Free Essay

Erickson's Stages

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By yadis
Words 517
Pages 3
Our personality traits come in opposites. We think of ourselves as optimistic or pessimistic, independent or dependent, emotional or unemotional, adventurous or cautious, leader or follower, aggressive or passive. Many of these are inborn temperament traits, but other characteristics, such as feeling either competent or inferior, appear to be learned, based on the challenges and support we receive in growing up.
The man who did a great deal to explore this concept is Erik Erikson. Although he was influenced by Freud, he believed that the ego exists from birth and that behavior is not totally defensive. Based in part on his study of Sioux Indians on a reservation, Erikson became aware of the massive influence of culture on behavior and placed more emphasis on the external world, such as depression and wars. He felt the course of development is determined by the interaction of the body (genetic biological programming), mind (psychological), and cultural (ethos) influences. His developmental stages were based on his philosophy that: (1) the world gets bigger as we go along and (2) failure is cumulative.
He organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Then, since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults. While the actual ages may vary considerably from one stage to another, the ages seem to be appropriate for the majority of people.
As you read through the following eight stages of Erik Erikson's categories with their sets of opposites, notice which strengths you identify with most and those you need to work on some more.
NOTE: If you'd like to experience growing up with the positive affirmations we need for each stage of development, read Words of Encouragement for Everyone. And listen to an excerpt from a CD that can be helpful for everyone who wonders what it would be like to hear the affirmations we all need at each developmental stage.
1. Infancy: Birth to 18 Months
Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust
Basic strength: Drive and Hope
Erikson also referred to infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her mouth) where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. If we pass successfully through this period of life, we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general.
Incidentally, many studies of suicides and suicide attempts point to the importance of the early years in developing the basic belief that the world is trustworthy and that every individual has a right to be here.
Not surprisingly, the most significant relationship is with the maternal parent, or whoever is our most significant and constant caregiver.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Erickson's Stages

...Eric Erickson and Sigmund Freud both believed there are stages in personality development with few differences. The Erickson theory is composed of eight stages that a normal human will go through from birth until death or one lifetime. Each of these stages can be related to different characters so it is easier to relate to. Trust Versus Mistrust The first stage of Erickson’s theory is trust versus mistrust. This stage is from birth to one year old and is based on the baby’s environment and the baby’s primary care giver. During this period, the baby builds a feeling of basic trust. If the baby’s primary care giver is consistent, predictable, and reliable, then, most likely the baby will carry this trust into other relationships, hoping for the best, developing a sense of trust in the world around them. On the other hand, if the baby is subject to the opposite, in a relationship with the primary caregiver that has been unkind, fickle, and unreliable then the child will develop a sense of mistrust. This will lead the baby down a horrible path and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events resulting in a sense of mistrust into other relationships. This can result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and have serious doubts in the world around them. A good example of this stage is Bam Bam Rubble, and Pebbles Flintstones from the popular television program, The Flintstones. This program ran on public television from 1960 to......

Words: 1853 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Erickson's Stages of Psychological Development

...3 Generations Project JD Henderson 1030-1Y7 Introduction: For this assignment, I interviewed three individuals of different ages, asking them five of the same questions in an attempt to classify them within Erickson’s Stages of Psychological Development. My first subject, Miss Delightful, was a lively six year old girl that loved to talk. I went to her house where we had met at several different grown-up functions prior to the interview, and there we proceeded to talk for 45 minutes. My second subject was my thirty-two year old buddy, Big Red. We met three years ago on the Ocoee River when I moved back to town. I interviewed him at my house for about ten minutes. My third subject was my seventy-nine year old Grandmother: sweet, always perfect hair, and willing to give you good words of encouragement and advice Grandmother. At my grandparents’ home we had coffee and cake while I spent a half hour listening to sound words of wisdom. Interview #1 “Miss. Delightful, where do you see yourself in 10 years?” Her response, “I see myself being able to say all my ABC’s and being able to play a whole song on the piano.” Then I asked, “So what is a good age to get married?” She replied, “At the age of 10.” Next I asked, “Who is your hero/who do you look up to the most?” With her mom ten feet away, she stated, “DADDY.” Then I proceeded to ask, “How are boys and girls different?” She replied, “Because their birthdays are different, they get different stuff.” Then I......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Forgotten Group Member

