz-Birkenau are, generally, consumed as integral elements of a wider leisure trip (Stone, 2010). Of course, neither the 9/11 Dead nor the Holocaust Dead provide ‘entertainment’ in the accepted tourism sense. Nonetheless, both Ground Zero and Auschwitz-Birkenau are now part of a broader visitor economy and often ‘packaged’ and promoted with other mainstream tourist attractions (Stone, 2010). Ethical implications aside, as well as notions of secular pilgrimage, the respective dead at both Ground Zero and Auschwitz-Birkenau are consumed by some tourists some of the time as broader recreation and as a kind of ‘dark leisure’ (Stone & Sharpley, forthcoming).
Dark Tourism as Haunting (Memories)
The unquiet dead can haunt people; indeed, memories of murdered individuals or groups of the collective dead who die in tragedies can haunt society. For instance, the atrocities of 9/11 represented at Ground Zero or the Holocaust at Auschwitz-Birkenau need to be incorporated into a collective narrative with which individuals may identify.Likewise, past methods of execution or acts of infamous (unsolved) murder that still haunt, if not also thrill, contemporary individuals are (re)packaged and consumed at the London Dungeon attraction.
Similarly, terminal illnesses that continue to perplex clinical science such as cancer or Alzheimer’s disease, which Body Worlds seeks to illuminate, may haunt individuals as they face up to personal notions of health and mortality. In turn, death anxieties levels may be elevated as a myriad of mortality moments disturb the collective consciousness (Stone, 2011b). Walter (2009) suggested such unquiet deaths and their memories are the very stuff of dark tourism. In other words, and chronological distance issues aside, traumatic difficult-to-comprehend deaths, murder and disasters, as well as causes of death provide a basis for dark tourism. It is this very nature of haunting, or at least the notion of lingering, disturbing and evocative memory, at places such as Ground Zero, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Body Worlds and even at the London Dungeon, that mediate, albeit at varying levels of intensity, between the Self and the Significant Other Dead.
Dark Tourism as Memorialisation
While disturbing death may haunt contemporary imaginations, the act of remembrance and memorialisation allows dark tourism to occur (Stone, 2006). As dark tourism may be typified by conceptual ‘shades’, then so too can different kinds of memory. While memory and memorialisation studies is a vibrant transdisciplinary field of research, involving amongst others neurologists, psychoanalysts, anthropologists and philosophers, the debates are broad and too diverse to discuss here; yet, it is different kinds of memory as generations pass away that is important to dark tourism and the mediation of mortality.
Consequently, first-generation memory refers to events, places or people that are personally experienced. Whereas such memories are fluid rather than static, Olick (Oclick, 1999) suggests first-generation memories are ‘‘cobbled together anew each time the memory comes to mind’’. Hence, recent atrocities such as 9/11 are termed first-generation memories, and although most people were not present in New York at the time of the atrocity, television transmissions of the event meant that people were transported to the death site whilst remaining in their living rooms. Meanwhile, second-generation memories are those of our parents and their generation, and are passed down to influence our understanding of the world.
For instance, at Auschwitz-Birkenau, a Holocaust survivor will remember the Holocaust in a different way than say their son or daughter, or for unrelated individuals for whom it has become history. Thus, by third-generation memory (and later), the past enrols into our consciousness in different ways. One such way is history and through representing historical narratives. The important issue, however, is that remembrance ‘‘entails commemoration and memorialisation of those whose suffering and death one may not have personally witnessed’’ (Walter, 2009). Therefore, when memory is not first hand, it evolves into remembrance and as time transpires into memorialisation and eventually into history. Remembrance, memorialisation and historical representation through dark tourism are all ways of relating to and mediating with the Significant Other dead, and/or contemplating their deaths. As (Walter, 2009) notes, ‘‘at the same dark tourist site, all may be present, for different visitors’’.
At Ground Zero, for example, remembrance of the 9/11 dead is within the realms of first-generation memory. Meanwhile, at Auschwitz-Birkenau where the Holocaust dead are becoming chronologically distance, memory is third-generation or later for many visitors. Hence, memorialisation of the Holocaust occurs by maintaining AuschwitzBirkenau as a tourist site/museum as well as formally constructing memorials at the location and elsewhere. In terms of ‘lighter’ dark tourism, however, memorialisation narratives are largely omitted. Although the London Dungeon attraction is a place to package-up and remember the ‘disgraced dead’, the prostitute victims of Jack the Ripper, for example, are identified and remembered but are not given a narrative in which to commemorate their lives. Similarly, at Body Worlds, the dead are not personally identifiable, therefore not remembered, but visitors do connect with illustrated causes of illness and death and go on to identify with the corpses through their own anatomy (Stone, 2011). Ultimately, however, whatever the extent of remembrance and memorialisation of Other Death at dark tourism sites, it is this mediating ‘recall’ relationship that gives the dead the authority to afford guidance and moral instruction to the living.
Dark Tourism as Moral Instruction
Dark tourism either strategically deploy taboo subjects and commercially exploit macabre and tragic events, or offer memorialized narratives that connect the living with the dead. As a result, dark tourism sites exist within the broader visitor economy and are often marketed as mainstream tourist attractions. However, dark tourism sites are contemporaneous cultural spaces that act as receptacles of ‘highly charged’ ideas and representations that appeal to mass-market demographics.
