Free Essay

Electrical Power

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By kumang
Words 1893
Pages 8

1. Background of Study

Current Transformer (CT) is used to measure secondary current for metering and protection purposes. In another words, CT is used to transform a primary quantity in terms of its magnitude and phase to a secondary value such that in normal condition the secondary value is substantially proportional to the primary value. Much development by various manufacturers has been done to improve the output measurements. The appearance and development of the Optical Current Transformer (OCT) in the last few decades become much more interesting to replace the conventional CT in the power system operation. In the past 15 years, Optical CT has received a significant attention by a manufaturer to replace iron-core CT in electric power industry. This Optical CT is non conductive and lightweight which can give the end user easiness of installing and doing maintenance.

2. Literature Review

In [1], the author describes the experimental comparison between conventional current transformer (CT) and the optical current transformer (OCT) especially in steady state response, transient response and impact of ambient temperature. Optical CT offered high accuracy in measuring the primary current for measuring or protection purposes compared to a conventional CT. Most of the studies regarding the Otpical CT lately are raised in order to demonstrate the advantages of the Optical CT in power system compared to conventional CT. In reality, this optical CT has been installed together with Magnetic CT to compare the effectiveness and the accuracy of the Optical CT with Magnetic CT. In [2], thermal modeling of CT for Top Oil Temperature (TOT) and Hot Spot Temperature (HST) was developed to analyze the behaviour of the oil-filled CT’s temperature. The paper describes the modified model of TOT and HST under various load conditions. For this testing purpose, the fiber-optic and thermocouples were embedded inside the CT during manufacturing stage so that heat can be measured with an accuracy of +/- 2oC. 3. Experimental Setup For the comparison of Optical CT and Magnetic CT, two types of CT were selected to run all the experiments. Below is the detail of the CT use for the experiment.
|Optical CT |Magnetic CT |
|Voltage 69kV, BIL 350kV |Voltage 145kV, BIL 650kV |
|Rated frequency 60Hz |Rated frequency 60Hz |
|Weight 625lbs |Weight 153lbs |
|Current 800/400/5A |Rated max thermal current 3000A |
|5A high energy output |Rated short circuit current 63kA |
| |Rated delay time 40(s |

For TOT and HST measurement, four CT with two different rating was selected which are 100/200:5A and 600/1200:5A. The dimension of each CT as per table below.
|Tank Height |: |570mm |
|Tank maximum OD |: |360mm |
|Tank minimum ID |: |350mm |
|Porcelain Insulator height |: |90mm |
|CT total height |: |1530mm |


1. Steady State Perfomance

This test was carried out to test the accuracies of the Optical CT compared with Magnetic CT under the normal condition. Steady state between two types of CT is compared by using measurement technique where the high precision reference magnetic CT output is compared with the tested CT output. The test was conducted by closing both circuit breaker and electronic switch and the current were injected through the circuit from 248A to 762A in 8 steps as shows in Figure [1]. The test was done separately as the CT will be tested together with reference CT. [pic]
Figure 1: Experimental test setup

The test was carried out with Optical CT first where the output of Optical CT was compared with a 1000:1A high precision reference CT’s output. The output of both Optical CT and high precision reference Ct were connected to Differential Amplifier as shown in Figure [2] to compare the outputs between them.

Figure 2: Optical CT measurement test setup

Table [1] shows the result of the experiment. We can see that the differences (%) between high precision CT and Optical CT not exceed 0.3%.
Table 1: Optical CT test result
|Applied Current (A) |Difference (A) |Difference (%) |
|248 |0.4 |0.16 |
|313 |0.7 |0.22 |
|390 |0.8 |0.20 |
|466 |0.8 |0.17 |
|543 |0.6 |0.11 |
|619 |0.6 |0.09 |
|688 |0.4 |0.05 |
|762 |0.2 |0.02 |

Test setup for Magnetic CT is shown in Figure [3] where high precision CT was connected to a 1( calibrated resistor and directly connected to voltmeter while the output of Magnetic CT is directly connected to voltmeter for current measurement.

Figure 3 The result is shows in Table [2] where we can conclude that the differences (%) from applied currents are exceed of 0.3%.

|Applied Current (A) |Difference (A) |Difference (%) |
|248 |0.6 |0.26 |
|313 |1.4 |0.44 |
|390 |2.4 |0.61 |
|466 |0.7 |0.15 |
|543 |0.7 |0.12 |
|619 |0.0 |0.00 |
|688 |4.5 |0.65 |
|762 |4.0 |0.52 |

2. Transient and Switching Performance

In order to test the transient performance, each CTs were tested by injecting the primary current that above its rated value. This experiment was tested separately between Magnetic CT and Optical CT because each CT has their own rated value. Secondary Magnetic CT was set to 400/5 A and the output of regulating transformer was set to give the current of 425A. Figure [ ] shows the result of this experiment where we can see the transient current reached the steady state after 3 cycles with the sine signal was distorted.

