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Emotions Across the Lifespan From birth to adulthood, human emotions range from just a few such as happy and sad, to highly differentiated that give rise to bodily language, moods and feelings. The rapid development of emotions across the lifespan is based on the topology of emotion, the development of the emotional features and the developmental sequence over the first three years. In order for an emotion to occur, there must be an internal or external trigger or stimulus. In the development of a stimulus, emotions are adaptive responses to specific events in that emotions evolved to enable an individual to obtain their goal by overcoming a barrier. Moreover, emotional states can occur without an individual knowing that they are experiencing the emotion. They can also involve changes cognitive changes such as neurophysiological, hormonal, and bodily responses. As emotional expressions are observed in the face and body, they can be viewed as the manifestation of internal emotional states. Thus, in the model of emotional development, at birth, an infant shows two extreme emotions - crying and pleasure. By three months, the infant displays joy, surprise, disgust, interest and sadness. By four to six months of age, anger emerges while fear is displayed months later. By three years of age, the emotional life of a child has become differentiated as the child is already showing self-conscious emotions which results in the development of mental activity (Handbook of Emotions, 3rd Edition, Chapter 18). There are three development theories concerning emotions and aging - differential emotional theory (DET), optimization and selectivity theories and cognitive-affective development theory. DET states that are are ten core emotions, each with a distinctive different motivation, expression and phenomenological aspect. The ten core emotions are joy, interest, surprise,...

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