Free Essay

Essay

In: Novels

Submitted By ajaiyr
Words 3587
Pages 15
EXAMINATION OF DUTY AND SELF CONTROL IN THE ODYSSEY Aashna Jamal INTRODUCTION Under the rule of Zeus, events did not occur in isolation but in interdependence causing there to be a flux in the totality of events and the whole drama being played on a cosmic plane. The central theme of Zeus’s rule is the preservation of his “ oikos” or household management where the prevalence of order over Chaos is of utmost importance. In this paper, using the Odyssey as a case study, I will examine the thematic importance of the decisions taken by a hero in accordance to or defiance of self control and pietas and the consequences they lead to. These expectations are clearly marked out for the reader who waits in anticipation to garner the fate of the hero. I will analyse the themes of self control and pietas or duty in the Odyssey and discuss their special significance in this epic. I will then briefly talk about the Hindu concept of duty or Dharma with reference to the Ramayana. I however do not intend to use the concept of monomyth coined by Joseph Campbell also referred to as the hero's journey(which is a basic pattern that its proponents argue is found in many narratives from around the world.) in comparing these epics. The example of the Ramayana will only serve my purpose of highlighting the theme of duty in mythologies across the world. Lastly, I will conclude with the importance of inspecting these themes because of their significance to the plotline. Georg Wissowa notes that pietas was meant by the Romans as "the conduct of the man who performed all his duties towards the deity and his fellow human beings fully and in every respect."Around the year 70 BC, Cicero defined pietas as the virtue "which admonishes us to

do our duty to our country or our parents or other blood relations. 1 Essentially a Roman concept ,I will employ it in this paper in context to Greek Mythology. Self control in this paper will be discussed in terms of the extent an individual has control over his decisions whether mental, physical or psychological.

ILLUSTRATIONS DUTY Though the concept of duty is referred to in the very first book of the Odyssey it is of special interest as it examines the duty Zeus as a king bears towards the mortal Odysseus who has not been able to get back to Ithaca from Troy and is living under bounded captivity on Calypso’s island Ogyia. The unwritten rule in Greek myths is that humans are but a pawn on the chessboard of the God’s world. They live in the world of the Gods who are answerable to none but Zeus and are not always the figures of benevolence. The question put forth is that what happens if Zeus forgets his duty? Who will hold him accountable? Though Zeus is the God of justice, he is sometimes constrained from meting it out thus fulfilling his duty as in the case of Odysseus because he has to take into account the wrath of Poseidon. In this very instance, a parallel can be drawn between Zeus and the hero of the story who is similarly constrained from fulfilling his duty due to his detainment by Calypso. Athena ’s role of reminding Zeus to do the right thing is analogous to Hermes’s in persuading Calypso to let go of Odysseus as Gods tend to forget their “ correct roles’’ in the order of the Universe.

1

Wikipedia

The idea of duty as seen in the Odyssey is very disparate for men and women as is exemplified by the treatment of Penelope and Odysseus’s behaviour in context to fidelity. Penelope is deified as an ideal woman and wife as she remains faithful to her husband for the twenty tears he is away as opposed to the adulteress Clytemnestra who betrays and subsequently kills Agamemnon. However, fidelity is expected of her but Odysseus is only expected to complete his duty towards his household by coming back and establishing it again to its former glory. Odysseus’s recovery of will and noble virtue called sophrosune after his trysts with Calypso and Circe are focussed upon not his divergence from the right path. Camus best understands it, “fidelity to his limits.’’2 A clear gender bias arises where his attempt at thentos (a mortal subject to death) is celebrated over his refusal to immortality given by Calypso which would never have been the case had a woman been in a similar situation. She would have been admonished on getting into the situation in the first place. The poem recalls Calypso’s angry statement about the double standard for immortals: male gods are allowed to take mortal lovers, while female goddesses are not. Father to son duty is poignantly portrayed with several examples throughout the epic. Telemakhos placed Mentes’ things in the rack with his father’s spears showing his love towards a father he has never known but also illustrating the Greek notion of duty towards your father as in the case of Orestes who takes the revenge for his father’s murder. Odysseus on his return visits his father first after giving up his disguise and his wiliness fails in front of the man whom had he abandoned and stayed away from home; he would have been discredited forever. The master servant relationship is one that presents a different take of duty in the Odyssey in terms of loyalty and faith in the master in his absence. The swineherd Eumaios is depicted as a noteworthy servant who serves the suitors out of force not free will as is Eurycleia,the maid
2

