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TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. GENERAL TERMINOLOGY

amateur - любитель an amateur painter - художник-любитель; amateurish-любительский art - искусство antique art - античной иск; applied art- прикладное иск(pottery-гончарное дело, glass, jewellery, weaving - тканное дело and textile design, embroidery-вышивание); Fine Arts - изобразительное искусство; folk art - народное искусство; graphic (black-and-white) art (drawing, engraving-гравирование, etching-гравировка, lithography-литография, hence: engraver-гравер, etcher, lithographer); (the) Academy of Arts; a work of art - произведение искусства; art-collector-коллекционер; art critic - знаток иск; art history; art historian-; art-lover-; art student - студент, обучающийся живописи; art teacher - преподаватель живописи artist-художник a fashionable / self-taught / mature artist a graphic artist e.g. Rembrandt was great not only as a painter but as a graphic artist.
Note. The name of an artist can be used like a common noun to denote a work by him. e.g. It looks like a Gauguin. How did you like the Goya? The Hermitage has the largest collection of Rembrandts in the world. artistic artistic skill-артистические способности; artistic taste-артистические наклонности benefactor, patron-благодетель, покровитель block (in/out) набрасывать вчерне to block in a picture (drawing) connoisseur (in/of) эксперт, expert (in) crayon 1) цветной карандаш; цветной мелок; пастель; 2) рисунок цветным карандашом, пастелью daub n плохая картина, мазня; v малевать dauber плохой художник depict v e. g. The drawing depicts a sleeping child. easel-станок exhibition-выставка art exhibition; special exhibition; permanent exhibition - постоянная выставка; one-man exhibition; centenary-столетняя/bicentenary exhibition; exhibition hall-выстовачный зал; exhibition of (e. g. English water-colours); (name of artist) exhibition: e. g. Theres going to be a Turner exhibition next month. When does the Turner exhibition open? to organize, arrange, hold, mount an exhibition master old masters 1) старые мастера, 2) картины старых мастеров masterpiece miniature in miniature - иниатюре; a portrait in miniature moderns современные художники nude (n, a)-обнаженная натура a study from the nude, to draw from the nude - писать с натуры, to see a model in the nude; a nude model (figure)-обнаженная модель, a nude male (female) model, the study of the nude form, to render the nude form, a semi-nude figure e. g. Famous nudes by famous painters. The picture is not only one of Rubenss most beautiful studies of the nude... oil(s) (обычно pl) 1. масляная краска to paint in oils; a sunset view in oil - закат ,написанный маслом; oil painting; an oil sketch - масляной эскиз 2. картина, написанная маслом e. g. He gathered up the various oils he had done. paint (n, v) to paint from life /nature / memory / imagination; to paint mythological / historical subjects a box of paints (paint-box)-коробка с красками; a paint brush-кисточка painter animal painter; painter of battle-pieces; easel painter; icon painter; genre painter; landscape painter; portrait painter (portraitist); painter of sea-scapes / marine painter; still-life painter painting 1. живопись battle painting; easel painting; genre painting; historical painting; landscape painting; monumental painting; mural painting; portrait painting; seascape painting; still-life painting 2. картина (cf. picture, canvas) an oil / water-colour painting; a painting of the nude palette 1. палитра (небольшая тонкая доска, на которой художник смешивает краски) 2. палитра (колорит художника) e. g. (a) His palette was covered with shrunken hard blobs of paint. (b) Now all you need to do is lighten your palette and learn how to paint living, luminous air. pastel -пастель a pastel picture; a pastel painter (pastel[l]ist) portray v -изображать e. g. The famous writer is portrayed sitting at his desk. pose (n, v)-позировпть/поза to pose naked - позировать обнаженным; to pose sitting or standing; to pose for a painter - позировать художнику e.g. 1) “Then youll begin posing for me next week?” - “Is this all I got to do, just sit?” - “Thats all. Sometimes youll have to stand or pose naked.” 2) Animals are given with their particular gait or pose or expressions. 3) “Im ready,” said the model. “Will you pose me?” render v - воссоздать, передать is used in the sense of “reproduce by artistic means”, generally with an adverbial modifier. e. g. The painter has rendered the childs expression of wonder very well. catch and capture occur in a similar sense, usually without an adverbial modifier. e. g. I have caught the effect I wanted - the half-parted lips, and the bright look in the eyes. The painter has succeeded in capturing the inner life of his sitter. reproduction -воспроизведение, репродукция a coloured reproduction; a reproduction in black-and-white rough in v набpасывать ( a rough sketch) screever художник, рисующий свои картины мелком прямо на тpотуаpе (sl.) sense is used in the expression a sense of with two meaning: 1. a feeling for, e. g. The artist has a good/fine/wonderful sense of colour/line/form/composition. 2. an impression of, e. g. The artist has created a sense of space/movement. sit to sit for one's portrait, to sit for (to) an artist sitting cеанс sitter (subject, model) sketch (n, v) -эскиз an oil sketch; a pencil sketch; a preliminary sketch-предварительный эскиз; to make sketches of landscapes; a sketch block (book)-блокнот для эскизов; to sketch from memory-набрасать эскиз по памяти sketchy- фрагментарный e. g. The oils were a little raw and sketchy. studio-студия study этюд, эскиз, набросок a study of a head; a study in oil; preparatory studies; an inspired and passionate study treat v -трактовать e. g. His subjects are simply and broadly treated. treatment - трактовка e. g. The treatment of trees and foliage in this sketch shows the tremendous freedom Rubens permitted himself in making these preparatory studies. trend -течение e. g. The Unexpected (by Repin) established a new trend in Russian genre painting. view 1. вид, картина (особенно пейзаж); 2. вид, точка зрения a large view of Dedham Vale; a view on the river

2. GENRES IN PAINTING
2.1. landscape painting e. g. Landscape painting became very popular in the 17th century. Gods and goddesses rarely appear in a Dutch landscape painting. landscape e. g. The Hermitage has a fine collection of Dutch landscapes. landscape painter e. g. Constable is perhaps the greatest English landscape painter. scenery (cf. countryside) e. g. From about 1807 Turner began to exhibit more landscapes of English scenery.
2.2. seascape (painting) e. g. This is one of Turners early seascapes. marine painter e. g. Turner is considered by many people to be the greatest marine painter.
2.3. portrait painting (U) portrait painter (portraitist) paint a portrait of smb/smbs portrait portrait: self-portrait, full-length portrait, half/knee/shoulder-length portrait, equestrian portrait, ceremonial, intimate portrait, a family group
2.4. still-life (painting) e. g. The still-life was very popular with the Cubists. There were three still-lifes by Picasso. still-life painter still-life composition/arrangement flower piece
2.5. genre painting genre painter conversation piece scene: street scene, city scene, country scene, hunting scene, historical scene, battle scene e. g. He painted scenes from everyday/village/ court life. life in Tahiti.
2.6. mural- , fresco-фреска

3. DISCUSSING PICTURES

3.1. SUBJECT, THEME

Subject (what is depicted): historical subjects, Biblical subjects, mythological subjects, classical subjects

e. g. Degas looked round for new subjects and found them in the opera-house.

Theme is more general , abstract, than subject. A theme is a general idea which dominates a work.

e. g. The theme of the painting is the futility of war.

3.2. FORM, SHAPE

form (U)

e. g. His still-lifes show a strong sense of form, but the colouring lacks subtlety. The Impressionists tended to attribute greater importance to colour than to form. a delicate sense of artistic form; to have a sense of form in painting form (C) e. g. The form of the vase is very unusual. The picture is an arrangement of geometrical forms: circles, squares, rectangles.
In this sense however shape is more common.

3.3. COMPOSITION

Composition means how the various elements of the picture are arranged. arrangement расположение, композиция e. g. an exquisite sense of colour and arrangement design n 1. композиция в живописи или скульптуре (cf. composition); 2. рисунок, эскиз; v рисовать, изображать, делать эскизы e. g. There is harmony of design in this statue never before attained in Greek Art. His admirably designed and impressively painted pictures. in the foreground/middle ground/background in the centre foreground/background in the left (right) foreground/background in the centre/middle of the picture off centre e. g. The tree is deliberately off centre. on/to the right/left (of the picture) at the top/bottom in the top/bottom left/right-hand corner to arrange symmetrically / asymmetrically / in a pyramid / in a vertical format to divide the picture space diagonally to define the nearer figures more sharply to emphasize contours purposely to be scarcely discernible to convey a sense of space against a background íà ôîíå to place the figures against the landscape background to merge into a single entity to blend with the landscape to be represented standing.../ sitting.../ talking..., to be posed / silhouetted against an open sky / a classic pillar / the snow to accentuate smth.

3.4. COLOUR

colour (U)

e. g. He has a wonderful sense of colour. He uses colour very effectively.

colour (C)

e. g. Green was a colour that Turner particularly disliked. The painter uses cool colours - bluish-greens, blues and violets - for the shadows, and warm colours, that is, those where yellows predominate, for the fully-lit areas. primary colours основные цвета (red, blue and yellow) the play of colours a riot of colour(s) изобилие, богатство красок to combine form and colour into harmonious unity brilliant/low-keyed colour scheme, the colour scheme where ... predominates the colours may be cool and restful / hot and agitated / soft and delicate / dull, oppressive, harsh, light - dark, bright - pale, brilliant, intense, luminous, strong, pastel, subdued, warm
The three attributes of chromatic colour are: 1) brilliance, or its degree of correspondence to the greys as they move from low, that is from black, which has zero brilliance, to high, that is white, which has the greatest brilliance; 2) hue, or its susceptibility of being classed as red, yellow, blue, or the like; 3) saturation, or its distinctness or vividness of hue. colouring - the way in which an artist uses colour e. g. The delicate colouring of this picture is typical of his later works. restrained in colouring, muted in colour subtle/gaudy/fierce colouring colourist e. g. Turner is a superb colourist. intensity яркость, глубина ( красок)
Shade as a countable noun refers to degree or intensity of colour (oòòåíîê)
Tint may be a synonym of shade. However, it is used especially with reference to pale and delicate shades. e. g. Renoir excelled at flesh tints.
Tinge is a slight shade of colour, especially one modifying the basic colour. e. g. The sky is grey with a tinge of pink. tinge (v) e. g. The sky is tinged with pink.
Tone may also be used in the sense of shade. However, it also has a slightly different sense: the prevailing effect of the combination of light and shade and of the general scheme of colouring. e. g. This unaffected work is rich and poetic in tone.
Hue is used occasionally to mean a colour or shade of colour, mainly in poetic language, although sometimes simply for stylistic variety in formal situations.

