Free Essay

Electrical Safety

In: Business and Management

Submitted By samadhanpatil86
Words 4087
Pages 17
Electrical Hazards Analysis
Dennis K. Neitzel, CPE Senior Member, IEEE AVO Training Institute, Inc. 4271 Bronze Way Dallas, Texas 75237
Notice: This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of AVO Training Institute's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it. Abstract The subject of electrical hazards analysis has been recognized by a small segment of the electrical industry for many years. The petrochemical industry and many government institutions have performed research on this subject for over twenty years. For the most part however, the electrical industry, at least at the user level, has largely ignored the subject, essentially reacting to catastrophic accidents, rather than proactively trying to predict and prevent them. Recent changes in consensus standards, along with a better general understanding of the seriousness of electrical hazards have resulted in a renewal of interest in the subject. As the awareness of electrical hazards increase many are puzzled by phrases like; “Limited”, “Restricted”, and “Prohibited Approach Boundary”, and “Flash Protection Boundary”. Understanding these terms is important to understanding shock and arc-flash hazard protection. NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace requires that an electrical hazards analysis be performed prior to working on or near exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit part operating at 50-volts or more. This is especially critical if the circuits have not been placed in an electrically safe work condition. This paper will address the requirements to perform the “Shock Hazard Analysis” and the “Flash Hazard Analysis” required by NFPA 70E-2004, Section 110.8(B)(1), “Electrical Hazard Analysis” as well as the “Blast Hazard Analysis” and personal protective equipment requirements. I. INTRODUCTION Below are the definitions of these terms as found in NFPA 70E-2004, Article 100: [1] Limited Approach Boundary- “An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which a shock hazard exists.” NOTE: Limited Approach Boundary may be more or less than Flash Protection Boundary as illustrated in Figure 1. Restricted Approach Boundary- “An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which there is an increased risk of shock, due to electrical arc over combined with inadvertent movement, for personnel working in close proximity to the live part.” Prohibited Approach Boundary- “An approach limit at a distance from an exposed live part within which work is considered the same as making contact with the live part.” Flash Protection Boundary- “An approach limit at a distance from exposed live parts within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an electrical arc flash were to occur.”

Limited Approach Energized Part

Restricted Approach Prohibited Approach Flash Protection Flash Protection

Figure 1 Illustration of Boundaries The NFPA 70E-2004, “Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace”, addresses the requirements for conducting an “Electrical Hazard Analysis” with emphasis on the “Shock Hazard Analysis” and the “Flash Hazard Analysis”. NFPA 70E-2004 states that if circuits, operating at 50 volts or more, are not deenergized (placed in an electrically safe work condition) then other electrical safety-related work practices must be used. These work practices must protect the employee from an arc flash, as well as inadvertent contact with live parts operating at 50 volts or more. Each analysis must be performed before an employee approaches exposed live parts, within the Limited Approach Boundary. NFPA 70E-2004, paragraph 130.2(B) FPN provides a reminder that the Flash Protection Boundary may be a greater distance from the exposed live parts than the Limited Approach Boundary, in some instances.

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

This paper will provide an overview of the principle types of electrical hazards analysis, along with a discussion of the relevant standards and regulations pertaining to the subject. II. Shock Hazard Analysis Each year several hundred workers are injured or killed due to inadvertent contact with energized conductors. Surprisingly, over half of those killed are not in traditional electrical fields (i.e. linemen, electricians, technicians, etc.), but are from related fields such as painters, laborers, and drivers. [Detailed surveillance data and investigative reports of fatal incidents involving workers who contacted energized electrical conductors or equipment are derived from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system maintained by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)]. NFPA 70E-2004 established a requirement for conducting the “Flash Hazard Analysis” to assist in reducing these injuries and fatalities. This analysis will: determine the voltage that a person would be exposed to, establish the shock protection boundaries, and identify the personal protective equipment requirements. Investigations into the causes of injuries and fatalities point to several contributing factors [2]: • • • • • • • • • • Contacting overhead power lines; Faulty insulation; Improper grounding; Loose connections; Defective parts; Ground faults in equipment; Unguarded live parts; Failure to deenergize electrical equipment when it is being repaired or inspected; Intentional use of obviously defective and unsafe tools; or Use of tools or equipment too close to energized parts.

