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FIRE DEPARTMENT



CITY OF NEW YORK

STUDY MATERIAL FOR THE
CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS EXAMINATION FOR
F-03
INDOOR PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL
(Premises related)

© 08/2012 New York City Fire Department - All rights reserved ®

TABLE OF CONTENT

NOTICE OF EXAMINATION ....................................................................................... I
STUDY MATERIAL AND TEST DECRIPTION ..................................................VII
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
Requirements........................................................................................................................ 1
Definition................................................................................................................................ 3
Disasters at public gatherings ....................................................................................... 4
Proper responses, different results ............................................................................. 7

PART I. INDOOR PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL ................ 8
1. THE DUTIES OF PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL........... 8
1.1

Fire safety and evacuation plan ...................................................................... 8

1.2

Pre-event inspection............................................................................................. 8

1.3

During the event .................................................................................................. 10

2. SPECIAL FIRE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR THEATERS.................... 12
2.1

Daily inspections. ................................................................................................ 12

2.2

During the performance. .................................................................................. 12

2.3

Regular inspections. ........................................................................................... 14

PART II. TEMPORARY PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL ... 15
3. THE DUTIES OF TEMPORARY PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY
PERSONNEL ................................................................................................................. 15
3.1

Orientation ............................................................................................................. 15

3.2

Pre-events inspections ...................................................................................... 15

3.3

Prohibitions ............................................................................................................ 17

3.4

During the event .................................................................................................. 17

PART III. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM, EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
AND FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.................................................................................. 19
4. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM............................................................................ 19
4.1

Manual or pull station devices ....................................................................... 19

4.2

Safety requirements ........................................................................................... 20

4.3

Sprinkler system .................................................................................................. 22

4.4

Standpipe system................................................................................................. 23

4.5

Fire alarm system ................................................................................................ 23

5. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ............................................................................ 24

A

5.1

General emergency procedures ..................................................................... 24

5.2

Fire emergency ..................................................................................................... 24

5.3

Medical emergency.............................................................................................. 25

5.4

Bomb or other explosion threats .................................................................. 25

5.5

Chemical incident or release .......................................................................... 26

6. PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS............................................................... 27
6.1

Typical fire extinguishers ................................................................................ 29

6.2

Fire extinguisher inspections ......................................................................... 30

B

NOTICE OF EXAMINATION
Title:

Certificate of Fitness for Indoor Place of Assembly Safety Personnel
(F-03)

Date of Exam: Written exams are conducted Monday through Friday (except legal holidays) 8:00 AM to 2:30 PM.
REQUIREMENTS FOR WRITTEN EXAM
Applicants who need to take the exam must apply in person and bring the following documents: 1. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age.
2. Applicants must have a reasonable understanding of the English language.
3. Applicant must provide two forms of identifications; at least one identification must be government issued photo identification, such as a State-issued
Driver’s License or Non Driver’s License or a passport.
4. Applicants must present a letter of recommendation from his/her employer.
The letter must be on official letterhead, and must state the applicant’s full name, experience and the address where the applicant will work. If the applicants are self-employed or the principal of the company, they must submit a notarized letter attesting to their qualifications. For more info: http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/html/c_of_f/cof_requirements.shtml 5. The letter of recommendation from his/her employer must also state (1) the address of premises where applicant will be employed; (2) The applicant receives the training in the performance of their duties in accordance with the fire safety and evacuation plan. (The sample letter is on the page 6)

6. Applicants must present a completed application for certificate of fitness (A-20
Form). http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/a20.pdf
7. Applicants not currently employed may take the exam without the recommendation letter. If the applicants pass the exam, FDNY will issue a temporary letter with picture for the job seeking purpose. The C of F card will not be issued unless the applicants are employed and provide the recommendation letter from his/her employer.
8. Special note:
The F-03 and F-04 were previously the F-94 Certificate of Fitness: fireguard for places of public assembly and fireguard for film studios.
F-03 C of F is a premises-related certification and it is designed for the occupancies with Place of Assembly Certificate of Operation (PA). The F-03 C of F holders are responsible for maintaining fire safety in any approved place of assembly (PA) or temporary place of assembly (TPA) activities held in the premises. F-04 C of F is a certification. F-04 Certificate of Fitness holders are responsible to assist in maintaining fire safety in any TEMPORARY place of assembly event with a TPA permit.