Therefore, dark tourism, to varying degrees, offer nihilistic narratives of fear, death, horror, violence and disease, which are either commemorated and celebrated and (re)created through mimesis, kitsch and pastiche representations, or portrayed through stark and uncompromising bleak depictions. Cultural interplay is encouraged and sanctioned within dark tourism by tourists who, depending on the eclecticism of their own life-worlds and perceived ordinariness/relevance of the exhibited victim(s)/cadavers, as well as the ethical conduct of other tourists, construct relative meanings of morality through the Significant Other Dead (Stone, 2009). With embodied and emotionally engaged tourists, dark tourism potentially offers the self an emancipatory place for reassessment and self-reflexivity that allows for a reconfiguration of outlooks and interpretative strategies.
Dark Tourism as Memento Mori
Whether through religion, art, folklore, ancestral tales, or literature, as well as other cultural mechanisms, reminders of death memento mori have a long history. However, Seaton (2009) also highlights the Romantic period as an era that was covert and slightly sadomasochistic, expressed through vicarious pleasures of terror and horror, manifested by the sublime and gothic novels and architecture.
As noted earlier, Seaton proposes modern-day dark tourism is an extension of Romantic reminders of mortality—that is, cultural representations that remind people of their mortality even as they go about everyday living.
However, it is not simply representations of death that act as memento mori but, rather, the consumption of Significant Other Death through dark tourism experiences that allows the Self to construct and mediate a meaning of mortality. However, (Walter 2009,) notes, ‘‘whether dark tourism sites actually remind tourists of their mortality varies. Thus, we may encounter the dead in a way that shields us from our own mortality, or the encounter may be liberally sprinkled with memento mori’’. Conversely, dark tourism experiences do indeed remind some tourists of their mortality, though Walter is correct in his assumption of thanatopsis variability (Stone, 2011). Consequently,the extent of thanatopsis is more pronounced, for example,at Auschwitz-Birkenau and Ground Zero, where tragic Other Death is narrated through memorialization, while at Body Worlds, mortality contemplation is accompanied with narratives of health and life. Even at the London Dungeon, there are elements of memento mori as tourists consume simulated death at a safe socially sanctioned distance (Stone, 2009). Ultimately, however, it is the nature and extent of memento mori as a mediating relationship of mortality that is at the crux of dark tourism.
Evaluation of Visitors Experience after Visiting Thanatological Tourist Attractions
Thurnell-Read (2009) analyses experiences of young visitors of thanatological tourist attractions linked to the Holocaust. He chooses, as a geographical research area, the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, near Krakow in Poland. The key questions to which the research tries to find answers are various motivational factors that initiated the visit to such a tourist attraction, descriptions of conduct in a place of mass executions as well as experiences after the visit.
Like Thurnell-Read (2009) limited herself to one thanatologoically themed tourist attraction as well as a population sample with a tourist experience based solely on the visit to the above mentioned tourist attraction. Although the size of the sample is not precisely defined, we can assume that it is too small a sample of respondents, considering the number of quotes taken from the interview transcripts.
Dark tourism motivations: Simulation, Emotional Contagion and Topographic Comparison
Church burnings, suicide, National Socialism, Satanism, and murder. This combination of dark events is what gripped northern Europe, especially Norway, in the 1990’s where a series of violent events shocked a nation that, at the time, was not ordinarily accustomed to living in fear. Metal songs performances often focus on satanic and/or anti- Christian motifs, with much of it extolling the virtues of neopagan renaissance or drawing on the grandeur of Norse mythology (Hagen, 2011). The music itself is disharmonic and songs are generally constructed around fast tremolo picking and related signatures that seek to create a profoundly dark, cold and foreboding atmosphere.
This paper explores tourist motivations related to the growing consumption of black metal and its related events. It is believed that some select black artists and followers were responsible for over fifty church burnings throughout Scandinavia (mostly in Norway) in the mid 1990’s to express disdain over modern Scandinavian society (Monk, 2011). Even with its history of violence, black metal is Norway’s number one musical export (Visit Norway, 2011) and home to a variety of festivals and tours draw black metal fans world-wide. Black metal festivals, usually found in Oslo. Trondheim and other large cities, are even featured in Norway’s official travel guide (Visit Norway, 2011), and in 2011, Norway’s foreign ministry began training diplomats in black metal culture as a response to inquiries they get at foreign embassies (Boyd, 2011). Black metal festivals and concerts, which today are definitely not defined by violence, and are removed from the 1990’s activities, have sprung up in variety of locations over the past twenty years with large scale events held in Switzerland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Norway, Latin America and United States. Black metal concerts can be found in “underground” style clubs, larger capacity clubs and even large arenas and festival grounds. Inferno, an annual event in both Norway and Switzerland, is the epicenter of the black metal festival scene and draws thousands of fans from across the world for multi-day concerts at multiple venues. Fans of black metal come from a variety of demographics in terms of age – from teenagers newly embracing the genre, to those over the age of 50 who have been listening to metal for decades. Listeners are generally male, but certainly not exclusively (Wallach et al., 2011). In recent years, formal tours of black metal related sites have quickly gained momentum as the music genre has grown in worldwide popularity (Weinstein, 2011). As this global interest continues to blossom, Norway, where the modern scene began, has experienced a surge of tourists known as “blackpackers”, a term given to black metal fans who engage in tourism activity (Metal Review, 2011), who tour not only to experience live music and festival atmospheres, but to visit sites where violence associated with black metal artists and fans has occurred. These sites might be record shops, such as the former Helvete Records in Oslo, where early purveyors of black metal both resided and held court, or local pubs and apartment complexes where fans socialized and gathered. Similar blackpacking experiences are now also occurring in Switzerland and other parts of Europe where black metal is growing in popularity (Hagen, 2011).
