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English Professor

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INTRODUCCIÓN.-

La enseñanza del idioma ha estado influida por varias teorías del aprendizaje y concepciones lingüísticas que la han orientado por muy diversos cauces y han originado cambios metodológicos importantes a lo largo de las últimas décadas.

En los últimos años cuando se ha centrado el énfasis en los actos comunicativos que tienen lugar cuando usamos la lengua, en las nociones y funciones lingüísticas que expresamos, en el uso apropiado de esas formas de acuerdo con el contexto, las situaciones comunicativas y los interlocutores. Se ha implantado lo que se viene denominando el enfoque comunicativo.

La integración de México en América y la ampliación de las relaciones internacionales entre el Este y el Oeste europeos, ofrecen un nueve contexto social. Las posibilidades de comunicarse con otros hablantes europeos va aumentando y con la inminente circulación de profesionales y trabajadores entre los países miembros, lo que ahora se considera como posibles necesidades, pronto se va a convertir en necesidades reales.

Por otra parte, también se están incrementando los intercambios culturales y los viajes turísticos de forma que, en unos años, el no ser plurilingüe puede limitar las perspectivas culturales y profesionales del ciudadano.

Conscientes de este hecho, se pretende sentar las bases para proporcionar a los alumnos una competencia comunicativa que les permita desenvolverse en la nueva sociedad globalizada en la que vivimos.

DESARROLLO.-

Relación entre la primera y segunda lengua

Por otra parte, se reconoce el potencial educativo de las lenguas extranjeras y su contribución a una mejor comprensión y dominio de la lengua materna. Por tanto, se aprovecha el estudio de los idiomas extranjeros para favorecer la reflexión y el conocimiento de la primera lengua y a la inversa. Es decir, se busca una interconexión que repercuta en el dominio de ambas lenguas. Se parte de las estrategias y "esquemas de conocimiento" que el alumno ha desarrollado ya en la L1 para propiciar el aprendizaje de la L2.”

Enseñanza centrada en el alumno

Se considera al alumno como centro de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Por tanto, se intenta que las situaciones comunicativas que se presentan deberán satisfagan sus necesidades de comunicación y estén relacionadas con sus vivencias y experiencias. Se parte de los conocimientos previos del alumno para establecer conexiones continuas entre lo que se enseña y los conocimientos lingüísticos y socioculturales que ya posee para favorecer su integración dentro de los esquemas de conocimiento del aprendiz y propiciar un aprendizaje significativo. De esta forma, se pretende favorecer la "construcción de los aprendizajes".

Importancia de los aspectos socioculturales

Aunque las reformas educativas anteriores también recomendaban la enseñanza de la cultura extranjera, sin embargo la Reforma actual establece tres ejes que han de conformar el subsyllabus de los aspectos culturales.

Es decir, se pretende impartir contenidos conceptuales, procedimentales y actitudinales en relación con este subcomponente de la competencia comunicativa, que incluyan:

- Aspectos sociales y culturales de los países donde se habla de la lengua extranjera

estudiada cercanos a los intereses de los niños, modos de pasar el tiempo libre: juegos,

canciones y deportes más populares entre los niños de los países cuya lengua se

estudia, lugares de encuentro favoritos, etc.

- Presencia en España de la lengua extranjera estudiada: etiquetas de productos,

canciones, películas.

- Reconocimiento de ciertos aspectos socioculturales de los países donde se hable la

lengua extranjera estudiada.

- Utilización contextualizada de algunas reglas y hábitos de conducta de los países cuya lengua se estudia en situaciones con las que el alumno haya tenido contacto.

- Comparación de los aspectos mas relevantes de la vida cotidiana de los países donde se habla la lengua extranjera estudiada con los correspondientes en el país propio.

- Utilización de materiales auténticos procedentes de distintas fuentes próximas al niño con el fin de obtener las informaciones deseadas.

