Epidemiology

In: Science

Submitted By katiasot
Words 3862
Pages 16
Epidemiology
Question 1
1. Case control studies are designed in such a way so as to explore whether exposure can be associated with a particular outcome, such as a disease or certain condition. In these studies, the definition groups are based on the outcome and exposure assessment for potential risk factors. The first step in case control studies is the identification of the case (for example a group of people known to have the certain condition), as well as the control group ( a group that does not have the outcome). The second step is to explore whether some of the subjects in each group were exposed, and how the frequency of the exposure is measured between the case and the control group. Case control studies are basically observational, because there is no intervention taking place, and is a retrospective determination of the exposure to a certain risk factor.
Advantages of case control studies
• Case control studies are relatively less time consuming, since the disease has occurred in the past, therefore there is no need to assess the disease or condition.
• They are an efficient way to study rare cases and diseases or outbreaks of diseases, since they are fast; during an outbreak, the fast examination of certain conditions is required, and a sufficient number of people suffering can be quickly accessed.
• They allow a simultaneous examination of multiple conditions and risk factors
• Allow the establishment of associations between suspected risk factors and conditions in initial and preliminary studies
• They are also useful in the case where induction period is long
• Case control studies are easier, less expensive, and do not require a long follow up period (Merill, 2010)


2. Disadvantages of case control studies
➢ Being retrospective studies, case control studies have problems with the quality of data, and are…...

Similar Documents

Epidemiology I

...Epidemiology Study Guide Introduction to Epidemiology History * John Graunt * Published Bills of Mortality in 1622 * Analysis of weekly reports of births and deaths in London by sex, age, and time. * Discovered that births and deaths of men occurred in excess; high death rates of infants; and seasonal pattern with highest mortality in winter. * John Snow * Conducted one of the first observational studies in the neighborhoods of 19th century London and discovered that contaminated drinking water was the cause of cholera. * Carefully documented what he called a “natural experiment” in which neighbors received water provided by different companies and had differing rates of disease. * Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill * Conducted groundbreaking studies on cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1950s. * James Lind * Conducted one of the earliest experimental studies, which was the treatment of scurvy among sailors. * Using sound experimental principles, he found that the consumption of oranges and lemons were the most effective remedies for scurvy in this population. * William Farr * Compiled the Statistical Abstracts in Great Britain from 1839 through 1880. * He pioneered many activities encompassed by modern epidemiology, including the calculation of mortality rates using census data for denominators. Definitions * Epidemiology – the study of the distribution and...

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population NUR/408 January 14, 2013 Theresa White Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population This paper will define epidemiology and vulnerable population. The methods and steps involved in the epidemiology process will be discussed. The diseases of a specific vulnerable population and emphasis of one disease will be examined with cultural, ethical, and legal considerations. The epidemiology triangle is explained and evaluating the feasibility of prevention will be explored with definitive steps for prevention. Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) states “epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related events in human populations and the application of this knowledge to improving the health of communities (p. 282). In many communities there populations at risk for to specific health care problems creating a vulnerable population. “Vulnerability is a general concept meaning “susceptibility,” and its specific connotation in terms of health care is at risk for health problems” (De Chesney, 2008, p. 3). As Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) identify “epidemiology is a multidisciplinary enterprise that recognizes the complex interrelationships of factors that influence disease and health at both the individual level and the community level; it provides the basic tools for the study of health and disease in communities” (p. 282). In every community there are vulnerable...

Words: 2427 - Pages: 10

Epidemiology

...Applying Epidemiology Charles B. Moore HCA 415 Instructor: Quida Davis April 27, 2014 Applying Epidemiology A mother of a young child called the Vermont Department on February 5 to report the possibility of a foodborne disease outbreak after her child aged 5 years and two other children of her neighbor aged 7 and 10 years became ill with a lot of vomiting and diarrhea that took place within an interval of 12 hours. The child’s sickness became severe that the mother took her to a local hospital where she was kept at the emergency department. The mother stated that the child complained of nausea at 10 o’clock the February 2nd, later, the child began vomiting and having multiple episodes of diarrhea, she was not able to eat or drink anything without vomiting. In the evening, the woman took the child to the local hospital where she was admitted at the emergency department, here they noted the child was dehydrated and had a high fever. The stool and blood specimen of the child was collected and the child was given intravenous fluids as a treatment and later she was released; the following day the mother made follow ups on the test results for the child and it turned out the stool culture displayed negative results for usual bacteria (Brehm-Stecher et al, 2009, p. 1774). Two children who were nearby neighbors reported to have nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever, these were similar symptoms that the other child had even though these two children were not as ill as the...