In the past few years, black metal, largely fueled by crossover acts with wider-ranging appeals, such as DimmuBorgir, Cradle of Fifth and Satyricon, has witnessed both a surge in fandom and festival related revenue. While its associated violence has most certainly subsided, the scene’s popularity has spurred sellout crowds and a wealth of tourist activity. Black metal festivals are now found not only in Scandinavia, but France, Italy, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Black metal band, concerts and interest have also gained momentum in South America. More localized black metal festivals (featuring bands with more limited global appeal) have regularly appeared in many Eastern European countries.
Dark Tourism Motivation and Consumption Humans have been purposely drawn to attractions, sites and events linked with the death and disaster (Stone & Sharpley, 2008), concentration camps (Podoshen & Hunt, 2011) and terrorism sites (Sturken, 2007). Travel to these sites associated with death has been referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism (Dunkley et al., 2011). In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research related to dark tourism sites, however, there has been very little study that focuses on tourist motivations and thematic elements that attempt to explain tourist motivations and related dispositions (Podoshen & Hunt, 2011; Tarlow, 2005; Wight, 2005) in light of repeated calls for examination (Biran, Poria, & Oren, 2011; Seaton, & Lennon, 2s004; Stone, 2005b, 2006; Stone & Sharpley, 2008). As ( Stone 2009) concludes, the term “dark tourism” implies a focus on death and the dead, therefore developing an understanding of dark tourism from the tourist perspective may actually tell us more about the living. With the understanding tourist motivations in mind, the focus of the present study is to examine the phenomena largely from the consumption perspective. Even though a majority of dark tourism study has been focused on the supply side and its related management and interpretation, there has been some work that allows us to begin to weave a thread through dark tourism consumption study and literature. Sharpley (2009) believes that schadenfreude sparks a dark tourism interest and likens these tourists to rubberneckers who gaze at the tragedy of others. Sharpley (2009) created a typology that examines dark tourism consumption with supply (either purposeful or accidental) as an axiological factor. In this typology, tourism is categorized into one of four quadrants ranging from “pale” to “dark” based on how attractions experiences are measured by the extent to which interest in death is expressed in conjunction with how the supply is directed toward consumer fascination. Dark tourists are often motivated by the quest for a new experience or an adventure to gain knowledge and understand something that was known to then before (Sharpley & Stone, 2009). Sharpley and Stone (2009) stated that this interpretation is responsible for the tourist’s navigation between places, items and history or collective its heritage, and the related meaning inscribed in the tourist. As Sharpley and Stone (2009) and Frew (2012) noted, this interpretation is vital to experience, as without it, these destinations exist largely as empty space these tourists may have experiences that are largely diminished, however, they also note that the converse of this situation is also true. Effective interpretation may bring the site to life (Sharpley& Stone, 2009) and resonate more specifically with the tourist seeking deeper meaning. Though heritage tourism and its impact is also based on interpretation and a need for authenticity, a key point of differentiation between heritage tourism and dark tourism is that dark tourism is often associated with some type of atrocity (Sharpley & Stone, 2009). Further, as (Sharpley 2009). This falls in line with Sharlpey & Stone’s (2009) assertion that dark tourism is a more complex process that is augmented by the spontaneity of sensation and driven by interest in death and/or disaster as the dominant reason for engaging in the tourism activity. In terms of differentiation of interpretation techniques, (Sharpley & Stone, 2009) mention that dark tourism sites afford the ability to “write or rewrite the history of people’s lives and deaths , or to provide particular (political) interpretations of past events “. (Sharpley & Stone, 2009) While Sharpley and Stone’s (2009) emphasis on the importance of interpretation is paramount to the epistemology of dark tourism, they warned that the actual interpretation occurring in the mind of the tourist must specifically relate to what is being displayed to the individual. Further, as Sharpley and Stone (2009) reminded us, posits that interpretation should not necessarily solely inform, but also provoke those being informed. Dark tourism sites should assuredly strive for authenticity (Sharpley & Stone, 2009) because it is an essential element that engenders visitor empathy (Kang et al., 2012). A lack of authentic experience in these particular touristic experiences opens up a wide realm of interpretative fallacy. Even with the beginnings of established frameworks and thought for the study and classification of dark tourism, there still remains chasm in terms of the understanding and interpretation of dark tourism consumption (Sharpley & Stone, 2009). Consumption motivations within the realm of dark tourism are drawn more from the theoretical and not empirical. The chosen study of black metal tourism is particularly good example to examine many black metal tourists and fans do not share the same cultural heritage as the producers of black metal and its related art. In fact, for many fans of the genre, the only similarity these tourists share, heritage wise, with the black metal artists is black metal itself. This unique situation allows study of dark tourism motivations that center not on heritage, but on affect, facilitating exploration on more precise an unmoderated actuation. Synthesis
The fundamental motive for visiting dark sites is being explored in modern research. According to Stone and Sharpley, “visitors are seen to be driven by differing intensities of interest or fascination in death” (Stone Sharpley, 2008). Hence, it can be perceived that visitor motivations are not homogenous.