... Introduction There are five main stages in group development. These are formation, storming, norming, the performing stage and the adjourning stage (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). It is necessary for each of these stages to be undertaken by every group; clearly knowing when on stage ends and another begins. Failures to do so, problems occur, that may culminate to poor performance or not completing the assignment at all. An analysis on a research carried out in the University of Ontario, school of business. Students were asked to carry out a group assignment. This paper discusses Problems, causes and possible solutions of the problems in this group. a) The Issue. In Christine’s group, there are a number of issues that stir concern. Mike does not take his part of the assignment seriously. He comes to meetings poorly prepared and enjoys talking about unimportant issues during discussions and misses others. Janet, although hardworking, misses meeting sessions without apology. Christine, as the group leader, does not manage to unite the group members so as to achieve the best results. This does not comply with the mission statement and job description they had earlier signed in the exhibits. Janet’s plan to leave the group and work alone is an indication of the failure of the group to stick together. The major issue in this organization is leadership incompetence. b) The Problem Cause. In The forming stage, the members get to understand each other;......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Simulation Reflection Paper

...learned to complete the second simulation in a much more efficient and timely manner. There are three stages in the simulation, including mobilization, movement, and sustain phases. The simulation begins in the mobilization phase, and in this phase it was important to get everyone aware of the new change we wish to initiate in the company. The key factor in the beginning was to introduce the new project to each person on a personal level, using personal interviews, skill building, and getting consultant’s support. All of these involve personal contact and were effective in making people both aware and interested to the change. The second stage was movement phase, and the key factors that lead to success in this stages was maintaining high credibility. We could gain credibility through getting consultant’s support and getting CEO’s public support. As majority individuals got into interest and trial stages we were able to use town hall meetings and walk the talk, which attracted more workers to be in interest and trial stages. Again, maintaining high credibility was important throughout the stages because low credibility meant low chance with people would buy in to the initiative. Lastly, in the sustain phase, having personal contact with each individual using private interview was an extremely powerful tool for making individuals in trial stages to move up to adoption stage. Moreover, recognizing an adopter, walk the talk , and holding town hall meeting were also...

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Massage

...which cover: 1 2 3 4 The investigation as a whole Planning Stage Developing Stage Evaluation Stage Handouts 1 and 2 could be distributed at the start of the investigation while the other two could be given to students once they completed the previous stage of their investigation and are ready to embark on the next part of the process. If desired, all could be handed out at the start of the investigation. Investigation In order to successfully complete the HND in Business with Accounting you must undertake an investigation of a business issue. This is a graded assessment and you will be given a grade for your work. Your grade will be determined by your mark: Grade A — 70% – 100% Grade B — 60% – 69% Grade C — 50% – 59% If you do not achieve 50%, you will not achieve in this Unit. You are required to investigate a business issue and to assess its implications for a business or a number of businesses. The investigation has three stages: 1 Planning stage — for this you must prepare a brief for your investigation and devise a plan to carry it out. This stage carries 24% of the total marks. Developing stage — this carries 52% of the total marks and requires you to produce a written report of your investigation. Evaluating stage — for this you must provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of all parts of your investigation. This stage carries 24% of the total marks. 2 3 Throughout the planning and development stages of the investigation you will produce a log of......

Words: 5254 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Project Life Cycle

...that assists them in identifying the progression through the different stages of the project. A project is typically defined as an undertaking that is of a complex nature that is non-routine, a one-time effort and is limited by time, budget constraints, resources, and performance specifications designs to meet the specific needs of the final recipient (Grey & Larson, 2006). A project in its established characteristics possesses a defined life span with a beginning and end date, an established objective, specific time, cost, and performance requirement as mentioned earlier. A project also involves several departments and professionals, and most importantly, doing something that has never been done before. From the characteristics of a project mentioned above, a project life cycle fits with the defined life span of the project and the milestones that needs to be accomplished at different stages while the project is in progress. The project life cycle consists of four different stages which includes the defining or initiation phase, the planning phase, the execution phase, and finally the closure phase. Through these four stages, the project kicks off, starting out slowly in the first stage, increase to a high peak as it is in full swing, and then declines as the project comes to a close. These different stages will be discussed in further detail and a visual demonstration will also be given. The first stage of the project life cycle...