Fitzgerald,The Odyssey

who remains faithful to Penelope and Telemakhos.Melantho and Melanthios are the quintessential bad chickens come to roost when the master is away. The divergence from duty is fiercely punished as is in the case of the philandering maidservants who are executed after having to mop up the blood of the suitors they had been in cahoots with. However, Odysseus does show a sense of justice when he lets Phemios the minstrel off the hook for entertaining the suitors under compulsion showing him to be clearheaded but formidable when opposed. Xenia or the treatment of foreigners and guests is of central importance in Zeus’s kingdom. He values it greatly especially between kings and hence it becomes the duty of each ruler to provide for guests even before asking their names. Telemakhos displays this when he invites in Mentes;Nestor and Menelaus delay the question of asking the guest’s identity as etiquette in that time dictated so. Gifts were a way of solidifying the world by a balance between kingly families for example the wine bowl wrought by Hephatheseus that Menelaus given to Telemakhos. The theme of not coveting another man’s belonging (the proper receival of hospitality) comes up again and again in Greek stories. The suitors display gluttony and encroach upon Odysseus’s house and desire his wife which leads to a bloody massacre in which they get their due. The consequences of intruding upon someone else’s oikos come at a heavy price as shown in Book 24. From the above illustrations, it obvious how following duty is important in the Greek world. Small mistakes can lead to great problems for the characters beit Odysseus in The Odyssey or Agamemnon in the Iliad who offended Apollo.

SELF CONTROL Self control is another major theme in the Odyssey where the protagonist’s endurance and will is put to the test several times. The hero is treated as a human with fallacies but is expected to rise up to high moral standards even though the gods themselves flout them many a time. The portrayal of the hero or a human is as always weaker than the gods but the expectations directed at him of reaching a high moral pedestal is a curious feature of Greek Mythology. Interestingly enough, slight deviations from the ‘right’ path are permitted as long as he wanders back to a morally chartered course. Even before embarking on the voyage back to Ithaca, Odysseus displays a lot of self control when in the Trojan horse. Helen mimics the wives of the warriors inside in order to entice them out so they give away their position, Odysseus is the one who holds the warriors back from doing this exercising self control and control over his men. (Book 4) But his breach of self control on the island of Polyphemus costs him his safe passage back home to Ithaca becoming a drifter for twenty years. He could have refrained from calling out his name but he succumbed to the desire of Kleos or his own renown thus putting him in a position where Poseidon cursed his passage back home for hurting his son Polyphemus. Odysseus also tries to please the gods when he refuses to eat the sun god’s cattle even though his men break down and eat them. The Sun enraged by their actions, complains to Zeus who enraged by their actions strikes the lot of them with a thunderbolt when the Achaeans set forth on sea from which Odysseus emerges as a lone survivor. (Book 12) .Gluttony is also displayed as a total loss of self control in the case of the Laistrogynes, a race of powerful giants whose king, Antiphates, and unnamed queen turn Odysseus’s scouts into dinner.Food is treated as an extension of friendship and reverence in Greek myths where the trick played by Prometheus on Zeus cost the entire mankind.