The motivations of visitors can be further explored through the differentiation in degrees of dark tourism. Due to the varied and uniquely different nature of dark tourism products, the term dark tourism itself is vague and ambiguous (Stone, 2006).
The existing literature on the motivations for dark tourism is fragmented (Stone, 2011). To bridge the gaps in existing literature, a deeper insight is required relating to the definition of dark tourism itself.
Relating to this perspective, seven suppliers of dark tourism have been identified ranging from ‘light’ to ‘dark’ dark tourism (Stone, 2006). These were described as a “spectrum of supply outlined with a subsequent seven type categorization of dark tourism suppliers” (Stone, 2006). They include dark fun factories, dark exhibitions, dark dungeons, dark resting places, dark shrines, dark conflict sites and dark genocide camps. Thus a range of tourist experiences has been created from the lightest shades (haunted houses at amusement parks) to the darkest (Auschwitz). This sub-categorization of dark tourism enables a broader perspective into the motivations of visitors depending on the ‘degree of darkness’. For example, the motivations of a tourist on a Jack the Ripper tour in London will differ from those of a tourist at the Killing Fields in Cambodia. Based on BiranPoria Oren, The most commonly cited reason has been to obtain a sense of emotional heritage. Based on this motivation, it can be argued that the incentives for visiting dark sites are similar to those visiting a regular heritage site, while Dunkley Morgan Westwood, Focusing on the sub category of battlefield tourism, visitor motivations stemmed from a sense of moral or cultural obligation to the dead and as a result, a visit to a dark site manifests as a ‘pilgrimage’ owing to a sense of heritage. Hence, the motivations in this case arise from a sense of personal and cultural connection and the site is treated as a heritage site. It was also noted that visitors with heritage based motivations considered themselves to be ‘representative pilgrims’ and felt that they were paying homage to the dead on behalf of other people who could not be there physically. According to Hughes, facing the subject of genocide through tourist activities. The geographical research area is the ominous TuolSleng prison in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The starting point of the research is that the existing theory of dark tourism is not adequate in understanding the motivation, conduct and experiences of the visitors of such tourist attractions. The author believes that it is not enough to suggest that modern tourist are attracted to unconventional tourist attractions, merely for their nature differentiating them from socially acceptable ones. Hughes uses the qualitative method in the research. The data is collected through interviews on a sample of visitors of the TuolSleng museum. The size of the sample is not mentioned, but it is discernible that there are male and female visitors between the ages of twenty seven and fifty two years. Interestingly, some respondents have experienced a more prominent motivation to actively participate in non-government organizations, to help the injured, after visiting the museum. Also, some of the respondents have taken concrete humanitarian steps by donating clothes they have taken on the trip or voluntarily donated blood in a local Cambodian hospital. Based on those results, it is possible to conclude how a visit to a thanatological tourist attraction of that kind significantly magnifies the feeling of empathy in a visitor. While Stone and Sharpley says that it is consider the deficit in scientific literature on offers thematically based on dark tourism. Even though in recent years the interest for such a theme is rising, the authors believe that the focus of the study is primarily the offer on thanatologically themed content, while paying demand little or no attention, using anthropological studies as a reference. In order to gather as precise references as they can for future research, Stone and Sharpley explore ties between views on death from a socio-cultural standpoint of modern society and that same society’s facing death, through a tourist activity in a thanatological surrounding. In order to achieve results, Stone and Sharpley use internal and external sources of secondary data, i.e. already published studies on the subject of dark tourism and anthropological tourism. Stone and Sharpley in the end believe how a visit to thanatological tourist attractions awakens in visitors a consciousness of value for one’s own life, disregarding the fact that such attractions are primarily about death and dying, which in itself is an answer to a complex question of motivation, and pointers for researching touristic demand, as well.
