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Entertainment and Media

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News agencies are organisation of journalist established in different zones of the world to provide news reports to organisation in news trade. According to UNESCO, it is an undertaking of which prime objective is to gather news and news materials expressing facts and to distribute this to a group of news enterprises .The basic function of a news agencies is to survey news and inform the current affairs to its subscribers .News agencies play the role of wholesale supplier of news and reduce the cost of gathering news. As it deals with news coverage, it combines spot coverage with interpretation of the important political and economic events. News agency plays a crucial role in framing public opinion on important national and international affairs. News agencies work as a mediator between the media and the public. The media depend on material supplied by the news agencies mainly put of economic necessity. In order to have a wide coverage the newspaper has to maintain a costly network of staff reporters, correspondents, and bureaus on a world wide scale. For a majority of the news media the news agencies are a major source of news supply. Its subscribers include the daily and local newspapers, the radio and TV stations, magazines and other establishments concerned. The news agencies account for 40-50 percent of the total content of a daily paper. It even supply bulk of news to small newspapers which cannot afford to have many reporters. The news agencies contribute almost 40 percent of news to the AIR. Any news organisation is incomplete without the services of news agencies.

National news agencies came up in many countries by the end of World War II. However the history of telegraphic news goes back to 1825 when Charles Havas organised a news bureau in which news was sent to by courier or post. In 1848,with Bernard Woff’s initiative, Woff agency came which was followed by the Reuters Agency. Julius Reuters opened it for commercial news at London Royal Exchange .By the year 1866,many countries got their respective agencies. World agencies came up between 1835 and 1918 and they were set up in countries where press was developed. Even today they play an important role of national agencies that is collecting news and distributing to the newspapers and radio, tv stations in their own countries.

In India, after the independence ,there was a constant demand by the editors and journalists urging the government of India to enquire into the state of the Indian press and put forward recommendations for the benefit of the press .On September 23,1952,the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ,announced the constitution of the first Press Commission under the chairmanship of Justice G.S Rajyadaksha. After two years of work, the report was submitted on July 14,1954.Under this report came the announcement of news agencies that “There should not be state-owned or state controlled news agencies. The Government should give no assistance to the news agencies in order to ensure their independent operations”. Other recommendations of the report include the appointment of Registrar of newspaper(RNI),Press council, advertising council etc.
During the colonial period in India, Reuters was the sole supplier of domestic and foreign news to newspapers and other subscribers. At present

Press Trust of India which is India’s largest news agency is a non-profit sharing cooperative owned by the country’s newspapers providing efficient and unbiased news to its subscribers. Established on August 27,1947, this news agency took over the Associated Press of India(API) and the Indian operations of Reuters and began functioning February 1,1949.Major services of the agency are headed by Editors. PTI has a staff of over 1,600 including 400 journalist. It has about 100 bureaus across the country and 10 bureaus abroad. For operational purposes ,the country is divided into four regions with the offices in Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. PTI offers services in English and Hindi. Major services offered by PTI are :

PTI Bhasha : Launched in 1986,the Hindi language news service has its own network in the Hindi-speaking states. Drawing on PTI files as well, Bhasha puts out about 40,000 words per day.

Photo Service: Photo service was launched in 1987.I t accounts for the bulk of the agency photos in the Indian media. The full colour service of Associated Press of America (AP) is made available with the authorisation of PTI.

PTI Feature: A package of four weekly features provides an analytical insight on topical national ,international and general events.

PTI-TV : This service provides spot and documentary cover for the small screen on contract. Among the more famous programmes done by PTI-TV are ‘Money Matters’ and ‘Tana Bana’.

News-Scan : This service displays news in capsule form on video monitors. It also covers major developments in the country and abroad are covered. Other than these services PTI has Economic service, Science service, PTI Mag that covers topics ranging from Arts to Business and even Science in mailer weekly package. Stockscan service PTI provide stock market information on video terminals for group display. Stockscan Select of individual users is an interactive version of the service.
UNI(United News of India)
The first Press Commission recommended the setting up of a second news agency in the country along with PTI for the purpose of competition which would result in the production of quality news. UNI was registered as a company on November 1959 and began its news operation from March 21,1961.The administrative headquarters of UNI is in New Delhi.
It has about 22 correspondents in foreign countries and more than 300 reporters in big and small towns in India and over 30 abroad.Uni was the first news agency to earn foreign exchange for the country by selling news abroad .Some of its services are as follows:

Univartha : Hindi news service ,the Univartha was launched in May,1983.

