Epidieomology Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is defined as the most severe form of an illness associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. HIV is caused by retrovirus. It is similar to other viruses such as the flu virus, but the only difference is that once a person gets in contact with retrovirus the person is infected with HIV for the rest of their life. The virus spreads when in it comes in contact with human tissue. The virus infects human CD4 cell and weakens the immune system that fights against infection. There is no cure for AIDS /HIV but there are medications to slow the progression of the disease. “HIV can be prevented by screening before pregnancy, protected sex, use of sterile syringes or needles, and screening of blood before transfusion” (Daar &Mark, 2012).
A person infected with HIV develops flu-like symptoms within a month or two after the virus enters the body. These symptoms may last for several months to several years till person becomes symptomatic. The early symptoms are swollen lymph glands mainly on neck ulcers on the mouth or genitals, sore throat, and joint pain. The HIV infection, if not treated, can progress to AIDS in about 10 years. The clinical manifestations of AIDS may affect other organs in the system, including more serious infections, fatigue, fever, diarrhea, weight loss, fungal infection of nails and malignancies (Daar & Marks, 2012).
Epidemiology evidence indicates that HIV is transmitted through blood, body fluid, seminal fluid, amniotic fluid, breast milk, and vaginal secretions. HIV can be mainly transmitted by unprotected sex with an infected person, blood transfusion and sharing of infected needles among drug users, from an infected mother to the fetus and sometimes even accidental exposure in hospitals and clinics.
If not treated, a person with AIDS/HIV often develops symptoms and signs of unusual…...

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