The exhibit of plasticized body parts and cadavers named “Body Worlds” is the subject of Stone’s (2011) research, in which he analyzed experiences from visitors of the mentioned exhibit in April 2009, in the O2 Arena, Greenwich, London. Stone bases the research on the fact that there is not enough published studies on the subject of society’s perception on death through a leisure activity, like exhibits facing them with their own mortality. The author conducts a qualitative research using the semi structured interview method and additionally uses the method of covertly observing the visitors of the exhibit. The sample consisted of seventeen adult respondents, eight male and nine female, from America, France, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study was conducted in London, in situation, from April 20 until April 22, 2009. The conclusion of the study was the mediation of exhibit offers related to thanatology with the facing of one’s mortality at such exhibits or similar tourist attractions. As a control group in this study, the author mentions a small sample of respondents. This paper explores tourist motivations related to the consumption of a particular art from that is expressly and specifically associated in paganism, Satanism, blasphemy and historic violence and violent imagery. The goal of this research is not to pass judgement on black metal fandom, its fans, and its associated tourism, or on the content of the music and art, but rather to explore the interpretation, from the consumption side of the equation, related to this dark tourism activity. In order to understand the psychological motivations of black packers and their desire to tour sites associated with death, violence and destruction, a mixed method approach was utilized, whereby black packing and black metal festival tourism was examined using three specific, established techniques: participant observation, netnography and content analysis. Over the course of the analysis, specific thematic elements related to the consumption of dark tourism sites emerged, for some (not all) black metal tourists. We found simulation, coupled with the emotional contagion as a key factor related to tourist motivations. Additionally, the data reveal tourists needs to resolve the differences between perceptions of dark tourism sites spurred largely by the media, and the actual sites themselves- resulting in the motivated desire to engage in the tourism activity. The following section details relevant literature related to consumption side dark tourism. This is followed by detail about the methodology utilized, and a discussion of the resultant themes from the studies. This paper concludes with specific insights surrounding demand driven dark tourism. Consumption motivations within the realm of dark tourism are drawn more from the theoretical and not empirical. Stone and Sharpley, 2008 present the notion that understanding the consumption motivation for thanatourism sites needs improvement and that limited empirical study of the phenomena does not allow for a particularly strong conceptualization. With this in mind, this particular study looks to examine dark tourism motivations that go beyond heritage, instead placing particular effort in examining the psychological roots that underlie consumption. The chosen study of black metal tourism is particularly good example to examine many black metal tourists and fans do not share the same cultural heritage as the producers of black metal and its related art. In fact, for many fans of the genre, the only similarity these tourists share, heritage wise, with the black metal artists is black metal itself. This unique situation allows study of dark tourism motivations that center not on heritage, but on affect, facilitating exploration on more precise an unmoderated actuation. In this study, the researchers hope to shed light on dark tourism motivations, which can then be used to both examine existing thanatouristic frameworks in light of empirical evidence and build new theory. This study is different in comparison with the articles indicated in the review or related literatures since it will know only focus on the motivating factors affecting the tourists in Dark Tourism sites. Conceptual Framework This study will be based on the motivations of the tourists why they visit such dark and morbid places.
Many scholars have conducted a large number of supply-side-related studies on definitions of dark tourism, including sub categorizations and labels of dark tourism sites and spectrum models considering the degree of darkness (Biran, Poria, & Oren, 2011; Seaton, 1996; Seaton & Lennon, 2004; Stone, 2005a; Stone & Sharpley, 2008). Fewer studies have examined visitors’ perspectives on dark tourism, such as how people experience dark tourism sites, and why they are drawn to these sites of death and disaster. There have been very few empirical studies that have examined visitors’ experiences at these sites, including the meanings of the experience to visitors and their differentiated motives. Seaton and Lennon (2004) claim that consumer-oriented research on visits to sites of death, disaster and atrocities ‘has hardly even begun’. In addition, Sharpley and Stone (2009) suggest in their book ‘there is a pressing need for empirical research into the ways in which dark sites are consumed, both in terms of tourists’ motivations and experience and more generally in terms of the function of dark sites as one of many social institutions that mediate between life and death’. Poria, Butler, and Airey (2003) have noted that motivation is a key issue in discussing types of tourism.
Increased number of Tourist
Corregidor Marketing Activities
Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm
Figure 1 shows the identified motivations of the tourists why they visit such dark and morbid places as the result of the marketing plans to increase the number of tourist. The study will test the relationship of each variables and how these variables predict the results. It shows the major variable which is the Dark Tourism. Researchers already identified motivations of the tourist why they visit such places like dark tourism. The identified factors can be considered as strength of the dark tourism. Each factor will be analyzed and checked their relationships whether it has positive and/or negative effects. The results of the analysis will be part of the attraction and awareness that will be used to organized and come up with the most effective marketing strategies to attract tourist to go in dark tourism sites such as Corregidor.
This presents the research paradigm which includes the input, the process and the output (IPO) involved in this study.
Analyze and interpret the data
Marketing plan for Dark Tourism in Corregidor
Increase of tourist consumption in Corregidor
Determine the Consumption of Dark Tourism in Corregidor
Figure 1 Research Paradigm of the Study
This Research paradigm shows the different inputs used in the study namely from the diagram above the INPUT as presented in the first block refers to the independent block variables such as the respondents profile and determine the consumption of dark tourism in Corregidor. The second block represents, the PROCESS included the instruments used in gathering the needed data. The third block, the OUTPUT included the results of the study and a marketing plan for Dark Tourism in Corregidor.
Definition of Terms
For the better and clear comprehension of this study, the following terms are operationally and conceptually defined.
Corregidor Island it refers to an island located at the entrance of the Manila Bay in southwestern part of Luzon island in the Philippines.
Dark Tourism it refers to places that are identified with death and suffering.
Local Tourists it refers to the people who live in the Philippines and along Corregidor and near province.
Foreign Tourists it refers to the people from other country that travels to Corregidor Island.
Thanatourism it refers to the act of travel and visitation to sites, attractions and exhibitions that have real or recreated death, suffering or the seemingly macabre as a main theme.
Tourism it refers to the attractions sites, accommodation and services.
Tourist it refers to people who are visiting Corregidor Island.
