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PROJECTED PAY STRUCTURE AFTER 7TH PAY COMMISSION
(BASED ON COMPARATIVE RISE FROM 1ST TO 6TH CPC)
Demand for setting of Seventh Pay Commission is being raised since January 2011 on completion of 5 years since the date of effect of the sixth Pay Commission - as recommended by the last 2 Pay commissions. Till now six pay commissions had been constituted since 1946 - to review and recommend pay structure of central government employees. All the six pay commissions have taken many aspects into consideration to prescribe the pay structure for government servants. In the first pay commission the concept of ‘living wage’ was adopted. In second pay commission it had been reiterated that the pay structure and working condition to be crafted in a way so as to ensure the effective functioning of government mechanism. The third pay commission adopted the concept of ‘need based wage’ The Fourth CPC had recommended the government to constitute permanent machinery to undertake periodical review of pay and allowances of Central Government employees, but which got never implemented. In Fifth pay commission all federations demanded that the pay scale should be at par with the public sector. But the pay commission didn’t accept this and told that the demand for parity with the Public Sector was however difficult to concede as it felt that the Job content and condition of service in the government and public sector not necessarily the same. There were essential differences between the two sectors. The Sixth Central Pay Commission, claimed that it had not only tried to evolve a proper pay package for the Government employees but also to make recommendations rationalizing the governmental structure with a view to improve the delivery mechanisms for providing better services to the common man What about seventh pay commission? Generally every pay commission, before recommending a pay structure, analyzed all the aspects including the economic situation of the country, financial resources of the government, comparison with the public sector, private sector and state government pay structure etc. Pay Determination is very complicated and sensitive task. Without any doubt every one accepts that this is very challenging task too. In order to determine the new pay structure the pay commission has to go through voluminous data consisting current economic condition, strength of the work force and working condition etc. If one tries to suggest or comment about 7th pay commission pay scale or about what the seventh pay commission pay scales, it will seem too pre-mature. However, we observed an interesting factor which is common to all the past pay commission recommendations, particularly in the matter of percentage of increase in the pay. Average 3 times increase in the pay was recommended by each pay commission and it was accepted by government and implemented (except that the rise was only about 2.26 times after 6th CPC for the scales from S4 to S23 and nearly 3 times or more for the higher scales). Average increase after each Pay Commission - is shown in each of the following tables. Obviously it is simple thing, we can say it a mathematical coincidence that we have in common in all previous pay commission, but we cannot neglect this. Because it was there, every time it is noticed that the revised pay was approximately three times higher than its pre revised pay. Apart from all the factors which has been used to determine the pay revision, we can use this simple formula ‘common multiplying factor’ to know the 7th pay commission pay scale . If next pay commission prefer to continue the same running pay band and grade pay system for seventh pay commission also, the pay structure may be like the following projected figures given below, using common multiplying factor ‘3’. The Following is only the projected figure using common multiplying factor ‘3’... CONTINUED ---1 | P a g e

SIXTH CPC PAY STRUCTURE Name of Pay Corresponding Pay Band/ Scale Bands PB-1 PB-1 PB-1 PB-1 PB-1 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 HAG HAG+ Scale Apex Scale Cab. Sec. 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 Corresponding Grade Pay 1800 1900 2000 2400 2800 4200 4600 4800 5400 6600 7600 8700 8900 10000 Entry Grade +band pay 7000 7730 8460 9910 11360 13500 17140 18150 21000 25530 29500 46100 49100 53000

PROJECTED PAY STRUCTURE FOR 7th PAY COMMISSION Projected entry level pay using uniform multiplying factor of `3’ Band Pay Grade Pay Entry Pay 21000 23190 25380 29730 34080 40500 51420 54450 63000 76590 88500 138300 147300 159000 201000 226500 240000 270000 CONTINUED ---15600-60600 5400 15600-60600 5700 15600-60600 6000 15600-60600 7200 15600-60600 8400 29900-104400 12600 29900-104400 13800 29900-104400 14400 29900-104400 16200 46800-117300 19800 46800-117300 22800 112200-20100 26100 112200-20100 26700 112200-20100 30000

67000- (ann increment Nil @ 3%) -79000 75500- (ann increment Nil @ 3%) -80000 80000 (Fixed) 90000 (Fixed) Nil Nil