At Circe’s island,the men who are rescued by Odysseus’s intervention do not seem blissfully happy about the freedom from captivity. Submission and the wilful loss of self control-Do these men find human life tiresome and full of danger and would rather remain animals without a care in the world than be expected to go back to their previous lives? This is the exact conundrum faced by Odysseus throughout his travels where he has to choose duty over a careless existence; danger over leisure. He accepts the slothful existence at Calypso and Circe’s island causing his men to reproach him, “Captain, shake off this trance and think of home.” 3The momentary loss of selfcontrol is finally replaced by determination to set forth again. It isn’t clear however whether it is due the call of duty or the pursuit of kleos as though being served on hand and foot is fun,it doesn’t lead to your name being remembered down the ages. It is hard to divorce the two ideas and I personally feel that it was the combination of the two which made him want to go back though the future was uncertain for him. The sexist approach in Greek Mythology again creeps in when Calypso gives an impassioned speech about how the male gods have affairs with mortals while the female gods like Demeter aren’t allowed to do so. ‘Oh, you vile gods, in jealously supernatural’ (Book 5)This selective approach to the expectation of self control even within gods reverberates in the human world where Penelope’s fidelity was taken for granted even with juxtaposition with Clytemnestra. As a woman, she is expected to have control over her desires and is allowed no excuses. After having philandered around, Odysseus expects his wife to have stayed faithful to him by using the ‘immovability of the bed’ metaphor in Book 23. He slowly displays a hardened control over his will when the temptation offered by the Lotus eaters to just relax is spurned by him and he maintains his desire to get back home. While

3

Fitzgerald,Introduction ,The Odyssey

passing the sirens, the crew stuffed their ears with beeswax, however Odysseus was anchored "lashed by ropes on the mast" at his own request, having been told to do so by a prophet, Teiresias. While tied up, he tried to convince his crew mates to stop, even though he knew it was the last thing he should do, displaying a sense of recklessness and powerlessness over himself, however in this instance the crew display a quality other than submissiveness where they allow their reasoning to control them rather than duty towards their master. After getting back Odysseus withstands pain for glory when he dresses up like a beggar and lacerates himself so he can sneak into the city of Troy and learn their plans. His cunning and intelligence win over his desire to show himself and openly challenge the suitors who were where lording over his home-eating food at his expense, drinking his wine, flouting his son’s authority and vying for his wife. (Book 4) The lack of self control on the part of various women in the Odyssey helps the hero progress in his journey. Calypso and Circe give into their desires and in the process help him as well. Same is the case with Nausikaa who is of marriageable age and who instead of interacting with Odysseus should have run in the opposite direction seeing a strange man. The beauty Athena endowed on Odysseus at the moment helped his case which shows how the weakening of human resolve by the gods plays a huge role in how a hero’s story plays out. Additionally, repetition in the poem often occurs with some variation from occurrence to occurrence or with a change in context that gives repeated phrases or encounters new meaning .In Book 19 Odysseus launches into a tirade against Melantho but by Book 20 he responds with a manner akin to disgust and pity and reigns in his sharp words .In this case, the evidence of self control is more due the knowledge of a victory in the near future than a controlled sense of manner.

Self control in all spheres of life is shown as the ultimate aim of a human’s life. The Odyssey embodies the consequences of the loss of self control and the rewards obtained by gaining mastery over your instincts. COMPARISON Mythology provides us with an idea about the values, culture and intellectual development of the people of those cultures and civilizations. Two of the most vibrant, advanced and complex mythologies are that of the ancient Greeks and the Hindus (Indian. These two religions and cultures existed in different parts of the world and were separated by great distances butut there are some amazing similarities between their fables and myths and I will compare the theme of duty(pietas) in two epics -Ramayana and the Odyssey. The brief summary of the Ramayana is as follows- “Dasaratha of Ayodhya chooses his son Rama as his successor, Kaikeyi, one of his three wives, implores him to make her son, Bharata, king. Dasaratha, having previously given his word to grant her a wish, must accede, and banishes Rama to the forest for fourteen years. Rama's wife, Sita, and his brother, Lakshmana, accompany him. In the forest, the demon Surpanakha sees Rama, and falls in love with him. He rebuffs her, and Lakshmana wounds her as she attempts to assault Sita. She flees to her brother Ravana, King of Lanka who has ten heads and twenty arms, rules and uses his formidable powers to suppress sacred rituals. She tells him of Sita's beauty and he, inflamed with desire, battles Rama for her. When he fails, he disguises himself, tricking Rama and kidnapping Sita to take her back to Lanka. Imprisoned in Ravana's garden, Sita maintains her virtue and her fidelity to Rama. The monkey general Hanuman, an ally of Rama, who had saved his kingdom, eventually finds Sita, and Rama and Lakshmana, along with Hanuman's monkey army, attack Lanka. After many battles, they kill Ravana and rescue Sita. Because Sita has lived with another man, Rama requires her to walk through fire to