NFPA 70E-2004 Standard Requirements [1] • The Shock Hazard Analysis [110.8(B)(1)] must establish the: 1. Limited Approach Boundary 2. Restricted Approach Boundary 3. Prohibited Approach Boundary • This applies to all exposed live parts operating at 50 volts or more • Only qualified persons are permitted within these boundaries [110.8(A)(2)]. NOTE: A qualified person shall be trained and knowledgeable of the construction and operation of equipment or a specific work method, and be trained to recognize and avoid the electrical hazards that might be present with respect to that equipment or work method. • Paragraph 110.8 (B)(3) states that unqualified person may not enter these boundaries unless the conductors and equipment have been placed in an electrically safe work condition. However, paragraph 130.2(D)(2) allows unqualified persons to enter the Limited Approach Boundary only, but a qualified person must advise them of the hazards and continuously escort the them while they are inside the boundary. NOTE: An employee, who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person shall be considered to be a qualified person for the performance of those duties. Industry Recognized Good Practices • Plan every job. • Anticipate unexpected results and the required action for these results. • Use procedures as tools. • Identify the hazards. Keep unqualified workers away from these hazards. • Assess employee’s abilities. Remember, there is a difference between ten years of experience, and one year of experience repeated ten times. In addition to the assessment of work practices, the shock hazard analysis must include an assessment of the physical condition of the electrical system. An OSHA premise is that electrical equipment installed safely per a nationally recognized code is safe until deterioration occurs, unsafe acts are performed or carelessness take place. The assessment must also identify the proper personal protective equipment (PPE) for shock protection, which could include, but not be limited to, rubber insulating gloves with leather protectors, rubber blankets and mats, and insulated hand tools.(see Fig. 2 for examples of PPE)

These factors form the basis for a shock hazard analysis. To appropriately assess the electrical shock hazard associated with any type of maintenance or repair work, it is necessary to evaluate the procedures or work practices that will be involved. These practices should be evaluated against both regulatory and consensus standards requirements as well as recognized good practice within the industry. These principles are summarized below. OSHA Regulatory Requirements • All equipment must be placed in a deenergized state prior to any maintenance or repair work. (limited exceptions exist).[3][4] • The deenergized state must be verified by a qualified person prior to beginning any work.[3] • The deenergized state must be maintained through the consistent use of locks and tags, and in some cases, grounding.[3][4][5] • When energized work is performed, it must be performed in accordance with written procedures.[3][6]

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

both radiated light along with radiant and convected heat. The amount of liberated energy is obviously dependent upon the system configuration, but the principle factors used in the determination of the hazard to personnel are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Available short-circuit current at the arc location. Duration of the electrical arc. Distance from the arc to personnel. The arc gap. Environmental conditions and surroundings at the arc location.

Figure 2 Insulated Tools and Rubber Insulating Gloves Another consideration is the continuity and low resistance of the equipment grounding system, which is a major concern. Of equal importance is to ensure that equipment covers and guards are in place; that access to exposed conductors is limited to electrically qualified personnel; and overcurrent protective devices are operable and of appropriate interrupting rating. Even the safest procedures, when performed on poorly constructed or maintained equipment represent a risk to employees. Flash Hazard Analysis Two industrial electricians began work in the basement electrical room one day. They wanted to take some physical measurements and knew the switchgear was energized but were in a hurry to get started. As they were taking measurements on the bus with a wooden ruler the metal tip of the ruler made contact with the bus and caused a massive electric arc. The arc-flash only lasted a fraction of a second. Although no one was electrocuted, one man died instantly from the arc-flash and the other man was badly burned. The man that died was within 24 inches of the bus while the other man was about ten feet away. A large number of serious electrical injures are related to electrical arcs created during short-circuits and switching procedures. In recognition of this, standards organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have provided the industry with better techniques to evaluate both the magnitude of the electrical arc hazard and appropriate protective clothing and equipment. Human errors and equipment malfunctions contribute to the initiation of an electrical arc. Engineering design and construction of arc resistant equipment as well as requirements for safe work practices are continuing to target the risk of electrical arc-flash hazards. An electrical arc is basically an electrical current passing through ionized air. This current flow releases a tremendous amount of energy as

To accurately assess the arc hazard, and make appropriate decisions regarding personal protective clothing (PPC) and equipment, it is necessary to fully understand the operation of the system under fault conditions. The assessment must also include matching the appropriate PPC for arc flash hazard, which would include, but not be limited to, flame resistant (FR) clothing, face shield, flash suit with hood. (See Fig. 3 for example of PPC). This requires both a short-circuit analysis, in all likelihood down to the panel board level, and a protective device coordination study. It is a common misconception that arc hazards are an effect of only high voltage. The actual arc hazard is based on available energy, not available voltage. In certain conditions, a low voltage arc’s duration is longer than a high voltage arc. With this information available, the magnitude of the arc hazard at each work location can be assessed using several techniques. These techniques include: • • NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2004 Edition IEEE Std. 1584-2002, IEEE Standard for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations

Each of these techniques requires an understanding of anticipated fault conditions, and the limitation of the calculation method, both of which are beyond the scope of this paper. The results of the arc-flash hazard analysis are most useful when they are expressed in terms of the incident energy received by exposed personnel. Incident energy is 2 2 commonly expressed in terms of calories per cm (cal/ cm ). Arc-flash protective clothing is rated in terms of its Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV), also expressed in terms of cal/cm2. In addition to flame-resistant (FR) PPC and PPE, there are some safe work practices that can be adopted to minimize or eliminate the hazards. These practices include lockout/tagout along with temporary grounding, body positioning, clothing, insulated tools, and other factors that must be carefully scrutinized to insure that the risk to employees is minimized. The first choice should be to minimize or eliminate the hazard; however, when this is not possible FR rated PPC and PPE must be utilized.

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

enclosures will withstand an internal fault if sufficient manufacturer’s data is available. Again, it may be more important to merely recognize the magnitude of the hazard so that appropriate safety practices, such as correct body positioning, can be incorporated into work procedures. If the blast hazard is high, or if it is in a limited space, the blast can severely injure or kill a person. If these conditions are present, serious consideration should be given to not allowing personnel in the area during specific equipment operations. IV. SELECTION OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Most employers, operators, and electricians are knowledgeable in the selection and inspection requirements for electrical PPE used for the prevention of electrical shock hazards, as well as PPC used for head, eyes and face, hands, and foot protection. All of these requirements are readily found in OSHA 1910, Subpart I, Personal Protective Equipment. Although not addressed in OSHA 1910, Subpart I, body protection would also be required as addressed in NFPA 70E-2004. OSHA 1910.137, Electrical Protective Equipment, provides the requirements for the in-service care and use of electrical protective equipment. Unfortunately, most employers, operators, electricians, and engineers have limited knowledge or experience with regard to arc and blast hazards that may be associated with the maintenance and operation of energized electrical equipment and the necessary PPE/PPC that is required. The OSHA requirements for the hazard analysis and selection of protective clothing must first be defined. OSHA 1910.132, General Requirements for Personal Protective Equipment, paragraph (d) states “The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitates the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the employer shall: “Select, and have each employee use, the type of PPE that will protect the affected employee from the hazards identified in the hazard assessment.” OSHA 1910.132 (f) – Training (1) states: The employer shall provide training to each employee who is required by this section to use PPE/PPC. Each such employee shall be trained to know at least the following: • • • • • When PPE/PPC is necessary; What PPE/PPC is necessary; How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE/PPC; The limitations of the PPE/PPC; and The proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal of PPE/PPC.

Figure 3 Worker wearing an FR Rated Flash Suit National Electrical Code 2005 Flash Protection Requirements The 2005 NEC Section 110.16 states, “Switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels, meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers that are in other than dwelling occupancies and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment.” Section 110.16 also has a FPN No. 1 that refers to NFPA 70E-2004 for “assistance in determining severity of potential exposure, planning safe work practices, and selecting personal protective equipment.” As with the electrical shock hazard, the easiest and most effective way to mitigate the arc hazard is to completely deenergize the system for any type of maintenance activity. III. Blast Hazard Analysis An electrical blast, or explosion, as it is often termed, is result of the heating effects of electrical current and ensuing arc. This phenomenon occurs in nature as thunder that accompanies lightning, a natural form of electrical arc. the the the an

During an electrical arc, both the conducting material and the surrounding air are heated to extremely high temperatures. The resulting expansion of the air and vaporized conductive material creates a concussive wave surrounding the arc. The 2 pressures in this wave may reach several hundred lbs/ft , destroying equipment enclosures and throwing debris great distances. The pressure created during an electrical explosion is directly proportional to the available short-circuit at the arc location. With a current short-circuit study available, the anticipated blast pressure can be estimated from tables or charts. [7] Unfortunately, little can be done to mitigate the blast hazard, at least in terms of personal protective clothing or equipment. Blast pressure calculations can be used to determine whether

Included in this hazard assessment should be the three electrical hazards; shock, arc, and blast. OSHA 1910.137 identifies the selection, inspection, and use requirements for electrical PPE/PPC. OSHA does not identify specific clothing

