Free Essay

Energy Losses Due to Friction in a Cylindrical Pipe

In: Science

Submitted By nick1989
Words 509
Pages 3
In this experiment as we see from the title is energy losses due to friction of a pipe. As this experiment is one of the usual experiments because the results of such types of experiments are used in our lives. We take an example of central heating in a house, pipes is all over the house so to work properly and without more losses you expect you have to do this experiments. Our experiment it was simple of the way to get the measurements we want to study it. The objective of this experiment as the title is saying and as we said is to find the losses and the friction in a cylindrical pipe. We will change the pressure drop, the volume of the water, the diameter of the pipe to scratch the surface of the many factors due to calculate and have some results. Moreover from this experiment is two factors from friction when the flow is laminar and when is turbulence. These two factors are basic to see the difference between the generalised smoothens in the pipes. By doing this and comparing we can afford to get a conclusion for the flow rate in a pipe and how is reacting depending of the diameter of the pipes and other factors we will see in the experiment.

Aim and objectives:
As we said from our introduction the aim this experiment is to study the behaviour of water in the pipes find the losses and the friction in different diameter of pipes. Therefore to gain an insight into the behaviour of fluid flow in pipes the connections for estimating energy losses. We have three basic objectives to obtain. The first one is to make the connection or a relationship between the head loss and the flow rate for a straight smooth cylindrical pipe. The second one of the objectives is to find and show how this result we will find can be comprehensive using dimensionless groups. The last one objective for the experiment is that we have to show that actually are two types of flow the laminar and the turbulence flow and when we dissimilar this we have to establish the Reynolds number section for conversion between the two flow types.

The frictional resistance to which a fluid is subjected as it flows along a pipe creates a constant loss of energy as the fluid moves all along. If u is the mean velocity in the pipe (which remains constant for a pipe of fixed cross section), D is the pipe inner diameter, and also the length L, then the friction factor f is defined by h_f= (f L u^2)/(2 g D)
f=(2 g D h_f)/(L u^2 )
The Reynolds number is given by where Q the flow rate, and µ the dynamic viscosity. This quantity varies with temperature. The Reynolds number determines whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. For typical flows in smooth pipes, laminar flow conditions correspond to Re4000. The laminar/turbulent transition regime corresponds to 2100

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Pipe Bends and Thrust Block Forces ------------------------------------------------- Pipe bends and thrust blocks forces on anchors due to fluid velocity and internal pressure - online resulting force calculator Sponsored Links Online Pipe Bend Resulting Force Calculator The calculator below can used to calculate resulting force in piping bends: ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormMetricρ - density of fluid (kg/m3)d - int. diam. pipe or bend (m)v - velocity of fluid (m/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (kPa)Bottom of Form | ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormImperial SG - specific gravity of fluid d - int. diam. pipe or bend (inches)v - velocity of fluid (ft/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (psi)Bottom of Form | The resulting force on a thrust block or anchor depends on the fluid mass flow and flow velocity and the pressure in the bend. Resulting force due to Mass flow and Flow Velocity The resulting force in x-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be expressed as: Rx = m v (1 - cosβ)         (1)     = ρ A v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1b)     = ρ π (d / 2)2 v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1c) where Rx = resulting force in x-direction (N) m = mass flow (kg/s) v = flow velocity (m/s) β = turning bend angle (degrees) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) d = internal pipe or bend diameter (m) π = 3.14... The resulting force in y-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Losses in Pipes Fittings