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Short Description about Sixth Pay Commission SIXTH PAY COMMISSION Initially the then government refused to set up sixth pay commission to review the pay and allowances of central government employees. The then finance minister told that there was no need to constitute next pay commission since 50 % dearness allowance was already merged with the basic pay. The employees had threatened to go on a nationwide strike if the government failed to set up 6th pay commission. In July 2006, the Cabinet approved setting up of the sixth pay commission. This commission has been set up under the Chairmanship of Justice B.N.Srikrishna with a timeframe of 18 months to submit the report. The cost of hikes in salaries is anticipated to be about Rs. 20,000 crore for a total of 3.5 million government employees. The commission submitted the Report to the Government on March, 24, 2008. The Sixth Pay Commission mainly focused on removing ambiguity in respect of various pay scales and mainly focused on reducing number of pay scales. It recommended for removal of Group-D cadre. The Fifth CPC had compressed many scales. The number of pay scales was reduced from 51 pay scales as on 31.12.1995 to 34 pay scales by the Fifth CPC. In many cases, this led to the promotion and feeder cadres being placed in an identical pay scale. Although Department of Expenditure issued orders that existence of the feeder and promotion posts in the same pay scale will not constitute an anomaly, however, these orders have consistently been rejected by the various courts of this country. The sixth pay Commission, therefore, decided to evolve a new system of pay scales that would effectively address most of the existing anomalies. To remove stagnation, introduction of running pay bands for all posts in the Government presently existing in scales below that of Rs.26,000 (fixed). The total number of grades reduced to 20 spread across four distinct running pay bands; one Apex Scale and another grade for the post of Cabinet Secretary/equivalent as against 35 standard pay scales existing earlier. Four distinct running pay bands being recommended – one running band each for all categories of employees in groups ‘B ’and ‘C ’with 2 running pay bands for Group A posts. Annual increments to be paid in form of three percent of the total of pay in the Pay Band and the corresponding grade pay. The date of annual increments, in all cases, is first of July. Employees completing six months and above in the scale as on July 1 will be eligible. The revised pay bands have been implemented retrospectively from 1.1.2006. The Fifth CPC also had recommended implementation of the next Pay Commission’s revised pay scales from 1.1.2006. This was also in consonance with demands of a majority of the Associations of Government employees that had sought implementation of Sixth CPC revised pay scales from 1.1.2006. Minimum salary at the entry level of PB-1 pay band is Rs.7000 (Rs.5200 as pay in the pay band plus Rs.1800 as grade pay). Maximum salary at the level of Secretary/equivalent is Rs.80000. The minimum: maximum ratio 1:12. The increase from V CPC to VI CPC in all grades starts from 2.4 times to 3.7 times. The increase ratio between 5th pay commission and 6th pay commission is 1:3.

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V CPC PAY SCALES VS VI CPC PAY SCALES V CPC Pay Scale Sl. Post/ No. Grade (1) (2) S-1 to 4 S-4 S-5 S-6 S-7 S-8 S-9 S-10 S-11 S-12 S-13 S-14 S-15 New Scale S-16 S-17 S-18 S-19 S-20 S-21 S-22 S-23 S-24 S-25 S-26 S-27 S-28 S-29 S-30 S-31 S-32 S-33 S-34 Scale of Pay (3) Upgraded & Merged 2750-70-3800-75-4400 PB-1 3050-75-3950-80-4590 PB-1 3200-85-4900 4000-100-6000 4500-125-7000 5000-150-8000 5500-175-9000 6500-200-6900 6500-200-10500 7450-225-11500 7500-250-12000 8000-275-13500 8000-275-13500 (Group A Entry) 9000 9000-275-9550 10325-325-10975 10000-325-15200 10650-325-15850 12000-375-16500 12750-375-16500 12000-375-18000 14300-400-18300 15100-400-18300 16400-450-20000 16400-450-20900 14300-450-22400 18400-500-22400 22400-525-24500 22400-600-26000 24050-650-26000 26000 (Fixed) 30000 (Fixed) PB-1 PB-1 PB-1 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-2 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-3 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 PB-4 HAG+ Scale HAG+ Scale Apex Scale Cab. Sec. 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 5200-20200 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 9300-34800 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 15600-39100 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 37400-67000 1800 1900 2000 2400 2800 4200 4200 4200 4600 4600 4800 5400 5400 5400 5400 6600 6600 6600 7600 7600 7600 8700 8700 8900 8900 10000 10000 12000 59100 2.63 3.13 3.13 3.07 3 CONTINUED ---4 | P a g e 53000 3.7 49100 2.99 46100 3.23 29500 2.45 25530 2.47 18150 21000 2.42 2.62 17140 2.63 7000 7730 8460 9910 11360 13500 2.54 2.53 2.64 2.47 2.52 2.7 Sixth CPC Pay Structure Name of Pay Corresponding Corresponding Entry Grade Band Pay Bands Grade Pay +band pay (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Increase
(X) Time