3.5. LIGHT AND SHADE chiaroscuro n итал. распределение светотени (cf. light and shade) e. g. Rembrandt derived his principles of painting from Italian chiaroscuro in which concrete forms appear bathed in magic glow, and ethereal rays penetrate through space, making forms stand out in the dark. a diffused light highlights самая светлая часть картины value сочетание света и тени в картине e. g. Velasquez loved grey and silvery tints and understood relative values perfectly. He had caught the values of various kinds of lights. out of value слишком светлое или слишком темное
3.6. LINE(WORK) e. g. He has a good sense of line. The linework is brilliant.

3.7. BRUSHWORK (живописная манера, манера письма) brush the brush искусство художника products (productions) of his brush e. g. The subjects for his brush are all around him. Life around me cries for the brush. brushstroke мазок stroke штрих, мазок, черта finishing strokes; to portray with a few strokes

3.8. STYLE AND TECHNIQUE plein-air technique пленеpная живопись; in the open (air) e. g. He paints all his pictures in the open. (b) There is an open-air feeling in his work. effect atmospheric effects; wonderful cloud effects; colour effects; effects of distance; light and shade effects; subtly painted moonlight effects; a night effect; perspective effects; sunshine effects finish n законченность, отделка; v завеpшать, отделывать exquisite finish; a work remarkable for a minute and detailed finish; finishing touches; finished technique handle v to handle the brush well handling умение художника владеть кистью deftness of handling e. g. This particular portrait, for example, shows much greater freedom of handling. skill with infinite (remarkable) skill

to portray people / emotions with moving sincerity / with restraint to depict a person / a scene of common life / the mood of ... to render / interpret the personality of... to reveal the person's nature to capture the sitter's vitality / transient expression to indicate the sitter's profession to develop one's own style of painting to conform to the taste of the period to break with the tradition to be in advance of one's time to expose the dark sides of life to become famous overnight to die forgotten and penniless

4. IMPRESSION. JUDGEMENT: the picture may be life-like, moving, lyrical, romantic, original, poetic in tone and atmosphere, an exquisite piece of painting, an unsurpassed masterpiece, distinguished by a marvellous sense of colour and composition. The picture may be dull, crude, chaotic, a colourless daub of paint, obscure and unintelligible, gaudy, depressing, disappointing, cheap and vulgar.

5. GOING ROUND A MUSEUM OR ART GALLERY
There are two ways of going round a museum or gallery: with a guide, with/in a group, on a guided/conducted tour or on ones own, by oneself.

6. NAMES OF MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES
London galleries: The National Gallery (European art of all schools) The National Portrait Gallery (portraits of notable people, from the Middle Ages to the present time) The Tate Gallery (British paintings of all periods, modern foreign painting, modern sculpture)
Russian museums and galleries: The Pushkin Fine Arts Museum/Museum of Fine Arts The Tretyakov (Art) Gallery The Hermitage (Museum) The Russian Museum

7. NAMES OF ARTISTS
Leonardo da Vinci
Raphael Santi
Michelangelo
Titian
Rembrandt van Rijn
Rubens
Velasquez
Chardin
Van Dyck
Hogarth
Joshua Reynolds
Thomas Gainsborough
John Constable
Joseph Mallord William Turner
Francisco Goya
Delacroix
Edouard Manet
Claude Monet
Camille Pissarro
Auguste Renoir
Paul Cezanne
Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Henri Matisse
Pablo Picasso

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Group the topical vocabulary into the following areas: names of people concerned with painting, various actions within this area, forms and kinds of Fine Arts productions, the inventory to be found in a painters studio, ways of exhibiting art works, world famous places.
II. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases and use them in sentences of your own: произведение искусства, изобразительное искусство, прикладное искусство, народное искусство, художественная школа, художественный вкус, малохудожественный, знаток, современные художники, старые мастера, направление в искусстве, делать набросок, набросок, мазня, последний штрих.
III. Translate the following words into English and use them in a situation: цветной мелок, мольберт, этюдник, масляные краски, акварельные краски, уголь, пастель, кисть, палитра, студия.
IV. A. Use “piece” as a component to translate the following into English: шедевр; батальная сцена; жанровая сценка; натюрморт, изображающий цветы.
B. Use the word “sense” to translate the following word combinations into English: чувство цвета, композиции; тонкое чувство художественной формы; чувство формы в живописи; ощущение пространства, движения, расстояния.
C. Use the word “colour” to translate the following into English: чувство цвета; основные цвета; дополнительный цвет; теплые (холодные) тона; богатство красок; игра красок; чистая краска; яркие пятна; колорит художника; сдержанный колорит; палитра, где доминирует голубой; темные (светлые) тона
V. Supply attributes for the following nouns: art, artist, skill, taste, master, model, figure, subject, brush, painter, painting, picture, reproduction, sketch, study, trend, view, portrait, form, colour, colouring, tint, light, stroke, technique, effect, finish.
VI. Supply direct objects for the following verbs: to depict, to paint, to portray, to render, to catch, to capture, to treat, to emphasize, to convey, to place, to accentuate, to handle, to reveal, to indicate, to develop, to expose.
VII. Supply prepositional objects for the following verbs: to paint in, to draw in, to draw from, to paint from, to pose for, to merge into, to blend with, to conform to, to break with.
VIII. Supply nouns to go with the following adjectives: antique, infinite, moving, dull, graphic, fashionable, artistic, nude, historical, mural, equestrian, ceremonial, depressing, colourless, gaudy, cheap, remarkable, lyrical, original, artistic, exquisite, delicate, marvellous, vulgar, atmospheric, mature, marine, intimate, vertical, single, primary, brilliant, subtle, fierce.
IX. Insert suitable words from the active vocabulary:
1. Titian had a marvellous ... ... ... .
2. A remarkable ... ... ... is conveyed in his landscapes.
3. He held the ... in his left hand.
4. Ivanov made a great number of ... of heads for his picture “Christ Appears before the People.”
5. Some very fine ... by Renaissance Florentine painters were brought to the exhibition.
6. He ... the scene before him truthfully.
7. The art class had several ... posing for them once a week.
8. He did the portrait in one ... .
9. In Serovs famous portrait of Yermolova the actress is ... against a background of a grey wall.
10. The colours in this picture ... into one another.
11. He stood watching the ... ... ... upon the water.
12. He encouraged you to try your hand at brighter colour harmonies and to allow yourself greater freedom as a ... .
13. The silhouette is drawn in agitated, uneven lines, the ... is unbalanced, a violent contrast of ... ... ... is used.
14. The ... was far removed from the final work.
15. Turner used ... for immediate studies from nature, and ... for those pictures which he intended to exhibit.
16. The ... of the Impressionists differed from that of their predecessors in that they did not blend the colours together imperceptibly, but left the ... clearly visible all over their canvases.
X. Choose the right word: draw - paint
1. She placed the paper and pencil before me and told me I could ... anything I liked. 2. The picture was ... so that the eyes seem to follow you no matter where you are. colours - paints
1. This possible picture she painted in glowing ... , until the childs pathetic dark eyes glistened with pleasure. 2. If you want cornflower blue youd better mix these two ... . 3. The warm ... are red, yellow and orange. picture - portray - represent
1. Roerichs paintings for Kazan railway station in Moscow ... combats between Russians and Tartars. 2. I could hardly ... Charlie in this role. 3. The great tragic actress is ... in her day dress. 4. The artist was concerned more with re-creating the radiance of Venice than with ... the solid structure of its monuments.

ILLUSTRATION AND TRAINING

l. Make up a story using these substitution patterns.

1
Now I'd like to attract your landscape. attention to this picture. canvas. painting. still life. water-colour. panel. drawing. fresco. engraving. self-portrait.

2
It was painted by a(an)unknown Russian artist drawn famous Dutch painter well-known English world-known French renowned belonging to the realistic school of painting. classic trend in impressionist romantic modern modernistic

3
As you can see for yourselves, it's an oil picture. a water-colour painting. a pastel piece. a pen-and-ink drawing. a pencil sketch.

4
We can see a group of people in the near foreground. several cottages in the foreground. a stone bridge in the right (left) foreground. blue hills in the middle ground. a horseman in the background. a white sail in the distance. in the far distance. to the right of the picture.

5
The picture is executed mostly in bright colours. light tones. dark hues. pink vague violet blue warm cold

6
Numerous blue prevail in it, upper part. shades of brown especially in its lower red central yellow right-hand left-hand

7
The artist depicts a busy street of a modern city. a group of workers paving a roadway. a girl milking a cow. several peasants walking along a dusty road. a number of small houses surrounded by tall trees. a forest in autumn. a stormy sea.

8
The picture vividly the enthusiasm of workers.
(realistically) portrays the hard life of the unemployed. the enjoyment of winter. the heroism of soldiers. the hard lot of poor farmers. the beauty of flowers. the conflict of wind and man.

9
The artist the unusual composition of objects employs a (an) unbalanced arrangement strange unconventional trivial to emphasize the mans attitude (pose). the perspective of the street. the height of the structure.