...Energy Losses in Pipes and Fittings Objectives: i. The objectives of this experiment were to firstly, measure the experimental head loss which was due to the friction which occurred in a straight pipe and compare the value with that of which was obtained using a Moody chart. Then to demonstrate that head loss gradient and flow-rate squared are proportional to each other. Summary of Theory: Fluid flows can be described in two ways. These are “laminar” or “turbulent”. Laminar (streamline) flow happens when the fluid particles follow parallel flow paths and usually has low velocity values. On the other hand, turbulent flows are when the particles have irregular, secondary motions in conjunction with the direction of the flow. This causes a mixing of the fluids. A dimensionless constant is used to measure these types of flows, which is called Reynolds Number, and can be found by the equation :Re= vdυ V = Velocity of the flow of fluid D = Diameter of the pipe υ = Kinematic viscosity of water Depending on the size of the number, the resulting Reynolds (Re) number will relate to the type of flow/fluid motion, a Re number of 2000 will result in a laminar flow. Whereas, a Re number of more than 4000 will result in a turbulent flow. Frictional losses must also be taken into account with regards to the relative roughness of the pipe used: k = Pipe roughness d = Diameter of pipe k/d = 0.0015mm / 10.31mm = 0.000145 Equipment Used: Cussons Hydraulic......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fabrication of Aa6360/8vol. % (Ticp+B4Cp) Hybrid Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing

...Abstract Friction stir processing (FSP) has been applied by several researchers to produce surface modification of metallic materials. The feasibility to produce TiC and B4C particle reinforced aluminum (AA6360) hybrid matrix composites (AHMCs) were studied in this paper. The measured content of TiC and B4C powders were compacted into a groove of 0.5 mm X 5 mm. Double pass FSP was carried out using a FSW tool at rotational speed of 1600 rpm, processing speed of 60 mm/min and axial force of 8 kN. A tool made of HCHCr steel; oil hardened to 62 HRC, having cylindrical threaded profile was used in this study. Optical micrographs revealed a defect free FSP zone. TiC and B4C particles were uniformly distributed and well bonded with the matrix alloy. The hardness of the FSW zone increased to 25% higher than that of the matrix alloy. Key words: Surface composite, Friction stir processing, TiC, B4C. 1. Introduction Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles exhibit high strength, high elastic modulus, and improved resistance to wear, creep and fatigue compared with unreinforced metals which make them promising structural materials for aerospace and automobile industries. However, these composites also suffer from a great loss in ductility and toughness due to the incorporation of non-deformable ceramic reinforcements, which limits their wide applications to a certain extent [1]. The surface properties dictate the life span of components in several......

Words: 1812 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Head Loss in Pipe System

...moving fluid in a piping system. Head loss is the pressure drop (due to friction) of a flowing fluid. The friction may be caused by many factors, such as friction from the introduction of pipe fittings or friction of the fluid against the pipes inner walls. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the head loss of fluid in piping of different diameter (d = 0.006m, 0.010m and 0.017m) was obtainable by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation; h=(4fLu^2)/2gd; OR h=(λLu^2)/2gd. Furthermore, if the head loss was obtainable through the Darcy-Weisbach Equation, we have to compare it with the experimental head loss value and find the percentage error to determine the accuracy of the Darcy-Weisbach Equation. Form the experiment, the test 1 (d =0.006m), the maximum percentage error was 76.8% and the minimum was 72.2%.For test 2 (d =0.010m), the maximum percentage error was 15.6% and the minimum was 4.4%. Lastly for the test 3 (d =0.017m), the maximum was percentage error was 12.9% and the minimum was 4.5%. Thus, from the obtained results, it can be said that the head loss value of a fluid flowing through a pipe can be calculated by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation, and its value is fairly accurate. Objectives The objective of this experiment is to determine whether the Darcy-Weisbach is applicable in obtaining the amount of head loss (due to friction) experienced by a fluid (water) flowing through a smooth pipe. Furthermore, we are to determine the accuracy of the......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...ENERGY TECHNOLOGY S.JITENDRA PAL Department of Chemical Engineering National Institute of Technology Karnataka Surathkal-Karnataka. Assistant Professor Fundamentals of energy and its impact on society and the environment. What is energy? • Energy :defined as the ability or capacity to do work. Energy is measured in BTU (British Thermal Unit) or Joule • According to Max Planck, energy is defined as the ability of a system to cause external action. • The term energy carrier – thus a carrier of the above defined energy – is a substance that could be used to produce useful energy, either directly or by one or several conversion processes • In this respect the following forms of energy are distinguished: mechanical energy (i.e. potential or kinetic energy), thermal, electric and chemical energy, nuclear energy and solar energy etc. Why Energy is needed ? • Think about how you use energy every day. You wake up to an alarm clock. You take a shower with water warmed by a hot water heater. You listen to music on the radio as you dress , u eat breakfast….. And so on……. • Food items, medicines, groceries, the accessories which we use, Cosmetics, electronic appliances, lighting, heating cooling, • Everything needs energy in direct or indirect way Why Energy is needed ? Various sectors of economy- Industry, residential, commercial, transport • Industry- Petroleum Refining , steel, cement, chemical, metal, paper, pharmaceuticals, mining etc •......