I

For applicants who want to take the place of assembly C of F tests:
Do you perform your duties in a specific occupancy with a Place of Assembly permit (e.g. theater, TV studio, stadium, terminals)?

Yes, will work in a specific premises. Take F-03 test

No, only work for temporary place of assembly events at different locations.

Take F-04 test

9. APPLICATION FEE:
Pay the $25 application fee in person by one of the following methods:
 Cash
 Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa)
 Debit card (MasterCard or Visa)
 Personal or company check or money order (made payable to the New
York City Fire Department)

For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of F for their work- related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.)
 A letter requesting fee wavier on the Agency’s official letterhead

stating applicant full name, exam type and address of premises;
AND
 Copy of identification card issued by the agency
A convenience fee of 2.49% will be applied to all credit card payments.

10. EXAM INFORMATION
The F-03 exam will consist of 25 multiple-choice questions, administered on a “touch screen” computer monitor. It is a time-limit exam. A passing score of at least 70% is required in order to secure a Certificate of Fitness.
Call (718) 999-1988 for additional information and forms. http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/cof_study_material/f_03_st_mat.pdf 11. If all the requirements are meet and pass the exam a certificate will be issued the same day. Applicant who fails the exam will receive a failure report. To retake the exam applicants will need to submit a new application and payment.
RENEWAL REQUIREMENTS
This Certificate of Fitness must be renewed every THREE YEARS. The renewal fee is
$15. FDNY also reserves the right to require the applicants to take a reexamination upon submission of renewal applications.
You will receive a courtesy notice of renewal 90 days before the expiration date.
However, it is your responsibility to renew your Certificate. It is very important to renew your C of F before it expires. Renewals submitted 90 days (up to one year) after the expiration date will incur a $25 penalty in addition to the renewal fee.
Certificates expired over one year past expiration date will not be renewed. New exams will be required.
II

To change a mailing address:
 Submit a letter requesting the change of mailing address and a copy of your C of F with $5.00 fee.
To change a work location,
 Submit a letter from your current employer (on company letterhead) confirming that you are an employee and stating your new work location with a copy of your C of F and a $5.00 fee
To request a replacement certificate:
 Submit a driver’s license or passport, social security number, mailing address and a $5.00 fee.
The certificate can be renewed On-line, by Mail or in Person.
 Renewal online
If you are an individual, make sure you have your 12 digit Certificate of Fitness
Access ID. This can be found on your Renewal Notice. If you do not have your
Renewal Notice, your Access ID is your 8 digit Certificate of Fitness number and the last four digits of your social security number. If you are submitting renewals on behalf of a company's employees, the company must be approved by FDNY and have an 8 digit Company Code. To request approval, email pubrenew@fdny.nyc.gov.
Renewal fee can be paid by one of the following methods:
 Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa)
 Debit card (MasterCard or Visa)
 E-check
A fee exempted applicants cannot renew online only by mail or in person.
If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be mailed out within 10 days. For online renewal go to: https://paydirect.link2gov.com/FDNYCOF/ItemSearch
 Renewal by mail
Mail your Renewal Notice (if you did not receive a Renewal Notice, a copy of your certificate), along with your fee payment
Personal or company check or money order (made payable to the NYC
Fire Department)

For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of F for

their work- related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.)
 A letter requesting fee waiver on the Agency’s official letterhead stating

applicant full name, exam type and address of premises; AND
 Copy of identification card issued by the agency and if applicable, supporting documents to:
NYC Fire Department (FDNY)
Cashier's Unit
9 MetroTech Center, 1st Floor
Brooklyn, NY 11201