75500- 80000 Nil 75500- 80000 Nil 80000 (Fixed) Nil 90000 (Fixed) Nil

FOURTH PAY COMMISSION The Fourth Pay Commission was constituted in June 1983 and its Chairman was Shri. P N Singhal. But the report of 4th CPC was submitted to government in three phases within the period of four years. There from it was started maintaining huge gap between lowest grade and highest grade as for as pay is concerned. There was a huge difference in basic pay between lowest grade and highest grade in IV pay commission pay scales. The basic pay of lowest grade was Rs.750, where as highest grade was Rs.9000. The pay of top most grade was 12 times higher than the pay of Group D employee. The Fourth CPC had recommended the government to constitute permanent machinery to undertake periodical review of pay and allowances of Central Government employees, but which got never implemented. FIFTH PAY COMMISSION The Fifth Pay Commission was set up in 1994. The chairman of fifth pay commission was Justice S. Ratnavel Pandian. The commission gave its report in January 1997. Government accepted most of the recommendations and issued appropriate order in July 1997. The recommendations were implemented with effect from 1-1-1996. It recommended to reduce the number of pay scale from 51 to 34. It is noted that about 93% of the employees were in Group 3 and Group 4 The minimum Starting Pay has been revised from Rs. 750/ to Rs. 2550/-. In this, the pay of 5th CPC scale were about 3 times higher than the pay of IV CPC pay Scale. The pay scale starts from Rs.2550 and ends up with Rs.30000. The hike of 12 times between low level and top level was also maintained in V pay commission. The pay scale of IV pay commission and V pay commission are given below. we need all this reference for working out to reach a formula to infer what would be the increase in VII pay commission.

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IV CPC PAY SCALES VS V CPC PAY SCALES FOURTH PAY COMMISSION PAY SCALES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 750-12-870-14-940 775-12-871-14-1025 800-15-1010-20-1150 825-15-900-20-1200 975-25-1150-30-1540 975-25-1150-30-1660 1200-30-1440-30-18001200-30-1560-40-20401320-301560-40-2040 1350-30-1440-40-1800-50-2200 1400-40-1800-50-2300 1400-40-1600-50-2300-60-2600 1600-50-2300-60-2660 1640-60-2600-75-2900 2000-60-2120 2000-60-2300-75-3200 2000-60-2300-75-3200-3500 2375-75-3200-100-3500 2375-75-3200-100-3500-1253750 2500-4000 (proposed new pre-revised scale) 2200-75-2800-100-4000 2300-100-2800 2630/- FIXED 2630-75-2780 3150-100-3350 FIFTH PAY COMMISSION PAY SCALES S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-6 S-7 S-8 S-9 2550-55-2660-60-3200 2610-60-3150-65-3540 2650-65-3300-70-4000 2750-70-3800-75-4400 3050-75-3950-80-4590 3200-85-4900 4000-100-6000 4500-125-7000 5000-150-8000 INCREASE X TIMES 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.35 3.25 3.25 3.13 3 3.5 3.42 3.42 3.2 3.3 3.32 3.24 3.22 3.24 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 6 | P a g e

950-20-1150-25-1400 950-20-1150-25-15001150-25-1500 S-5

S-10 5500-175-9000 S-11 6500-200-6900 S-12 6500-200-10500 S-13 7450-225-11500 S-14 7500-250-12000 S-15 8000-275-13500 S-16 9000/- FIXED S-17 9000-275-9550 S-18 10325-325-10975

3000-125-3625 3000-100-3500-125-4500 3000-100-3500S-19 10000-325-15200 125-5000 3200-100-3700-125-4700 3700-150-4450 3700-125-4700-150-5000 3950-125-4700-150-5000 3700-125-4950-150-5700 4100-125-4850-150-5300 4500-150-5700 4800-150-5700 5100-150-6300-200-6700 4500-150-5700-200-7300 5900-200-6700 5900-200-7300 7300-100-7600 7300-200-7500-250-8000 7600/- FIXED7600-100-8000 8000/- FIXED 9000/- FIXED S-20 10650-325-15850 S-21 12000-375-16500 S-22 12750-375-16500 S-23 12000-375-18000 S-24 14300-400-18300 S-25 15100-400-18300 S-27 16400-450-20900 S-28 14300-450-22400 S-29 18400-500-22400 S-30 22400-525-24500 S-31 22400-600-26000 S-32 24050-650-26000 S-33 26000/- FIXED S-34 30000/- FIXED