Words: 13904 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay


...Friction is what happens when any two things rub against each other. These can be solid things, like your two hands rubbing together, or your skis rubbing on the snow, or a hammer hitting a nail, or they can be gases, like friction with the air slowing down your car, or liquids, like friction with the water slowing down a boat. Nobody completely understands what causes friction. Partly, friction happens when the rough edges of one object snag on the rough edges of another object, and some of the objects' energy has to be used to break off those rough edges so the objects can keep moving. And when you rub two soft things together, like your hands, sometimes they squish into each other and get in each other's way. But even completely smooth, hard things have some friction. This friction is the result of the molecules in both objects being attracted to each other. We know how to make more friction or less friction, and how to predict how much friction there will be. There's more friction when the two objects are pushed together harder. If you push your hands together, it's harder to rub them up and down. If you pull the brake lever harder, your bike will stop faster. Because gravity pulls harder on things with more mass, things with more mass have more friction and are harder to move - a cube of iron will be harder to move than a cube of wood. Two solid things usually have more friction than two liquid things, or one liquid thing and a solid - that's why you slip on a wet......

Words: 1566 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Viscous Losses in Pipes

...Fluids Lab Viscous Losses in Pipes Objectives: Compare the flow rate/pressure drop characteristics for flow in pipes in the laminar and turbulent regions. Apparatus: The experiment is conducted with the help of a Manometer, with which the pressure drop between two gauge points can be measured. For small pressure differences the water (oil) / air manometer is used, whereas for larger pressure differences the mercury / water (oil) manometer is used. The flow rate of the water is measured in volume per time; the flow rate of the oil is measured with a rota meter. Operating Procedure Before start: Close the valve in the downstream limb of the water/air (oil/air) manometer Switch on the pump Shut the flow control valve until there is no more fluid flow Taking measurements: Open the valve in the downstream limb of the water/air (oil/air) manometer Open flow control valve until a deflection of the manometer is registered Measure pressure difference and flow rate Change the settings of the flow control valve and repeat experiment Theory Viscous friction losses in a pipe can be predicted with the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Δp = f (L/D) (1/2) ρ V² Where ΔP = pressure drop, L = length of pipe, D = pipe diameter, = fluid density and V = mean velocity of the fluid (V = Q/A). The value of the friction factor f is equal to 64/Re (for laminar flow), where Re=VD/v. Also f is equal to 0.316Re-1/4 for turbulent flow. Water – observed   | Derived |   |   |......

Words: 1477 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pipe Friction

...NE 402 Laboratory Pressure Losses in Pipes and Fittings Objective: The Cussons Hydraulic Bench is to be used to measure friction factors and local loss coefficients in selected piping arrangements. These include sudden expansions, sudden contractions and bends. Other flow components to be studied in this lab include a Venturi flow meter and an Orifice flow meter. The theory for using Venturi tubes and orifice plates for flow rate measurement will also be verified. The hydraulics bench can be operated in both the laminar flow (Re < 2300) and turbulent flow regimes by adjustment of the fluid velocity. At low flows, the velocity is controlled by maintaining level (and therefore pressure) in two constant head tanks. The flow rates are most easily measured in this arrangement by timing liquid accumulation in calibrated beakers. An alternative method (and likely more accurate) is to weigh the mass accumulated during a given time interval. This eliminates uncertainties in the calibration of the beaker. Higher mass flow rates can be obtained by pumping through a feed block and measuring the volume of liquid via the volume gauge mounted on the hydraulics bench. Care should be taken to take data at Reynolds numbers far from the Critical Region in both the laminar and turbulent flow regions. Theory: The frictional pressure drop in a straight pipe segment can be correlated in terms of the Darcy friction factor according to the equation ∆Pf = fL ρv 2 De 2 gc (1) where: f = L = De =...