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Model of Change

...existing models of discussion along with the affects, behaviours and cognitive feelings recognized as part of the process of change throughout the stages in each. Bridges Transition Model This model focuses on the transition process rather than the steps of change. Change may happen to people without any warning, as where transition is usually a slow internal process. The Bridges Transition Model is defined by 3 stages. Stage 1 – Ending, Losing and Letting Go This stage involves letting go of the way things are. Resistance and emotional disturbance are commonly present in the beginning stages of this model. The affects of this stage includes feelings of fear, denial, disorientation, frustration, uncertainty, anger and a sense of loss. Bridges believes people cannot recognize the new idea until the acceptance that something is ending has taken place. This may end up being a fairly length Education on how an individuals current experience, knowledge and skills can assist in a more positive future can be very helpful here. Stage 2 – The Neutral Zone This stage represents the time gap between the letting go of the old and bringing in the new therefore an affect of confusion and uncertainty which drives the need to get out of it. This is where rushing ahead to the new situation or retreat to the old one is common. Spending time in this stage is encouraged so creativity and...

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Teamwork and Team Performance

...Teamwork and Team Performance - Case Study 3/23/2013   Contents 1. Group Development 3 2. Problem Identification 3 3. Retrospective Evaluation 4 4. Reflection 5   1. Group Development There are five stages of group development in which a team passes through: Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The group for this case study is currently, 1 week before the due date, in both the norming stage and performing stage. They have adapted to the absence of Mike and are motivated to finish the analysis in an effort to achieve a good grade. Each member has completed their part except Mike, who has just handed in notes to Christine. All of the other members have looked past any turmoil of Mike and either adapted to that or ignored him. Managing a team through these five stages will increase the overall effectiveness of that team; therefore understanding the different stages could have assisted Christine. If she knew what each stage entailed ahead of time, she could have anticipated certain issues or attempted to resolve them. In the beginning Christine should have laid out the group rules, assigned all the tasks, and allowed the members to introduce themselves and get to know one another. I think she did a good job leading them into scheduled meetings; however, Mike was just a complainer about the early meeting. When tension arose in the group, because Mike was upset seeing the group members having a good time and mingling without......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ed 673 School Culture Scenarios

...ED 673 School Culture | Follow-Up #2 | Scenario Responses | | Nan Kane | 0/29/2013 | | Scenario #1: Part A: Description of School Culture Issues The key school culture issue in scenario #1 is that the team is an interdisciplinary team that is not function as such. They have been together for six years and works like a “well-oiled machine. It is obvious that the team has worked through the four stages of group development because they have addressed the social, emotional, and developmental needs of their students. The team has the cornerstones for effective collaboration and teamwork People, Task and Process (Conzemius and O’Neill, 2002). They have the leadership, commitment, knowledge, and skills. The team has made decisions, problem solved, communicated, and met. They also accomplished certain goals. Productive collaboration takes both purpose and skill to be effective (Conzemius and O’Neill, 2002). The team has demonstrated the ability to create and implement a plan for addressing the emotional, social and developmental needs of students. However, they are not clear about their purpose that was set by the principal to integrate instruction among the disciplines. Part B: Immediate Actions I will meet with the principal, which I view as someone having expert power. He has experience and expertise in the area of working with teams. We will discuss what I observed in the team meetings and come to a consensus to form new 7th grade......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mc Script

...a performance name: “ . . .” What an amazing performance! The next following performance will come from our friends from Vstar School, “ . . .” The next following performance will come from our friends from Ton Duc Thang University, “ . . .” Our event will be continued with a performance from Colombian friends, “. . .” The next following performance will come from our friends from Vstar School, “ . . .” Now I want to introduce a performance name as: “ . . .” from Ton Duc Thang University. The next following performance will come from our friends from VPV, “ . . .” Thank you for your great performance! Phase 4: Photos & Game! To save our great memories, we would like to take photos all together. Please move closer to the stage. Would you please stand up, and put your chairs aside to have more space? First, I would like to invite friends from Colombia. Next, from Vstar. And TDT University....

Words: 400 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Reflective Report Leadership- Leading Change in Theory

...Leading Change in Theory Reflective essay Reflective writing is a strategy where we as students recollect what we have learnt and the process we have undertaken in learning and use this to reflect on how we have educated ourselves. We describe our experiences in the process of learning along with bringing out the emotions we felt at the particular time, also we may consolidate prior knowledge along with the present in order to fully understand and grasp the experience. Reflective writing allows us to understand the entire process of learning. My group formerly consisted of six members and finally ended up with only three, this was due to one member dropping out of this module and another two being unable to work with the final group as they felt our language and intellect wasn’t up to the mark. This made me feel extremely let down and somewhat anxious as to how we would function as a group of only three individuals; however our progress greatly improved since we were a smaller and more cohesive group. Our group had a more democratic form of leadership and we shared a sense of collective identity which greatly benefited us in completing our task. Our group values focused greatly on openness, respect, contribution and happiness. Each member contributed almost equally to the overall process and the all three of us were willing to listen and understand each other’s opinions. We divided the work amongst ourselves and decided we would complete it and share it with each other......