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Epidemiology

...Thesis How has Chicken Pox evolved over time related to advances in community and public health nursing? Chicken Pox is a very common childhood disease caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus. This contagious itchy red rash covers the entire body with red blistery spots causing discomfort (Web MD 2013). Immunization, education, awareness and the epidemiology of Chicken Pox has made drastic improvement in the occurrence and mortality of disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2014). Description of Communicable Disease Chicken Pox can be easily transmitted from one person to the next by means of sneezing, coughing, saliva and surface contact (Web MD 2013). The fluid filled blisters rupture and accelerates the probability of transmission by contact. This disease is contagious 2-3 days prior to the rash appearing having an impact on how quickly this disease is transmitted due to the patient being asymptomatic (Web MD 2013). The ones who remain most at risk are those who’ve never had the disease or obtained a vaccine. The preliminary symptoms start to appear 14-16 days after contact with someone who had the disease (Web MD 2013). Symptoms include flu like symptoms with a fever, decreased appetite, headache, cough and sore throat. The itchy red spots appear taking approximately 2 days to go through the stages of blistering, bursting, drying and crusting over (Web MD 2013). Spots continue to appear everyday for about one week. It will take about one and...

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology: HIV The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the world’s largest pandemics as well as one of the most known diseases. With HIV being so common amongst our population, in today’s world many people still lack the knowledge of what HIV really is and how it is transmitted. This paper will explain in depth of how HIV is spread and the impact it has on society. Let’s begin with the history of HIV, where did it come from? Although there is no actual evidence to support this theory scientist believed the disease came from Chimpanzee’s that were infected. Hunters would eat the contaminated meat and then they became infected. The first report of HIV contraction came from a man from Congo in 1959, but how he became HIV positive is unknown (Where did HIV come from?, 2011). In 2011 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 49, 273 people were diagnosed with HIV in the United States. In the same year there were an estimated 1.1 million people with the disease and 1 out of 6 of those people might not know they are infected (HIV in The United States, 2011). HIV is transmitted through body fluids such as semen, pre- semen, rectal and vaginal fluids as well as through the sharing of needles. This makes the gay, lesbian and MSM population more susceptible to acquiring the disease due to their risky sexual practices (HIV Transmission, 2014). The populations of intravenous drug users are also at risk for catching HIV, many of them being homeless and...

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper In this epidemiological paper, I will be discussing about my chosen vulnerable population of elderly and the disease of type II diabetes among elderly population. I will also be discussing epidemiology and what it means, the steps and methods of epidemiology and how it was done for my chosen population and disease. Ethical and legal considerations, how to provide culturally competent care, and at last, I will discuss whether the research was descriptive or analytical, and the process of feasibility and evaluation of prevention of diseases. As stated in Nursing Standard, epidemiology is a scientific research discipline concerned with observing, measuring and analyzing health-related occurrences in human populations (Last 1995, Trichopoulos 1996). Mausner and Kramer (1985) suggest that epidemiological studies can be applied to all diseases, conditions and health-related events (Whitehead, 2000). Although epidemiology is focused on observing, measuring, and analyzing, it also evaluates diseases and health services, rationalizes resources, and prioritizes as to how to formulate strategies for health promotion. Epidemiology can also help to determine the health of the population, planning of health policies and services, and maintaining a healthy environment for all. When it comes to nursing, epidemiology offers nurses many benefits in incorporating health practices into their professional roles, helps them in having a better understanding in regards to the...

Words: 1846 - Pages: 8

Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology by definition is the study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health- characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine. Epidemiologists are involved in the design of studies, collection and statistical analysis of data, and interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review).Major areas of epidemiological study include outbreak investigation, disease surveillance and biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials. Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions), and exposure assessment and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors, and their measurement). I would like to discuss elderly patients as my vulnerable population. There is no set age at which a person maybe under the care of a geriatric physician. The physician aims to promote health by preventing disease and disabilities in geriatric adults. A gerontologist specializes in the aging process. Adult medicine differs from the geriatric patient because the focus is on the...