The Design This quantitative research study was undertaken using the approach of descriptive method. Survey and structured interview were utilized in order to describe the present condition and to show relationship between variables. A descriptive research also involves fact finding with adequate interpretation more than data gathering which means that what will be presented are truly what the researcher got from the respondents. The researchers also conducted interviews and informal conversation with the students and professionals in order to get more information which was used and beneficial to the study. The Sample
The study covered the local and foreign tourists in Corregidor to know the effect of dark tourism in Corregidor. The researchers had the source from the tourist arrivals from the past few years with specific group of tourists like local and foreign of specific countries. How many respondent do you have
The researchers gathered factual information from the survey conducted to tourists of Corregidor. The primary data were gathered through experts validated questionnaire. This questionnaire includes the checklist of different possible factors and reasons of the tourists’ awareness of Corregidor as dark tourism spot. (describe ur questionnaire part by part)
Sampling Procedures In this study, the sampling technique used was probability proportional to size sampling, in which the sample was chosen as a proportion to the total size of the population. In this method 100% of the total respondents were in Corregidor.
Data Collection The data were gathered with the use of survey questionnaires which were distributed to tourists of Corregidor. The researchers also conducted observation and structured interviews of the respondents.
Data Analysis Procedure The collected data were tabulated, analyzed and presented through the use of statistical tools. The research study utilized descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics includes measures of central tendency for quantitative variables; frequency distribution and percentage formula. This research also used chi square, t-test, and analysis of the variance.
Where are the formulas
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Part I. Demographic Profile 1. What are the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
Table 1. Frequency Distribution of Age
AGE | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | 18yrs old - 25yrs old | 85 | 22.97% | 26yrs old – 30yrs old | 130 | 35.14% | 31yrs old – 45yrs old | 105 | 28.38% | 46yrs old – 60yrs old | 50 | 13.51% | TOTAL: | 370 | 100% |
Table 1 above shows the frequency distribution of age in which the highest is 26yrs old – 30yrs old with the total percentage of 35.14% and the lowest frequency distribution is 46yrs old – 60yrs old with the total percentage of 13.51%.
Table 2. Frequency Distribution of Gender
Gender | Frequency | Percentage | Male | 180 | 48.65% | Female | 190 | 51.35% | Total | 370 | 100% |
Table 2 above shows the frequency distribution of gender in which the highest is Female with the total percentage of 51.35% and the lowest frequency distribution is Male with the total percentage of 48.65%.
Table 3. Frequency Distribution of Nationality
NATIONALITY | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | Arabian | 3 | 0.81% | American | 80 | 21.62% | Austrian | 23 | 6.21% | Australian | 5 | 1.35% | Canadian | 13 | 3.51% | Chinese | 12 | 3.24% | Filipino | 39 | 10.54% | European | 4 | 1.08% | German | 15 | 4.05% | Japanese | 115 | 31.08% | Korean | 18 | 4.86% | Malaysian | 6 | 1.62% | Mexican | 4 | 1.08% | Singaporean | 23 | 6.21% | Spanish | 6 | 1.62% | Taiwanese | 4 | 1.08% | TOTAL: | 370 | 100% | This shows that the highest frequency of Nationality are Japanese with the total percentage of 31.08% while the lowest of the respondents are Arabian with the total percentage of 0.81%. This means that most of the respondents are Japanese while only a few are Arabians. Meaning that most of the respondents are Japanese who loves to visit Corregidor. 2. Are you aware what Dark Tourism is all about?
Table 4. Frequency Distribution of Awareness in Dark Tourism
Answer | Frequency | Percentage | YES | 188 | 50.81% | NO | 182 | 49.19% |
This shows that the highest answer is YES in awareness of what dark tourism is, with a total percentage of 50.81%, and the lowest is NO with a total percentage of 49.19%. 3. Do you agree that Dark Tourism is associated with?
Table 5. Dark Tourism Associated with Death, Disaster and Ghost Answer | Strongly Agree | Agree | Undecided | Disagree | Strongly Disagree | MEAN | Interpretation | Death | 205 | 77 | 40 | 40 | 8 | 4.16 | Strongly Agree | Disaster | 80 | 108 | 102 | 55 | 25 | 3.44 | Strongly Agree | Ghost | 100 | 110 | 80 | 50 | 30 | 3.54 | Strongly Agree | Average: | | | | | | 3.71 | Strongly Agree |
The tourist had been asked if they’re agree that dark tourism is associated with death, disaster and ghost. The table shows that the average weighted mean for their choice got the highest mean of 4.16 with the verbal interpretation of agree, which means the tourist agree that the dark tourism is associated with death. Moreover, the other choices got the weighted mean of 3.44 and 3.54 with the same verbal interpretation of agree.
4. What factors affecting the choice of Dark Tourism destination?
Table 6. Factors affecting the choice of Dark Tourism Destination | Excellent | Very Good | Good | Poor | Very Poor | MEAN | Interpretation | Accommodation | 175 | 68 | 50 | 35 | 42 | 2.45 | Poor | Awareness | 81 | 140 | 98 | 26 | 25 | 3.61 | Very Good | Attractions | 109 | 120 | 86 | 35 | 20 | 3.71 | Very Good | Activities | 103 | 111 | 103 | 43 | 10 | 3.40 | Very Good | Access | 119 | 90 | 95 | 33 | 33 | 3.61 | Very Good | Average: | | | | | | 3.36 | Good |
The tourist had been asked if what factors affecting the choice of dark tourism destination. The table shows that the average weighted mean for the factors affecting their choice in dark tourism destination got the highest mean 3.71, 3.61 and 3.40 with the verbal interpretation of very good, which mean they choose attractions, awareness, activities and access as their factors. Moreover, other factors affecting the choice got the lowest weighted mean of 2.45 with the verbal interpretation of poor.