Words: 2352 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Detailed Analysis of Swansong

...organisation aims to keep the living conditions of those prisoners at a particular standard. Furthermore, the novel “A man” by Oriana Fallaci and saying ‘goodbye’ to a career as a dancer were also significant stimuli. The recorded music was composed by Phillip Chambon, commissioned by London Festival Ballet. The designer again, was Christopher Bruce and the lighting was designed by David Mohr. Christopher Bruce designed Swansong’s setting on a bare proscenium stage, which leads the audience’s focus on the movement without any visual distractions. Dull colours are used to create the mood and atmosphere of being in a cell. The backdrop is black, showing that the cell-like stage is small, leaving the prisoner feeling trapped and claustrophobic, also creating a lonely and aggressive atmosphere. Another purpose of the colour is that it makes the dancers’ costumes stand out. The stage is also dark, which emphasises the interrogation. Although the stage is bare the interrogators always enter and exit from the same place on stage right giving the impression of there being a doorway into the dark room. The only visual clue is a sturdy...

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

As a Set and/or Lighting Designer, What Effects Would You Want to Create for Your Audience in Act 1 and Act 2? Explain How Your Set Design/Lighting Design Would Change from Act 1 to Act 2.

...changes over both acts in small but significant ways allowing the audience to understand the detrition of the perfect reality in which Nora lives by. As a set or lighting designer, I would want the audience to experience a tense, chilling and abrupt atmosphere that illuminates the distorted reality, which is being broken slowly. As women during the late 1800’s where not meant to become involved with the dealings of money and business – it was the man’s job. By doing this Nora has brought on a sense of shame and disgrace to her family, as Helmer is lead to believe by the influence of society that he can no longer control his wife. In Act 1, Ibsen indicates to the set and lighting designers how he wishes the play to be set up. From the stage directions I am able to understand that the atmosphere within the opening scene of the play should be ‘comfortable and tasteful’ but ‘not expensively furnished’, allowing the audience to be welcomed to the play. By not ‘expensively’ furnishing the set, the audience understand the previous finical difficulties the family have been though, and can now see their gain in money by certain items. Backstage right a soft wooden oak door leads to a hallway, and backstage left another soft oak door with stairs leading up to Helmers study....

Words: 2474 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Levendary Cafe

...Levendary Cafe The stage theory which contains these three types of managers: go-getter, local baron, and professional manager. It is a very useful theory that can helps the CEO to determine whether this manager is the right person for the company at any stage in a long run. In my opinion, a good manager is not only a person who can make high profits for a company, but the one can benefits the company as a whole, such as increase brand value, expand business and so on. In this case, it is a very good timing for entering into the China market since the domestic market in the US growth slowly, and China’s GDP is much higher than the GDP in the US in 2011. So, I believe, Mia should use this stage theory as a basis for managing Chen and the China subsidiary in order to ensure the oversea expansion to China is success at this great timing. There are some important changes that I think Mia should make for better expansion in China. First of all, since there is no one department to manage the financial reports and other businesses for the Levendary Café in China, the CEO should build a headquarter in China or other specific department in order to manage the Lavendary Café in China directly, and report the financial reports to the US headquarter directly. The benefit of this department is to hold more control on the China subsidiary and Chen. Secondly, since Mia’s goal is to keeping the operations standard, the standardization is very important for this company. Therefore,......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Copy

...Move 1. Which stages of the consumer decision-making process are affected most by comparison shopping on mobile platforms? Explain. 1. All stages can be considered affected less or more. In my opinion, most affected stages are: Internal information gathering – eBay application provides consumer with basic information like brand name, color, price, size, location, shipping cost, etc. After comparing this information consumer supposedly will make a rough choice to get more info or refine search by certain criteria. Evaluation of alternatives – is the most affected and difficult stage for consumer. At this point all options needs to be compared: one seller can be more competitive pricewise but shipping will take longer time due to location of the product, another has a better feedback and accepts every known method of payment but has lower amount of days after product will be accepted back or do not accept returns, etc. Purchase of product also can be considered as affected stage. Before actual payment, some sellers can only ask for desired quantity and get consumer directly to the payment page but some can ask for available coupons or gift cards. However, I think this stage has very limited possibilities compared to full site version. 2. Based on the goal expressed by Steve Yancovich, which stage of the consumer decision-making process is eBay trying to influence? How are they doing so? 2. I think eBay trying to influence need recognition stage. Company created a...

Words: 300 - Pages: 2