III

If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be mailed out within four to six weeks.
 Renewal in person
Submit your Renewal Notice (or if you did not receive a Renewal Notice, a copy of your certificate), along with your fee payment by one of the following methods:
 Cash
 Credit card (American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa)
 Debit card (MasterCard or Visa)
 Personal or company check or money order (made payable to the New
York City Fire Department)

For fee waivers submit: (Only government employees who will use their C of F for

their work- related responsibilities are eligible for fee waivers.)
 A letter requesting fee waiver on the Agency’s official letterhead stating

applicant full name, exam type and address of premises; AND
 Copy of identification card issued by the agency and if applicable, your supporting documents to:
NYC Fire Department (FDNY)
Cashier's Unit
9 MetroTech Center, 1st Floor
Brooklyn, NY 11201
If all the requirements are met, the certificate of fitness will be issued the same day.
A convenience fee of 2.49% will be applied to all credit card payments for original or renewal certificates.

IV

EXAM SITE: FDNY Headquarters, 9 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY. Enter through the Flatbush Avenue entrance (between Myrtle
Avenue and Tech Place).

V

Sample of recommendation letter on employer’s letterhead (F-03 C of F)
Date:__________________
Fire Department
Bureau of Fire Prevention
9 MetroTech Center
Brooklyn, NY 11201-3857
Dear Sir/Madam:
I am pleased to recommend __________________________ to apply for a Certificate of
(Applicant’s name)

Fitness for F-03: Indoor place of Assembly Safety Personnel. He/she has _______________
(years, months)

of experience and receive the training in the performance of his/her duties in accordance with the fire safety and evacuation plan of the premises located at
_______________________________________________________________________.
(business address)

___________________________
(signature of employer)
NOTE:
The recommendation letter should be on employer’s letterhead. If not on employers letterhead, signature must be notarized.

VI

STUDY MATERIAL AND TEST DECRIPTION
About the Study Material
This study material will help you prepare for the examination for the Certificate of Fitness for place of assembly safety personnel. The study material includes information taken from the New York City Fire Code. This study material consists of 3 parts. The exam covers the entire booklet and any tables. It will NOT be provided to you during the test. It is critical that you read and understand this booklet to help increase your chance of passing this exam. The study material does not contain all of the information you need to know to work as a safety personnel. It is your responsibility to become familiar with all applicable rules and regulations of the City of New York, even if they are not covered in this booklet. You need to be familiar with the Fire Code Section 403, 404, 906 and the Fire Rule
Section 403-01, 403-02 and 404-01 which regulate the duties of safety personnel for managing the occupants in public gathering events.
The F-03 C of F test covers the entire booklet and the F-04 C of F test covers page 1-7 and page 15-30 of this booklet.
About the Test
All questions on the Certificate of Fitness examination are of the multiple choice type with four alternative answers to each question. There are 25 questions in the F-03 test and 20 questions in the F-04 test. Only one answer is most correct for each question. If you do not answer a question or if you mark more than one alternative your answer will be scored as incorrect. A score of 70% is required on the examination in order to qualify for the
Certificate of Fitness. Read each question carefully before choosing your answer. There is no penalty for guessing.
Sample Questions
1. Who was the first President of the United States?
(A) George Jefferson.
(B) George Washington
(C) Bill Clinton.
(D) Barack H. Obama.
The correct answer is "B". You would press "B" on your computer terminal.
2. The city in the United States referred to as The Big Apple is:
(A) Los Angeles.
(B) Buffalo.
(C) Florida.
(D) New York.
The

correct

answer

is

"D".

You

would

press

VII

"D"

on

your

computer

terminal.

