Premium Essay

Epidemiology Paper on Hiv

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mandyredcandy
Words 787
Pages 4
Amanda Hough
Grand Canyon University: Family Centered Health Promotion
May 16, 2014

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It can lead to immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. It is caused by the HIV entering the uninfected body and stats to destroy CD4+cells which are there to help the body fight infection and disease (, 2014). Once you have HIV, you have it for life. More than 1.1 million people in United States alone are living with HIV and 1 out of 6 font even know it. About 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year (, 2014). It is more commonly see in the gay community particularly young black males. In 2011 an estimated that 15,529 people had died. (, 2014)
HIV is spread by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV, sharing needles and less commonly by being born to an infected mother, blood transfusions or being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle (, 2014).
HIV has three stages of symptoms (Early, Latency, and Progression to AIDS). Early stage of HIV happens in the second to fourth week after being infected. It is the body’s natural defense mechanism to fighting off an invader. Symptoms are flu like and can be easily put off to other illnesses. Symptoms like fever, sore throat, rash, fatigue, aches and pains. These symptoms can last from a few days to several weeks. Clinical latency stage is when the virus is continuing to develop without producing symptoms. Even though the individual is symptom free they are still able to transmit HIV to others. The last stage is the progression to AIDS when the virus begins to weaken your body’s immune system. Rapid weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea that lass for weeks, sores in the month, anus and genitals, pneumonia, skin changes in the mouth, nose or eyelids, memory loss, depression, and neurologic disorders (, 2014).
Complications are a result of having...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper: HIV Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V 08/09/2015 Human immunodeficiency virus, otherwise known as HIV, is a serious disease that affects the bodies’ immune system. HIV affects the immune cells, specifically called the CD4 cells or T cells. As time passes, these cells are destroyed and soon the body begins to lose its ability to fight off infections and disease. HIV is the virus that could lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unfortunately, there is no cure for HIV, meaning once infected, you will remain infected for the rest of your life. The earliest HIV case was known to be in 1959. While it is unknown when exactly it came about, or from where, the transfer of the disease is thought to be from animal to human decades earlier. Some scientists believe that the chimpanzee transmitted the virus to humans, back when humans would hunt the chimpanzees for their meat. The contact with their HIV infected blood caused the spread of the communicable disease. After slowly spreading across Africa through the years, the virus made its way out into the world. “The first cases of HIV in the United States date back to 1981.” (Holland, 2013) The HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. There are many myths about how HIV is spread; the truth of how it is spread is simple, through blood, semen, vaginal/rectal fluids and breast milk. “These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly......

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...July 27, 2014 Epidemiology HIV is an acronym that stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The HIV virus attacks a carrier’s immune system making a simple cold detrimental to their health. It is spread though contact with an infected individual’s blood, semen, or vaginal fluid. The two most common ways that people contract HIV is though unprotected sex with a partner who knowingly or unknowingly has HIV, or through sharing needles with regards to drug use. The HIV virus works by attacking cells called CD4+ cells. These cells make up a large part of one’s immune system. When a certain number of CD4+ cells are destroyed, the human body is no longer able to fight off infections, regardless of how common. When the CD4+ cell amount becomes so little in quantity, the patient’s diagnosis usually changes from HIV to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The amount of time it can take for those infected to progress to AIDS can take up to 12 years (, 2014). With ObamaCare, the primary goals regarding HIV is aimed at: 1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, 2) increasing access to care and optimizing health outcomes for people living with HIV, and 3) reducing HIV-related health disparities (, 2014). By providing preventative care such as condoms, education on monogamy, free clinics for STD (sexually transmitted diseases) screening, the population will be at a lesser risk of contracting HIV. In 1995, 44 percent of the general public......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Benchmark Assignment: Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...Benchmark Assignment: HIV Epidemiology Paper Dawn Hickey-Johnson Grand Canyon University Benchmark Assignment: HIV Epidemiology Paper     “The global trends and adverse health impact of HIV, viral hepatitis, STIs, and TB remain among the major and urgent public health challenges of our time. These conditions account for substantial morbidity and mortality, with devastating fiscal and emotional costs to individuals, families, and societies. Despite decades of investment and support, the U.S. still experiences a disproportionate burden of these conditions compared with other Western industrialized nations, with substantial health disparities being observed across population subgroups and geographic regions.” (Hazel D. Dean, ScD, MPH Kevin A. Fenton, MD, PhD, 2010)     This paper will focus specifically on HIV/AIDS.  “    Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. ·         AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s. ("STOP AIDS," 2009)     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS) is a disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV attacks the  human immune system, and progressively reduces its effectiveness, leaving the host susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. Due to the extended incubation period, the time between being infected with the virus and the......

