Free Essay

Elizabeth Bishop

In: English and Literature

Submitted By chelswolfgang
Words 1587
Pages 7
Chelsea Wolfgang
ENC 1102 05C
Professor Passerini
26 April 2014
Elizabeth Bishop
Elizabeth Bishop is known as an original, and influential American poet. She had sixty-eight years of life experiences to fill her poems, before her death in 1979. Bishop won many awards throughout her career including the famous Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and best of all; she was the Poet Laureate of the United States from 1949 to 1950. Graduating from Vassar College in 1929, her first few poems were published while she was a student ( Though she continued writing poems till the end of her career, she also was a published short story author. One of her first published short stories was included in the book, Questions of Travel. While Elizabeth Bishop’s poems focused her life, they also were about her impressions of the physical world. Many of her poems are studied throughout schools, one of the most popular being, “The Fish”; which I studied throughout my education twice.
I wouldn’t consider any of the poems I have read by her, “easy reads”; in fact, I would consider them fairly complicated and would require most students to use Sparknotes. The select poems I have read by her, I have not fully understood without assistance. But what I like about
Bishops poems is that each one I’ve read and then understood has great meaning and becomes extremely intriguing. One of my personal favorites is the poem previous mentioned, The Fish.
The Fish
I caught a tremendous fish and held him beside the boat half out of water, with my hook fast in a corner of his mouth.
He didn't fight.
He hadn't fought at all.
He hung a grunting weight, battered and venerable and homely. Here and there his brown skin hung in strips like ancient wallpaper, and its pattern of darker brown was like wallpaper: shapes like full-blown roses stained and lost through age.
He was speckled with barnacles, fine rosettes of lime, and infested with tiny white sea-lice, and underneath two or three rags of green weed hung down.
While his gills were breathing in the terrible oxygen
--the frightening gills, fresh and crisp with blood, that can cut so badly--
I thought of the coarse white flesh packed in like feathers, the big bones and the little bones, the dramatic reds and blacks of his shiny entrails, and the pink swim-bladder like a big peony.
I looked into his eyes which were far larger than mine but shallower, and yellowed, the irises backed and packed with tarnished tinfoil seen through the lenses of old scratched isinglass.
They shifted a little, but not to return my stare.
--It was more like the tipping of an object toward the light.
I admired his sullen face, the mechanism of his jaw, and then I saw that from his lower lip
--if you could call it a lip grim, wet, and weaponlike, hung five old pieces of fish-line, or four and a wire leader with the swivel still attached, with all their five big hooks grown firmly in his mouth.
A green line, frayed at the end where he broke it, two heavier lines, and a fine black thread still crimped from the strain and snap when it broke and he got away.
Like medals with their ribbons frayed and wavering, a five-haired beard of wisdom trailing from his aching jaw.
I stared and stared and victory filled up the little rented boat, from the pool of bilge where oil had spread a rainbow around the rusted engine to the bailer rusted orange, the sun-cracked thwarts, the oarlocks on their strings, the gunnels-until everything was rainbow, rainbow, rainbow!
And I let the fish go.

We studied this poem in our class, and it definitely took me a few times to fully understand the content, but the hidden meanings throughout this poem really are incredible. Other poets may never understand how Bishop can disguise such important meanings with simple descriptions of a fishing trip, but this is what is so entertaining about her writings. Her connection with the physical world is astounding and really quite fascinating; almost something that I envy. In an interview in the Paris Review in 1978, Bishop explains how she was very romantic alone, with nature. “I was very romantic. I once walked from Nauset Light to the tip, Provincetown, all alone. It took me a night and a day. I went swimming from time to time but at that time the beach was absolutely deserted. There wasn’t anything on the back shore, no buildings. “ (“The Paris Review”) Bishop also told a story about how once in college she actually slept in a tree. I think her connection with nature really helped her be able to write her poems the fascinating way that she did. “through late afternoon a bus journeys west, the windshield flashing pink, pink glancing off of metal, brushing the dented flank of blue, beat-up enamel; down hollows, up rises, and waits, patient, while a lone traveller gives kisses and embraces to seven relatives” ( “through late afternoon a bus journeys west, the windshield flashing pink, pink glancing off of metal, brushing the dented flank of blue, beat-up enamel; down hollows, up rises, and waits, patient, while a lone traveller gives kisses and embraces to seven relatives” ( Elizabeth Bishop focused many years of her life on traveling. It might seem surprising, but It seemed as though for the majority of her life she never stayed more than four years in one place. Could her need for change and travel be a cause of her childhood where she was constantly moved from home to home? Or could it be simply she liked the adventure? We may never know the answer to that, but Bishop explains that her traveling is something she never planned for, it always just happened; and she loved it! While she traveled she kept a journal, and she would always take notes of what she was surrounded with. The following excerpt is from the famous poem, “The Moose”. This poem is based on a true account that happened when Bishop lived in Brazil. Her poems frequently held accounts of her travels and experiences with that aspect of her life. The poems similar to the following aren’t as challenging to understand as some. Although one always wonders when reading Bishop’s work, what the hidden meanings could be!