prove her chastity. Rama returns to Ayodhya, where his stepbrother, Bharata, entreats him to take the throne. He does so, but shortly thereafter he banishes Sita to the forest because of his doubts about her virtue. In the forest, Sita contemplates drowning herself, but the sage and poet Valmiki appears in the poem, imploring her not to do so. She heeds his advice, and in her isolation bears twins to Rama. Once the boys, Luv and Kush are born, she asks Valmiki to write Rama's story for them. It is several years before Rama realizes his mistake and finally comes to bring Sita home. When the family is reunited, the twins sing the Ramayana for their father. Sita, in order to prove her virtue, implores the earth to swallow her up, leaving Rama to care for their sons.’’ 4Though condensed the above paragraph is a condensed summary of the 24,000 couplet long epic written by Valmiki in the 4th or 5th century BCE. The Ramayana epitomizes the spirit of ancient India with its vague but grand concepts of moral rectitude and its consequences for a person’s fate. Both Rama and Sita are portrayed as following their dharma,a term meaning ‘personal duty’ as well as ‘law,eternal law,’ and personified as the God of Justice.’’5. Dharma is quite easily comparable to the Greek idea of Pietas or duty where Odysseus tried to pursue high ideals even if he suffered from occasional lapses.The difference is that Rama painstakingly puts Dharma over everything else where he first gave up the throne on his father’s insistence as a well behaved son and as a king who sets a precedent, he sent his wife away when questions were raised against her chastity against his own desires. Odysseus tries to have his cake and eat it too for example he goes back to Penelope but not after having spent time with Circe and Calypso.

4 5

http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/extra/bl-ramayana-summary.htm B.A. Van Nooten in his introduction to Buck’s translation of The Odyssey

Sita is the ideal wife who places her husband’s interests over her own, her steadfast loyalty and chastity make her the ideal Hindu wife as is Penelope who also embodies the concept of Pativrata-a wife entirely devoted to her husband. Sita’s devotion to her husband manifests itself not only in her rejecting the overtures of Ravana like the case of the suitors but also physical and mental action when she chooses to accompany Rama on his Vanvaas(exile) fulfilling the duty of a wife. Ravana is comparable to suitors who covet another man’s wife showing lack of self control which leads to dire consequences for him.Bharata completes his duty as a faithful younger brother who rules Ayodhya in Rama’s absence by placing Rama’s slippers on the throne which is reminscient of Eumaios and Eurycleia who do their duties even in their master’s absence. Greek gods and goddesses intervene in human events but are distinct entities but in contrast, the concept of Gods in Eternal Dharma is that of many parts of one whole Supreme Entity. The Avataar of God on Earth is the physical appearance of the Supreme Entity. But, in doing so, the Avataar becomes a part of human society and follows the laws or practices of human society at that time like Rama who is an Avaatar of Lord Vishnu on earth and needs to always be on high moral grounds whereas Odysseus as a mortal is excused certain slips. Though a brief comparison, it is interesting how the same concepts gained equal importance in two civilizations separated by time and space. Dharma is the ‘law of being’ without which humans cannot exist and in the same way duty is seen as of foremost importance in Homer’s epics. CONCLUSION

The themes of self control and pietas discussed by me in the paper form narrow determined pathways in a minefield of Greek adversities, divergence from which lands the character in a perilous position. It provides the reader with a structure armed with which he can deduct the results of certain decisions and actions .In this particular epic, though Odysseus and his journey is dominated to a certain extent by the will of the fates, some of his decisions decide the route and length of his voyage as in the example of Polyphemus which incurred the wrath of Poseidon who constantly denied him safe voyage till the intervention made by Zeus. Self control as a theme is reflected in the Aeneid as well where Aeneas leaves Troy amid ruins even though his burning city tries to keep him back and he displays the sense of duty when he leaves Dido to go and found Rome. It is thus obvious that these themes overcome boundaries of time and remain important in characterizing people in an epic. The Odyssey is can be best explained as a story which hangs on these two strings which could either sink Odysseus’s boat or push him forward. Through his own capabilities and divine intervention , he made it to Ithaca leading to a glorious tale being concocted which has lived on for centuries. This epic was written when the civilization it was celebrating had clearly passed way with all the grandeur and heroicness of those days. Homer seems to stress on the loss of the qualities man possessed in yesteryears as opposed to the clear ‘Iron Age’ life of man in his day.The Gods in this epic seem to be more mature than what their behaviour was in the Iliad showing their progress with each Homeric epic. Lastly,the Odyssey remains an engrossing book with multiple themes to observe and a travesty of information to absorb.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Essay