10
By using this technique vivid atmospheric effects. he manages to achieve wonderful colour marvellous moonlight splendid perspective natural sunshine unusual light and shade

11
He paints the details of with great expression. draws the scenery tremendous skill. depicts the household great feeling. portrays articles topographical precision. represents the peoples convincing truth. garments great inspiration. the movement of care and precision. water very vividly. every fold of thoroughly. the table cloth colourfully. authentically.

12
This painting, “Storm” belongs to early works. entitled “Confession” the artists best “Hayrick” latest weakest most famous

13
The picture an idea of mothers love very well. conveys peace and calmness perfectly well. beautiful scenery absolutely. freedom of mans vaguely. spirit only partly. womans beauty rather weakly. a sense of space completely. form only to a certain light extent. cold its meaning to the others warm passions of the human heart

II. Make up statements choosing suitable words.

1
Perov, a prominent still-life painter,
Aivasovsky, an outstanding landscape painter,
Repin, a renowned illustrator,
Brullov, a celebrated painter of battle-pieces,
Levitan, a talented painter of sea-scapes,
Vereshchagin, a great genre painter,
Fedotov, a famous portrait painter,
Favorsky,
Tropinin,
Delacroix,
R. Kent,
Claud Monet, represents the classic trend in Russian art. romantic Dutch realistic French impressionistic American

2
At the Pushkin Museum you will rich collection of Fine Arts find a rare the Hermitage fine the Russian Museum valuable the Tate Gallery wonderful this exhibition marvellous the Tretyakov Gallery of historical painting of the 16th century. battle 17th mural 18th genre 19th easel 20th sea-scape
(and) landscape still-life portrait

III. Make up statements.

1
This exhibition comprises hundreds of pictures. display paintings of all genres. show objects of applied art. engravings and prints. cartoons and etchings. pieces of sculpture articles of pottery and jewellery. sketches and studies.

2
Now he goes in for portrait painting. indulges in engraving. sculpture. water-colour painting. graphic art.

3
The annual amateur painting attracted nation-wide attention. exhibition of applied art caught the publics imagination. pottery and gained a quick popularity. ceramics was given a wide publicity. sculpture was favourably reviewed by the new models of local press. furniture was a tremendous success.

IV. Make sentences using these patterns.
If I were you I wouldnt exhibit an unfinished picture.
Were I you buy this etching. argue with the critics. indulge in modernistic experiments. place a group of sailors in the middle ground. make that silhouette in the distance more conspicuous.

V. React to the following sentences as in the model below.
Model: He portrayed the man with striking likeness There's nothing to be surprised at. (No wonder.) Painting people is his strong point. (He is a portrait painter.)
1. He managed to convey the slightest movements of the sea surface. 2. Painting landscapes he achieves wonderful colour effects. 3. All the objects in her new still life were portrayed with convincing truth. 4. In his latest genre piece he displayed a great deal of ingenuity, energy and high taste. 5. Her new sea-scape by no means looks amateurish.

VI. Say you did not know about the facts your partner tells you.
Model: Haven't you seen the landscape Jim bought at the auction? I didn't know he had bought a landscape at the auction.
1. Have you already visited the exhibition of modern English art that was opened at the Picture Gallery? 2. My sister indulges in oil painting. 3. I have seen almost all by the French artists that is generally displayed in the galleries of this country. 4. This museum possesses rich collections of the art of the epoch of the Renaissance. 5. It was a boring thing to pose for a portrait. 6. He hired a room for his studio. 7. I'm going to introduce you to a young promising sculptress. 8. My daughter can spend sixteen hours running at the easel. 9. His latest etching was favourably reviewed by the critics. 10. She will exhibit all her latest sketches and studies. 11. He entitled his production "Laughter". 12. Bob D. belongs to the realistic trend in painting.

VII. Tell what genres of painting would choose the following as their objects. 1. The face of a boy. 2. Apples, oranges, pears, tumblers, a jug. 3. A roasted turkey on a dish. 4. A group of sportsmen at a stadium. 5. A lake and a hill covered with woods. 6. A busy street. 7. Three hunters in the field telling each other stories. 8. High seas. 9. Five dogs. 10. Two girls reading a letter.

VIII. Object to the following statements.
l. It is always very easy to understand the intentions of an artist and the ideas conveyed by his pictures, even if we know nothing about the painter's life and work. 2. Painting in the modern sense of the word is more ancient than architecture or sculpture. 3. People who can not paint themselves never take a delight in fine arts. 4. The Tretyakov Gallery comprises mainly Dutch, French, English and German classic masters' paintings. 5. It is certainly better to see paintings on one's own than to join a group of visitors led by the guide. 6. Permanent art exhibitions are generally housed in buildings which have no artistic value. 7. The Hermitage Museum is almost four hundred years old.

IX. Memorize these short dialogues.

1 Look here, Kate: the newspaper reads an exhibition of Dutch painting is to open at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts at the end of this month.
- That's interesting, though Ive seen almost everything by the Dutch classic painters that is generally displayed in the galleries of this country. But about 90 canvases will be brought from Holland and Belgium, as the promoters say. Oh, is that so? That makes a difference. Show me the announcement, please. I'd like to read it myself.

2 Oh, I think this is a genuine Rembrandt! It's next to impossible. The original belongs to the private collection of some British connoisseur, so they can exhibit only a copy here. Still, I bet it's a Rembrandt. However fine a copy may be, it cannot be compared with the great master's own work. Well, let's consult the catalogue after all ... Page 89 ... "Rembrandt, genuine...” See? I'm right! Yes, Sally: I'm surprised at you having such a profound knowledge of art ...

3 Well, how do you like this painting? Immensely. It's really beyond any criticism. But there is one thing that perhaps I don't like about it. What is it? It seems to me that the perspective is done wrongly. The objects in the left middle ground are of the same size as the ones in the distance. Don't you see this mistake? No, I don't. That's an optical illusion, I guess. You're standing too close to the picture. If you stood at least at seven yards away, you wouldn't notice that. Yes, but then they would have to remove the opposite wall ...

4 How do you find his new landscape paintings? Mediocre, one wouldn't dub them otherwise. I don't care much for them either. I think something is going wrong with his brilliant technique and rich palette. Well, you might talk to him about it. You seem to be on friendly terms, don't you? Yes, we do, but my criticism will do more harm than good. He's become very nervous and obstinate. Besides, artists seldom hear anybody else but themselves.

5
- If I were you, I'd make these lines more distinct, George. But you ignore the fact that it's not a drawing, it's painting. Colours and shades may pass into one another inconspicuously, gradually.
- Nevertheless the flesh of this woman's arms should be distinguished from the background, but it melts into it. Add a couple of strokes and the picture shall be the focus of the exhibition. Most likely.

6 Speaking of sea-scapes how do you find this one? Wonderful! Though I think that the boat's rolling is depicted too realistically. Too realistically' you say? But that is undoubtedly the strongest point of the canvas. You can never tell. It resembles high seas so much that I feel seasick each time 1 look at it.

7 What are these nails, rags and an old tyre for? Theyre part of the picture.
- Goodness gracious! What on earth does all that mean?
- "Sorrow" as the caption indicates.
- For the life of me I would never guess what it is.

8
- Shall we go on a conducted tour, or go round by ourselves?
- Oh, lets go round on our own. Then we can stop and look at the things we want to see. I cant stand going round with a group.
- Yes, I know. But some of the guides are very interesting, and in any case we dont know our way round yet. We havent got a guide book either. So why dont we join a group, and then if we get bored we can easily go off on our own.
- All right. I suppose it would be better to start off with a guide.

GLIMPSES OF BRITISH ART

I. AN OUTLINE OF ENGLISH PAINTING

Some of the greatest foreign masters were attracted to England loaded with honours and even in some sort received into the nation by the titles of nobility conferred upon them. Sir Anthony Van Dyck, who married the daughter of a lord, and died in London is really the father of the English portrait school. He trained a few English pupils, nevertheless his principal imitators and successors were like himself foreigners settled in London. Not until William Hogarth (16971764) do we find a painter truly English, indeed violently so. Van Dyck was the father of the English portrait school and set before it an aristocratic ideal; Hogarth was a printer's son, uneducated but a curious observer of men and manners, who with his frank, robust personality brought strength to the stripling's grace. His first works date from 1730. For rather more than a century England was to see a brilliant succession of geniuses, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Lawrence, Constable and Turner, responding to her highest aspirations. No country has had so exclusive and strongly marked a love of the portrait. England and Holland alike were deprived of the religious painting by the Reformation, and mythology met with no better fate. Scarcely any decorative painting is found, and what little survived is mediocre. Holland compensated by inventing the small genre picture, street scene or interior which she brought to an unheard of pitch of refinement. But England practised genre painting only from the beginning of the nineteenth century, in imitation, moreover, of the Dutch... Now, if portrait painting is one of the glories of English art, landscape is another; in both directions it rose to supreme heights. The third characteristic of the English school is the moral strain emanating from the old Puritan tradition. It sometimes favours a conception of art closely akin to that of the novel which from the eighteenth century onwards is so living and original a part of English literature. Sometimes it leans towards the pamphlet, which is, moreover, often one of the forms of the English novel, or else towards caricature. Sometimes it inspires visions by turns angelic and apocalyptic, but always with a profound moral aim; and, finally, sometimes results in movement which is to all appearances entirely poetic, like that of the Pre-Raphaelites, but with a poetry that is more literary than plastic and in which the idea of purification is applied almost as much to the intentions of art as to its specific processes and sensible effects...
(From the Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Exercises
1. Read the text given above.
2. Read the text about the golden age of British art in "Glimpses of British Art": "The eighteenth century was the great age of..." (p.p. 38 - 39).
3. Find the English equivalents for: основатель английской школы портрета; человек, с любопытством изучающий человеческую натуру; последователь; ряд гениальных последователей; ряд знаменитых (прославленных) художников; любовь к портрету; бытовая картина; уличная сценка; лирический пейзаж; посредственный; памфлет; карикатура; довести до неслыханного совершенства; гордость (слава) английского искусства; подняться до величайших высот; концепция искусства, близкая к пониманию романа; приобрести национальный характер; отрицать иностранное влияние.
Translate the sentences with these words and word combinations. Give a back translation without consulting the texts.
4. Explain and expand on the following: a) In the seventeenth century art in Britain was dominated largely by the Flemish artist, Antony Van Dyck. b) No country has had so exclusive and strongly marked a love of the portrait. c) If portrait painting is one of the glories of English art, landscape is another. d) The third characteristic of the English school is the moral strain emanating from the old Puritan tradition. e) The eighteenth century was the great age of British painting.
5. Summarize the texts pointing out the three characteristics of the English school of painting and explaining why the eighteenth century is called the golden age of British art.

