Premium Essay

Environmental Hazards In Construction Essay

Submitted By
Words 2811
Pages 12
This article is an overview of the reactions of most Nigerians to environmental hazards at construction sites, the effects of hazards and the safety controls put in place by the Nigerian government and other environmental agencies with the ultimate of reducing the risks associated with those hazards as low as reasonably practicable.
Direct on-site observations were used to study the adherence of the construction sites workers to safety tips at Jehovah Witness chapel construction sites, Chelsea avenue, Abakpa Nike, Enugu, Immaculate Conception Parish Construction Site, Abakpa, 18 Felix Okoro Close (a 3-storeyed building construction site) Iji Nike, Enugu, and Ugbene II Road construction by J. Quarrison Nigeria Ltd. The results presented shows
…show more content…
Uninterrupted release of hazards or loss of control of hazards usually poses adverse effects on the:
 people (health and safety of the employees and the public),
 Environment,
 Organization.
2.3.1 Effects of Hazards on the people
The effects of inhalation of toxic gas depend on the level of exposure of people to the substance. The immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) level is the maximum concentration of a substance to which one can be exposed for 30 minutes without irreversible health effects or death. A lethal level is the concentration at which death is almost certain to occur. The IDLH values were determined by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for the purpose of respirator selection.
 Carbon dioxide is not normally considered to be a threat to human health. It is exhaled by humans and is found in the atmosphere at about 3000 parts per million (ppm). However, at high concentrations it can be a hazard and may cause headaches, dizziness, increased heart rate, asphyxiation, convulsions, or coma.

 Hazardous waste remediation workers and industrial/manufacturing workers have a greater risk of toxic chemical overexposure and/or

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Civil Eng

...Sustainability Issues In Civil Engineering Environmental Sciences Essay /essays/environmental-sciences/sustainability-issues-in-civil-engineeringenvironmental-sciences-essay.php Sustainability is the prevention or reduction of the effect of environmental issues for humans to live a sustainable life and as part of the effort is to return human use of natural resources to a sustainable limit at which it can be replenished. The fact that sustainability issues affect the ways in which project are been chosen, planed, designed or implemented does not mean human life should be stagnant, rather, according to Mahri (2001), environmental issues needs to be put into consideration as a principal means of achieving sustainable development, also sustainable development enhances the quality of life This report shall put lights on a critical evaluation on current academic thinking as regards how sustainability issues can affect the way civil engineering projects are chosen, planned, designed and implemented. CHOSEN PROJECTS AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES Civil Engineering is the construction of systems that aim to improve life in different ways (Tavares, 1999). These are engineering field that brought about bridges, dams, roads, buildings, fabrications, etc. and these constructions have either a direct or indirect ways of polluting the environment during their construction processes. Like in the construction/fabrication of buoys, piles, vessels, where blasting and painting are......

Words: 1867 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Risk Management

...philosophies of the team members are considered in light of the effect they may have upon risk management. This paper briefly reviews project management, risk and risk perception and their interrelated effects upon the construction process. It is suggested that just as risk philosophies of individuals affect the decisions made in their lives away form their professional careers, so their perceptions and experiences of risk can affect their professional decisions. The approaches utilised for the research to explore this theory are also discussed within this paper. Keywords: Process; Project Management; Risk Perception; Risk Philosophy INTRODUCTION This research is being undertaken as part of the Process Protocol II project (Cooper et al, 1998), for which the author is responsible for the mapping of the project and risk management activity zones. There are three related topics covered within this paper: risk propensity, defined as a person’s desire to either avoid or to take risks; risk preference, the perceived level of risk and uncertainty a person is willing to accept in a given situation; and risk perception, the subjective view of the perceived risk associated with a hazard (Adams, 1995). These areas have been largely overlooked by construction management research, which has instead concentrated on the harder issues of risk management, such as risk quantification using statistical analysis and the methods adopted to do this (Edwards & Bowen, 1999). The......

Words: 4538 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Life Coaching Marketing Plan

...INTRODUCTION 2 Q.1 MAJOR SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS RESULTING FROM ROADS EXPANSION INTO SUBURBAN AREAS 3 Q.3 THE LINK BETWEEN THE GLOBAL COMMONS AND EFFECTS OF DEPLETION 6 Q.5 UNSUSTAINABLE EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN KENYA AND RESULTANT ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES AND BEST PRACTICES FOR RESTORATION OF THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGITY 9 Commercial use 9 Land for Grazing 9 Demand for Fuel 9 Illegal Logging 10 Erosion of Soil 10 Loss of Biodiversity 11 Climate Change 11 Population Growth 12 CONCLUSION 13 REFERENCES 14 INTRODUCTION This essay paper is divided into three parts: The first part will discuss the implications of the rapid expansion of roads into suburban areas in Kenya with special focus on the major social and environmental impacts of concern. There is an appreciation that Kenya is experiencing unprecedented road and highway expansion in line with its Vision 2030 Strategic Plan. Mitigations that need to be put in place to reduce the severity of these impacts have also been discussed. The second part discusses the Global commons, their interactions and the effects experienced as a result of depletion of one or more of them. In this essay, “Global commons" refers to something shared in common by a community. Commons presupposes a community - its members can claim equal rights to the common ground. A global commons presupposes a global community. This essay will delve on bringing a clear......