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Energy Market

...BUEC 563 – Energy Industries and Markets: Syllabus Instructor: Richard Dixon Email: Phone: (780) 248-1650 ------------------------------------------------- Prerequisite: BUEC 502 – Managerial Microeconomics (or equivalent) COURSE OBJECTIVES While part of the Natural Resources, Energy and Environment specialization this introductory course is an overview to the resource and energy industries and markets. Students gain a basic understanding of the evolving nature and structure of energy industries and markets, including market, technological, environmental and other strategic issues.  Second, there is a strong emphasis on students' proficiency levels in verbal and written business communication. Of particular interest is the ability to do and convey critical analysis and thinking in a variety of business formats (e.g. briefing note, strategic scenarios, business case, oral presentation, etc.). LEARNING GOALS Critical Thinking Students will be exposed to current issues and ideas concerning energy and its development in the 21st Century and this will help to develop their ability to analyze problems, situations and issues in a clear-minded, rigorous intellectual manner. At the end of the course the student will have more tools to critically think about current energy issues. Energy Fundamentals Students will enhance and develop a better understanding and awareness of the energy sector and its fundamentals from an economics, management and......

Words: 2945 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

The Hookah Pipe

...Final Paper Jamar Perry MGT 450/ Deborah Lomas Feb 11, 2013 The hookah pipe dates back centuries to the Indian and Arabic regions of the world and is used as a social tool in most parts for people to get together at the end of a long day and relax, its popularity is growing in certain areas of the united states and has the potential to become a profitable business. With the proper strategy plan and research establishing a hookah lounge is one the easiest ways to make a profit with less effort than the typical restaurant or bar. Because this type of business is less common in the states there is significantly less competition to go up against, the main goal would be to establish a strong customer base so that when other hookah lounges eventually try to establish they are not as successful as your business. A great strategy would be to own a percentage of share in each establishing lounge. The book states “Involves buying another company to take full control of it (anywhere from a majority 51% stake to an outright 100% ownership). “(Abraham, 2012) Often using this strategy ensures your original business concept grows and has little chance to be pushed out of business due to competition, there can be huge benefits by working together the resources are cheaper because both parties pay an amount of the cost. One of the most important things that must be understood about establishing a business......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Wind Energy

...1 INTRODUCTION TO WIND ENERGY........................................................................................................1 1.1 What is wind energy..................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Why use wind energy ................................................................................................................................1 Why choose wind over conventional fuel sources .........................................................................1 1.2.2 Why choose wind over other renewable energy technologies............................................................1 1.3 The history and rise of wind energy ..........................................................................................................2 1.3.1 The first windmills were for mechanical power generation ...............................................................2 1.3.2 Electrical power generation ................................................................................................................3 1.4 Wind energy in Australia ..........................................................................................................................6 1.5 Wind energy in the future..........................................................................................................................7 1.5.1 Onshore wind energy ...............................................

Words: 15934 - Pages: 64

Free Essay

Steel Pipe Manufacture

...Steel Pipe Manufacture ENGL135 2/24/11 Milton Krivokuca The use of pipe for transmission of materials dates back to early civilizations. Archaeological records show tropical climates using pipe from hollowed out bamboo to move water from streams and rivers to huts inland. Bored out wood logs and other natural components carried material from one place to another. The first record of cast iron pipe being used dates back to 1562 in Langensalza, Germany (Cast Iron Pipe Research Association, 1952). The first record of steel pipe being used was in 1815 in London England by William Murdock. Murdock used musket barrels no longer in service and joined them together to transport coal gas for coal burning lamps throughout the city of London (Romanowski, 2011). Today, two types of steel pipe exist, welded pipe and seamless pipe, with several different ways to manufacture. Welded pipe has a welded seam along the entire length of the pipe. The seams are joined by curling, or rolling the pipe into a round shape and welding the two edges together. Many different applications exist for welded pipe. Transmission of liquids such as water, oil, and slurry are a few. Solid materials such as sand, rock, and wood chips are other applications which use welded pipe. Structural applications also exist for welded pipe. For example; when building bridges, it is not uncommon to specify welded pipe to be used as an encasement for concrete when building bridge abutments and piers. Pipe is......