II. WILLIAM HOGARTH

1. Read the text "William Hogarth" in "Glimpses of British Art" on p.p. 39-41 for obtaining information.
2. Study the following phrases from the text, translate the sentences with them, give a back translation without consulting the text: to be one of the greatest of English artists a man of remarkably individual character and thought to give a comprehensive view of social life within the framework of moralistic and dramatic narrative to observe smth. (both high life and low) with a keen and critical eye an exceptional capacity for dramatic composition to contain an element of satire or caricature to be apprenticed to a silver-plate engraver a conversation piece to treat a picture as a stage an inventor of a genre
(not) to be content with one line of development to attempt a rivalry with... to display a great variety in smth. (e.g. in portraiture) to be seen to advantage in... a limited range of colour harmony of form and content freshness (of colour) vitality 3. Study the proper names:
"The Harlot's Progress" - "Каpьеpа продажной женщины" (серия)
"The Rake's Progress" - "Каpьеpа мота" (серия)
"The Marriage-a-la-Mode" - "Модный бpак" (сеpия)
"The Shrimp Girl" - "Девушка с кpеветками"
4. Learn by heart the extract beginning with "The quality of Hogarth as an artist ..." up to the end of the text.
5. Answer the following questions:
1) What arguments are there in the text to prove that William Hogarth was one of the greatest English artists and a man of remarkably individual character and thought?
2) In what genres did Hogarth work ? Speak about each.
3) In what genre did he rise to supreme heights?
6. Render the text in brief. Use the active vocabulary.
7. Without translating the extracts give the English equivalents for the italicized words, groups of words or phrases and render the paragraphs. 1) Живой интерес к окружающей жизни подсказал Хогарту обратиться к совсем новому жанру, к созданию сатирико-моралистических сюжетных серий области, еще не испробованной ни в одной стране и ни в какие времена. Вместе с писателями-просветителями первой половины XVIII века художник вступил в борьбу за искоренение пороков, в которых погрязло общество. А чтобы донести свой замысел до широких кругов зрителей, которым он и адресует свои работы, Хогарт воспроизводит свои полотна в гравюрах, расходившихся по стране большими тиражами. 2) Великолепным примером искусства Хогарта является «Портрет капитана Корэма». По своим изобразительным средствам он весьма близок к парадным портретам. Однако на фоне традиционных колонн и драпировок, в окружении атрибутов, характеризующих занятия портретируемого, на этот раз появился человек так называемого "среднего класса". Не знатность происхождения, высокий чин и богатство выделяют капитана Корэма на портрете Хогарта, а благородство доброго ума и достоинство много видевшего на своем веку старого человека. Художник не скрывает своих явных симпатий к капитану Корэму, и это чувство передается зрителю. 3) «Модный брак» по глубине замысла и совершенству художественного воплощения одна из самых значительных среди серий Хогарта. Образы «Модного брака» настолько емки, что за ними стоят уже не отдельные лица, а целые социальные группы. 4) Совершенно особое место среди работ Хогарта занимает «Девушка с креветками». Она написана исключительно легко, свободными, стремительными мазками, жидкой, почти прозрачной краской. Манера исполнения настолько опережала его время, что было принято считать, что «Девушка с креветками» скорее всего просто эскиз. Но фиксация мимолетного впечатления превращается у Хогарта в нечто гораздо большее. Вся в движении, улыбающаяся, бьющая через край радостью жизни продавщица креветок воспринимается как частица шумной лондонской толпы, той, что заполняет полотна художника. Но она и олицетворение этой толпы. В подлинно народном образе «Девушки с креветками» есть поэзия жизненной правды, что в сочетании с великолепным живописным мастерством ставит это полотно в один ряд с лучшими произведениями мирового искусства. 5) Созданные Хогартом образы высмеивают различные пороки, однако при этом они не являются карикатурами. Сам художник неоднократно утверждал, что в отличие от карикатуристов, допускающих искажения и преувеличения, он пишет характеры. Он говорил, что произведения художника, изображающего комическую сцену, отличаются от карикатур «точным воспроизведением» жизни.

PORTRAIT PAINTING

I. Read the texts for obtaining information.

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS
(1723-1792)
Reynolds was one of the outstanding British portraitists and an important influence on his contemporaries. He believed that by analysis of Old Masters he could build a composite style of great art. He made careful studies of Rembrandt, Titian and various French painters in the furtherance of this aim, but these eclectic procedures do not represent his best work. He did have a personal creative power and variety of pictorial invention when he chose to let himself go and to forget that he was a great man. We find many pictures with a life and a grandeur beyond the many borrowed elements. His portraits - the best ones - are effective because their expression is related to the type of the sitter. His colours are difficult to judge today because they were not scientifically applied, so that many paintings have cracked and faded, but the form design and pictorial rhythm are often quite impressive. Many of his portraits are originally composed in decorative pattern and organized in light and space arrangements. In Reynolds' day society portraiture had become a monotonous repetition of the same theme, with only the most limited of variations permissible. According to the formula, the sitter was to be posed centrally, with the background (curtain, pillar, chair, perhaps a hint of landscape) disposed like a back-drop behind; normally the head was done by the master, the body by a pupil who might serve several painters. Pose and expression, even the features themselves, tended to be regulated to a standard of polite and inexpressive elegance; the portraits told little about their subjects other than that they were that sort of people who had their portraits painted - they certainly gave nothing away beyond the summary description of the features. They were effigies; life had departed. It was Reynolds who insisted in his practice that a portrait could and should be also a full, complex work of art on many levels. Each fresh sitter was not just a physical fact to be recorded, but rather a story to be told (or sometimes, one suspects, a myth to be created). His people are no longer static, but caught between this movement and the next, between one moment and the next. Reynolds painted portraits, group pictures and historical themes. His sitters included the socially prominent people of the time and when the Royal Academy was founded in 1768, he naturally became its first president. Among his best works are those in which he departs from the traditional forms of ceremonial portraiture and abandons himself to inspiration, as in "The Portrait of Nelly O'Brien", which is aglow with light, warmth and feeling.

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH
(1727 - 1788)

If Reynolds was the solid prose of that age of prose, its incipient poetry was with the man whose name is often coupled and compared with his: Thomas Gainsborough. He, too, succeeded, and succeeded brilliantly, as a portrait painter. Society went to him for portraits, and his insight into the phases of womanhood made him essentially the woman's painter. Yet it was landscape that had his heart. Even in the portraits he is an out-of-door painter. In contrast to Reynolds', the essence of his genius was intuitive, the touch of the brush getting ever lighter, the atmosphere ever more aerial. The particular discovery of Gainsborough was the creation of a form of art in which the sitters and the background merge into a single entity. The landscape is not kept in the background, but in most cases man and nature are fused in a single whole through the atmospheric harmony of mood. It is no accident that in the works of Gainsborough's late maturity the figures blend with the background to such an extent that they become almost transparent. Gainsborough's painting is not overburdened by too scrupulous an observance of rules and precepts. The immediacy and spontaneity which are present in nature are present also in his work, to the extent of giving the impression that the artist's supreme ability consists in making even the most artificial elements appear entirely natural and spontaneous. In the evolution of the art of painting Gainsborough's actual method of putting on paint is an important step. This method consisted in putting tiny touches of pure colour on to the canvas so that the colour-mixing takes place not on the palette but as a phenomenon of optics between the canvas and the eye of the beholder. The result is vibrant, pure colour, which seems made of light itself rather than of pigment. Nearly a century later this method of painting became a formula in the hands of the great impressionists. Contrasts of light and shade in a context of flowing, curved and broken lines, produce an impression of animation and mobility which is the characteristic of Gainsborough's art. This mobility is directly connected with his technique of seizing an effect in a rapid stroke, so that a beauty of form emerges from his bold execution and masterly technique. A mobile and weightless quality is found also in the background details and draperies, where vibrant patches of light have a fluid translucent consistency which recalls the manner of Rubens and anticipates Goya. The formal elements of the painting - colours and lines - thus become expressive in their own right. In his work there is at its best that sense of immediacy of contact with beauty. In the portrait it is in the catching of a flash of a personality, in the landscapes it is the moment of light and shadow as some sungleam and cloud shadow renders a landscape suddenly momentarily unfamiliar and thereby dramatic. In his search for the spontaneous expression of the effects which appealed to him he would use oil-colour as if it were water-colour, building up with those light feathery brush strokes in the pure colour we associate with his work. Not for nothing was the master a musician. His painting has a quality belonging to this most abstract and fleeting of arts. Gainsborough is the purest lyricist of English painters, Reynolds - the master of the epic style.

Exercises
1. Study the italicised phrases, translate the sentences with them, give a back translation without consulting the texts.
2. Explain or expand on the following:
1) Reynolds did have a personal creative power.
2) In Reynolds' day society portraiture had become a monotonous repetition of the same theme.
3) Reynolds' people are no longer static.
4) Even in the portraits Gainsborough is an out-of-door painter.
5) The particular discovery of Gainsborough was the creation of a form of art in which the sitters and the background merge into a single entity.
6) In the evolution of the art of painting Gainsborough's actual method of putting on paint is an important step.
7) The formal elements of the painting - colours and lines - become expressive in their own right in Gainsborough's works.
3. Summarize the texts given above using the active vocabulary as props. Pay special attention to the characteristics of the manner of painting of both artists. Prove that Gainsborough is the purist lyricist of English painters and Reynolds is the master of the epic style. Make use of the text of Ex. I and the vocabulary of Ex. III, IV on p.p. 146 - 147 in "Practical Course of English" (3d year) edited by Prof. Arakin, 1974.