“From everything I’ve read and heard, the number of students in English departments taking literature courses has been falling off enormously. But at the same time the number of people who want to get in the writing classes seems to get bigger and bigger.” (“The Paris Review”)

“From everything I’ve read and heard, the number of students in English departments taking literature courses has been falling off enormously. But at the same time the number of people who want to get in the writing classes seems to get bigger and bigger.” (“The Paris Review”)

Harvard University, where Bishop spent 7 years.
Harvard University, where Bishop spent 7 years. A huge part of Elizabeth Bishop’s life included teaching in many institutions. Starting at the University of Washington, to Harvard where she taught for 7 years. She then moved on to New York University, and then ended her teaching career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the Paris Review Bishop stated, "I don’t think I believe in writing courses at all… It’s true, children sometimes write wonderful things, paint wonderful pictures, but I think they should be discouraged." (“The Paris Review”) I think it’s interesting that Bishop says this, especially considering that she continued and finished her education through college. She explains further in the interview how she never wanted, or planned on teaching in her life. She was offered a job, and needed the money; so she decided to take the teaching job. Bishop explains how she believes that creativity comes from the person, and that the teacher helps to bring it out.
During her teachings, she says that she gave multiple assignments per week and every few weeks she would tell her students that they could turn in whatever they wanted! When thinking about Bishop’s teachings, my thoughts turn towards wondering how teaching affected her writings. Poems published later in her life won multiple awards, once again. Did the student’s work influence her writings at all? I researched this question in every way I knew how to phrase it, and nothing came up on whether or not something drastic happened. But after analyzing some of the last poems Bishop ever published, they seem the same in manner as her earlier poems. Elizabeth Bishops poems take time, and effort to read and to fully grasp. But once you take the time to sit down, and analyze even just one, you will be shocked at the meanings that you will find. Bishop’s poems still impact American literature to this day, and will continue to be an important figure in education. Poets of today will respect Bishop for years to come for making such a mark on American poetry. On October 6 1979 she died in Cambridge, Massachusetts leaving behind a legacy that no one could take away. An artist’s retreat in Nova Scotia was built in her name, and called the Elizabeth Bishop House. If you have the urge to sit down, and take in poetry, grab one of Elizabeth Bishops collection of poems, and enjoy.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Elizabeth Bishop

...Nature versus Human: Analysis of Bishop’s “Seascape” Barbora Kolísková ILS 6 December 2013 Jennifer Yaros claims that one of the ways that Bishop portrays the status and emotions of an outsider is by using nature and not only this but also with picturing humans as an interfering feature in nature. In “Seascape” Bishop uses religious allusions to make the distinction between the world of the nature and men more clear. The portrait of human as an unnatural part of the landscape reflects Bishop’s childhood and consequential feeling of homeless. The feeling of homeless is rooted in her miserable childhood: her father died before she was a year old and her mother couldn’t cope with and became insane. She had to be hospitalized in mental hospital and Bishop was then in the care of her paternal grandparents who moved quite a lot and her feeling of homelessness remained with her until she moved to Brazil in nineteen fifties. The poem “Seascape” is most probably describing the landscape in Key West where Bishop occasionally lived in thirties and forties. The proof of this can be found in the fourth line where it mentions a mangrove island, mangrove plants being found in the tropics and subtropical areas. Concerning the structure of the poem it has 23 lines of free verse. Visually the poem is coherent but on closer inspection it is obvious, that it is split into more substructures. The first part consists basically only of one sentence of thirteen lines. The use of no......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