5100-150-5700 5100-150-6150 5100-150-5700-200-6300 S-26 16400-450-20000

First CPC to Third CPC Pay Scales Now all the central government employees federations are demanding the govt. to set up seventh pay commission soon. So far six pay Commissions have been set up till date from 1946 by Government of India to review and recommend wage structure for all the central government employees including postal, railway, defence civilian employees and armed forces. All the matters pertaining to the government servants like Pay and Allowances, promotion policy, retirement benefits, service condition also been thoroughly reviewed by these Pay commissions after every ten years and they submit recommendations to the government for the approval. At the advent of First Pay Commission, there was 1934 th year pay Scales were remained in effect. The pay scales prescribed by first pay commission replaced the 1934 pay Scales. First Pay Commission The first pay commission was constituted in 1946 and the government appointed Srinivasa Varadacharia as Chairman of this commission. The first pay commission was based upon the idea of “living wages” to the employees, this idea was taken from the Islington Commission and the commission observed that “the test formulated by the Islington Commission is only to be liberally interpreted to suit the conditions of the present day and to be qualified by the condition that in no case should be a man’s pay be less than a living wage. The minimum basic pay for Class IV staff has been raised from Rs. 10/- to Rs. 30/- and for Class III from Rs. 35/- to Rs. 60/- per month. The Commission had fixed Rs. 55/- as minimum wage (Rs. 30 plus Rs. 25 as Dearness Allowance). The recommendations were accepted and implemented in 1946. The Second Pay Commission 10 years after independence, the second pay commission was set up in August 1957. Shri Jaganath Das was appointed as Chairman of this Commission. The second pay commission finished its report within two years and submitted it to the Government. The recommendations of the second pay commission had a financial impact of Rs 396 million. The second pay commission reiterated the principle on which the salaries have to be determined. It stated that the pay structure and the working conditions of the government employee should be crafted in a way so as to ensure efficient functioning of the system by recruiting persons with a minimum qualification. The Commission revised the pay scales by merging 50% of the Dearness Allowance with basic Pay and it recommended Rs. 80 as the minimum remuneration (Basic Pay Rs. 70 plus DA Rs.10/-) payable to a Government employee. Third Pay Commission Shri. Raghubir Dayal was appointed as Chairman of the third pay commission. It was set up in April 1970 and gave its report in March 1973. The commission took almost 3 years to submit the report,. The main demand of employees for a need based minimum wage as per the norms of 15th Indian Labour Conference was accepted in principle even though Commission evolved its own concept of need based wage. The Third Pay Commission recommended Minimum remuneration of Rs. 185 per month. By taking into the consideration of employee’s views Government modified some of the recommendations of the Commission and minimum wage was raised from Rs. 185 per month to Rs. 196/- per month. The pay scales of group ‘D’, ‘C’ and ‘B’ of Third Pay commission and IV pay commission given below. In the case of minimum basic pay of each scale of Pay in the two pay commissions recommended scales given below , it is to be kept in mind that 4th CPC pay was increased by 2.8 to 3.8 times from 3rd CPC. CONTINUED ----

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III PAY COMMISSION VS IV PAY COMMISSION GROUP D, C and B
S.N III PAY COMMISSION PAY SCALES IV PAY COMMISSION PAY SCALE
INCREASE (X) TIMES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

a) 196-3-220-EB-3-232 b) 200-3-212-4-232-EB-4-240(SG) a) 200-3-212-4-232-EB-4-240 b) 200-3-206-4-234-EB-4-250 a).210-4-250-EB-5-270 b) 210-4-226-EB-4-250-EB-5290 225-5-260-6-EB-6-308 260-326-EB-8-350 a) 290-6-326-EB-8-350 b) 260-6-290-EB-6-326-8-366-EB-8-390-10-400 260-8-300-EB-8-340-10-380-EB-10-430 330-8-370-10-400-EB-10-480 a) 330-10-380-EB-12-500-EB-15-560 a) 380-12-500-15-530 b) 380-12-500-EB-15-560 a)380-12-440-EB-14-560-EB-20-640 b) 425-15-530-EB-15-560-20-600 a) 425-15-560–EB-20-640 b) 425-15-500-EB-15-560-20-700 c) 455-15-560-20-700 a) 425-15-500-EB-15-560-20-640-EB-20-700-25-750