II. Without translating the extracts give the English equivalents for the italicized words, groups of words or phrases and render the paragraphs. 1) Будучи великолепным колористом и мастером композиции, Рейнольдс создал более двух тысяч портретов государственных деятелей, выдающихся писателей и актеров, имеющих как большую художественную, так и историческую ценность. Из-под кисти Рейнольдса вышли не только парадные портреты, но и такие великолепные подлинно реалистические произведения, как портрет Сэмюэля Джонсона истинный шедевр портретного искусства Рейнольдса. В этом портрете передана и небрежность туалета, и тучность, и близорукость. Но главное есть сложный характер Джонсона, великолепно переданный художником. Так и кажется, что д-р Джонсон сейчас произнесет одну из своих излюбленных иронических фраз. 2) Знаменитый «Голубой мальчик» Гейнcборо замечателен непринужденностью позы и естественностью выражения юного лица. Фигура его рельефно выступает на фоне удаляющегося берега реки, пасмурного неба и едва намеченного темного леса. 3) Гейнсборо, с его способностью проникновения в образ, умел не только внести даже в традиционный парадный портрет глубокую психологическую характеристику, но и передать мимолетное настроение человека. 4) Гейнсборо писал мелкими мазками, нередко свободно вкрапливая один цвет в другой, и картины его поэтому очень близки к быстро меняющемуся облику природы. Это новаторство в области живописной техники во многом предвосхитило будущие достижения импрессионистов.

III. Study and describe Thomas Gainsborough's famous picture Portrait of the Duchess of Beaufort. Make use of the text given below and the following vocabulary: colour-scale, palette, cool tones, light-keyed, prevailing colour, to be imbued with, to be surrounded with an aura of, to render, to convey, to suggest, spontaneity, reserve, airiness, spirituality, gentle, exquisite, subtle, insight, to blend, to be enveloped, to catch a transient mood. Thomas Gainsborough is one of the most important and original portrait-painters of eighteenth century England. His work clearly shows the features characteristic of English art at its peak: directness and freshness in the perception of nature, and a highly developed artistic techniques. But alongside this, and to a greater extent than his contemporaries, Gainsborough's work shows the influence of the art of Van Dyck, who played a large part in the development of English portrait painting. One of Gainsborough's best works is the Portrait of the Duchess of Beaufort (there are grounds for doubting that the subject of the portrait has been correctly identified), painted when he was at the height of his powers. The figure of the young woman in the low-cut dress made of translucent white material stands out against a dark background. Her powdered hair is intricately arranged, and the freshness of her young face, with moist, half-open lips and almond-shaped dark eyes, is set off by her hair, which hangs down to her shoulders. With her right hand she is gently pressing a blue silk scarf to her breast. The grey, blue, pink and white shades, here and there accentuated by brighter brush-strokes, help to show the elegance and beauty of the model. The technique of the portrait is distinguished by movement and exceptional lightness. The thin layer of liquid colours seems to reflect many soft half-tints. The feeling of movement is intensified by a device characteristic of the artist, due to which certain parts of the portrait seem to be drawn in pencil, not painted with a brush. This technique, reminiscent of pastel, is especially noticeable in the treatment of the subject's hair. The boldness of Gainsborough's technique startled his contemporaries. It is this style, unconnected with the traditions of the Royal Academy, which is one of Gainsborough's most notable achievements.

IV. What is the difference between a really good portrait and a coloured photograph? Sometimes people say looking at a picture: “Its like a coloured photograph.” What exactly do they mean? Is it praise or criticism? Explain your point of view.

V. Using a reproduction of a portrait give a talk on it showing that it is a study of human nature. Through what technical devices does the painter expose the sitters inner qualities? Use the following outline: 1. The general effect. (The title and name of the artist. The period or trend represented. Does it appear natural and spontaneous or contrived and artificial?) 2. The contents of the picture. (Place, time and setting. The age and the physical appearance of the sitter. The accessories, the dress and environment. Any attempt to render the personality and emotions of the model. What does the artist accentuate in his subject?) 3. The composition and colouring. (How is the sitter represented? Against what background? Any prevailing format? Is the posture bold or rigid? Do the hands (head, body) look natural and informal? How do the eyes gaze? Does the painter concentrate on the analysis of details? What tints predominate in the colour scheme? Do the colours blend imperceptibly? Are the brushstrokes left visible?) 4. Interpretation and evaluation. (Does it exemplify a high degree of artistic skill? What feelings, moods or ideas does it evoke in the viewer?)

VI. TWO PORTRAITS OF SARAH SIDDONS
1. Study the text “Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse” in “In the World of Painting” ( p.p. 22-24). Summarize it. Use the following vocabulary:
- to create an impression by ...
- the pose and bearing of the central figure
- arrangement of figures
- monochromatic
- the dominant tone
- a much greater variety in the colour
- in deep contemplation
- the regal quality of the whole figure
- the effect of solemn grandeur
- to suggest sb. (e. g. Michelangelo)
- (the) heavy shadow effects
- a pastiche
- to emerge as a unit
- an air of grandeur and dignity
- a prime objective of art
2. Read the text of Ex. V in “Practical Course of English” (3d year) edited by Prof. Arakin, 1974, p. 145. Render it in English.
3. Pass your judgement on the opinion of an enthusiastic admirer who saw the “Mrs. Siddons” by Gainsborough in the Manchester exhibition of 1857. The "Mrs. Siddons" by Gainsborough has the distinction of being not only a remarkable work of art, but a unique interpretation of a unique personality. It is not only one of the artist's finest portraits, but also one of the best of the many likenesses of the great tragic actress, who sat to most of the celebrated masters of her day. It was painted in 1784, when the queen of the tragic drama was in her twenty-ninth year and at the zenith of her fame. It was as Lady Macbeth that Mrs. Siddons achieved her greatest triumphs and her realization of the despair of the murderess has never been surpassed. An enthusiastic admirer who saw it in the Manchester exhibition of 1857 wrote as follows: "The great tragic actress, who interpreted the passions with such energy and such feeling, and who felt them so strongly herself, is better portrayed in this simple half-length in her day dress, than in allegorical portraits as the Tragic Muse or in character parts. This portrait is so original, so individual, as a poetic expression of character, as a deliberate selection of pose, as bold colour and free handling, that it is like the work of no other painter. It is useless to search for parallels, for there are none. Veronese a little but no, it is a quite personal creation. This is genius."
4. Work in pairs. Compare the two portraits.

LANDSCAPE PAINTING

I. Give a brief talk about the outstanding English landscape painters Constable and Turner.

II. Read the following text and speak on the similarities and differences between Constables and Turners painting. The two geniuses usually placed head and shoulders above their contemporaries are Constable and Turner. They are so essentially different from each other that it is difficult to compare their stature. Such comparisons are in any case idle except when they shed light on the figures concerned. If one wants to understand the essential difference between them, a comparison between their water-colours will perhaps show it best. Yet in noting the difference one is reminded too of the things they had in common. Both were acute observers of nature and both shared the romantic passion for light. Where they differed was not in fundamental principles, but in their way of looking at things. With Constable it is the sensation of the moment that counts supremely, and one feels, especially in the later water-colours, that he deliberately puts imagination aside in order that the subject he is painting may be freshly seen and the mind cleared of falsifying preconceptions. For him light is the means by which a tree or cloud may take on some particular significance in the ordinary scale of things. What he seeks to do is not to “improve” nature, not to rub off the bloom in the name of higher art, but to paint exactly what he sees in the clearest, freshest tones; so that even today the blues and greens on the pages of his later sketchbooks flash out like pure colour rays reflected in a prism. In Turners art the vision tends to be more inward, more consciously distilled, so to speak, and even when he paints most closely to nature, one feels that imagination has at some point intervened and added an element of studied art. For him light is not so much a means of heightening reality as of diminishing it, of dissolving away the solid form and rendering it more mysterious and remote. And as he grew older he became - unlike Constable - a painter of a private world, a world of mists and nuances, like some vision of the earth itself before the primal vapours coalesced... Even in his later topographical drawings Turner gives his subjects the filmy quality of dreams, using sunshaft and rainbow to dissolve away reality and transform a view of town or river into a vision of engulfing light.

Exercises
1. Learn the italicized phrases and use them while speaking about the painters.
2. The following sentences may be used while speaking about the painters. Your task is to decide who they refer to:
- He was the first landscape painter to ask no lessons from the Dutch.
- The sea in itself absorbed him, but especially the sea as it affected ships.
- To accomplish his aim of rendering the living moving quality of nature he used broken touches of colour.
- The sparkles of light and colour and the deliberate roughness of texture broke with the tradition of smooth painting.
- He almost in defiance of the fact that it was a dying taste, liked to paint allegorical, mythological and poetical scenes.
- This painting contains, in synthesis, all the elements of landscape which he loved best: the river, the boats, the soaked logs, the river vegetation, the sun shining through the foliage of the tall trees, the scenes of rural life.