Words: 3689 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

System Safety Paper

...comprehensive overview of the entire life cycle of a part, component, or assembly. Utilizing the tools discussed in this paper, the mechanics of this program will not only create a safer aviation industry but provide a highly cost effective operation as well. In addition to discussing techniques on how to approach an aviation operation and transform it into a safe and self-sufficient system, this paper will also discuss the most important ingredient, training. System Safety has been defined by the United States Naval Safety Center as the accepted methodology for identifying potential hazards during the design process and preventing hazards by addressing their root causes. This methodology proactively identifies risks inherent in a process, reviews operational systems for possible failure modes and provides a systems engineering practice principles approach to tracking and resolution of potential hazards (, 2008). The Department of the Army has taken this concept very seriously and has written a 55-page pamphlet containing very detailed information on how to use and implement a System Safety Program way back in 1987. Outside the United States Government, many civilian industries are now being pressed to assume corporate social responsibility and improve safety for employees and the environment, keep in mind, these industries have not been typical users of...

Words: 2456 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

The Impact of Occupational Health and Safety Issues on Human Resource Management in Contemporary Organizations

...The Impact of Occupational Health and Safety Issues on Human Resource Management in Contemporary Organizations 1.0 Introduction With the development and globalization of world economy, the competition between organizations is becoming fiercer and more and more industrial pollution and production hazards are constantly threatening the health and safety of organization and its employees. Therefore, it is very important to fully recognize occupational health and safety management for organization increasing its productivity and enhancing its competitiveness. The essence of organization’s competition is the competition of "talent" and human is the core and most important one in various production factors. Retaining "talent" is the most key question in Human resource management, which is responsible for the balance of goals and needs between organizations and employees and take charge of nearly all decisions that are related to people. In this essay it will be detailed the discussion on the impact of some current occupational health and safety issues, such as job stress, on human resource management. 2. The functions and goal of Human Resource Management Human resources management refers to a series of human resources policies and relevant management activities implemented in the guidance of economics and human-centered thought to meet with organization’s needs for current and future development and ensure the achievement of organization’s goals and the......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Global Warming

...Global warming is a severe problem facing the world today. Based on the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 2007) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as Earth’s climate began to change due to the rise of global temperature, there will be an increased tendency for drought, melting of ice sheets in Greenland or Antarctica and this will pose a major threat to human existence. The greenhouse effect is much to be blamed for global warming as carbon dioxide accumulated at the atmosphere will prevent most of the outgoing infrared radiation at the atmosphere from escaping into outer space. The main source of carbon dioxide emission is the burning of fossil fuels to generate energy in order to meet our daily requirements. Although the dependable energy supply by fossil fuel is essential in our every day life, because of its adverse effect is why the government should implement policies to encourage the use of renewable energy resources to conserve the environment. Fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, uranium, natural gases are non-renewable energy sources, which mean these resources cannot be re-made or regenerated. In contrast to that, renewable energy resources like hydroelectric energy, solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy do not deplete, or it will take a substantially long time to deplete them as it can be replenished by nature. Statistics has shown that there is an increase in the investment of renewable energy over the pass few years, in 2007......

Words: 1116 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Assessment: Critical Essay Company: Pepsi Company Ltd Essay Title: Corporate Environmental Obligation: An examination of the performance of Pepsi Co Student Name: Chomansingh Mareachealee Student Number: 15570501 Semester: 1 2011 Campus: Charles Telfair Institute Tutor’s Name: Sarita Ramanan Tutorial Day and Time: Tuesday (11:30-13:30) GP 4   |   |   |   |   |   |   | Table of content | |   |   | | Content: |   | |   |   | | Introduction | 2 | |   |   | | The case against Pepsi Co and its impact & implication: |   | | |   | | (A) Achieving positive water balance | 2&3 | | (B) Land & Packaging- Moving towards zero landfill | 4 | | (C ) Climate change- reducing the carbon Footprint of operations | 5 | | (D) Protecting Natural resources and health | 6 | | | | |   |   | | The case for Pepsi Co and its impact & implication: |   | | | | | (A) Pesticide controversy in India and Carbon dioxide emission | 7 | | (B) Using Tap water for Bottling | 7&8 | | (C )Health issues and Recycling problem | 8&9 | | | | |   |   | | Conclusion: | 9 | |   |   | | References: | 10&11&12 | |   | Re: Corporate Environmental Obligation: An examination of the performance of Pepsi company Introduction: Modern organizations have high considerations for societal contribution. Nowadays, customers are environmental conscious and......