British Civilization

...As long as I can remember, as a life-long Episcopalian, I have always been taught emphatically that Henry VIII did not found the Anglican Church. However, all of my non-Episcopalian friends – both Roman Catholic and Protestant – believe that he did create it. Why do they say that Henry VIII did and we maintain that he did not? All church historians agree that Christianity came to Roman Britain in the earliest days of the Church, at the same time the new faith was spreading all through Rome’s Empire. The first documentation of the British Church as a permanently established and recognized self-governing regional Catholic Church was the attendance of three of its Bishops at the Council of Arles in A.D. 314. In the succeeding century this native Celtic Catholic Church continued to grow and to develop its distinct spirituality and culture, spreading to Ireland. However, the withdrawal of the Roman legions in the early A.D. 400’s from what today is England-proper left a military vacuum that— was filled by aggressive pagan Angles and Saxons from Germany. The Celtic Church survived only in the remote reaches of western Cornwall and Wales and on the even more remote island of Ireland. The Irish Church was monastic in structure, with the local abbey and always-lay abbot/abbess functioning as the “diocese” and Ordinary. It had a vital, dynamic culture with a strong spirit of evangelization. After the conversion of Ireland, Celtic monks in A.D. 563 crossed the Irish Sea......

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

To What Extent Was England a Catholic Country at the Time of Mary I’s Death in 1558?

...To what extent was England a Catholic country at the time of Mary I’s death in 1558? When Mary began her reign, England was firmly Protestant, due to the Edwardian Reformation which wiped out all traces of Catholicism. She was a strong Catholic, and attended Mass at least once a day and saying prayers in her chapel every night. She interpreted that her initial popularity was due to the return of Catholicism rather than for the dislike of Northumberland and the support for her own legitimacy as rightful queen. Due to this she aimed to re-assert Catholic doctrines and practises and to re-establish Papal Supremacy. However ultimately Mary’s attempt to make England a full Catholic country failed, as her reign was too short, and she did not produce a Catholic heir to continue her attempt. Mary felt that it was her commitment to bring back full Catholicism to England. She was devout in personal worship, attending Mass at least once a day, and saying prayers every night. As a Princess she did not abandon her catholic faith, and only accepted the Royal Supremacy of her father in 1536 under duress. This was further encouraged by Cardinal Pole as he compared her to Mary mother of Jesus, and she had a divine purpose. She proclaimed on 18th August 1553 that she hoped that others would follow her religion. This made it seem that she was more interested in reforming religion instead of political reasons. The beginning of Mary’s reign is a typical example of a catholic Reformation, and......

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Successfully Did James Deal with Parliament During the Period 1603 - 1616?

...purveyance, in exchange for a fixed sum per annum to be raised in taxation. They offered him £200,000 after a lot of argument. They didn’t want to give him too much money because he wouldn’t need to call parliament. James didn’t like this idea as he thought that £200,000 wouldn’t be enough. The contract was finally sunk when James made a demand for another £200,000 lump sum. The House of Commons refused this outright so James dismissed Parliament without any solution to the crown’s financial problem in sight. James’ second parliament was also known was the ‘addled’ parliament. It lasted only a few weeks and was only called so he could ask for money to cover the costs of Henry’s (his eldest son) funeral, and the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth. No...

Words: 1178 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Why Were Puritans Perceived a Threat in the Elizabethan Period

...objects of the Puritans that could be perceived as a real threat to Elizabeth, was their belief in taking the title and offices from the Bishops. They also gave rise to threatening Elizabeth’s power through their attempts to reform the Church through parliament. Due to Elizabeth’s religious settlement at the time being neither Catholic nor Protestant, rise of a hugely exaggerated protestant religion could of have serious percussions including a Catholic rebellion against Elizabeth. The Puritans belief in taking the titles and riches from Bishops, creating Bishops centered on a spiritual life only created a serious potential threat to Elizabeth. Thomas Cartwright lectured in Cambridge University in 1535-1602 of the abolition of Bishops power and titles along with other Puritan beliefs. Thomas’s beliefs left little room for Elizabeth’s Supreme Governship and his idea of clearing the power of the Bishops lead to several threats towards Elizabeth’s power. Having Catholic leaning, rich, powerful Bishops meant if it were advisable for reasons of foreign policy to minimize the differences between the Church of England and the continual Catholic Church having a shared institution of episcopy would help a great deal. Elizabeth was also keen on keeping tradition. Her Father, Henry VIII had never discarded her powerful Bishops to a life of Spiritual meaning only and neither was she about to. By replacing her Bishops with Puritan’s she would also be loosening her grip of power over......