III. Translate the following into English: 1) Великолепный акварелист, придававший особое значение свету, воздуху, колористическим исканиями, и в этом во многом предвосхитивший импрессионистов, Уильям Тернер был прежде всего романтиком. Его привлекали необычные и фантастические сюжеты дикие скалы, развалины, грозы и прежде всего море. Его «Мол в Кале» (1803) типичный романтический морской пейзаж. Здесь все и хмурое небо, почти сливающееся с бурными волнами, и парус на переднем плане, и гребешки волн создает атмосферу надвигающейся катастрофы. 2) В 1838 году Тернер написал знаменитую картину «Последний рейс «Отважного», в которой сказались результаты его колористических исканий. Прозрачный чистый воздух, многоцветная гамма солнечного заката, штилевое море все это передает настроение спокойствия и некоторой грусти. Вся картина кажется пропитанной золотистым светом заходящего солнца. 3) Пейзажи Констебля чаще всего спокойные, гармоничные картины природы, залитые солнцем. Но в изображении природы художник пошел своим подлинно новаторским путем. Главное содержание этого новаторства заключается в отказе от какой-либо идеализации природы. Констебль писал этюды с натуры. Он подходил к природе как исследователь, интересующийся частностями структурой почвы, формой и движением облаков, и как живописец, для которого все эти частности сливаются в одно прекрасное целое. Природа Констебля это не идиллический сельский пейзаж, а живая полнокровная среда, окружающая человека. 4) Этюд 1825 года «Деревенская дорога» в галерее Тейта один из лучших образцов живописи, когда-либо вышедших из-под кисти Констебля. Ничего не может быть изысканнее этой гаммы всевозможных и бесчисленных оттенков светлой зелени, пронизанной солнцем!

IV. Give a talk on a reproduction of a landscape (seascape). What are the implications of a really good landscape? Is it just a view or is there a deeper meaning in it? What are the educational and ethical values of this genre of painting?

V. Act as interpreter in the following dialogue: (Mr Dillon and C. Petrov talk painting) "On my way back I'll be staying in Leningrad a couple of days. I can't wait to see the Hermitage again. Its a wonderful collection you have there". "Побывать в Эрмитаже для меня тоже всегда праздник, которого с нетерпением ждешь. Отдел первобытной культуры и искусства народов Востока в Эрмитаже считается крупнейшим в мире по богатству своих коллекций. Но и картинная галерея Отдела истории западноевропейского искусства одна из самых лучших. Там прекрасно представлены Рубенс, Тициан, Рафаэль, Рембрандт". "Why, the Hermitage has some of the best Rembrandts. Rembrandt I know well. I saw his pictures in Dresden, Louvre, and the Hague. I also happened to be in Paris in 1960 when 700 pictures from the depot were put on view in Louvre, seven canvases by Rembrandt among them. And yet, his 'Return of the Prodigal Son' is the one that, I think, is his best. The picture is a masterpiece". "Да, картина производит очень сильное впечатление. Рембрандт достиг в ней совершенства, с точки зрения строгости и выразительности формы, и, кроме того, она глубоко человечна. В Эрмитаже хорошо представлена и его портретная живопись. "Портрет старика" один из лучших его портретов". "What strikes one about his portraits is the seeming simplicity and restraint of his artistic idiom. Especially in the later period. Take his self-portraits of the period, or the magnificent group portrait of the 'Syndici' commissioned by the clothmakers' guild or the portrait of Titus, Saskia's son. But then, not only his portraits - his pictures on biblical subjects of the period show the same restraint and complete lack of affectation". "Да, и именно в последний период он нашел свой неподражаемый золотисто-коричневый, красный, коричневато-черный и оливково-зеленый тона". "And his mastery of chiaroscuro. It has been unequalled by any artist ever since. When I visit the Hermitage I usually go straight to the Rembrandt hall. You can stay for hours before his pictures and never tire of seeing them". "К сожалению, английская живопись в Эрмитаже представлена не особенно широко. Есть там отличный портрет Гейнзборо, несколько картин Рейнольдса, портрет Хоппнера, пейзажи Морленда и один пейзаж Констебля. Английских художников я знаю только по картинам Дрезденской галереи и по репродукциям". "You didn't mention William Hogarth, but I happen to remember there are a few etchings by Hogarth there. One is 'Marriage a la Mode'. Some people believe his series of picture cycles have little artistic value, but I like his etchings. He used his keen power of observation to give en edge to social satire. He parades a gallery of types of characters whose blatant truthfulness hits you in the eye. However, speaking about English artists I'd say that Constable and Turner are my favourite painters". "Хотя я знаю Тернера в основном по репродукциям, он мне нравится. Это очень поэтичный художник. Его картины создают впечатление, что он любуются различными состояниями атмосферы. Будь то лондонский туман или просто голубое небо, для него это объект любовного и тонкого изображения". "I believe his greatness is in his grasp of the essence of things and his power of creating impression with the mere suggestion of form. And you are right in that his ever recurring theme is the atmosphere suffused with light in all its gradations, from the drab mist of London to the silvery blue of the South. I have two of his water-colours at home". "Мне бы очень хотелось лучше знать Констебля. Я о нем довольно много читал, но, конечно, это не способ знакомиться с художником. Я знаю, что он оказал большое влияние на своих современников, в частности, на французских художников. Делакруа, оказывается, увидев его работы на выставке 1824 года, заново переписал свою уже законченную картину "Резня на Хиосе". Кстати, эта выставка была, я знаю, его единственным настоящим успехом при жизни. Соотечественники ведь его не очень признавали?". "No, Turner was by far more successful and popular. In a sense he was the precursor of impressionism in that he thought a momentary impression very important. He was the first landscape painter to consider as the primary task the sketch made from nature at a single sitting. He left many studies from nature, some much finer than finished pictures. Now, as to the influence, Constable as well as Turner and Bonington did influence the French artists. On the other hand, the French artists led by Monet, Sisley and Pissaro revolutionized our way of seeing for generations". "Я думаю, что а конце этого года или в начале следующего у меня будет командировка в Англию, и тогда, конечно, я постараюсь восполнить пробел в своих знаниях английской живописи". "I'll be only too happy to be your guide round galleries. I am sure we'll both enjoy the time".

THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY

I. Describe the reproduction of Surikov's "Boyarina Morozova" using this text as a guide. The "Boyarina Morozova" is one of the greatest paintings in the world of pictorial art - a work of epic grandeur. The subject of the painting is based on a historical fact which actually occurred during the reign of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovitch, the father of Peter I. The action takes place in a quiet, narrow Moscow street in the 17th century. The short winter day is declining; it is nearly twilight. The quiet snow-covered street presents an unusual aspect: it is filled with throngs of people who are surging into the street. The Muscovites are there to accompany and pay homage to the first Boyarina of Moscow, who is being taken to interrogation and torture for her unbending adherence to the old believers, the so-called dissenters (Raskolniki). The Boyarina forms the centre of the composition, and immediately attracts attention by her pale inspired face, set off by her dark garment and marked by an inner storm of emotions. Her hand is raised in an eloquent gesture with two fingers making the sign of the cross, the symbol of the dissenters, forbidden by the church. She is superb in her indomitable inflexibility and readiness to die for what she considers a righteous cause. Each character in the picture is strikingly individualised, revealing strength and might of the popular masses. Each of the characters accompanying the Boyarina is portrayed with unforgettable expressiveness. Each figure in the picture is an actual portrait. The exalted expression on the face of the beggarly, feeble-minded devotee, with his two fingers raised, repeating the sign made by the Boyarina, as a token of his devotion and adherence. The pilgrim who is absorbed in deep thought. The Boyarina's sister, princess Urusova, who is walking by the sledge, ready to share the fate of the Boyarina. The kneeling old beggar-woman who worships the heroic martyr. The young woman with the inspired sorrowful face whose beauty is enhanced by the deep blue of her coat and the yellow of her shawl and particularly by the position of her bent figure, which expresses the reverence she feels for the Boyarina. The young girl with the frightened expression in her eyes. And the young nun, whose pale, sorrowful face stands out as a sharp contrast to her black garb. All the parts are brought together with great mastery revealing Surikov's fine sense of composition. From the point of view of its composition the picture is easily divided into two parts, with the sledge bearing the Boyarina in the centre. Extraordinary convincing is the rendering of the rhythm with which the movement of the sledge is animated, as it moves slowly amidst the dispersing crowd. The impression produced by the diagonal lines of the composition is heightened by the movement of the boy running after the sledge, and particularly by the tracks just made by the sledge runners in the snow. Surikov understands the law of contrast and association of colours. Remarkably picturesque is the harmonious colouring of the whole canvas with the dominating bluish tints in it and the expressiveness achieved by the association of black and white, the repetition of the red and yellow spots. The blues and the reds and the yellows merge into one another and create a harmonious whole. The landscape repeats the blue, red and yellow colour scheme of the shawl worn by princess Urusova with its white background. The design on the shawl is again repeated in the architecture of the ancient buildings and even in the shaft-bow of the harness. The artistic skill and love with which the painter renders this national originality and beauty show his keen appreciation of his people.

Exercises
1. Find in the text English equivalents for the following phrases and write them out: работа эпического размаха; сюжет картины основан на; действие происходит в; представлять собой нечто необычное; засвидетельствовать почтение; несгибаемая верность (приверженность); образовывать композиционный центр; чем-либо привлекать внимание; одухотворенное лицо; буря эмоций; красноречивый жест; умереть за правое дело; изображать с незабываемой выразительностью; усиливать; резкий контраст с; изысканное чувство композиции; с точки зрения композиции; передача ритма; диагональные линии композиции; сливаться с друг другом и создавать гармоничное целое.
Translate the sentences with these phrases into Russian.
2. Use the active vocabulary in sentences of your own.
3. Describe the “Boyarina Morozova” according to the following plan:
1) Subject
2) Composition
3) Characters
4) Rendering of movement
5) Colour- scheme
6) Impression
Suggested situations.
a) You are doing the Tretyakov Gallery . You are struck by this picture. Address someone who just happens to be standing near you.
b) A guide explains pictures to a group of tourists. The scene is laid in the Tretyakov Gallery. The style of representation should be formal.