750-12-870-EB-14- 940 775-12-955-EB-14-1025 800-15-1010-EB-20-1150 825-15-900-EB-20-1200 950-20-1150-EB-25-1400 950-20-1150-EB-25-1500 975-25-1150–EB-30-1540 1200-30-1440–EB-30-180 1200-30-1560-EB-40-2040 1320-30-1560-EB-40-2040 1350-30-1440-40-1800-EB-50-2200

3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

12

1400-40-1800-EB-50-2300

3.3

13

b) 425-15-500-EB-15-560-20-700-EB-25-800 c) 470-15-530-EB-20650-EB-25-750 a) 550-20-650-25750 b) 550-20-650-25-800 a) 500-20-700-EB-25-900 b) 550-25-750-EB-30-900 a) 650-30-74035-800-EB-40-960 b) 650-30-740-35-880-EB-40-1040 c) 700-30-760-35-900 d) 775-35-880-40-1000 650-30-740-35-810-EB-880-40-1000-EB-40-1200 a) 840-40-1040 b) 840-40-1000-EB-40-1200 a) 650-30-740-35-880-EB-40-1040 b) 650-30-740-35-810-EB-35-880-40-1000-EB-40-1200

1400-40-1600-50-2300-EB-60-2600

3.3

14 15

1600-50-2300-EB-60-2660 1640-60-2600-EB-75-2900

2.9 3.1

16

2000-60-2300-EB-75-3200

2.8

17 18 19

2000-60-2300-EB-75-3200-100-3500 2375-75-3200-EB-100-3500 2000-60-2300-EB-3200-100-3500

3 2.8 3

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...to write A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present AEB syllabus, there are three main skills being assessed in your essays. 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of social situations and interpreted, and expressed in a critical fashion. You must be aware of the skills being highlighted in the question in order to use the appropriate skills in your essays. You should also practice writing essays regularly and develop a technique which addresses the skills required so that you can actually answer the question set. I hope that this handout should allow you to achieve this. Stage One Many students are too quick into diving into an answer. They have focused on certain key terms and ‘assumed’ what the essay requires from a quick look at the question. Instead, the question should be read a number of times. Task One With the title provided. Analyze the question by underlining the key features in the essay title Double underline the skills being assessed, e.g., describe and explain Identify any terms or concepts contained in the question. These terms will need to be defined, i.e. concepts such as interactionists. Essay questions will also......

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...from these events? How have they affected your personality or how you deal with situations now? Remember the focus of the essay is on the contrasting impacts of these events in your life. These events do not have to be major events, they could be minor in nature but their impact on you could be great and long lasting. Undertake the task of pre writing for this topic. Select your two events. Describe them in point form. Consider their diverse impacts on your life. By the end of this class you should have completed your pre writing and make sure you get your sheet signed by me. You have the week to work on your first draft. Those of you who would like to show me the first draft are free to submit it to me online and I shall hand them back to you online. I will tell you whether you are on the right track, however this is optional and you will not be penalized if you do not show me your first draft. You need to give me Draft 1 by Tuesday, Feb 26. This will be an online submission under Assignments on ilearn. I will correct it and give it back to you by Sunday March 3, and then you will work on changing the draft according to my corrections and bring it to class on Tuesday, March 5 when we will have a peer review session. So after our class today you need to upload your first drafts of the essay in a week, by Feb 26 in an area marked out as Essay 1 under Assignments on Ilearn. You need to exchange your second drafts with two of your classmates on Tuesday,......

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...Essay Writer can provide students with the exact answers to their essay assignments through our free essay section as well as our custom essay writing services. All of Essay Writer’s free essays are uploaded to our site by some college and university students in the UK to serve as informative guides and comparative templates to help you finish your own essay writing tasks with greater ease and clarity. These sample essays are readily downloadable and very easily accessible; just simply select a subject area or topic from our list of available subjects. You can then go through our list of available essay titles under that subject. Welcome to Essay Writer’s free essays section! You can now access our very extensive collection of free essays. These essays are all original and previously not made available to anyone, and are excellently written and submitted by some well meaning college students who wish to share their knowledge to help you do better in writing your own essays. Below is the list of the subject areas we cover in our free essays section. Simply select the subject that corresponds to your need. You will then be shown a list of all the essay titles available for that specific subject. Essay Writer regularly updates its free essay database. Keep checking back for additional subjects or topics. You may also bookmark our Free Essays page to make it easier to check back on the availability of our free essays. To bookmark this page, simply click on the......