...1 Overview of How to Write an Essay Writing essays is a major element of your education at the university level. Effective writing gives you the ability to express your ideas, theories, arguments, and projects clearly. The skills you acquire at the university level through writing essays will be aimed at practical business applications that you will be able to use in the workplace. The following information provides a succinct overview of the elements you need to know to begin writing an essay. It will help you on your writing journey. Types of Essays Narrative A narrative essay is a story told by a narrator. Generally, a narrative discusses the personal experience of the author (the first person point of view), but it can also be written about things that happen to others (third person point of view). A narrative typically involves characters, a setting, specific and vivid details, and a series of events that can include current incidents, flashbacks, or dialogue. Cause and Effect A cause and effect essay explores why events, actions, or conditions occur (cause) and examines the results of those events, actions, or conditions (effect). For example, a cause could be purchasing a new expensive home. The effect might be fewer family vacations, more time spent on upkeep, or less time with family because of extra work hours to pay for the home. Comparison and Contrast A comparison and contrast essay shows the relationship between two or more elements. The items can be compared...

Words: 6215 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Essay

...How to determine custom essay editing company that is legitimate This is the company you will find great editors to provide you with custom essay editing service. Students whose first language is not English may find speaking and writing in English as a difficult task for them. Most of these students are international students who have enrolled in various universities in America and in the UK. The main teaching language is English, American and Standard English respectively. It is essential for students to master well the language of instruction because it is a medium through which they are required to write their assignments and speak in classroom. Competence and fluency in English language will help students to read and understand the teaching material provided to them. It is important therefore for students to ask for support from custom essay editing services which deal with the tips of writing good essays among other academic papers and also to write for them assignment essays. Our writing and editing services is created both for students and professionals. We deal with both the non academic and academic editing and writing services to fulfill your needs. At our custom essay editing, you will find editors who are qualified in linguistics and English language. We are ready to provide you the custom essay editing service at any time of the day or night because we operate as a 24/7 service. Our custom essay editing service comprises of creative thinkers, skillful......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay

...An essay is usually a short piece of writing. It is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can be literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population provide counterexamples. It is very difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject: Like the novel, the essay is a literary Abstract This article will examine the reasons why it is important both linguistically and psychologically to build a vocabulary quickly when learning a foreign language. The article asserts that very little can be achieved or learned in a foreign language with a small vocabulary and that by building a sizable vocabulary quite quickly one can soon be able to function adequately. You may also wish to look at http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/95/feb/meara.html   Introduction   It is obvious that in order to learn a foreign language one needs to learn many many words. But how many?......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...There are some teachers who are going to require you to write a 250 word essay. Actually, it is a very short essay for that matter but for some students, it may also be a burden to have a word limit in writing. Let us take a look at the scenarios that you need to understand to compose a well developed essay. For some students, it may be limiting to have a word factor quota in writing an article. There are some individuals who can tell more out of a topic and that having 250 words will not suffice to tell everything in their minds. That is why you need to have the skills in budgeting the words that you have to write without sacrificing the ideas that you have to deliver. There are different essay types that you also need to consider so having a word limit cannot simply be an easy task. Still for some students, a 250 word essay may mean too much because there are also some people who do not want to waste their time writing. No matter what the essay structure may be, these types of people are not really eager to translate their thoughts to written form so they think 250 words simply equates to too much work. Anyway, you need to understand that having this kind of limit will eventually benefit the students as they improve their discipline, being responsible and being resourceful individuals. We can offer you to buy essays from us so you do not have to worry about the number of words in writing. Let our writers make your life easier...

