Submitted By Candise007
The use of enzymes to modify foods has increased vastly and these fermentations are continuing to be important, however, a new type of enzyme industry has evolved which involves the use of harvesting enzymes from microorganisms. According to Aritri Ghosh a Biotech engineer, the production of enzymes from bacteria and fungi can be isolated from the growth and cleansed and purified as necessary. Generally in industrial processes the enzyme is immobilized which allows the enzyme to be re-used and also enable the products to be separated easily. The production of textiles, paper, leather, fruit juices and biological detergents are produced from Microbial enzymes. We have learned from our text book Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections that Enzymes work by breaking down a substrate into simpler molecules. They increase the rate at which a reaction occurs. They lower the activation energy which results in a quicker rate. Once the substrate leaves the active site of the enzyme the enzyme is free to combine with another free substrate molecule as long as it will fit into the active site of the enzyme as each enzyme has a specific active site which results in enzymes being specific in what they break down. Proteases Proteases hydrolyze peptide bonds in peptides and proteins. They act within the peptide chain or by removing amino acid residues in sequence from one or other end of the chain. Proteases can also be known as proteinases and peptidases. Proteases account for about 2/3 of the commercially used microbial enzymes; various fungal enzymes are used in cheese making as an alternative to rennet as they help to clot milk. Microbial proteases can also be used in clarifying fruit juices and also in beer by terminating the protein haze. They can also be used in the digestion of fish livers to permit improved withdrawal of fish oil, tenderization of...