Words: 5272 - Pages: 22

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract Descriptive epidemiology is based on two important premises which are central in the field. The first premise states that disease does not occur in isolation. Secondly, patterns of disease occurrence are placed under three important categories of person, place and time. This paper seeks to build understanding on the three areas by giving relevant examples where they are applied. Epidemiology Person In Epidemiology studies the important demographic information will include age, sex, marital status, race, ethnicity, and religion and socioeconomic status. Age is considered the most important factor and is used in analyzing trends in disease occurrence. Advancement in age may be associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases. The elderly are also linked with several challenges. Changes marking age are shown by two important phases in life which shows greater frequency (Descriptive Epidemiology n.d). Sex as a second determinant of the person, and allows us to make references across sexes. For instance psychological studies have revealed that women cope well in the event of stress than men. Marital status is closer to this, and in epidemiology studies, it can be useful in establishing patterns of chronic diseases across genders (Descriptive Epidemiology n.d). Race and ethnicity have been used in epidemiology studies to...

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Hiv Epidemiology

...HIV Epidemiology HIV Epidemiology For the epidemiology paper I chose to write about HIV. HIV is growing concern in the community and too many people are uneducated about the seriousness of this disease. HIV is terminal illness; it will eventually consume your life at some point. There are treatment options out there but being compliant with the medication regimen is crucial to the maintenance and management of this disease. HIV also known as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus; with HIV the virus replicates and attacks our immune system causing it to go haywire. With the suppression of our immune systems it puts people with HIV at a bigger risk for infection and other common illnesses. People with HIV the common cold can be very critical because their bodies are unable to fight off the virus. The virus attacks our WBC (white blood cells) and they are what are used to fight off infection. The cells that are affected the most are WBC that is called CD4+ cells. If these cells begin to malfunction then the body loses its ability defend itself against infection. HIV is spread when blood, semen, or vaginal fluids from an infected person enter another person's body, usually through sexual contact, from sharing needles when injecting drugs, or from mother to baby during birth (WebMD, 2014). When we deal with patients who have this disease we need to be sure to educate them on the importance of safe sex practices and the importance of refraining from drug use especially when...

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology Betty Foote University of Phoenix Epidemiology: Global and Public Health NUR/408 Michelle Hogsed October 24, 2015 Epidemiology Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted viral infection found in young women that is one of the primary causes of cervical cancer. Sexually active young women, with many different partners, are some of the highest contributors and recipients in the newly infected population. Use of physical barriers, like condoms, during sex, can lessen this transmission. HPV is divided into two groups, low risk, nononcogenic types and high-risk types that can cause cervical dysplasia and in rare cases, cancer. Vaccines provide some protection against developing diseases caused by the virus. Epidemiological studies continue to evolve moving treatment forward for better patient outcome. Education is still the most effective way to deter this behavior that contributes to the HPV infection. Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems.” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 255). With HPV, public health officials and scientists are constantly following the occurrences of viral spreading and patterns of occurrence. Development of vaccines is based on this data and sample collection. Public health...

Words: 1960 - Pages: 8

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology NUR 408 October5, 2015 Epidemiology Epidemiology is the basic principle of public health. According to Hilfinger Messias, McKeown, and Adams (2012, p. 255 ), “Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems” (Porta, 2008, p 81). The goal of epidemiology is optimal health for the entire community. It is important to remember that health does not merely mean medical treatment for specific diseases, but also assurance of available services and development and implementation of policies and programs to meet the needs of the population as a whole. Descriptive epidemiology is the study of the “association of health events to person, place, and time” (Stroup, D. & Thacker, S., 2009, p. 262). Analytical epidemiology studies the causes and risk factors of health events. In order to evaluate the health events in a population, both descriptive and analytical epidemiology are important (Stroup, D. & Thacker, S., 2009). Three categories of data sources commonly used in epidemiologic studies including surveillance data, census data, and vital records, data collected for other purposes, and epidemiologic data (Hilfinger Messias, McKeown, and Adams 2012). The epidemiological triangle is composed of three elements of disease, and...