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

that should be worn to protect the employee from the arcflash hazards but OSHA does specify what type of clothing is prohibited. 1910.269(l)(6)(ii) requires that “The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.” Additionally, 1910.269(l)(6)(iii) states “The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.” “Note: Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this paragraph, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.” OSHA does, however, require protection from the hazards of electricity in 1910.335(a)(2)(ii) which states: “Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials shall be used to protect each employee from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while that employee is working near exposed energized parts which might be accidentally contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur.” If, during the operation, insertion, or removal of a circuit breaker, a fault occurs, the worker may be exposed to an electric arc with temperatures up to 35,000ºF as well as high levels of incident energy. Unprotected workers exposed to an increase in skin temperature of 203ºF for 0.1 second or 1.2 cal/cm2 of energy may suffer second or third degree burns and ignition of clothing. Protective clothing, including a complete multi-layered flash suit with hood and face shield, may be required for these activities. The consensus standard for determining the necessary clothing and training is NFPA 70E-2004, “Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace”. In order to properly select rated PPE/PPC to provide this protection, the employer has but two options. The employer must calculate the incident 2 energy (in cal/cm ) available at the work site, and the protective clothing required for the specific task, or as an alternative, use NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(9)(a) “Hazard/Risk Category Classifications” to identify the clothing required for the hazards associated with the specific task the employee is to accomplish. Caution must be used if applying Table 130.7(C)(9)(a) because the short-circuit current and protective device clearing time must be known as stated in the notes at the end of the table. Note: The employer must also determine the “Flash Protection Boundary” in accordance with paragraph 130.3(A) for all energized work. The “Flash Protection Boundary” establishes the approach limit to exposed live parts where a person could receive a second degree burn. Once it has been determined that protective clothing is necessary to perform the specific task, the necessary

protective clothing must be procured and the employees trained to wear it properly. Summary In resolving the issues of analyzing electrical hazards in an industry, we must follow a path that will lead to a comprehensive analysis of the problems that exist and provide a quantified value to ensure the selection of appropriate personal protection. An analysis of all three hazards, shock, arc, and blast must be completed and steps taken to prevent injuries. The following steps could be taken to ensure adequacy of the electrical safe work practices program and training of “qualified” electrical personnel: 1. 2. Conduct a comprehensive Job Task Analysis. Complete a Task Hazard Assessment including: a. Shock hazard. b. Arc-flash hazard (using up-to-date Short-Circuit Current and Protective Device Coordination Studies, plus arc-flash hazard calculations). c. Blast hazard d. Other hazards (Slip, fall, struck-by, environmental, etc.) Analyze task for the Personal Protective Equipment /Personal Protective Clothing needed. Conduct Training Needs Assessment for Qualified and non-qualified electrical workers. Revise, update or publish a complete “Electrical Safe Work Practices Program”. Conduct training in the “Electrical Safe Work Practices”

3. 4. 5. 6.

Regulatory agencies and standards organizations have long recognized the need to analyze the hazards of electrical work and plan accordingly to mitigate the hazards. Unfortunately, many in the electrical industry have chosen to “take their chances”, largely because nothing bad has yet to happen. As more information becomes available on the economic and human costs of electrical accidents, it is hoped that more in the industry will recognize the need for a systematic hazard analysis, and an electrical safe work program that emphasizes hazard identification and abatement. REFERENCES [1] [2] NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace OSHA 29 CFR 1910, Electrical Standards, Federal Register Vol. 46, No. 11, Friday, January 16, 1981, Supplementary Information, I. Background, (3) Nature of Electrical Accidents, (a) Basic Contributory Factors. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.331-.335, Electrical SafetyRelated Work Practices, August 6, 1990 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147, Control of Hazardous Energy Source (Lockout/Tagout), September 1, 1989 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.269, Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, January 31, 1994 OSHA Instruction STD 1-16.7, Directorate of Compliance Programs, July 1, 1991 Ralph H. Lee, “Pressures Developed by Arcs”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-23, No. 4, p. 760, July/Aug. 1987.

[3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

Dennis K. Neitzel, CPE (Senior Member, IEEE) Mr. Neitzel is the Director of AVO Training Institute, Inc. (a Subsidiary of Megger); Dallas, Texas. He earned his Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering Management and his Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering Applied Sciences. Mr. Neitzel is an active member of IEEE, ASSE, NFPA, AFE, and IAEI. He is a Certified Plant Engineer (CPE) and a Certified Electrical Inspector. Mr. Neitzel serves as a Principal Committee Member for the NFPA 70E, "Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace", is co-author of the Electrical Safety Handbook, McGraw-Hill Publishers, and is the Working Group Chairman for revising IEEE Std. 902 (the Yellow Book), “IEEE Guide for Maintenance, Operation, and Safety of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems”. Mr. Neitzel also serves as the Vice-Chairman of the IEEE-PPIC-TSSC Sub-Committee. He received the Engineering Practice Specialty “Safety Professional of the Year” award for 2003-2004 from the American Society of Safety Engineers. Contact Mr. Neitzel at:

Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Conference Record of 2006 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, June 18-23, 2006

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Safety Awareness in Electrical Engineering

...Safety Awareness in Electrical Engineering It is important for students studying to become electrical engineers to be aware of electrical safety measures and hazards. There are several severe, even life-threatening hazards that one could encounter when among electrical equipment. Two main dangers related to dealing with electrical equipment shocks and burns are overloading outlets with too many devices, and neglecting to implement the usage of a Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter. While outlets are designed to handle multiple plugs, it is crucial to know that they do have limitations as far as what they are capable of supporting. Various dangers can occur by overloading an outlet. Risks of electrical fires are increased when two or more appliances are plugged in at once, or when extra electricity is required by means of an extension cord. This is also the reason why major appliances such as refrigerators and dryers should be plugged directly into their own outlet; they are heavy power users. Although most homes and appliances have fuses as a form of safety to prevent fires, people should still be aware of the amount of power can be placed on each outlet or circuit. A safety procedure that could potentially be life-saving is the usage of a ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI). It protects people from electrical shocks by monitoring the amount of current flowing in a circuit (from hot to neutral), and thereby locating a loss of current. If it senses an imbalance, the...

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Electrical Hazards and Safety

...5/3/2014 Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations - Research Papers - Kksharma Login Join The Research Paper Factory Join Search Browse Saved Papers Search over 100,000 Essays Home Page » Computers and Technology Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations In: Computers and Technology Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations K K Sharma Lingaya’s University, Faridabad, Email: Abstract: “Electrical Safety is not an option — it is absolutely necessary for workers and employers alike”. Please login to view the full essay... Safety in the workplace is job number one for employer and employee alike. It is especially important for those who install and service electrical systems. Nothing can replace a worker or loved one that has died or suffered the irreparable consequences of an electrical accident. No matter how much an employer tries to safeguard its workers or how much safety training is provided; the ultimate responsibility lies with the worker. The human factor is part of every accident or injury. The purpose of this paper is to identify electrical safety hazards and present ways to minimize or avoid their consequences. It is a guide for improving electrical safety and contains information about governmental regulations, industry-accepted standards and work practices. It presents ways to meet the standards and......

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations

...Electrical Hazards and Safety in Electrical Installations K K Sharma Lingaya’s University, Faridabad, Email: Abstract: “Electrical Safety is not an option — it is absolutely necessary for workers and employers alike”. Safety in the workplace is job number one for employer and employee alike. It is especially important for those who install and service electrical systems. Nothing can replace a worker or loved one that has died or suffered the irreparable consequences of an electrical accident. No matter how much an employer tries to safeguard its workers or how much safety training is provided; the ultimate responsibility lies with the worker. The human factor is part of every accident or injury. The purpose of this paper is to identify electrical safety hazards and present ways to minimize or avoid their consequences. It is a guide for improving electrical safety and contains information about governmental regulations, industry-accepted standards and work practices. It presents ways to meet the standards and reduce the hazards. I. Introduction Electricity is very useful and has become essential in modern life. Electric power is used in houses, farms, factories, public places, and commercial establishment and practically in every working place for lighting, operating appliances and machines, heating, cooling, chemical process and transport etc. Electricity is a very good servant but a very dangerous master.......

Words: 5690 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Electrical Safety

...Chris Yaranoff 4917 N Kenmore Ave. #218, Chicago, IL 60640 Phone: 773-630-0031 | Email: Executive Chef [pic]Chef with over 9 years of proven success developing and supporting menus, and preparing high quality food experiences for discerning partnership of lawyers, casino gamers, corporate clients and fine dining clientele; all while preserving profitability. Unparalleled skills utilizing platinum service criteria and quality control. [pic] Culinary | Management Strengths HAACP |Sanitation Catering Large|Small Scale Production Training Executive Dining Management Fine Dining Line Production Banquets Resource Management Menu Planning|Development Computer Accounting/ P&L Staff Management Cost Control [pic]Career History La Petite Paris, Chicago Summer/Fall 2011 Garde Manger- developed composed salads, appetizers, and pastries for a traditional French Bistro. Compass Group, Eurest Dining, USA-Chicago, IL 2003-2011 Chef Manager 2010-2011 Supervisor of a corporate dining facility serving 800 Wells Fargo Employees breakfast, lunch, and catering. Managed sales over $530,000, maintained food costs of 33%. Line Cook Trainer 2009-2010 Trained staff for production and execution of catering and line production for Skadden-Arps Law firm Executive Sous Chef 2005-2009 Supervisor of a corporate account producing executive catering and evening events for 350 Lawyers at Drinker, Biddle, and Reath. Managed evening hosted events. Sous Chef 2004-2005 Supervised 16......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Research Paper on Safety Measures for Electrical Fire

...Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures Versie: 431N8032/3.0, January 2009 This research study has been commissioned by the Consumer Council at the Austrian Standards Institute and was funded by the Austrian Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Netherlands Institute for Safety Nibra P.O. Box 7010 6801 HA Arnhem The Netherlands T +31 (0)26 355 24 00 F +31 (0)26 351 50 51 Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures This research study has been commissioned by the Consumer Council at the Austrian Standards Institute and was funded by the Austrian Ministry for Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. Netherlands Institute for Safety Nibra: We develop expertise, contribute towards the professional development of the fire service, medical assistance in accidents and disasters and crisis management, and thereby enhance physical safety. Consumer fire safety: European statistics and potential fire safety measures Colophon Client: Contact: Title: Consumer Council, Austrian Standards Institute Heinestrasse 38, 1020 Vienna, Austria Dr. F. Fiala Consumer fire safety:European statistics and potential fire safety measures January 2009 Final report 3.0 431N8032 M. Kobes, MSc, BBE, MIFireE K. Groenewegen - Ter Morsche, MSc Dr. M.G. Duyvis Dr. J.G. Post (Head of the Research Department NIFV) Date: Status: Version: Project number: Authors: Project leader:...

Words: 19880 - Pages: 80

Free Essay

Neutral Sheild

...The ‘Assumed System’ – The analysis of the problem has been carried out for the network wherein the neutral is earthed at distribution transformer end and along the distribution system (at LT feeder pillars A, B as shown below). It is connected to earth at two separate and distinct points. The neutral of a main-line cable is earthed at both ends via LT feeder pillars (A & B), while neutral of a service cable is earthed at one end (via LT feeder pillar B) and not at meter cabin end with due consideration of safety issues. Earthing of neutral (which is normally a current carrying part) and consumer earth wire (which is normally a non-current carrying part) may get electrically connected due to space constraints at consumer end. In real life, due to lack of inspection and poor maintenance, the earthing may get open and likely to remain unnoticed. In case of a phase to neutral cable fault, there is a likelihood of the consumer earthing and thereby consumer house-hold equipments get charged to a voltage unsafe to human life. Hence, it is always preferable not to earth the neutral at consumer (meter cabin) end. The Single Line diagram of the ‘Assumed System’ is as – [pic] I.E. Rule 1956, section 61(a) requires that “Neutral conductor of a 3 phase, 4 wire system shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections with a minimum of two different earth both at the generating station and at the sub-station (Neutral Earthing at distribution......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Electrical Safety in Construction Buildings, Its Hazards and Precautions

...Government of India Ministry of Power **** ULTRA MEGA POWER PROJECTS 1.0 Background 1.1 Development of Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) has been identified as a thrust area. These are very large sized projects, approximately 4000 MW each involving an estimated investment of about Rs. 16,000 crore. These projects will meet the power needs of a number of States/ distribution companies located in these States, and are being developed on a Build, Own, and Operate (BOO) basis. In view of the fact that promotion of competition is one of the key objectives of the Electricity Act, 2003, and of the legal provisions regarding procurement of electricity by distribution companies, identification of the project developer for these projects is being done on the basis of tariff based competitive bidding. Guidelines for determination of tariff for procurement of power by distribution licencees have been notified in January 2005 under the provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003. The Power Finance Corporation (PFC), a PSU under the Ministry of Power, has been identified as the nodal agency for this initiative. 1.2 Salient features of the Plant and Choice of Technology · The Ultra Mega Power Projects would use Super Critical Technology with a view to achieve higher levels of fuel efficiency, which results in saving of fuel and lower green-house gas emissions. · Flexibility in unit size subject to adoption of specified minimum Supercritical parameters. · Integrated power project with......