5. What are the reasons why you visit Corregidor as Dark Tourist destination?
Table 7. Reasons why tourist visits Corregidor as Dark Tourist Destination | Very Important | Important | Moderately Important | Of Little Importance | Unimportant | MEAN | Interpretation | Education / Historical Value | 195 | 60 | 49 | 36 | 30 | 3.95 | Important | Adventure / Activities | 67 | 129 | 117 | 33 | 24 | 3.46 | Important | Appeal | 87 | 100 | 85 | 68 | 30 | 3.39 | Moderately Important | Average: | | | | | | 3.6 | Moderately Important |
The tourist in Corregidor had been asked if what are the reasons why they visit Corregidor as dark tourist destination. The table shows that the average weighted mean for the tourist reasons why they visit Corregidor got the highest mean of 3.95 and 3.46 with the verbal interpretation of important, which means the tourist chose education/historical value, adventure/activities as their reason why they visit Corregidor as dark tourist destinations. Moreover, other reason got the average weighted mean of 3.39 with the verbal interpretation of moderately important.
6. What have you realized after visiting Corregidor?
Table 8. Realization after visiting Corregidor It’s beautiful and amazing | 18 | Enjoy | 29 | Historical | 46 | I’ve realized that some tourism is very nice | 14 | Im happy. An unforgettable place | 16 | It was nice | 27 | I don’t know | 39 | I learn about the place | 16 | Because of dark tourism it encounters the battlefield happen there | 14 | It’s good | 25 | Creepy | 30 | Corregidor was great and it is actually a dark tourism site | 15 | knowing more about Corregidor as dark tourism destination | 6 | Im AGREE THAT IT IS A PART OF A DARK TOURIST ATTRACTIONS | 2 | Corregidor is really fun! I love it! | 15 | Im very amazed of what our history connected to corregidor before | 2 | It was really great and awesome! | 24 | Beautiful and wonderful place in Philippines | 8 | It’s really a very nice place to visit here in Philippines | 5 | CORREGIDOR IS A NICE PLACE. IT MADE ME WONDER WHY I HAVEN’T VISITED THE PLACE BEFORE. HISTORICAL IT IS. I REALIZED THAT THIS PLACE IS WORTHY OF THE ATTENTION AND SHOULD BE PART OF OUR TOURISM. | 1 | It is valuable in philippine history | 1 | Visiting Corregidor made me realized that some place in the Philippines are being forgotten but should not be because they are still part of the history of the Philippines. | 1 | Visiting Corregidor is worthy of my time and money since I love visiting historical places because I feel like I go back to the past every time I visit a place with a history. | 1 | Lovin the good ambiance and its more fun in the Philippines. | 1 | I have realized that Corregidor is worthy of the Dark Tourism. The place has its own historical value that people will love. | 1 | Ive realized to be aware of our historical sites. | 10 | I learned what Dark Tourism is! | 1 | History of Corregidor Japanese occupation / atrocities US reclaim of island | 1 | Phils. benefited with lots of attraction but sadly it’s lacking more of development & preservations. | 1 | TOTAL | 370 |
The table shows that the highest frequency that the tourists realization after visiting Corregidor is the Historical of the place. The table also shows that the lowest frequency is It is valuable in Philippine history, History of Corregidor Japanese occupation / atrocities US reclaim of island, Phils. benefited with lots of attraction but sadly it’s lacking more of development & preservations, Visiting Corregidor is worthy of my time and money since I love visiting historical places because I feel like I go back to the past every time I visit a place with a history.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was conducted to determine the dark tourism in Corregidor. Specifically it aims to answer the following questions: 1.) What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of? 1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Nationality 2.) What are the factors on tourists’ decision making when choosing a tourist destination?
3.) What are the reasons why tourist visits Corregidor?
Summary of Findings This study sought to know the effects of Dark Tourism in Corregidor. This study focused on (370) tourists. The said study covered several reasons and experiences they encountered during their tour in Corregidor. The researchers used a researcher-made questionnaire. More so, descriptive correlation design was used in this study.
Findings: Based in the data gathered, the following findings were formulated: 1. Relative to the demographic profile of the respondents.
The data shows that 85 (22.97%) of the respondents has the age of 18-25yrs old, 130 (35.14%) are 26-30yrs old, 105 (28.38%) are 31-45yrs old. While the 46-60yrs old are 50 (13.51%). The data shows that 190 (51.35%) of the tourists are Female, while the Male are 180 (48.65%). The data shows that 3 (0.81%) of the respondents are Arabian, 80 (21.62%) are Americans, 23 (6.21%) are Austrian, 5 (1.35%) are Australian. 13 (3.51%) are Canadian, 12 (3.24%) are Chinese, 39 (10.54%) are Filipino, 4 (1.08%) are European, 15 (4.05%) are German, 115 (31.08%) are Japanese, 18 (4.86%) are Korean, 6 (1.62%) are Malaysian, 4 (1.08%) are Mexican, 23 (6.21%) are Singaporean, 6 (1.62%) are Spanish, and 4 (1.08%) are Taiwanese.