Words: 1222 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...A King that Wanted a Son, Challenged the System and Brought Down an Over-Powerful Religious Empire. According to doctrine, Jesus Christ founded the Catholic Church and Peter made it official in about 50-75 CE. The early church struggled for acceptance, wherein Christians were outcasts for the first couple hundred years of the Church’s existence. However, in the year 313, Emperor Constantine-I legalized Christianity and it eventually became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the Emperor. Even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Catholic Church and the state remained closely linked. More specifically, the duties of every political authority and commoner including: kings, queens, princes, knights, serfs and soldiers were to the embrace the Catholic faith and to support, sustain and nurture the church. Kings believed that "God establishes kings as his ministers and reigns through them over the people.” For over a thousand years, the Catholic Church reinforced the political authority of the states and the states reinforced the authority of the church. However, in 1527 King Henry-VIII of England challenged the authority of the Church to exert its political and economic authority over sovereign lands. By establishing the Church of England, King Henry-VIII changed the way most European monarchs viewed the authority of the Pope. After complicated power struggle with the Catholic Church, involving political and theological issues, King......

Words: 2811 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Character Analysis Essay the Crucible

...Kenya Finch Mr. Osborn Per. 7 March 17, 2012 Character Analysis Essay The world is made of all different types of people with different qualities. Some qualities we all share and some we don’t. We value some more than others and look down at some. Often the qualities that are look down on is what society seems to create the most around and pay the most attention to. Throughout the reading of The Crucible there are many characters that have been introduced with different qualities. One of the characters that have been introduced that has qualities that stands out more from others which are manipulative, devious, and inconsiderate. The character I’m talking about is Abigail Williams. All throughout the story Abigail displays all these qualities and many other but those three are the ones that are displayed the most. Out of all qualities Abigail displays devious is the one greatly revealed. Throughout the story there are many events that happen that Abigail had something to do with, with each event Abigail always has a different story from what actually happens and convinces people that her story is the truth. One event that happens that displays this would be when Abigail was in the woods with the girls dancing and took it to the next level by drinking blood and taking off her clothing. Before the questioning of what happen in the woods Abigail states “Shut up! All of you. We danced. That is all, and mark this, if anyone breathe a word or the edge of a word about the......

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Proctor’s failed relationship. Abigail chose to use Tituba’s voodoo skills to kill Proctor’s wife, Goody Proctor. Abigail is jealous of Goody Proctor because she has feelings for her husband John Proctor, after their affair. In the text Abigail stated to Proctor, “I look for John Proctor that took me from my sleep and put knowledge in my heart! I never knew what pretense Salem was, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught by all these Christian women and their covenanted men! And now you bid me tear the light out of my eyes? I will not, I cannot! You loved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet!” In this piece of text Abigail confesses her love to Proctor and she spoke of the affair between them. Abigail said if Elizabeth was no longer in the picture Proctor would be hers. (Include evidence from where Abigail was in the woods and she drank blood + explain) In Salem, Massachusetts, witchcraft is illegal and those who practice it are executed. In order to live, Abigail blamed other girls in Salem. Tituba confessed to witchcraft to Reverend Hale. When one has confessed to their sin they are redeemed and free of guilt. In the text Abigail shouted to Reverend Hale, “I want to open myself! . . ....

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Why Was Puritanism Perceived to Be a Threat to Stability in Elizabethan England??