Words: 2896 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Hr Job Safety Analysis

...Location of Job : Gulfport NCBC Bldg 319 (Unit/Location on Project) Required PPE: LEVEL D Safety Access/Location Supervisor or Work: Safe Haven: TRAILER Wind Direction: Evacuation Route: AS POSTED Assembly Point: AS POSTED JSA Prepared By: Are other crews in area? YES (military) Pre-Job Preparation: 1. Fill Out JSA 2. Review JSA (crew) 3. Sign JSA (crew) New X Revised Job Task (What are you doing?) Audit the Job: Task # 1: Concrete Reinforcement PPE Level C Audit Time: Task # 2 Staging PV Modules on Roof PPE Level D Task # 3 Install PV Modules Potential Hazards Task # 1: Slips, Trips, Falls, Back Injury, Heat Stress, Epoxy Exposure, Splashing, Inhalation, Skin Irritation, Electrical Shock, Repetitive motion fire, EquipHeat Stress, Equipment Accidents Task# 2: Falls, Trips, Back Injury, Heat Stress, Equipment injury Supervisor’s Comments Task # 3: Trips, Falls, Electrical Shock, Equipment Injury, Pinches, Crushes, Lacerations, Back Strain. Heat Stress Task #4: Recommended Corrective Action or Procedure Task #1: -Proper Level C PPE shall be worn at all times. -Tyvek suits , eye protection, latex gloves and respirators shall be worn when working with epoxy. - Review Epoxy MSDS and store material at proper temperatures. -Conduct Heat Stress Monitoring -Review Emergency Evacuation Plan -Conduct pre-use inspections to include checks of full face respirators prior to daily use as well...

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...and prevent it from buckling, when it is subjected to bending loads. Stringers give a large increase in the stiffness of the skin under torsion and bending loads, with minimal increase in weight. Other than that, fuselage must be able to resist bending moments caused by weight and lift from the tail, torsion loads caused by fin and rudder. Pressurization can lead to tension or compression of the floor-supports as well. The structural strength and stiffness of the fuselage must be high enough to withstand these loads. According to the British Civil Airworthiness Requirement, safety factor of at least 1.5 times the normal working load for aircraft fuselage structure must be used. Failure is catastrophic, the limit load occurs during every flight and the fuselage is not only subject to pressurization forces. The static strength of the fuselage therefore incorporates a larger safety factor. A reduced factor of safety from the stated factor will preclude failure due to creep and provide adequate protection against tear propagation. Besides, the structure must be able to support limit loads without permanent deformation. At any load up to limit loads, the deformation may not interfere with safe operation and this applies in particular to the control system. The structure must be able to support ultimate loads without failure for at least three seconds. Another important construction factor of fuselage is protection of passenger in crash. Transport aircraft carrying as many as 800......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Team Memo

...Cover Memo for Team Member Packet (Template) DATE: TO: Inspectors FROM: (Team leader) SUBJECT: Lab inspection at (name of laboratory) Enclosed please find your packet for the inspection at the above-referenced laboratory on (date). Before the inspection, we’ll have a meeting of the team to go over logistics and answer any questions you may have. (Enter Date, time, and location of pre-inspection meeting) Travel arrangements are as follows: (Enter Travel and hotel arrangement, etc.) The inspection will begin at (Enter Time inspection will begin, etc.) In preparing for the inspection, I recommend that you review sections pertinent to your area(s) in the CAP’s Laboratory Accreditation Manual at; from the home page, select Laboratory Accreditation; select Information for Inspectors; select Laboratory Accreditation Program Manual. Print out the appropriate pages. Before the inspection, please also review: 1. The test list and the performance of the laboratory on proficiency testing. The printout entitled Variant PT Performance by Laboratory lists PT scores of less than 100% for the last two years. I recommend that you focus on these during the inspection to determine if appropriate corrective action has been taken. The laboratory should have copies of PT exception reports completed by the laboratory and approved by the CAP for items with an asterisk. During the inspection, verify that the laboratory is either......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Unit 1 Essential Working Practices in Vehicle Technology P2: Describe emergency and accident action procedures used in the workplace. Investigate in the main motor vehicle workshop V1, identify location of emergency exits, fire alarm points, fire evacuation notices and assembly point. Identify types and location of fire extinguishers. Fire exit Fire alarm C02 extinguisher Dry powder exting. Front entrance. [pic] Read the document on VLE “P2 emergency procedures Barking” Read the document on VLE “P2 fire and emergency procedures” Read the document on VLE “HSE Motorsport” All documents in folder “Health and Safety Procedures” In Unit 1 EWP Describe in your own words a- Evacuation procedure for Motor Vehicle workshop if you discovered a fire, (a small diagram showing location of fire exits, alarm points, fire extinguishers etc. would make this clearer). Fire exit Fire alarm C02 extinguisher Dry powder exting. If I discovered a fire first I would set off the alarm by the break glass call point (red lightning bolt). Then I would exit the building by fire exit (green rectangles) and meet at the assembly point marked on the fire evacuation poster (blue folded paper). When exciting I must leave all belongings and stop working. Also I would not return unless authorized to do so or leave unless authorized. All equipment must be turned off as leaving and doors closed. At...