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay. This is my essay.......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...Essay Writer can provide students with the exact answers to their essay assignments through our free essay section as well as our custom essay writing services. All of Essay Writer’s free essays are uploaded to our site by some college and university students in the UK to serve as informative guides and comparative templates to help you finish your own essay writing tasks with greater ease and clarity. These sample essays are readily downloadable and very easily accessible; just simply select a subject area or topic from our list of available subjects. You can then go through our list of available essay titles under that subject. Welcome to Essay Writer’s free essays section! You can now access our very extensive collection of free essays. These essays are all original and previously not made available to anyone, and are excellently written and submitted by some well meaning college students who wish to share their knowledge to help you do better in writing your own essays. Below is the list of the subject areas we cover in our free essays section. Simply select the subject that corresponds to your need. You will then be shown a list of all the essay titles available for that specific subject. Essay Writer regularly updates its free essay database. Keep checking back for additional subjects or topics. You may also bookmark our Free Essays page to make it easier to check back on the availability of our free essays. To bookmark this page, simply click on the......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Essay

...I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real essay I’m sorry this is not a real...

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...Process and Procedure Essay Samples are Helpful Guides in Writing Saturday, June 20th, 2009 Process and Procedure Essay Samples will Assist You in Understanding this Essay Format First of all let’s find out what essay is called process and procedure essay. It is an essay which sometimes called “how to” essay for it guides in certain activities or gives instructions as how to do some job (procedure) or complete a certain task. When you feel difficulty with this essay type, you can find process and procedure essay samples which can give you useful tips into creating an essay which will be have high rating. Process and procedure essay outlining certain procedures or directions to perform certain activity is an important task if one needs to learn how to compile clear instructions to serve the needs of professionals in different fields. These can be helpful for engineers, teachers, doctors and even housewives when it concerns cook books which are also some kind of instructive writing. Procedure essay writing is a useful skills for managerial personnel as they need to organize people and direct them toward certain activities. Process and procedure essay samples can be found online in abundance. Through these essay examples one can get some notion about procedure writing and take some notes how to complete a good piece of process essay. One may note that procedure can include descriptions, warnings and recommendations to the procedures described. To provide guidelines......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essays

...HOW TO READ ESSAYS YOU MUST ANALYZE 1. Take a pencil in your hand. 2. Read the essay over once, quickly, looking for the main idea, for what the essay is about in general, and for what the author seems to be saying. Don't get bogged down in details. (If you come to an unfamiliar word, circle it but go on reading). 3. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words. If they seem to be key words, i.e., if the author uses them more than once, scribble a brief definition at the bottom of the page or at the end of the essay. 4. Now re-read more slowly and carefully, this time making a conscious attempt to begin to isolate the single most important generalization the author makes: his thesis. Follow his line of thought; try to get some sense of structure. The thesis determines the structure, so the structure, once you begin to sense it, can lead you to the thesis. What is the main point the author is making: Where is it? Remember, examples or "for instances" are not main points. The thesis is the generalization the author is attempting to prove valid. Your job, then is to ask yourself, "What is the author trying to prove"? Another way of identifying the thesis is to ask yourself, "What is the unifying principle of this essay"? or "What idea does everything in this essay talk about"? or "Under what single main statement could all the subdivisions fit"? If the author has stated his thesis fully and clearly and all in one place, your job is easier. The thesis is apt to be......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay

...to write A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present AEB syllabus, there are three main skills being assessed in your essays. 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of social situations and interpreted, and expressed in a critical fashion. You must be aware of the skills being highlighted in the question in order to use the appropriate skills in your essays. You should also practice writing essays regularly and develop a technique which addresses the skills required so that you can actually answer the question set. I hope that this handout should allow you to achieve this. Stage One Many students are too quick into diving into an answer. They have focused on certain key terms and ‘assumed’ what the essay requires from a quick look at the question. Instead, the question should be read a number of times. Task One With the title provided. Analyze the question by underlining the key features in the essay title Double underline the skills being assessed, e.g., describe and explain Identify any terms or concepts contained in the question. These terms will need to be defined, i.e. concepts such as interactionists. Essay questions will also......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Essay