...puritans and the fragility of the structure of Elizabethan parliament, furthermore it is also incredibly important to consider Elizabeth’s response and own personal views towards puritans and perhaps the true reason for the perceived ‘phantom’ threat lying within the harsh reactions of Elizabeth. Due to the fragile nature of the government Elizabeth had inherited it was vital for it to remain sable and deal with stressing issues such as religion with great care, Elizabeth had 3 options when it came to religion, maintain catholic religion Mary had set up, create moderate form of Protestantism or create a more radical Genevan style reform. The influence of puritans’ on parliament can be perceived as a threat to stability as their influence greatly undermined the authority of the queen. With the support/sympathy of various key figures; Strickland, field, Dudley, Burghley and perhaps the most notable Edmund grindal, who’s support of prophesying highlights the danger puritans’ held in the eyes of Elizabeth. His refusal to ban the act led to his suspension and house arrest. Such quick and harsh response from the queen implies how seriously she took prophesying as a threat to stability. His letter to Elizabeth may be the reason fro such judgement, grindal puritan views seep through and imply the very same ideas as Knox “monstrous regiment of women” which conferred with grindals threatening response to the queen “remember madam, that you are a mortal creature.” This is not only......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

North and South by Elisabeth Gaskell

...NORTH AND SOUTH NORTH AND SOUTH by ELIZABETH GASKELL 1 ELIZABETH GASKELL 2 NORTH AND SOUTH First published in serial form in Household Words in 1854-1855 and in volume form in 1855. Republished 2012 by 27 Northen Grove Manchester M20 2NL 3 ELIZABETH GASKELL 4 NORTH AND SOUTH VOLUME I On its appearance in 'Household Words,' this tale was obliged to conform to the conditions imposed by the requirements of a weekly publication, and likewise to confine itself within certain advertised limits, in order that faith might be kept with the public. Although these conditions were made as light as they well could be, the author found it impossible to develope the story in the manner originally intended, and, more especially, was compelled to hurry on events with an improbable rapidity towards the close. In some degree to remedy this obvious defect, various short passages have been inserted, and several new chapters added. With this brief explanation, the tale is commended to the kindness of the reader; 'Beseking hym lowly, of mercy and pite, Of its rude makyng to have compassion.' ____ 5 ELIZABETH GASKELL 6 NORTH AND SOUTH CHAPTER I 'HASTE TO THE WEDDING' 'Wooed and married and a'.' dith!' said Margaret, gently, 'Edith!' But, as Margaret half suspected, Edith had fallen asleep. She lay curled up on the sofa in the back drawing-room in Harley Street, looking very lovely in her white muslin and blue ribbons. If......

Words: 186281 - Pages: 746

Free Essay


...Elizabeth, is a 1998 film about the early life of me, Queen Elizabeth I, of England who is arguably one of the greatest monarchs to ever sit on this throne. Cate Blanchett is the title role and I believe she did alright although I think I am much better looking. I think that this movie broke the usual "period piece" mold of English biographical movies because it was directed by an Indian, Shekhar Kapur. This movie seemed to took a much more dramatic style of storytelling, which I thought was good because there was quite the drama in my Kingdom at that time. The movie also did not shy away from some historical truths of the era, such as dirt, poverty, and torture. In the movie however, there are some mistakes and factual errors that I noticed that were not accurate to what I really went through, or what happened with certain characters in real life. The movie had many errors and said things that I did not do. In the beginning , Firstly, my appearance was not accurate. I did not start wearing wigs and heavy makeup until later in my reign, and it had nothing to do with the Virgin Mary. I very much wanted to keep the image of an eternally youthful Queen, for my own sake because I did not want to feel I was sadly aging, or possibly growing ill. I started wearing red wigs when my hair started greying at a young age. (The Life of Elizabeth) Queen Mother Mary of Guise did send troops to Scotland, but Elizabeth sent a fleet, not an army of troops. And this fleet was not an invasion...

