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Environmental Systems Review

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Environmental Systems Review
42. Cultural eutrophication occurs when there is an overload of nutrients causing an algae bloom and the bacteria eat the algae so that there is no more oxygen.
45. Landfills, septic tanks, and hazardous waste contribute to groundwater pollution.
46. Surface water pollution can be prevented reducing fertilizer and runoff.
47. Drinking water can be made safer if poverty is reduced.
48. The four categories of pesticides are rodentocide (kills rodents/rats), nematocide (kills worms), fungicide (kills mushrooms), and insecticide (kills insects).
49. Chemical pesticides are beneficial to man because the increase food supply and decrease cost.
50. Chemical pesticides accelerate resistance to pesticides.
51. FIRFA regulates the use of pesticides in the U.S.
55. Nicotine sulfate is a naturally occurring pesticide from tobacco plants.
56. Broad-spectrum pesticides kill the good and the bad.
57. DDT initially saved human lives by getting rid of disease but is now taking them because of bioaccumulation.
59. Second generation pesticides are chemicals similar to insect hormones.
61. Human activities have affected earth’s biodiversity with habitat loss.
62. Biodiversity is important to the economy and stability of ecosystem.
63. Human activities that directly cause extinction are habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, and poaching.
64. An animal that was recently removed from the endangered species list is the grey wolf.
65. Wildlife populations can be managed by regulating hunting.
66. The drawback of using zoos for increasing populations of endangered species is that the small gene pool can lead to the bottleneck effect.
67. Reasons that captive breeding fails are that the animals might not breed in captivity, they will not have the skills to survive in the wild, there is less species diversity, and not enough habitat for them.
68. Principles that should be used to govern public land are protect biodiversity, compensate people for property, no subsidies on public land, and users of that land should be responsible for any damages done to the land.
69. Four general types of forests based on climate are boreal, temperate, tropical, and subtropical.
70. Other classifications of forests are old growth, second growth, and tree planting growth.
71. Clear cutting destroys the top three layers of the forest.
72. The main conflict between the ecological service and economic service that forests provide is that in order to have the economic services the ecological services are harmed.
73. The most damaging method of tree harvesting is clear cutting.
74. Most ecologists believe that to establish and manage nature reserves they should use non-equilibrium, minor disturbances increase biodiversity, and reserves should be habitat islands.
75. Human impacts of aquatic biodiversity are pollution and introduction of non-native species.
76. There is generally high biodiversity on reefs and coastlines and less in the middle of the ocean.
77. People can be “pushed” into urban areas by poverty, lack of land, famine, war, and lack of agricultural jobs.
78. 20-25% of Mexican residents live in Mexico City.
79. Effects of high population density are increased pollution, crime, and unemployment.
80. Urban sprawl is low density development at edge of cities.
81. Undesirable impacts of urban sprawl are increased energy use, loss of cropland, and contamination.
82. It is usually hotter in downtown areas than in the suburbs because there are less trees and more dark roads and buildings in downtown areas.
83. Two types of economic systems are command and market.
85. “Appropriate technology” helps reduce waste in production by only using machines when necessary.
86. Poverty causes environmental problems.
87. “Sunset businesses” replace water well with water conservation, business travel with phone conferences, coal with solar power, and oil with fuel cell production.
88. Factors that hinder the ability of democracies to deal with environmental problems are emphasis on short term problems, elections occur so often that nobody is in office long enough to fix long term problems, and the wildlife can’t vote. “The owls can’t vote so hoo will vote for them?”

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