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...tutorial x 13 weeks)     Level: Foundation/Matriculation     Lecturers: Ms Fazidah Abdul Jamil., Mdm Goh Wan Chen, Ms Saratha Thevi Ramasamy, Ms Norzaireen Shamsul Kamar Synopsis: This course is designed for students who require the necessary skills for tertiary studies. Some basic grammatical concepts are taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs. Reading skills will cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University Press, UK 2. Paterson, K, and Wedge, R., (2013). Oxford Grammar for EAP. Oxford University Press, UK Recommended References: Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1997), Cambridge University Press, UK Mode of Assessment: [1] Class participation 5% [2] Quiz 1 15% [3] Quiz 2 10% [4] Oral Presentation 10% [5] Mid-Term Examination 20% [6] Final Examination 40% Syllabus – FDENG001 |Week |UNIT |Topics ......

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...Define Your Thesis For essays that are part of an Early Years Care & Education Degree, it is important to clearly define a thesis statement within the first paragraph of the essay. Even if you are given a topic to write, such as the importance of preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods, you need to develop a strong thesis in your own words. Here is an example: "Preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods are a crucial step in helping all children enter elementary school at the same educational level, regardless of the income of the family." Once you have defined a clear thesis, you can proceed to the rest of your essay. However, without a clear thesis, your essay will not hold up. Use Examples The majority of your essay should be a careful and clear argument that supports your thesis statement. Do research and cite as many examples as possible to prove your point. For an essay about the merits of all-day educational opportunities for preschool-aged children, check trustworthy sources such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children and national PTA. Provide each point in a strong and complete paragraph. Each paragraph should have a main statement, supporting information and a conclusion. Tie In Conclusion After you have made your argument, state your conclusion in a clear and concise manner. Whether you have proven that the teacher ratio in a preschool setting should be lower than 4 to 1 or made a case for more national funding for the......

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...Carmen Hollow Mr. Beurskens College English Critique Essay: The Morals of the Prince May 3, 2011 The Grey Area between Good and Evil: A Critique of “The Morals of the Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli Introduction We’ve all made a promise that we couldn’t keep and we have all felt bad about breaking those promises. Whether it was a promise to our parents, our children or a co-worker, we don’t feel good about it, but sometimes it can’t be helped. Usually if we couldn’t keep a promise it was for a good reason and not a selfish one. To the person that we made the promise to, we may be viewed as uncaring or unreliable, but to ourselves we know that we had to make a decision that could hurt someone but at the same time our decision could help that same person or persons. Making a promise and not being able to keep it for one reason or another, is one of the few topics that Machiavelli writes of in his essay “The Morals of the Prince”. He also tells why he believes a prince should be feared rather than loved, and why a prince should be stingy and not generous. He wants us to know how a “perfect” prince should act and behave so that the prince will be viewed upon as a great prince. Summary Machiavelli writes about how he believes a prince should act and behave to be considered a successful prince, one that is loved and feared, liberal and stingy, one that knows when to keep his word and when to break it. In his essay, Machiavelli writes “a prince who wants to keep......

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...Basic techniques for generating ideas. Brainstorming. Brainstorming consists in writing series of words or sentences just as they flow from our mind, although they have no logical order or connections. Once the words are written down, we have to establish relationships among them. This is the embryo of the future text. Free writing. Free writing is a similar technique to the brainstorming. Consists in writing a text without previous decisions or ideas about how we want to write it. Just choosing a topic and writing about it, and then we can summarise the main ideas. Organisation of information. There are some basic rules for writing a well - structured text. The text should be organised in a clear way; it must not be a twisted or an incomprehensible lot of ideas. We have to try to write according to certain conventions about hoe the text is organised. We have to structure our text in paragraphs. Each paragraph must express one idea. Some rules referring to the paragraphs: A paragraph must be clearly separated from other paragraphs, either by an empty line or by indenting the first line, or both. There must be no blank spaces or half-empty lines inside the paragraph. A paragraph in academic prose does not begin with a dot, a line or a kind of mark, except in special circumstances. Each body paragraph must normally have a topic sentence, and more than one sentence. Types of paragraphs. The introductory paragraph. There must be at least one...

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