INTRODUCTION
This study material outlines the Fire Code, Fire Department rules and Fire Department policies regarding individuals that are responsible to assist in maintaining fire safety in indoor and outdoor places of assembly and public gathering events. The name of the
Certificate of Fitness that will be issued by the Fire Department to those applicants that pass the exam is “place of assembly safety personnel”. In the past, the Fire Department has commonly referred to these type individuals as “fire guards”.
The title of the
Certificate of Fitness has changed to “place of assembly safety personnel” from fire guard because it more accurately represents the duties and responsibilities of such individuals.
Place of assembly safety personnel are needed in certain in indoor and outdoor places of assembly and public gathering places primarily to “manage the occupants” in the event of a fire or other emergency. Verifying that the exits are unobstructed, immediately accessible, appropriately identified and suitably protected is only the first step toward achieving safety in a place of assembly. The management of occupants is primarily involved with moving them away from the hazard. Occupants must know not only where exits are, but also when and how to use them. Without guidance from on site fire safety personnel, most occupants of places of assembly are likely to exit the same way they entered the building, whether or not it is the nearest or safest exit. The role of fire safety personnel is to help direct occupants to the nearest exit, assuming that the exit is safe to use. Most assembly occupancies are required to have a fire safety and evacuation plan that provides for the safety of building occupants in the event of fire or other emergency. The plan must consider the number and capabilities of building occupants; the type, location and arrangement of building exits; the fire and its effects on the people and the building and the number, training and capability of staff to direct or perform fire evacuation or incipient fire-fighting duties. The plan, combined with effective practice, becomes the means for achieving the desired life safety outcome. Of particular concern in an assembly occupancy is the occupant’s lack of familiarity with the building design.
Additionally, lighting conditions in assembly spaces may interfere with the occupants’ ability to discern the path of egress travel. In most place of assembly occupancies, occupants should be directed to the nearest exit. The types of public assembly occupancies required to have place of assembly safety personnel available, the number of such persons required and whether they may have other duties in addition to those associated with other than place of assembly safety personnel will be set forth in the fire safety and evacuation plan for your particular facility and/or the Fire Code, Fire
Department rules, or Fire Department policies.
Requirements
I. When and where are the place of assembly safety personnel required?
As a matter of public safety, FDNY may require at least one place of assembly safety personnel in the premises where the Certificate of Occupancy indicates that 75 or more members of the public may gather indoors or 200 or more may gather outdoors.
Generally, the types of places of assembly that may be required to have place of assembly safety personnel on the premises during the public gathering event include, but are not necessarily limited to

1









Cabarets
Dance halls
Indoor skating rinks
Bowling alleys
Museums
Bingo halls
Movie theaters

 Television/radio studios admitting an audience  Sports arenas
 Circuses
 Performing art theaters (live)
 Stadiums
 Passenger terminal

Or
Any event that needs temporary place of assembly permit (TPA), for example, festivals, outdoor concerts or other similar outdoor public gathering.
II. How many place of assembly safety personnel will be required?
Generally, the fire safety and evacuation plan for your particular facility and/or the Fire
Code, Fire Department rules, or Fire Department policies will specify when and how many may be required. For the temporary place of assembly situations, the number of minimum safety personnel will be indicated in the TPA permit.
The safety personnel should be maintained continuously during the public gathering event. For the TPA events, the safety personnel are recommended to arrive at the premises at least 1 hour prior to the events and stay until all audience members leave.
In some cases, Fire Department personnel may be on scene and provide additional direction on the number of required place of assembly safety personnel or other fire protection measures that may be required.
The Certificate of Fitness holder must keep the Certificates of Fitness upon his or her person, or otherwise readily available for inspection by any representative of the Department.
The safety personnel should be familiar with the procedures of evacuation and the evacuation routes for the areas where they performing their duties. The safety personnel must be familiar with the obligations for notifying the Fire Department in the event of fire or other event of emergency (FC Chapter 4 Section 401.3). Further information is available at:



Emergency Planning and Preparedness: [FC Chapter 4 Section 403, 404, 408]
Fire Protection System: [FC Chapter 9 Section 901 and Section 906]

