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Endocrine

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BLOOD
FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The term cardiovascular1 system refers only to the heart and vessels, which are the subject of chapters 19 and 20. The study of blood, specifically, is called hematology.2
The fundamental purpose of the circulatory system is to transport substances from place to place in the body. Blood is the liquid medium in which these materials travel, blood vessels ensure the proper routing of blood to its destinations, and the heart is the pump that keeps the blood flowing.
More specifically, the functions of the circulatory system are as follows:
Transport
* The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all of the body's tissues, while it picks up carbon dioxide from those tissues and carries it to the lungs to be removed from the body. * It picks up nutrients from the digestive tract and delivers them to all of the body's tissues. * It carries metabolic wastes to the kidneys for removal. * It carries hormones from endocrine cells to their target organs. * It transports a variety of stem cells from the bone marrow and other origins to the tissues where they lodge and mature.
Protection
* The blood plays several roles in inflammation, a mechanism for limiting the spread of infection. * White blood cells destroy microorganisms and cancer cells. * Antibodies and other blood proteins neutralize toxins and help to destroy pathogens. * Platelets secrete factors that initiate blood clotting and other processes for minimizing blood loss.
Regulation
* By absorbing or giving off fluid under different conditions, the blood capillaries help to stabilize fluid distribution in the body. * By buffering acids and bases, blood proteins help to stabilize the pH of the extracellular fluids. * Shifts in blood flow help to regulate…...

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