Words: 4429 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Epidemlogy Paper

...Epidemiology Paper Ericka Williams NUR/408 October 5, 2015 Willadene Walker-Schmucker Epidemiology Paper According to A Dictionary of Epidemiology (2014), Epidemiology is the science that studies the causes, patterns and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Epidemiology is an evidence-based practice that identifies risk factors and targets preventative healthcare. Epidemiology is a quantitative science built on the working knowledge of probability, statistics, and sound research. Epidemiology research looks at the population to see how many people are infected by the disease and study the disease over time to see if there is a change and what affects the disease have on our population. It is a tool used to promote and protect the public’s health. Steps and Methods of Epidemiology The steps and methods of epidemiology are routinely collecting data, epidemiologic data, and collecting data for other purposes these methods study health-related events. Routinely collected data can vary depending on time and region, this is data collected in a general population, such as births, deaths, and infectious diseases, (Stanhope & Lancaster 2012). Epidemiologic data uses surveys in specific populations to answer questions of concern and interest (Stanhope & Lancaster 2012). Data collected for other purposes is for research or investigative purposes within a region or area of interest (Stanhope & Lancaster 2012). Epidemiological......

Words: 1958 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Nu$ 408 Epidemology

...Epidemiology Paper The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relevancy of the vulnerable population, and the disease for this group. The vulnerable population that has been chosen is mental illness, and the disease for this population is AIDS/HIV. There will be a definition and description of epidemiology in regards to HIV/AIDS, with the steps and method that was used. The Epidemiological Triangle will be define and identified, and the different types of epidemiology. The population chosen characteristics such as the influenced population’s vulnerability. This essay will also examine the values and potential cultural biases with cultural considerations that may impact health issues. There are legal and ethical consideration when working with the mentally ill. Describing the relationship of the disease to varies levels of prevention. Relevant population and the disease of this population The mentally ill the population and the disease is AIDS/HIV. Mental disorders are indiscriminate. They occur across the span and affect persons of all races, cultures genders and educational and socioeconomic group. One of the leading cause of disability is mental illness. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS have had an enormous political and social impact on society. Nearly 75% of new HIV infections occur in persons between 30-49 years may result in disrupted families and lost careers and economic productivity. (Stanhope, 2012, p317) HIV is transmitted through......

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Epidemiology and Vulnerable Populations

...Epidemiology and Vulnerable Populations Angela Wilson NUR / 408 November 4, 2013 Epidemiology and Vulnerable Populations Introduction Health is a state of optimum well-being, a human right and a social goal. The public health mission is to provide and assure conditions that promote health in the community. Public health, epidemiology and nursing practice share the same goal of disease prevention and control. By definition, epidemiology is the study of population in order to monitor the health of the population, understand the determinants of health and disease in the community, and investigate and evaluate interventions to prevent disease and maintain health. (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology has reformed public health and continues to strive for disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the world. The......

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Technology and Decision Making

...Epidemiology Paper Epidemiology has become the method of choice for public health research. The patterns and trends and cause and effects of health affecting phenomena identified by epidemiology are instrumental in predicting risk factors e.g.; development of treatment strategies to prevent or contain diseases. Epidemiology estimates have changed over time related to changes in the definition and diagnosis of diseases. Epidemiology is practiced as a broad scientific discipline that addresses occurrences of diseases and distribution of health status of populations. Integration of casual concepts at the clinical, social and environmental levels will allow faculty to work to maintain an intellectual environment that will facilitate the integration of biological, social and, analytical approaches of epidemiology. This type of environment allows faculty and students to develop the knowledge to fully appreciate the complexities of biosocial system to understand, modify, and use this information to maximum potential. The focus of this paper will be on immigrant/migrants as a vulnerable population with emphasis on infectious disease a major health concern. The paper will define epidemiology and identify steps and methods of the type of epidemiology and examines relationships of illnesses and education related to infectious diseases. Epidemiology defined Stanhope & Lancaster (2008) defines epidemiology as “the study of the distribution and determination of health- related......

