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Energy Losses Due to Friction in a Cylindrical Pipe

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Submitted By nick1989
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In this experiment as we see from the title is energy losses due to friction of a pipe. As this experiment is one of the usual experiments because the results of such types of experiments are used in our lives. We take an example of central heating in a house, pipes is all over the house so to work properly and without more losses you expect you have to do this experiments. Our experiment it was simple of the way to get the measurements we want to study it. The objective of this experiment as the title is saying and as we said is to find the losses and the friction in a cylindrical pipe. We will change the pressure drop, the volume of the water, the diameter of the pipe to scratch the surface of the many factors due to calculate and have some results. Moreover from this experiment is two factors from friction when the flow is laminar and when is turbulence. These two factors are basic to see the difference between the generalised smoothens in the pipes. By doing this and comparing we can afford to get a conclusion for the flow rate in a pipe and how is reacting depending of the diameter of the pipes and other factors we will see in the experiment.

Aim and objectives:
As we said from our introduction the aim this experiment is to study the behaviour of water in the pipes find the losses and the friction in different diameter of pipes. Therefore to gain an insight into the behaviour of fluid flow in pipes the connections for estimating energy losses. We have three basic objectives to obtain. The first one is to make the connection or a relationship between the head loss and the flow rate for a straight smooth cylindrical pipe. The second one of the objectives is to find and show how this result we will find can be comprehensive using dimensionless groups. The last one objective for the experiment is that we have to show that actually are two types of flow the laminar and the turbulence flow and when we dissimilar this we have to establish the Reynolds number section for conversion between the two flow types.

The frictional resistance to which a fluid is subjected as it flows along a pipe creates a constant loss of energy as the fluid moves all along. If u is the mean velocity in the pipe (which remains constant for a pipe of fixed cross section), D is the pipe inner diameter, and also the length L, then the friction factor f is defined by h_f= (f L u^2)/(2 g D)
f=(2 g D h_f)/(L u^2 )
The Reynolds number is given by where Q the flow rate, and µ the dynamic viscosity. This quantity varies with temperature. The Reynolds number determines whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. For typical flows in smooth pipes, laminar flow conditions correspond to Re4000. The laminar/turbulent transition regime corresponds to 2100

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