Urdu service: In 1992,UNI launched its Urdu service on teleprinter for the first time in the world.

UNIFIN : It is a specialised service for banking and financial organisations

UNISTOCK: It is a service for stock exchange and stock brokers.

UNIDARSHAN : It provides news clippings ,and features for DD. Other than these services it also have photo services, agriculture services,UNI graphic services etc.

Despite the plethora of news services ,most news printed broadcast throughout the world daily comes from only a few major agencies, the three largest of which are Associated Press (AP) in the United States ,Reuters in Great Britain ,and Agence France Presse (AFP) in France. These agencies along with other agencies have the financial resources to station experienced reporters in areas of the world where the news develops regularly or to send them wherever news develops unexpectedly. These agencies are equipped to distribute the service almost instantaneously. The Associated Press (AP) can send a bulletin to 80 countries in less than one minute. These three agencies or the ‘big three’ influence greatly on the whole world news. Without the service of these agencies ,no newspaper can come up with efficient news. A brief history and functioning of the ‘Big three’ are given below:

1.Associated Press (AP) : It is one of the largest news-gathering services in the world. The headquarters of AP is in New York.AP distributes international, regional and local news to media everywhere. In 1848,six newspapers of the New York city founded the Associated Press with a an objective of saving the money spent on gathering news by telegraph. The Associated Press is an non-profit organisation owned and controlled by more than 1,500 daily newspapers in the United States. About 6000 US radio and TV stations depend on AP for news. AP offers daily news reports, features, graphics and photographs. It has about 230 news bureaus worldwide. Its services are as follows

1.APTN : The television news service of AP 2.. AP Network News : It is the largest single radio in the US AP’s service is also available in languages like English, German, Swedish, Spanish and French.

2.REUTERS Reuters is the second largest news and television agency after AP with about 2000 journalists and a total of 26,000 employees in 185 bureaus. It was founded in 1851 in London by Paul Julius Reuters. Initially in 1848 it supplied European financial News ,however in 1851 it entered the general news

Business. Reuters is one of the first news services to furnish financial, political and general news to European newspapers. Reuters is basically a cooperative news agency in which newspapers from Ireland, Australia and New Zealand also have shares .It also supplies financial transaction news worldwide in 23 languages.

3.Agence France Presse`(AFP)
AFP is a French cooperative news agency and the third largest news service in the world after AP and Reuters. It was founded in 1944.It was known earlier in the name of Bureau Havas which was created in 1832.In 1835 this agency became Agence Havas. The German occupation of France suppressed Agence Havas in 1940.After the liberation of Paris in 1944,the former journalists of this agency set up Agence France Presse.
AFP sells domestic French news reports to most of the world’s news agencies and also provides its worldwide reports to many of them. It also has a photo service and innumerable specialized news reports ,mostly concerned with African matters.


There are many media organisations as follows

It is an all-india body representing working journalists. Its headquarters is in New Delhi. IFWJ is the oldest trade union of working journalists in India with a membership of over 25,000 and recognised by the Government of India .It sends representatives to the Wage Board, Press Council of India, Newsprint Advisory etc.

Indian Newspaper Society (INS) is the central body representing newspaper publishers. It was founded in 1939 and the society safeguards and promotes the interests of newspaper proprietors. It was earlier known as the ‘Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society(IENS) It was the result of constant efforts by the editors of INS that the PTI was formed. It was also instrumental in the framing of Audit Bureau of Circulation(ABC) in 1948.The chairperson and the Executive Council are elected annually. There are nearly 700 members in the INS .INS gives accredition to advertising agencies that satisfy certain prescribed norms.

3.ABC(Audit Bureau of Circulation)

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