Words: 1981 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population NUR/408 January 14, 2013 Theresa White Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population This paper will define epidemiology and vulnerable population. The methods and steps involved in the epidemiology process will be discussed. The diseases of a specific vulnerable population and emphasis of one disease will be examined with cultural, ethical, and legal considerations. The epidemiology triangle is explained and evaluating the feasibility of prevention will be explored with definitive steps for prevention. Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) states “epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related events in human populations and the application of this knowledge to improving the health of communities (p. 282). In many communities there populations at risk for to specific health care problems creating a vulnerable population. “Vulnerability is a general concept meaning “susceptibility,” and its specific connotation in terms of health care is at risk for health problems” (De Chesney, 2008, p. 3). As Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) identify “epidemiology is a multidisciplinary enterprise that recognizes the complex interrelationships of factors that influence disease and health at both the individual level and the community level; it provides the basic tools for the study of health and disease in communities” (p. 282). In every community there are vulnerable......

Words: 2427 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper – HIV/AIDS Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008, p. 243). According to Medscape’s (2011) website, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent among homeless girls and women (both sheltered and unsheltered) and is attributed to lack of access to condoms, survival sex, prostitution, intravenous drug use, language barriers, and citizenship status. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body's natural defense system. Not having a good immune system means the body will have trouble getting rid of disease. The infection it creates and the virus is called HIV. One of the most important pieces of the immune system is the White Blood cells. The HIV virus targets and destroy a specific white blood cell called CD4+ cells. The human body can’t defend itself from infection if way too many CD4+ cells are neutralized. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the last phase of HIV infection. People get rare Cancer or infections that healthy people almost never get if they have low amount of CD4+ with AIDS. This could be fatal. Although just because you have HIV, doesn’t mean you also have AIDS. It usually takes 10-12 years for HIV to become aids even without any treatment. If the HIV virus is diagnosed before AIDS develop, then......

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hiv Epidemiology

...HIV Epidemiology HIV Epidemiology For the epidemiology paper I chose to write about HIV. HIV is growing concern in the community and too many people are uneducated about the seriousness of this disease. HIV is terminal illness; it will eventually consume your life at some point. There are treatment options out there but being compliant with the medication regimen is crucial to the maintenance and management of this disease. HIV also known as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus; with HIV the virus replicates and attacks our immune system causing it to go haywire. With the suppression of our immune systems it puts people with HIV at a bigger risk for infection and other common illnesses. People with HIV the common cold can be very critical because their bodies are unable to fight off the virus. The virus attacks our WBC (white blood cells) and they are what are used to fight off infection. The cells that are affected the most are WBC that is called CD4+ cells. If these cells begin to malfunction then the body loses its ability defend itself against infection. HIV is spread when blood, semen, or vaginal fluids from an infected person enter another person's body, usually through sexual contact, from sharing needles when injecting drugs, or from mother to baby during birth (WebMD, 2014). When we deal with patients who have this disease we need to be sure to educate them on the importance of safe sex practices and the importance of refraining from drug use especially when......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Mauritius Paper Presenter: Satish K Ramchurn, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius Author(s): • Faatimah N Angnoo, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius • Smita SD Goorah, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius • Satish K Ramchurn, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius Introduction Mauritius is currently experiencing a concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemic. The epidemic is said to be concentrated because the prevalence in the general population is low (about 0.2%) whereas the prevalence in the high-risk groups of intravenous drug users (IDUs), commercial sex workers (CSWs), and prison inmates is high (between 15-20 %). For example, 485 out of the current 2126 prison inmates have tested HIV positive (23%). The overall prevalence for the 14-49 year-old age group is estimated at about 2 %. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius is essentially IDU-driven. As the epidemic threatens to significantly affect the 14-20 year old age group through intravenous drug use and to expand to the general population with the CSW group acting as a bridge, it has become important to understand the epidemiology of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mauritius and to develop a mathematical model to characterize the dynamics of the epidemic and to use the model to propose mitigating measures. Methods We reviewed and analyzed the HIV/AIDS prevalence data for...