Words: 1660 - Pages: 7

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology: Global and Public Health Jennifer Nurse NUR408 January 2011 Nancy Nurse, EdD, RN, PHN, LSN Epidemiology: Global and Public Health According to the Centers for Disease Control, “diabetes affects 25.8 million people, 8.3% of the U.S. population” (Center for Disease control and Prevention, 2012, par 1). Twice as many African Americans are likely to develop diabetes than Caucasian Americans. These statistics represent how serious diabetes has become for the black community. Epidemiology can focus healthcare efforts and interventions to help lower the incidence of diabetes of the African Americans. This paper will focus on the role of epidemiology in the observation of the frequency of diabetes in the morbidity and mortality of American of African decent. This paper will also include the definition and description of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the epidemiological triangle, types of epidemiology, and prevention that is related with diabetes in the African American community. Definition and Description of Epidemiology Epidemiology is defined as, “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems.” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012, p. 243). Epidemiology has provided an understanding of the...

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Epidemiology

...Aleyamma John Epidemiology: Global and Public Health NUR/408 Community Emergency Preparedness and Response 20 February, 2012 Amy Reagan, MSN, RN Community Emergency Preparedness and Response This paper describes in detail the community preparedness and emergency response. Season 2, Episode 5 explains about the events that took place in the Neighborhood during the forest fire. This paper will also illustrate the problems faced in the Neighborhood during a disaster and the role of various community health services. The various community services can impact members within a community and prepare them for any emergent situation. This episode goes on to describe how the forest fire affected the lives of people within the Neighborhood as well as the health care facilities. The fire seemed to deteriorate the health of many by causing an increase in respiratory illnesses like asthma, emphysema, and exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hospitals and clinics saw a rise in emphysema and asthma cases. They were experiencing a shortage of staff and beds. This stressed the entire staff at the hospital. Schools also had children developing breathing issues. A young girl named Kelsey Young was brought to the school nurse as she had shortness of breath. Violet, the school nurse found her coughing frequently, increased respiratory rate, and wheezing in her lungs. Kelsey's mother had to come pick her up from the school as she...

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10

Epidemiology

...Epidemiology Paper Allison Brown Nur 408 May 14, 2012 Prof. Pamela Orr Epidemiology Paper People have many health concerns and diagnosis that presents to the current public health as daunting. The first step in any medical situation regarding a person’s health is prevention that is talked among the professionals in the health community. This will be the only way to help the cycle to break that will further prevent other diseases from occurring. Using epidemiology and the epidemiology triangle diabetes in African Americans will be observed. This health concern in many communities in the United States can be prevented and helped, but information is the key to success. In this paper we will be examining the definition and description of epidemiology, the steps and methods of epidemiology, reviewing the data of the selected population. We will also be looking at the epidemiological triangle as well as various levels of prevention. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. Various methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigations: surveillance and descriptive studies can be used to study distribution; analytical studies are used to study determinants (WHO, 2012). Epidemiology is a type of science that guides our understanding of the strong points of how exposure and the relation to how it...

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8

Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper Monica Okoro Nur/408 Epidemiology: Global and Public Health September 10, 2012 Diane Campbell, DNP - PHN, FNP - BC Epidemiology Paper Public health nursing allows nurses to encounter various vulnerable populations on a daily basis. In particular, the elderly make up a large portion of the population, and their vulnerability to the environment and other physical factors is a very important aspect of public health nursing. Epidemiology allows the public health nurse to study and assess vulnerable populations, including the elderly, and create interventions that maximize the health potential of all members of the public. This paper will explore the role of epidemiology and also discuss the definition and purpose of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the epidemiological triangle and levels of prevention that is related with influenza in the elderly community. Definition and Description of Epidemiology Originally, epidemiology was a term that was used to describe the spread of infectious disease. Over the course of time, that definition has expanded considerably in order to accommodate the complexity of ever-changing populations, their environments, and increasing occurrences of disease. Epidemiology is a branch of public health that studies of the frequency, distribution, and determinants of disease in human populations. It studies the patterns of diseases in human populations and how to control health problems associated with...

Words: 2100 - Pages: 9