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...The role of woman in Elizabethan times Wealthy * Wealthy women were allowed education * Wealthy women were tutored at home * They were taught in Latin, Italian, Greek and French * Dancing and Music skills were essential * Women were not allowed to go to university Middle Class/Poor * Did not attend school * Did not receive formal education * Had to learn to govern a household * Had to become skilled in housewife duties * Learned only what needed to be known in order to marry Marriage * Elizabethan women were expected to marry * People were suspicious with single women * Single women were often associated with witches * Elizabethan women are supposed to be dependant of their male relative throughout their entire life * Marriage was desirable for lower class women * With parental permission, it is legal for girls at 12 years of age to marry * The Role of Unmarried Women * Single women could spend their life in a convent or a nunnery * It was eventually no longer an option * Thus, the only other option was domestic service The Role of Women in Marriage * Women were expected to bring a dowry (i.e. a small amount of money, goods and property) to the marriage * After marriage, women were expected to run households and provide children * Large families were normal * High mortality rates (i.e. death of infants under 1 years old) at that time * Many women made......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...established partnership Thomas Parry was appointed Comptroller of the Household Robert Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse 23 November: Elizabeth left Hatfield for London 28 November: Took up residence at the Tower of London 15 January: Coronation led by Marian bishop Owen Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle 25 January: First Parliament The ideas and policies of Elizabeth I • Elizabeth believed she was entitled to rule the kingdom and it was clear she was in charge • Spanish ambassador, Count of Feria: Elizabeth was more feared than her sister had been and gave orders ‘as absolutely as her father did’ • No desire to involve herself in the details of government in the same way as Henry VII • She took an informed interest in decision-making processes • She was determined to preserve the prerogative powers of the Crown → she wanted to make the most important decisions • She had to overcome the prejudice against female rulers and the inferior woman stereotype The Role of Key Personalities • Most important person: Sir William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, who served for almost the whole of her reign • Robert Dudley: important as a military figure and as a promoter of the Puritan cause Relationships between Elizabeth and her ministers • John Guy: ‘she controlled her own policy more than any other Tudor’ o ‘she knew her mind; her instinct to power was......

Words: 4415 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

The Personal Beliefs of Edward, Mary and Elizabeth Explain the Religious Changes of the Years 1547 to 1566

...The personal beliefs of Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I explain the religious changes of the years 1547 and 1566, How far do you agree with this opinion? E Duffy states ''men breathed easier for the succession of a catholic queen'', which implies that Edward was imposing his own protestant beliefs strongly onto the realm, despite their more catholic views, through his religious policy. This therefore suggests that personal beliefs can explain the changes in religion from 1547. However in order to assess the validity of this claim it is important to consider the aspect under investigation, the personal beliefs of the monarchs, views of the people, foreign influences on religion and the finances. The stronger evidence so far seems to suggest that personal belief was the main reason for religious change. However, the answer is never clear cut and may depend on the monarch in power and time. It can be argued that Edward's religious policy was based on his own personal beliefs of Protestantism. Edward was raised staunchly catholic as his step mother Catherine Parr had him educated with protestant views by scholars. However, other factors did determine the religious changes during his reign as the 1549 Prayer Book under Lord protector Somerset was far from staunchly protestant. This is due to Somerset's fear of Charles V and the threat Spain posed to England if they were too radically protestant , as well as learning from the mistakes Henry made leading to The Pilgrimage of......

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Tudors

...The Tudors: A Very Short Introduction VERY SHORT INTRODUCTIONS are for anyone wanting a stimulating and accessible way in to a new subject. They are written by experts, and have been published in more than 25 languages worldwide. The series began in 1995, and now represents a wide variety of topics in history, philosophy, religion, science, and the humanities. Over the next few years it will grow to a library of around 200 volumes- a Very Short Introduction to everything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very Short Introductions available now: ANCIENT P H I L O S O P H Y Julia Annas THE ANGLO-SAXON AGE John Blair ANIMAL RIGHTS David DeGrazia ARCHAEOLOGY Paul Bahn ARCHITECTURE Andrew Ballantyne ARISTOTLE Jonathan Barnes ART HISTORY Dana Arnold ARTTHEORY Cynthia Freeland THE HISTORYOF ASTRONOMY Michael Hoskin ATHEISM Julian Baggini AUGUSTINE HenryChadwick BARTHES Jonathan Culler THE B I B L E John Riches BRITISH POLITICS Anthony Wright BUDDHA Michael Carrithers BUDDHISM DamienKeown CAPITALISM James Fulcher THE CELTS Barry Cunliffe CHOICETHEORY Michael Allingham CHRISTIAN ART Beth Williamson CLASSICS Mary Beard and John Henderson CLAUSEWITZ Michael Howard THE COLD WAR Robert McMahon CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY Simon Critchley COSMOLOGY Peter Coles CRYPTOGRAPHY Fred Piper and Sean Murphy DADAAND SURREALISM David Hopkins DARWIN Jonathan Howard DEMOCRACY Bernard Crick DESCARTES TomSorell DRUGS Leslie Iversen TH E EARTH Martin Redfern......

Words: 34946 - Pages: 140