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Epidemiology and Hiv

...Epidemiology and HIV Jody Houghton Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-0191 Sandra White October 18, 2014 Epidemiology and HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, is a virus that attacks specific cells in the human immune system weakening the body so it cannot fight off infection. HIV is a major public health concern in the United States with an estimated 1.1 million Americans infected, and 1 out of 5 people don’t even know they have it ( The virus is transmitted by blood or certain body fluids, which must come in contact with mucous membranes of another person for transmission to occur. Currently no cure exists, but with effective interventions the risk of transmission is greatly decreased ( HIV affects the CD4, or T cells of the immune system. The disease uses these cells to replicate itself, and in the process destroying the T cells. In turn, the body cannot fight off infections, and AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifests ( It is believed that the virus originally was present in chimpanzees in West Africa, and transmitted to humans when the chimpanzees were hunted for their meat as far back as the 1800’s ( The early signs of the virus are like many other viruses, fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and headache ( is the only way to know for sure if you have the virus. Home testing kits are......

Words: 1435 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Epidemiology/ Tuberculosis Paper

...Epidemiology Paper Epidemiology Paper This will paper discuss one of the deadly disease in the world call Tuberculosis (TB). The goal is to prevent the disease and prevent the spread of the disease from the teaching that the community health nurse will provide. An individual can die if TB is left untreated. Active Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This respiratory disease that in most common in the lungs. (World Health Organization, 2014). Other parts of the body are affected by TB is the brain which causes tuberculosis meningitis, genitourinary TB, gastrointestinal TB, tuberculosis lymphadenitis, cutaneous TB, Uterus ovarian TB and Osteo articular skeletal bone and joint TB(articles base, 2008). It is curable and preventable. TB is contagious and is transmitted through the air from a person with the active respiratory disease and then another person inhale this infectious droplet. Active TB symptom from the lung are coughing, and with bloody sputum present sometimes, weakness, chest pain, fever, weight loss and night sweats. Once the germs enter the air it takes only a few of them to infect another person (World Health Organization, 2014). People with active TB usually have positive TB skin test and blood test. The chest x-ray is usually positive and positive sputum culture (Centered for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Latent Tuberculosis Another form of TB is......

Words: 1933 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host; either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment (UCLA, 2011). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a communicable disease that has become a global epidemic. This paper will give the reader a description of the disease, demographic of interest, describe the determinants of health, the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to AIDS. This paper will also discuss the role of community health nurse and organizations that have made an impact on AIDS education and research. The first report of AIDS in medical literature was in 1981 at this time AIDS was known as a disease associated with being gay, this quickly changed when further research revealed a transfusion recipient had been diagnosed as well as an infant in 1982 (UCSF, 2003). The cause of AIDS comes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which destroys CD4 cells this weakens the bodies immune system, a patient could have HIV for many years before it progresses to AIDS. A person is considered to be infected with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 or they show any of the following symptoms: * Tuberculosis * Cryptosporidiosis * Pneumocystis pneumonia * Cytomegalovirus * Toxoplasmosis (Mayo Clinic, 2012) AIDS is transmitted through several methods including sex, blood......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Epidemiology of Hiv

...Epidemiology Paper: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V Epidemiology Paper: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus that originates from West Africa. Chimpanzees in West Africa that were infected with a similar virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, were hunted by humans and their meat was harvested and eaten (CDC, 2014). During this process, humans that were exposed to their blood or ate their meat, were exposed to this same virus. The simian immunodeficiency virus mutated over time becoming the human immunodeficiency virus. Scientists believe this transmission from chimpanzees to humans has been occurring since the early 1800’s and has slowly spread across the world. HIV is a virus that eventually leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The human body is unable to rid itself of this virus, meaning it is a lifelong illness that necessitates lifelong treatment. There is no cure, although scientists worldwide are actively and diligently working towards one. The virus directly attacks specific cells in our body which are called T-cells. It invades the T-cell and uses them to replicate itself, destroying the T-cell in the process. T-cells help our bodies in the defense against infection and disease and when they are depleted and destroyed, cause and increase in susceptibility to infection and disease. When these cells are depleted to a dangerous level, the disease process then transitions to AIDS...

Words: 1601 - Pages: 7