...tutorial x 13 weeks)     Level: Foundation/Matriculation     Lecturers: Ms Fazidah Abdul Jamil., Mdm Goh Wan Chen, Ms Saratha Thevi Ramasamy, Ms Norzaireen Shamsul Kamar Synopsis: This course is designed for students who require the necessary skills for tertiary studies. Some basic grammatical concepts are taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs. Reading skills will cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University Press, UK 2. Paterson, K, and Wedge, R., (2013). Oxford Grammar for EAP. Oxford University Press, UK Recommended References: Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1997), Cambridge University Press, UK Mode of Assessment: [1] Class participation 5% [2] Quiz 1 15% [3] Quiz 2 10% [4] Oral Presentation 10% [5] Mid-Term Examination 20% [6] Final Examination 40% Syllabus – FDENG001 |Week |UNIT |Topics ......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...Define Your Thesis For essays that are part of an Early Years Care & Education Degree, it is important to clearly define a thesis statement within the first paragraph of the essay. Even if you are given a topic to write, such as the importance of preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods, you need to develop a strong thesis in your own words. Here is an example: "Preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods are a crucial step in helping all children enter elementary school at the same educational level, regardless of the income of the family." Once you have defined a clear thesis, you can proceed to the rest of your essay. However, without a clear thesis, your essay will not hold up. Use Examples The majority of your essay should be a careful and clear argument that supports your thesis statement. Do research and cite as many examples as possible to prove your point. For an essay about the merits of all-day educational opportunities for preschool-aged children, check trustworthy sources such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children and national PTA. Provide each point in a strong and complete paragraph. Each paragraph should have a main statement, supporting information and a conclusion. Tie In Conclusion After you have made your argument, state your conclusion in a clear and concise manner. Whether you have proven that the teacher ratio in a preschool setting should be lower than 4 to 1 or made a case for more national funding for the......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Essay

...from these events? How have they affected your personality or how you deal with situations now? Remember the focus of the essay is on the contrasting impacts of these events in your life. These events do not have to be major events, they could be minor in nature but their impact on you could be great and long lasting. Undertake the task of pre writing for this topic. Select your two events. Describe them in point form. Consider their diverse impacts on your life. By the end of this class you should have completed your pre writing and make sure you get your sheet signed by me. You have the week to work on your first draft. Those of you who would like to show me the first draft are free to submit it to me online and I shall hand them back to you online. I will tell you whether you are on the right track, however this is optional and you will not be penalized if you do not show me your first draft. You need to give me Draft 1 by Tuesday, Feb 26. This will be an online submission under Assignments on ilearn. I will correct it and give it back to you by Sunday March 3, and then you will work on changing the draft according to my corrections and bring it to class on Tuesday, March 5 when we will have a peer review session. So after our class today you need to upload your first drafts of the essay in a week, by Feb 26 in an area marked out as Essay 1 under Assignments on Ilearn. You need to exchange your second drafts with two of your classmates on Tuesday,......

Words: 547 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Essay

...Carmen Hollow Mr. Beurskens College English Critique Essay: The Morals of the Prince May 3, 2011 The Grey Area between Good and Evil: A Critique of “The Morals of the Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli Introduction We’ve all made a promise that we couldn’t keep and we have all felt bad about breaking those promises. Whether it was a promise to our parents, our children or a co-worker, we don’t feel good about it, but sometimes it can’t be helped. Usually if we couldn’t keep a promise it was for a good reason and not a selfish one. To the person that we made the promise to, we may be viewed as uncaring or unreliable, but to ourselves we know that we had to make a decision that could hurt someone but at the same time our decision could help that same person or persons. Making a promise and not being able to keep it for one reason or another, is one of the few topics that Machiavelli writes of in his essay “The Morals of the Prince”. He also tells why he believes a prince should be feared rather than loved, and why a prince should be stingy and not generous. He wants us to know how a “perfect” prince should act and behave so that the prince will be viewed upon as a great prince. Summary Machiavelli writes about how he believes a prince should act and behave to be considered a successful prince, one that is loved and feared, liberal and stingy, one that knows when to keep his word and when to break it. In his essay, Machiavelli writes “a prince who wants to keep......

Words: 1138 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Essay

...my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay..Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my essay.. Here is my......

Words: 397 - Pages: 2