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English Language

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A2 English Language
Revision Guidance and Easter Work 2015

(1) Make sure you have your revision timetable worked out. Use calendar to plan work for different subjects

(2) Make sure your folders/booklets/handouts are sorted out for:
a. Language Diversity
i. Language Change – over time (timelines, key events, language features, theories, standardisation etc) ii. Different varieties of English (American, Caribbean, Indian, theories, Kachru, divergence, creolisation, basilect, prestige forms, etc)
b. Child Language Development
i. Spoken Language (terms, theories, stages, etc). ii. Written language (terms, theories, stages, phonics, IPA etc).

(3) For each area of the course, revise terminology, concepts, issues, theories etc (see overleaf). Booklets provide a very good starting point + VLE and links to helpful resources and sites.

(4) Terminology and Method: For all questions you need to be able to use the Language Constituents and relate these to Context. So revision of Language Constituents, word classes, grammar etc is important eg you need to be quick and confident recognising features like imperatives, passive voice, noun phrase structure, different pronouns, modal verbs etc. And of course be able to comment on their effects:
TERM – DEFINITION - EXAMPLE – COMMENT ON EFFECT [See the checklist overleaf.]
(5) Theories and Issues. Read and makes notes on ‘Language: A Student Handbook’ (you have to give this book back after Easter). Particularly useful for you are Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11. (1,2 and 3 are also useful if you have time.)

(6) Resources. Use the resources on the VLE.
a. See Past Exam Papers, Mark Schemes and Examiners’ Reports
b. See sections on Language Diversity and Child Language Development
c. See section on Grammar Revision. Eg Test your terminology
i. Go to section 9 ‘Grammar Revision’ – look at the resources. ii. If you haven’t yet got the iGE Grammar App download it and test yourself. OR iii. Click on ‘The best Grammar site UCL Internet Grammar’
a. On left side click on ‘List of Exercises’
i. Test yourself with the exercises + use the feedback and links to go over any aspects you’re not sure about. Eg, Adverb or adjective, Voice, Determiner or Pronoun, Form and Function. Etc
(7) Adventure of English 7 Empire (see link on VLE). IMPORTANT - Make notes.
(8) Adventure of English 8 Global English (see link on VLE)
(9) emagazine articles 'Australian English' and 'World Englishes - ELF'. See Diversity Section of VLE. Read and make notes.
(10) Practise Past Papers.
a. June 2011 – Complete this and bring it in to your first lesson back after Easter.
i. Download Exam paper, source booklet etc. June 2011 is a good place to start because it has a very useful Examiners’ Report with detailed feedback on examples of candidates’ answers. ii. Practise your method – analyse and annotate the texts, (you could use the mark scheme to help you) iii. Then answer the questions. iv. Use the Mark Scheme to check your answer and the Examiners’ Report to identify exactly what the examiners are looking for in each question.
b. June 2012
i. Repeat the above but this time try writing your answer before looking at the mark scheme. Try doing this paper under timed conditions. ii. Look closely at the A Grade exemplar scripts.
c. June 2011 – q1a & 1b Music texts, 2a & 2b children’s writing
i. As above – another good one for practice.
GOOD LUCK /gʊd/ /lʌk/
Minor sentence, noun phrase, phatic, ‘good’ = adjective/modifier, ‘luck’ = head word/abstract noun, implicature – element of irony since the context (revision, study etc) suggests it is work that will lead to success rather than ‘luck’. This phatic phrase flouts Grice’s maxim of relevance, though, of course the audience understands the implicature etc.

English Language Essential Revision
Terminology and Concepts


• Mixed mode/ multi-modal
• Register
• Semantic field
• Register
• Footing
• multi-functional,
• phatic, transactional etc


• Phoneme
• Grapheme
• Elision
• Received pronunciation
• Estuary English (+ glottal stopping)
• Schwa
• Prosodics

• Homophones
• Phonetic spelling
• Initialisms
• Acronyms
• Capitalisation

Lexis and Semantics
• Semantic field
• Denotation
• Connotation
• Collocation
• Figurative
• Metaphor
• Simile
• Latinate

Word level
• Word class
• Noun
• Proper noun
• Abstract noun
• Concrete noun
• nominalisation
• Pronoun
• First person pronoun (Sing/Plural)
• Second person pronoun
• third person pronoun (Sing/Plural)
• Adjective + comparative/superlative
• Verb + tense and aspect
• Modal auxiliary verb
• Determiner
• Preposition
• Adverb
• Hedge
• Discourse marker
• intensifier
• Conjunction (subordinating/ co-ordinating
Phrase level
• Phrase
• Noun phrase
• Premodifier
• Post-modifier

Clause level
• Adverbial
• clause
• Subordinate clause
• Non-finite clause
• Relative clause
Sentence level
• ellipsis
• Minor sentence
• Simple sentence
• Complex sentence
• Sentence mood or function
• Declarative
• Interrogative
• Imperative
• Active voice
• Passive voice
• Syntax
• Subject
• Object
• Complement
• Non-standard syntax

• Genre
• Spoken language features
• Filler
• Voiced pause
• Pause
• Self-correction
• Reformulation
• False start
• Overlap
• Interruption
• Adjacency pairs
• Hedges
• Monitors
• Ellipsis
• Deictic reference
• Pragmatics

Pragmatics and theories, concepts and issues
• Speech act theory - Form and Function
• Implicature, inference, presupposition
• Politeness, footing and face
• Grice’s maxims (quantity, quality, manner, relation)
• Positive/negative politeness
• Halliday – Taxonomy
• Accommodation Theory (Giles) – convergence & divergence (note between individuals and groups)
• Prestige forms + covert prestige
• Code-switching
• Standardisation
• Informalisation
• Synthetic personalization
• Dialect levelling
• Simplification
• Phonologicsal weak spots
• Synchronic variation and ‘Fuzzy areas’ (eg ‘less’ & ‘fewer’)
• Creolisation, decreolization, pidgin, BVE etc
• Kachru & Schneider – norm-developing etc
• Acrolect, basilect etc
• ELF – English as a Lingua Franca,
• Child Language – Behaviourist, Cognitive, Nativist, Interactionist theories + Vygotsky, MKO, etc
• Child Language (written) – environmental print, phonics, ‘phoneme-grapheme link’, Barclay, Kroll, Zone of Proximal development (Vygotsky), virtuous errors etc

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