Words: 4895 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Pollution of Air

...INTRODUCTION With the great concern surrounding the destruction of the earth's atmosphere due to air pollution, the immediate and direct harm caused to the human body is often over shadowed. While many are aware that our careless use of hazardous chemicals and fossil fuels may leave the planet uninhabitable in the future, most over look the fact that they also cause real damage to our bodies at this moment. Such pollutants cause damage to our respiratory system, leading to the fluctuation of the life span of an individual depending on a number of conditions. Amongst these conditions are the individuals specific geographic location, age, and life style. In this essay I will try to explain what pollutants are and how they affect our bodies. What are the pollutants? And how do they affect our bodies?  In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, you must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pollutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates. Particulates are the small solid particles that you can see through a ray of sunlight. They are products of incomplete combustion in engines example: automobile engines, road dust, and wood smoke. Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year.  When these fuels burn they produce smoke and other by-products into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke given off by power plants and automobiles, much still remains. Particulate matter......

Words: 2476 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Slum Rehabilitation

...SLUM REDEVELOPMENT - POST PANSHET FLOODS OF 1961 Sejal Nagori 50. The Panshet dam disaster in 1961 redefined the city’s geography, wiped out the modest Pune settings in peth . Nearly half of Poona City was under six feet of water today as the swollen Mutha River completely washed away the earthen Panshet Dam and made a 100-foot breach in the Khadakvasla Dam. The first wave came in the forenoon when the raging river destroyed the Panshet Dam. Another mass of water cascaded into the city when the Khadakvasla Dam gave way in the afternoon. The failure of the dam occurred because of the breach that developed in Panshet Dam, upstream of the Khadkawasla reservoir. The upstream dam released a tremendous volume of water into the downstream reservoir at a time when the Khadkawasla reservoir was already full, with the gates discharging at near full capacity. This caused overtopping of the dam because inflow was much above the design flood. The entire length of the dam spilling 2.7 m of water. Vibration of the structure was reported, as the incoming flood was battering the dam. Failure occurred within four hours of the visiting flood waters. The gushing flood water rendered homeless hundreds of families in just a few hours, besides damaging popular landmarks of that time like the then newly reconstructed LAKDI PUL (SAMBHAJI BRIDGE) and OMKARESHWAR TEMPLE to name a few,” . The top of the STATUE of RANI LAXMIBAI OF JHANSI on JM Road was visible while rest was completely submerged in......

Words: 2795 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...The mining industry is one of the world’s greatest international industries and it is a very high health hazard business. Due to the economic and environmental impacts, the mining industry is one of the most complex industries. The development of the mining industry is evident but unethical (Cragg & Greenbaum 2002). However, the lack of business ethics has contributed to the re-development of the mining business in today’s economic climate. Corporations such as CSR indicated how unethical behaviors aimed at the interest of the shareholders, the state and the environment (Campbell 2012). This has affected the operations of their business and the sociological impact which coincides with the global business standard codex (GBSC) (Campbell 2011). The purpose of this essay is to examine the ethical point and performance of the mining industry concerning risky employment, child labor, corruption and health and safety of workers in rising countries using three ethical principles of the global business standards codex (GBSC). Global ethics is important because the use of standardized ethical principles within the companies will form a single standard and generally increase the business conduct of employees within the mining industry (Campbell 2011). The code of the business conduct sets out standards that the mining industry must obey to as guiding its business and includes environment protection, occupational health and safety, confidentiality, equal employment opportunity and......

Words: 1652 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...presence of foreign substances (pollutants) in the atmosphere, emitted by industries and motor vehicles that cause damage to living organisms. Air pollution is the leading cause of several diseases. During the past few years, air pollution has emerged as one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Air Pollutants: Air Pollutants refer to the liquids, solids and gases that are not normal constituents of air. Presence of such substances beyond tolerable limits may be hazardous to plant, animal and human life. Air pollutants include oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons, suspended inorganic particulate matters, inorganic and organic acids, insecticides, bacteria, viruses, etc. Also read: Essay on Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution Characteristics: Air pollution characteristics in a particular region are influenced by: * The type and amount of pollutant and their source of emission. * The topographical and meteorological conditions affecting dispersion, concentration and trans-boundary transport of pollutants. * The type of technology and various raw materials used in the manufacturing process and the type and quantum of emissions. * The extent of industrialization and population density. Sources of air pollutants Major sources of air pollution includes both natural sources and man-made source (anthropogenic). A. Natural sources: The natural sources of air pollutants includes volcanic eruptions, forest......