2. Relative to the awareness of Dark Tourism.
The data shows that 188 (50.81%) of the respondents answered Yes in their awareness of what dark tourism is all about. And 182 (49.19%) of the respondents answered No in their awareness.
3. Relative to the agreement of Dark Tourism is associated with.
The data shows that average weighted mean for the agreement with the questions of the tourist got the highest mean of 4.16, 3.71, 3.54, 3.44 with the verbal interpretation of Agree which means that the tourist showed their answer in Death, Disaster, Ghost are agree that it is associated with Dark Tourism.
4. Relative to the factors affecting the choice of Dark Tourism destination.
The data shows that the average weighted mean for affecting then choices of Dark Tourism destination got the highest mean of 3.71, 3.61, and 3.40 with the verbal interpretation of Very Good which means the tourists has a Very Good choice in choosing their Dark Tourism destination.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Most of the tourist who wants to visit dark tourism sites specially Corregidor are with the age of 18-25yrs old and it also shows that ages from 46-60 yrs old are the one who least visit dark tourism sites. It shows that most of the respondents are female, it clearly shows that female is the one who loves to visit dark tourism sites. And when it comes to nationality, German are the most visitor who loves to visit dark tourism places, therefore it has a big impact in the dark tourism sites especially in Corregidor. 2. Most of the respondents are aware in what is dark tourism. The researchers would like to boost up the advertisement through promotions like social networking sites. Off course, with the help of the tourism council of Corregidor. 3. Most of the respondents are agree that death, ghost and disaster is associated in dark tourism. By promoting with the help of the tourism council in Corregidor, we can enlighten the idea of the tourists about what dark tourism is. 4. Most of the respondents have a Very Good choice in choosing their Dark Tourism destination. Based on the conducted survey of the researchers the tourist knows what “dark tourism” is all about. So the researchers like to make a powerful promotion in case of dark tourism so that it can be one of the top leading destinations.
Where is your answer in sop # 3.. why corregidor?
In line with the data gathered, findings observed and conclusion formulated, the following recommendations are hereby offered: 1. The tourist must be knowledgeable about what is dark tourism particularly in Corregidor which is one of the dark tourist spot in the Philippines.
2. The Sun Cruises or Municipality of Corregidor must hired tour guides who can speaks 2 to 3 languages like English, Japanese or Korean, so that the tourist can easily understand the beauty of dark tourism in Corregidor.
3. The tourism officials of Corregidor must have food stalls like burgers, refreshments and so fort so that. It can satisfy tourist’s needs.
4. The tourism officials of Corregidor must provide signage of directions, name of places, meaning of tourist spots and etc. of different languages specifically Japanese and English.
5. The tourism officials and the government must merge to promote Corregidor as dark tourist spot in social networking sites, TV ads, newspaper, and magazine. So that the tourist will have an idea what Dark Tourism is.
6. The tourism officials of Corregidor must update their tourist arrivals yearly, so that they can see what are the things that they are going to improve and lessen in Corregidor.
7. The tourism officials, must coordinate to businessman’s who is willing to build partnerships regarding to Inns, Motels, and 5 stars Hotels so that the tourist will have a big interest to stay and learn more about Corregidor and with that they can encourage other to invest also to Corregidor.
8. To the tourism officials must coordinate to Sun Cruises company to have a thrice trip per day, so that it can increase tourist interest to go to Corregidor. And soon, if its effective, they can propose a every time or per hour trip so that it can increase tourists arrivals which can also increase tourism economy and can marked a history that Corregidor is one of the most beautiful heritage site in the world.
According to your ipo model your output is a marketing plan..
Where is it?
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We are the Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management third year student from St. Dominic College of Asia conducting a research study entitled “Corregidor as Dark Tourism”. In connection with this, we humbly ask for your all honesty in answering this survey questionnaire.
Rest assured that all answers will be kept confidential. Thank you and God bless! * The Researchers
Part I: Personal Information
Directions: Check the most necessarily answer needed to the following questions.
Name (optional): __________________________________
( ) Male ( ) Female
( ) 18 yrs old - 25 yrs old ( ) 26 yrs old – 30 yrs old ( ) 31 yrs old – 45 yrs old ( ) 46 yrs old – 60 yrs old
Part II: Are you aware what Dark Tourism is all about? ( ) Yes ( ) No
1. Are you agree that Dark Tourism is associated with:
Legend: 4 – Strongly Agree , 3 – Agree, 2 – Disagree, 1 – Strongly Disagree | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | Death | | | | | Disaster | | | | | Ghost | | | | |
2. What factors affecting the choice of Dark Tourism destination?
Legend: 4 – Strongly Agree , 3 – Agree, 2 – Disagree, 1 – Strongly Disagree | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | Accommodation | | | | | Awareness | | | | | Attractions | | | | | Activities | | | | | Access | | | | |
3. What are the reasons why you visit Corregidor as Dark Tourist destination?
Legend: 4 – Strongly Agree , 3 – Agree, 2 – Disagree, 1 – Strongly Disagree | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | Education / Historical Value | | | | | Adventure Activities | | | | | Appeal | | | | |
4. What have you realize after visiting Corregidor?