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Third Edition

...Laboratory biosafety manual Third edition World Health Organization Geneva 2004 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data World Health Organization. Laboratory biosafety manual. – 3rd ed. 1.Containment of biohazards - methods 2.Laboratories - standards 3.Laboratory infection - prevention and control 4.Manuals I.Title. ISBN 92 4 154650 6 (LC/NLM classification: QY 25) WHO/CDS/CSR/LYO/2004.11 This publication was supported by Grant/Cooperative Agreement Number U50/CCU012445-08 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC. © World Health Organization 2004 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or......

Words: 50038 - Pages: 201

Free Essay

Risk Assessment as a Childminder

...Risk Assessment It is important that children are provided with safe and secure environments. Child-minders need to ensure that, a risk assessment is put in place, and therefore they make necessary changes to secure their safety at all times. Child-minders must ensure that the home, indoors and outdoors, are safe and secure. This should include appropriate measures such as including indoor and outdoor security. For example, ponds, drains, pools should be made safe or inaccessible to children. Child-minders should be aware which doors are locked or unlocked, how to use door alarms and security systems, formal identifications. There should be fireguards in place and fitted securely on all fires or heaters so children don’t burn themselves and cause damage. Also radiators or thermostats should be set at an appropriate/safe temperature around 18 degrees. There should be window locks on all windows in all rooms so children don’t trap their fingers. If you don’t put window locks on the upstairs windows children are not allowed up there due to the registration and there will be some areas which are unsafe to go in to. Also in the garden if you have a shed that has glass windows there should be glass film to cover them so they don’t break this can lead to cuts. There should be socket covers in all plugs in every room, this could cause harm if there isn’t any covers because children should get electrocutions. The hazards of plug in air fresheners carry the risk of a......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Quality Control

... This includes the training of each new employee before it’s even released to the job site. Employee must have a full and satisfactory training session with the Crew Lead. The Crew Lead will therefore explain our new hire of all our safety standards, PPE policy, and customer relation skills. The Crew Lead has to comply with our contract with all deliverables, to include Green Certified specs.The Crew Lead is also to retrain any employees that fail to meet our QC standards. Crew Lead reports to EML LLC’s Supervisor. 3. Pre-requisites EML, LLC Crew Lead will utilize EML, LLC documents to include time sheets, MSDS books, temporary WO and assigned purchase orders and all associated documents for GSA contract # GS-07P-11-JU-D-0024. Crew Lead has been issued out a copy of our contract and shall reference it at all times. 4. Responsibilities The procedure outlined applies to all EML, LLC employees/ custodians. Items needed to be covered on the training sessions are as follow; • Train custodian employee on using the proper process on this S.O.P. Start point: New Hire Training and Existing Employee Re-Training Sessions • Company policy book • Union book • Safety Signs • Eml Contract Safety Signs Train them to post specific signs when they are working. If they will be mopping floors in walkways, break rooms, restrooms or hallways, make sureCrew Lead will they post a 'wet floor' sign...

Words: 1816 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Tyre Industry

...NAME - NISCHAY SAXENA REGISTRATION NUMBER - 1420023 SECTION – F2 SUBJECT – BUSINESS ETHICS SUBMITTED TO – PROF. JEEVANANDA S CASE – FIRE IN A BANGLADESH GARMENT FACTORY Fire in a Bangladesh garment factory Introduction This case talks about fire in a garment factory which was located near capital Dhaka in which 112 people were killed and several hundreds were injured. This happened in November, 2012. The main reason for the fire was an electrical short circuit. The factory did not have required safety equipment’s and other safety measures were not followed by the factory which were mandatory as per the law of the country in order to ensure safety towards your employees due to which employees were not able to evacuate the factory at time of fire and lost their lives. Now the question is that who should be blamed for this mistake i.e. the factory owner, Walmart, or the customers. No one the ethical employer can sacrifice live for the low cost of production or earn more by using unethical measures. This case was also analyzed by “clean clothes campaign“and they also had their view points about various mistakes or unethical measures which these factories are following in order to make huge profits. Details about factory – The factory was owned by Tazreen Fasions Ltd., a subsidiary of The Tuba Group who is a large Bangladeshi garment exporter with clients like Walmart, Carrefour, Li and Fung. The factory was opened in May, 2010 which used to manufacture......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4