- Curiosidad y respeto por algunos aspectos relevantes de la vida cotidiana de los países donde se habla la lengua extranjera estudiada.
Adaptación del "syllabus" e integración de sus componentes a través de unidades didácticas

Aunque el profesorado use materiales ya publicados, con un “syllabus” preestablecido, se debe

alterar la distribución de los contenidos en función de las necesidades del alumnado, adaptando el

programa a las características de los grupos de alumnos, según:

- Sus experiencias previas de aprendizaje

- Sus conocimientos lingüísticos, ritmo y estilo de aprendizaje

- La complejidad y significatividad de las tareas

- La longitud y densidad de los textos

En la medida de lo posible, se intentará integrar los componentes del "syllabus" a través de las tareas . Por ejemplo, en la explotación de cualquier diálogo o situación comunicativa, además de determinar quiénes son los interlocutores, el contexto de la situación, el asunto sobre el que se conversa, el canal de comunicación y las intenciones o propósitos comunicativos que se expresan, se realizarán comentarios culturales (si procede) morfonsintácticos y fonéticos sobre el lenguaje del texto. Si los textos lo permiten, se aprovechará para desarrollar otros contenidos transversales al currículo y para crear determinadas actitudes y valores.

Interacción profesor-alumnos

El contexto en el que tiene lugar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje es el aula; es decir, se trata del estudio de una lengua extranjera -como asignatura obligatoria- en la clase. En este contexto, el aula se convierte en el único escenario donde es posible la interacción comunicativa entre profesor y alumnos.

Por consiguiente, es fundamental crear las condiciones adecuadas para que los niños se comuniquen en clase. Habrá momentos didácticos que requieren presentar, explicar y aclarar en frente de la clase, actuando como centro de atención, pero es importante no monopolizar el protagonismo de la clase y dejar participar a los alumnos, por parejas, en equipos o individualmente. Se trata de ejercer menos dirigismo para propiciar el trabajo autónomo actuando como monitor y facilitador del aprendizaje.

Role Play
El “Role Play” es una técnica a través de la cuál se simula una situación que se presenta en la vida real. Al practicar esta técnica debes adoptar el papel de un personaje concreto y crear una situación como si se tratara de la vida real.
El objetivo es imaginar la forma de actuar y las decisiones que tomaría cada uno de los personajes en situaciones diferentes. Después, se trata de actuar como ese personaje en casa uno de los casos.
Y definitivamente hoy en día es una actividad muy frecuente en las clases de idiomas, ya que funciona hasta para el desestrés de los estudiantes, que potencializan prácticamente dos de los cuatro “Skills” “Speaking” and “Listenig”.

CONCLUSIÓN.-

Quizás, una de las iniciativas más interesantes para mejorar el rendimiento de la función docente del profesorado de idioma consistiría en dejar de actuar como un profesor de LE y convertirse en profesor de L2 empleando la L2 como medio de instrucción para impartir algunas áreas curriculares. Es decir, se trata de introducir el bilingüismo curricular tan pronto como sea posible. Es lo que se denomina en inglés content-based teaching. Este enfoque comienza a ser una realidad en algunas escuelas donde imparten dos o tres áreas educativas en la L2. En el ámbito universitario, esta corriente se relaciona con el movimiento denominado LSP (L2 con fines específicos). Existen varias razones a favor de un enfoque que use la L2 para impartir aspectos conceptuales de otras áreas.

BIBLIOGRAFíA.-

Allen, E. D. y Ryan, K. (1969): Microteaching, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Brooks, N. 1960/1964. Language and Language Learning. Second Edition. New York, etc.: Harcourt, Brace and World. de Guzmán, M (1973): Cómo se han formado los maestros (1871-1971). Barcelona: Prima Luce.

Cruickshank, D. R. y Broadbent, F. W. (1970): Simulation in preparing school personnel, D. C.: ERICC on TE, Washington.

Gento, S. (1984): "El reto de la enseñanza del inglés en la Educación Básica" en Escuela Española, 8-11-84, no 2.741, p. 7(971).

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