Words: 2301 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Losses Report these results with results obtained from other more accurate sources such as textbooks. According to the results from textbooks the calculated disturbances in flow proves that velocity and pressure is lost through heat and friction. Experimental * The water inlet * Water collection basin * Rubber ball * Hydraulic bench * Stopwatch Procedure Before the experiment is conducted the pump is turned on to bleed the air from the lines. Once this is done the flowrate it gradually increased by the individual to the highest possible value, without the menisci going to a point where it cannot be read. The next task is to identify the key components of the systems and the direction of water flow. An initial reading of the manometers is then taken from both the H1 and the H2. Once this is done 5 more readings are to be obtained with varying flowrates, this is done by adjusting the flow control valve. Results and discussion The full results and raw data gained from the experiment is shown in Appendix A. Examples of the calculations are given in Appendix B. The loss coefficient vs head loss graph above represents the gradual loss in velocity over the length of the piping. Due to factors such as friction and heat energy is lost from the fluid. It is also clear that the diameter variations shown in the enlargement and the contraction create major fluctuations in velocity. This is shown by the enlargement having a consistently low loss coefficient......

Words: 540 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Non Conventional Energy Resources

...INTERMEDIATE VOCATIONAL COURSE Second Year NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES For the Course of Rural Engineering Technician State Institute of Vocational Education Directorate of Intermediate Education Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. 2005 Author Sri Shali Habibulla M.Tech (Ref & A/c), Hons. C.H.E. M.I.S.T.E. Department of Rural Engineering Technician Govt. Junior College (Boys) New, Town, ANANTAPUR - 515 001. Editor Sri K. Jagadish Junior Lecturer in R.E.T. Govt. Junior College Vmedugula - 531027. Vizag (Dist.) PREFACE The main objective of vocational education is to train the students at +2 level for meeting the demands for the skilled manpower in both organised and unorganised sectors and also to provide an alternative channel for those who aimlessly persue higher education and to prepare them for self reliance. The State Institute of Vocational Education (SIVE) in collaboration with the Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh has developed curriculum for 43 vocational courses in the field of Engineering & Technology Agriculture Health & Paramedical Business & Commerce Home Science and Humanities Accordingly the text books have been developed by SIVE as per the restructured curriculum by utilizing the services of various professional teachers in the respective fields. I am sure that this book will be immensely useful to the vocational students and teachers in understanding the concepts. I wish to place my sincere thanks on......

Words: 19574 - Pages: 79

Premium Essay

Energy Analysis

...of a spark ignited, 4-stroke, compressed natural gas(CNG) fuelled automotive engine (TATA ACE CNG engine), to run on producer gas, also known as biomass syngas. The project is aimed towards investigating the application of producer gas as a fuel for high speed engines (automotive engines). The project is in collaboration with Tata Motors Limited, who have been very generous to provide us with the engine and instrumentation. Through this project we expect to build a test bed for running and testing an engine running on CNG and later on, on producer gas. A successful conversion will help establish a process path to be adopted for development of such engines and utilize the vast potential available with the unconventional sources of energy like syngas, which are abundantly available. As we look at the previous works on a similar concept, we realise that the air fuel ratio and spark timing are two parameters which need to be modified or tweaked in order to run the engine on producer gas. We modified the charge intake mechanism of the engine by replacing the existing fuel injector system by a gas carburettor. At the completion of this experimental study, we have been successful in delivering a fully functional engine test bed, with the engine operating satisfactorily on CNG and producer gas. The engine performance on producer gas has been studied at various air fuel ratios and engine speeds. A derating of ~50% is observed without changes......

Words: 9191 - Pages: 37