II. Act as interpreter in the following dialogue:
(At the Tretyakov Gallery) "Usually when I go to a museum it's never to see the pictures in general, but some particular canvases. It is different, however, when it is your life's chance and there are so many things to see and only two or three days to jam them into. So, when I was in Moscow in 1969 for the first time, I wandered, through all the halls of the Gallery. Unguided, all by myself. Not that I don't need guidance. My education in art is none too profound, and I am afraid I have what you'd call a catholic taste in art. I am very glad you could spare some time and, come here with me. Incidentally, why is the Gallery called the Tretyakov Gallery? Is that the name of the patron who founded it?" “Да, Павел Третьяков основатель галереи. В 1892 году он передал ее в дар городу Москве вместе с художественным собранием своего брата. А с 1918 года, после того как она была национализирована, она стала называться Государственной Третьяковской Галереей. Для своей коллекции он приобретал, главным образом, работы художников-реалистов демократического направления. К моменту революции в галерее было 4 тысячи произведений живописи, рисунка, скульптуры, а сейчас это число увеличилось в 10 раз. Может быть у вас есть какие-нибудь пожелания в отношении осмотра? Вы хотели бы посмотреть какие-то определенные картины или разделы выставки, или определенных художников?" "If you don't mind, I'd like to see several historical paintings first. One is 'Ivan the Terrible Kills his Son' by Repin, the others are by Surikov. I know the name of' one 'The Execution of the Streltsi', but I don't know the name of the other - that's a picture portraying a woman dissenter. And, of course, I am interested in the art of the latest period". "Ну что же, давайте начнем с исторических полотен, а потом пройдем в Залы советской живописи. Вы, по-видимому, имеете в виду картину Сурикова "Боярыня Морозова". Она названа так по имени центрального персонажа картины". "Incidentally, the two painters I mentioned belonged. to the Itinerants, didn't they? I happen to know the name, though I am not sure of the idea behind it. That was the name of a Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions, wasn't it?" "Да, Общество передвижников было основано с целью просвещать народные массы и популяризовать искусство. Было это более ста лет назад, и в разные периоды в него входили такие художники, как Репин, Суриков, Серов, Левитан, Ярошенко, Нестеров, Архипов и другие. Словом, многие из тех, кто составляет гордость нашей живописи". "It would, appear that among the genres of easel painting the so called 'genre bas' prevailed in their paintings. They all seem to have devoted themselves to depicting national subjects and they did that with great dramatic force and real empathy. All their pictures are invested with dramatic narration". "Собственно говоря, их искусство было шагом вперед во всех жанрах станковой живописи. Но, действительно, бытовой жанр занимал значительное место. Передвижники были прогрессивно настроенными людьми, они стремились привлечь внимание к страданиям народа России. Многие их картины были настоящим вызовом правительству. Ну, вот мы пришли. Это одна из исторических картин, которые вы хотели видеть. Только называется она несколько иначе: "Иван Грозный и его сын, 16 ноября 1581 года". "The picture has such tremendous dramatic force and characterization as to be almost disturbing. I wasn't much surprised when I heard it had been stabbed by a maniac some time or other. It's very skilfully restored, however. The scar isn't seen at all". "А вот "Утро стрелецкой казни". По-моему, это гениальная картина, так же как и картина "Боярыня Морозова". Вы знаете сюжет картины?" "I know the historical background of this picture. I majored in Russian history. The events date back to 1698 when Princess Sofya was shorn a nun. This knowledge adds to the attraction of the picture to me as a historian. But, of course, it is a fine picture on its own merits. Even for a layman its composition is very skilfully balanced and it has powerful vitality. Look at this redbearded strelets - that glaring challenge in his eyes". "Да, между ним и Петром идет настоящая дуэль взглядов. Суриков впервые в истории русской живописи изобразил народ не как страдающую покорную массу, но как людей, способных на возмущение, протест, наделенных большим духовным богатством. И в этой картине, и в "Боярыне Морозовой" он изобразил события как народную драму. Он говорил, что не понимает действия отдельных исторических лиц без народа, без толпы". "The scene seems very crowded, but looking closer, the artist achieved this effect without actually overcrowding the picture with figures. And you are right, of course, that the treatment of the streltsi suggest anything but submission". (In front of the picture 'Boyarina Morozova' ) "У художников часто бывает, что какой-то зрительный образ подсказывает им сюжет картины. Например, Крамской написал свою картину "Христос в пустыне" после того, как увидел сидящего в задумчивости на камне нищего старика. А эта картина была подсказана образом сидящей на снегу вороны". "The colouring of the picture is amazing. The artist uses the entire gamut of the palette from the white to the black. His blues, yellows and blacks are of very high saturation, and yet that does not turn the picture into a merely decorative canvas". "Да, Суриков прекрасно справился и с колористической и с композиционной задачей. А ведь изображение толпы на снегу ставило перед художником нелегкие задачи в этих отношениях. Кстати, в русской живописи изображение громадной массы людей на открытом воздухе было новым". "What is most amazing is that the image of the boyarina, forceful as it is, dominates the canvas without obliterating the crowd. The painter created a gallery of types of characters, one more striking than the other. A most gripping picture, really". “Да, совершенно верно. В композиционном отношении образ Морозовой как бы объединяет собой народную толпу, нисколько ее не затмевая, сам благодаря ей приобретает новую значимость. Великолепный тип лица у нее, не правда ли?" "Oh yes, you don't forget such a face in a hurry. And how well did the artist capture the expression of this proud face and the drama of the moment".

III. Give a talk on a reproduction of a genre (historical) painting. Dwell on the subject, the technical aspect and on the implications if possible. Prove that the picture is thought-provoking.

EVALUATION OF PICTURES

A painting can be studied on several levels and from a variety of perspectives. Here are a few examples of how pictures can be described, analyzed, interpreted and evaluated. The extract to follow shows how a writer may see a picture. Note the deep implications that the speaker discovers in a seemingly simple unpretentious still life.

From "Christmas Holiday" by W. S. Maugham "Chardin," he said. "Yes, I've seen that before... I've always rather liked his still lifes myself." "Is that all it means to you? It breaks my heart." "That?" cried Charley with astonishment. "A loaf of bread and a flagon of wine? Of course it's very well painted." "Yes, you're right; it's very well painted; it's painted with pity and love. It's not only a loaf of bread and a flagon of wine; it's the bread of life and the blood of Christ, but not held back from those who starve and thirst for them and doled out by priests on state occasions; it's the daily fare of suffering men and women. It's so humble, so natural, so friendly; it's the bread and wine of the poor who ask no more than that they should be left in peace, allowed to work and eat their simple food in freedom. It's the cry of the despised and rejected. It tells you that whatever their sins men at heart are good. That loaf of bread and that flagon of wine are symbols of the joys and sorrows of the weak and lowly. They ask for your mercy and your affection; they tell you that they are of the same flesh and blood as you. They tell you that life is short and the grave is cold and lonely. It's not only a loaf of bread and a flagon of wine; it's the mystery of man's lot on earth, his craving for a little friendship and a little love, the humility of his resignation when he sees that even they must be denied him. ...And isn't it wonderful that with those simple objects, with his painter's exquisite sensibility, moved by the charity of his heart, that funny dear old man should have made something so beautiful that it breaks you? It was as though unconsciously perhaps, hardly knowing what he was doing, he wanted to show you that if you only have enough love, if you only have enough sympathy, out of pain and distress and unkindness, out of all the evil of the world, you can create beauty."

The extracts below will show you how paintings are described in art books and picture-gallery guides. Observe the difference in treatment comparing with the previous text.

1. Still Life with Soup Tureen by Paul Cezanne (1883 1885) ...Apart from oranges, and above all the apples which he has made famous the accessories used by Cezanne all have this in common: they were never objects of luxury. On this point Cezanne is more austere than Chardin, who always painted the more ordinary objects, but ones not lacking in a certain refinement of shape. With Cezanne this is never the case. The round jam pots, the plain plates, the pots and jugs of grit stone, ordinary bottles these are his favourite materials. Everything is sacrificed to volume and shape. The decorated and almost luxuriant soup tureen, which appears in this still life, is an exception. The background in his pictures is always furnished; never, or hardly ever, is it neutral in shade. Behind these still lifes there is always a second still life: curtains, wallpaper or furniture, serving as decoration to the objects in the foreground. In this picture, it is pictures hanging on the wall. Among them on the left is a landscape; it is a road seen in perspective, giving a depth to the background of Cezanne's picture.
(From "Impressionist Paintings in the Louvre" by Germain Bazin. Abridged.)

2. "Picnic" by Claude Monet (1866) This picture is a study of light on an enormous scale. Monet noticed the pools of colour with which the light, filtering through the leaves, splashed the clothing and the faces; but he also noticed an effect contrary to the teachings in the schools, namely that light does not dim but intensifies colour, rescues it from the shadow. Colour, therefore, when submitted to the play of light and shade, tends to break up.
(Ibid. Extract.)

3. Portrait of Cardinal Bontivoglio by Antonis Van Dyck (after 1621) The portrait, dated shortly after 1621, is ranked as one of Van Dyck's finest. The influence of Rubens and the Venetian masters is evident in the treatment of light and brushstroke. Van Dyck's emphasis on the cardinal's aristocratic features and hands and the richness of his ecclesiastical robes leave no doubt as to the social position of the sitter.
(From "Pitti Palace" by Claudio Pescio. Guide.) Note. This formal description does not give the full justice to Van Dyck's masterpiece. As all great portraits, it is not a mere representation of face, hands and figure, but a study of human nature done by a genius. The cardinal's features may be aristocratic but they are also the features of a clever and cunning intriguant. The alert eyes and the wary turn of the head give a lie to the seeming serenity of the face. The same contrast can be noted in the treatment of the hands: the left hand is serenely relaxed but the fingers of the right are curled almost in a claw-like manner as if in readiness to snatch and to grasp.