Figure 4

The Optical CT was then being tested using the same circuit in order to make the regulating transformer to give output of 5840A. As we can see in Figure [ ], the sine wave was not distorted.

Figure 5

3. Step Response Test

DC bias circuit which has 2.75A current pulse was constructed to test the step response of the Optical CT only which contain the thyristor switch connected to 48VDC and 0.1 ( shunt resistor as shows in Figure [ ]. The purpose of this test is to prove that the Optical CT can measure DC current. [pic]
Figure 6

Figure [ ] shows the result of this testing whereby the Optical CT delays the current impulse signal by 40(s. This result shows that the Optical CT can be use in measuring DC current without any saturation.

Figure 7

4. Temperature Performance of Optical CT

For this testing, electric heater is used to heat the Optical CT sensor head and thermocouple is used to measure the heat. While heating up the Optical CT, the system was loaded with 392A and the temperature of sensor head was increased. The result of this experiment is shown in Table [ ] where proved that the temperature does not effect the Optical CT output.

|Temperature (oC) |Optical CT (Amp) |Magnetic CT (Amp) |
|23.5 |392 |392 |
|27.5 |392 |392 |
|30.0 |392 |391 |
|39.8 |393 |393 |
|43.5 |393 |393 |
|47.3 |390 |390 |

5. Thermal modeling of Oil-Filled Current Transformer

Hot spot temperature measurement is using fiber optic embedded inside the CT as shown in Figure [ ] which then it will be connected to a controller. Besides, the termocouples was used for redundancy. [pic]
Figure 8 Top oil temperature was measure using the K-type thermocouples at the top of the tank as shown in Figure [ ]. The experiment consists of step load changes, 24-hour load cycle and ramp load profile where two different rating Ct was used.
Figure 9

i) Step Profiles [pic]

From the figure above, it can be seen that the HST is always above the TOT for lower ratio CT. This step profile is used to determine the input parameters for modeling the TOT and HST.

ii) 24-Hour and Ramp Profile



From the figure above, it can be seen that the HST measured from the experiment remain above the TOT measured at all values of load currents while in the high ratio CT, the TOT rises faster than HST. This caused by the higher copper losses in the primary winding compare to the core losses.


After done various experiments for Optical CT and Magnetic CT comparison, it can be conclude that the Optical CT has various advantages compared to Magnetic CT. First experiment is comparison of the steady state performance of CT. The experiment was carried out by analyze the output of Optical CT and Magnetic CT with high precision CT. The Optical CT give the output with less than 0.3% difference compared to Magnetic CT. This mean, the Optical CT has high accuracy when measuring the high voltage current. Secondly, the transient and switching performance of CT was tested. From this experiment, it can be seen that the transient of Magnetic CT reached to their steady state after three cycles with a distortion. It went the same as for Optical CT but gives no distortion sine wave. It can be conclude that the Optical CT can give a better result in measuring during transient and switching period. Step response test was conducted only for Optical CT to show the capability of the Optical CT in measuring DC current. The result show us the proved by delaying the current impulse only by 40(s. Magnetic CT was unable to measure the DC current and it gives an advantage to the utility sector to utilize the benefit of installing the Optical CT in the substation. At last, the temperature performance of Optical CT was analyzed by increasing the sensor head temperature by mean of electrical heater. The result shows that the temperature will not affect the performance of both Optical and Magnetic CT. The last experiment is regarding the Top Oil Temperature (TOT) and Hot Spot Temperature (HST) modeling of oil-filled CT. It can be conclude that the model of TOT and HST has been successfully design to measure of TOT and HST of CT. This online monitoring may not be practical but the data extracted from this experiment will be useful in the future offline analysis of CT’s temperature measurement.


The Optical CT provide more advantages for the application in power system industries. From the experiment conducted, the Optical CT compared to Magnetic CT has a better accuracy in measuring steady state performance and the sine wave of Optical CT during transient and switching performance is not distorted and the transient current reached the steady state after three cycles. It also provide the capability in measuring DC current compared to Magnetic CT. Lastly, the heat of CT will not affect the CT performance while in service. Beside all the experimental results, the Optical CT can provide several of benefit or advantages as listed below compared to conventional CT: 1. Non-conductive 2. Lightweight compared to conventional CT 3. Wider bandwidth for the Faraday effect-based measuring system 4. Offer three different output signals; Low Energy Analog (LEA), High Energy Analog (HEA) and digital output
The Top Oil Temperature and Hot Spot Temperature modeling significant in measuring the CT while in service (online). This method although its costly, it provide initial data for future offline analysis of current transformer.
Figure 10: Measured HST and TOT; 200:5A CT (left); 1200:5A CT (right)

Figure 11: 24-Hour and Load Profile; 200:5A CT (left); 1200:5A CT (right)

Figure 12: Ramp Load and Temperature Profile; 200:5A CT (left); 1200:5A CT (right)

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