Words: 3530 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Part 1,2,3 Decisions in Paradise

...assignment. The author plays the role of Nik in this business scenario. Dillard’s Incorporated will serve as the author’s current employer and the company described in this essay. Alex, Nik, and Chris are all representatives of Dillard’s. Each part of this three part assignment will build upon the previous section. The author will attempt to define issues that effect business, highlight the forces involved in the problem, describe the organizational and environmental obstacles, and finally apply critical thinking in the decision-making process. Defining the Issues The Dillard's organization is looking to establish a new manufacturing plant on the island of Kava, in the South Pacific. The Dillard’s organization hopes that this move will be beneficial to both Kava and the Dillard’s shareholders. This decision to branch out to Kava will require careful planning and consideration of all the present issues. Issues present such as: natural disasters, health risks, and internal and external forces, create a challenge for Dillard’s Incorporated. Dillard’s desperately needs to develop a plan to have a greater presence on Kava. Forces and Obstacles Involved There are several internal and external forces involved in the decision to set up a manufacturing plant in Kava. External forces for example, environmental obstacles, present in the South Pacific include: tornadoes, hurricanes and typhoons, floods, fires, earthquakes, petroleum spills, volcanic eruptions, and the......

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...CONRAD P. KOTTAK Department of Anthropology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 The New Ecological Anthropology Older ecologies have been remiss in the narrowness of their spatial and temporal horizons, their functionalist assumptions, and their apolitical character. Suspending functionalist assumptions and an emphasis upon (homeo)stasis, "the new ecological anthropology" is located at the intersection of global, national, regional, and local systems, studying the outcome of the interaction of multiple levels and multiple factors. It blends theoretical and empirical research with applied, policy-directed, and critical work in what Rappaport called an "engaged" anthropology; and it is otherwise attuned to the political aspects and implications of ecological processes. Carefully laying out a critique of previous ecologies by way of announcing newer approaches, the article insists on the need to recognize the importance of culture mediations in ecological processes rather than treating culture as epiphenomenal and as a mere adaptive tool. It closes with a discussion of the methodologies appropriate to the new ecological anthropology. / "the new ecology, " political ecology, applied or engaged anthropology, linkages methodology] cological anthropology was named as such during the 1960s, but it has many ancestors, including Daryll Forde, Alfred Kroeber, and, especially, Julian Steward. Steward's cultural ecology influenced the ecological anthropology of Roy......

Words: 10525 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

English effectively and sustainably manage earth’s energy, water, mineral, soil and coastal resources for our future generations. A stand-alone view of various phenomena will not serve any purpose as any independent model is unable to sustain the variability of the complexities involved in the earth and ocean sciences, which are gradually converging. It has therefore become imperative to understand the interdependence and coupling of geological sciences and oceanography. The combined approach to earth and ocean sciences is also the key to predicting and managing natural disasters or hazards like earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunami, etc. In this context, in a significant development in India, a Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) was formed in July 2006 by restructuring the former Ministry of Ocean Development. The MoES deals with matters relating to meteorology, seismology, climate and environmental science and related earth sciences including ocean science and technology. It facilitates an integrated view of earth systems viz., ocean, atmosphere and land to provide best possible services in respect of ocean resources, ocean state, monsoon, cyclone, earthquake, tsunami, climate change, etc. The MoES oversees research in earth system sciences, forecast monsoons and other climate parameters, ocean state, earthquakes, tsunamis and earth science phenomena. The ministry also supports industry in science, aviation, water resources, aquaculture, agriculture, etc., by......

Words: 4515 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Project Finance

...Resource Markets WP-RM-18 Recent Developments in Transaction Cost Economics Sophia Ruester January 2010 Chair for Energy Economics and Public Sector Management Electronic copy available at: Recent Developments in Transaction Cost Economics Sophia Ruester1 Abstract This working paper provides a summary on transaction cost economics (TCE) and recent developments thereof. After an introductory discussion of TCE’s role within the field of New Institutional Economics, a critical analysis of the contribution of the existing body of empirical literature is conducted. In recent years, researchers have continued to develop and extend TCE. Williamson (1991b) introduces the shift parameter framework which investigates how the optimal choice of governance changes in response to dynamics in the institutional environment. Nickerson (1997) develops the positioning-economizing perspective arguing that decisions regarding market position, resource investments, and governance mode are interdependent and determined simultaneously. A number of authors came up with an increasing interest in relational institutional arrangements arguing that TCE may overstate the desirability of complex long-term contracts and vertical integration in exchange settings where a substantial hold-up potential is present. JEL Codes: Keywords: D23, L22 Transaction cost economics, discriminative alignment, theories of the firm, shift parameter framework,......

Words: 20511 - Pages: 83