Exercises 1. What makes the essential difference between the kinds of picture description in Maughams novel and the rest of the texts? Provide language facts. 2. What is the difference between the still lifes by Chardin and Cezanne so far as can be judged: 1) from the descriptions; 2) from your own acquaintance with these painters works? 3. How do you understand the words “a study of light” in the description of Monets “Picnic”? How did the Impressionists treat the problem of light? 4. How do you understand the words “a study of human nature” in the description of Van Dycks portrait? Give examples of famous portraits which can be said to be “a study of human nature”. 5. In the texts above find sentences which, in your opinion, stress the essential aspects of each picture (2-4 sentences for each text). 6. Comment on: “... out of pain and distress and unkindness, out of all the evil of the world, you can create beauty”. The first impression may be that this statement is a startling and extravagant exaggeration. Yet, it is a true observation: artists (and not only painters, but also composers and writers) do create beauty “out of pain and distress and unkindness”. Give a talk on this point. Prove it and illustrate it. Here are some suggested examples: “The Last Day of Pompeii” by Karl Bryullov; “Gernica” by Pablo Picasso; “Ivan the Terrible Kills His Son” by Ilya Repin; “The Morning of the Strelets Execution”, “Menshikov in Berezovo”, “Boyarina Morozova” by Vasily Surikov; “Inconsolable Sorrow” by Ivan Kramskoy. Think of other examples.

FREE SPEECH ACTIVITY
1.
I. Make a secret note of the title of the picture that is reasonably well known. Tell the others in the group about the picture. See if they can guess the title. II. Get your fellow-student to give you information about his/her favourite museum/picture gallery. Try to get as many details as you can. III. Give a brief talk on a favourite painter of yours. IV. One of you has recently returned from England. The other is questioning him/her on the impressions of the National Gallery/the Tate Gallery. V. You are an expert in Peredvizhniki. Your partner is a foreigner who is completely ignorant of this period in Russian art. VI. You are doing the Tretyakov Gallery. VII. You are both young teachers, just beginners. Ponder over and argue about what and how you would tell your junior schoolchildren to introduce them to the vast and complicated world of Fine Arts. Outline those basic things you find indispensable to their general conception of Arts. VIII. You are both learning to be guides in art. Evaluate what you have been taught and what you are studying presently. Exchange your opinions about what other knowledge of the subject youd like to obtain. IX. While preparing for an interview with a famous artist discuss the general trend of the interview and its particular items.

Role playing Suggested characters and situations.
1. A guide explains pictures to a group of tourists. The scene is set in a picture gallery.
2. A young woman finds herself in an artist's studio for the first time in her life. She does not know much about painting but does her best to conceal it and expresses her opinion about the pictures she is shown using words she picked from art books. Her praise of the pictures is over-enthusiastic and exaggerated. Use the following: It's the best picture I've ever seen. It surpasses all work of old masters. It's thought-provoking. It was clever of you to... The drawing is too divine! I do like this effect! The colour scheme is strikingly original. The colours are extremely effective. The composition is wonderfully balanced.
3. A young man shares his impressions about a recent art exhibition. He thinks he knows a lot about painting and criticizes severely everything he saw at the exhibition. Use the following: The drawing is all faulty. The colour scheme is muddy. The perspective lacks depth. The greens (reds, yellows) are shrill. The red (yellow, blue) patch kills whatever effect there might be. Light is not rendered at all. a feeble imitation of Post-Impressionists (of Rerich, of old masters, etc.) The exhibition is a flop (one big flop). Note. Students will be well advised to use reproductions for their role-playing; the latter should be carefully selected to meet each situation.
4. Sharing Impressions at an Exhibition of Young Artists. a) An ancient art critic who keeps complaining that it is all "outrageously modern stuff" and "a dangerous outbreak from tradition". Use the following: in my young days we should be taught by old masters originality for originality's sake it offends the eye The drawing is... The composition lacks... If you remember the treatment of the same subject by Courbet... b) A young artist whose pictures are exhibited, and who is anxious to draw attention to them. Use the following: I'd like your opinion about... If you just take a look at... This composition device is... The treatment of light is... What I meant to convey was... c) The young artist's friend and fan, a girl, who enthusiastically supports all he says trying, at the same time, to fend off the attacks of the old critic (Character 1) and of the venomous critic (Character 5). Use the following: Yes, isn't it superb! Oh, but do look at this landscape (portrait, etc.)! It's quite a find, isn't it? ...is tremendously effective Oh, but it is unfair! How can you say such things? We're in the twentieth century now. Well, what I say is... You simply lack proper discrimination. d) A sceptically-minded visitor who is sure that no young artist can create anything of value. Use the following: Well, I don't know but... Somehow it doesn't strike me as... I'm not sure what he aimed at but... ...decidedly lacks something I wouldn't go so far as to... ...not much of an achievement e) A venomous critic who never praises anything believing that it is a proof of high discrimination. Use the cliches of disapproval and censure: Its rotten (nasty, beastly, ridiculous, outrageous, disgusting). Its below all criticism. Too bad for words. It couldnt possibly be worse. Absolutely inapt. Completely meaningless. Unbelievable trash. I was repelled. It made me sick (inf.). Its incredible, but... I was shocked by... Whats the use (good) of...? What next, I wondered. It was the last straw. No good at all! Its a shame... f) A middle-aged lady who is in raptures over everything she sees at the exhibition considering it a proof of high cultivation. Use the cliches of praise and approbation: Its magnificent (lovely, superb, amazing, fantastic, incredible, great). Im absolutely thrilled (Im thrilled no end). Im crazy about... (inf.). a marvellous achievement an impressive piece of art Its too divine for words (inf.).
2.
Art Problems
I. All great art is believed to be thought-provoking. How do you understand this statement? Give examples of pictures that, in your opinion, stir thinking and imagination.
II. Children and Art. Is it necessary to teach art? How shall we teach children to look at pictures? (See G. B. Antrushina. Talks about Art for English Speech Practice, p.p. 16-20, 22.)
III. General Discussion
Instructions
1. Work in group of 56 students (the whole group is participating in the discussion).
2. Elect a discussion leader who will act as the host (hostess) of the discussion: a) leader opens the meeting and introduces the members to each other; b) he invites each member to speak; c) he politely interrupts any member who speaks too long; d) he sums up the opinions of the speakers. Note. In the course of the discussion observe the general rules: Don't wander from the subject! Don't monopolize the time and the discussion! Don't be sharp towards those who do not agree with you!

Use the following formulas to make your entry into the discussion: May I put a word in? If you ask me... It just occurred to me... On the surface of it, it really is..., but... Generally speaking... Strictly speaking... That depends on... I want to press the point that... On the one hand... On the other hand... Under the circumstances. Conclude your reasoning in the discussion using such statements as: All these show conclusively that... To sum it all up... All things considered... The major point at issue was... We can arrive at the conclusion that...

Topic 1. Different Genres of Painting. Speak about different genres of painting (two or more students may choose the same genre provided they don't repeat each other in the discussion). Each student is to speak about the genre he has chosen pointing out its merits and advantages in comparison with other genres. It is essential that the participants should argue with each other, stressing the various merits of the genre they are defending and criticizing possible disadvantages of other genres. Use the following: My preference lies with the genre of portrait because... I personally like genre paintings. They are... My favourite painters are Shishkin and Levitan. So, naturally, I prefer landscape to other genres. You see... I can't say I care much for still lifes. They seem to me meaningless, a merely decorative genre... I can't agree that landscape has any social significance, because... Will you explain what you meant by saying that the genre of portrait is thought-provoking? After all, a portrait is just a likeness of some person or other...

Topic 2. Old Art or Modern Art? Consider the following arguments in favour of both old and modern painters and use them as theses in your discussion.
|For Old Art |For Modern Art |
|1. Painting of old masters is one of the greatest treasures mankind has |1. For most modern people old paintings are unintelligible. Even the subjects|
|collected in the history of its civilisation. |mythological, biblical are often ob |
|2. Old painting reflects the collective experience of human spiritual life of|2. New times call for new songs. Modern man is naturally interested in the |
|many centuries. |art reflecting his own time and his own experi |
|3. The human experiembodied in the great paintings of the past is also our |3. Worship of old masters is a drag on the development of new progressive |
|experi; hence the responof modern people to old pictures. |art. We should look forward instead of turning back all the time. |
|4. The advanced technical experiments of modern painters would have been |4. The techniques of old masters are hopelessly out of date; nor do they |
|impossible without the supreme technical achievements of old masters. |appeal to modern viewers who look for new, daring technical experiments in |
| |painting. |

In your discussion, you may also make use of this interesting quotation from Romain Rolland. "There are some excellent people who are nevertheless incapable of appreciating a new work of art before its age reaches at least twenty years. For their weak heads the odour of a new life is too strong, and it must be given time to evaporate. A work of art has an appeal for such people only when it is covered with the dust of time." When getting ready for the discussion, choose the side you are going to support. By no means should you restrict yourself to the arguments given above: they are just hints which may help you in formulating your own ideas. Provide your arguments with illustrations.

* * *

REFERENCE LITERATURE

1. G. B. Antrushina et al. Talks about Art for English Speech Practice. - Moscow, 1987. 2. V. P. Belyatskaya, A. S. Liberman. Talks on Art. - Leningrad, 1963. 3. L. N. Voronikhina, T. M. Mikhailova. Glimpses of British Art. - Leningrad, 1978. 4. L. N. Voronikhina, T. M. Mikhailova. In the World of Painting. - Moscow, 1989. 5. M. M. Falkovich et al. How to Speak about Art in English. - Moscow, 1976. 6. J. Povey. English at Leisure. - Moscow, 1978. 7. Practical Course of English (3d year) edit. by Prof. V. D. Arakin. - Moscow, 1974. 8. Practical Course of English (3d year) edit. by Prof. V. D. Arakin. - Moscow, 1989. 9. V. L. Skalkin. Conversational English in Exercises. - Moscow, 1972.

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