2

Definition
Assembly Areas - A designated area outside of a building to which building occupants are directed to report upon implementation of a partial evacuation or evacuation in accordance with a fire safety and evacuation plan or an emergency action plan.
Building Information Card - The commissioner may require by rule the preparation of a building information card depicting and/or setting forth the relevant fire safety information for a building or occupancy for which a fire safety and evacuation plan is required to be submitted to the department pursuant. A building information card, when required to be prepared, shall be maintained on the premises and made available upon request to any department representative.
Building Occupants - All persons in the building, including employees, building personnel and visitors.
Emergency Health Care Facility - A sheltered area or building either naturally or artificially so lighted as will promote the health and safety of patients provided emergency medical care, and containing cot(s) and/or litter(s) and emergency medical equipment and supplies as required by New York State Sanitary Code PART – 18.2.
Evacuation – The emptying of a building of all building occupants in response to a fire or an emergency.
Fire Safety and Evacuation Plan - A written plan which sets forth the circumstances and procedures for the in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation of building occupants, required or as appropriate for such occupancy or building type, in response to a fire.
FSP Staff - The individuals identified in a fire safety and evacuation plan as responsible for the implementation of such plan.
Fire Safety/EAP director - The employee designated by the owner to perform duties of such position, and who possesses the requisite qualifications and training, as set forth in
Fire Rules.
Fire Drill - A training exercise by which building occupants are familiarized with and/or practice the procedures for the safe, orderly and expeditious in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation, as applicable to the occupancy or building type, in accordance with the fire safety and evacuation plan, and to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the implementation of such plan. In new office occupancies, fire drills must be conducted every 3 months for the first 2 years after the Certificate of Occupancy is issued. In existing office occupancies, fire drills are required to be conducted every six months. In all hotels (new and existing), fire drills must be conducted at least once every three months on each shift.
Partially Evacuation - The emptying of a building of some but not all building occupants in response to a fire or an emergency.

3

Disasters at public gatherings
Soomaroo and Murray (2012) published a review research article of the crowd disasters in PLoS Currents Journal. In their research, the top 5 learning points from the history are: 1. Overcrowding and crowd control: It did not control the capacity of the event.
2. Event access points: There were too few exits. The flow of occupants was not controlled. The emergency medical services were unable to access event sites.
3. Fire safety measures: The emergency exits were blocked or not functioning properly with appropriate signage. There were no full site fire evacuation plans.
4. Medical preparedness: There were no major incident plan and supporting hospitals were not involved in a timely manner. The media arrived, distracting emergency department personnel.
5. Emergency response: Many events reported poor initial communication or response time with emergency services.
Port Said Stadium Disaster, Port Said, Egypt. 2012.
Disaster Summary
At least 79 people were killed and over 1,000 injuries were reported after an Egyptian football match between Al-Masry and Al-Ahly clubs. AlMasry fans threw bottles and fireworks at the AlAhly players. The Al-Masry fans armed with knives, swords, clubs, and stones, and subsequently attacked the Al-Ahly fans, who tried to escape by running away. The deaths were caused by stab wounds, brain hemorrhages, and concussions while some were deliberately thrown off the stands or died in the stampede. The steel exit doors were bolted shut and dozens were crushed to death in the stampede. Over 1,000 injuries were reported, some from the panic in the crowd as fans tried to escape. Lessons Learned
 Control of hazardous materials.
 Event access points.
 Fire safety measures.
 Emergency responses.

4

Love Parade Stampede, Duisburg, Germany. 2010
Disaster Summary
21 people who died at the Love Parade music festival tragedy because they were crushed in a mass panic and suffocated. Over 500 people were injured. The capacity of the enclosed section was estimated to be 250,000, but there was 1.4 million people attending the festival. The entrances to the music festival were too narrow, and the emergency exits were too few or were blocked.
Lessons Learned
 Crowd control issue.
 Communication with EMS.
 Incident plan.
 Event access points:
Now all the routes leading to a festival area are being widened and more emergency exits installed. The number of security personnel has been increased so that, in an emergency situation, there's enough manpower to direct people where to go.

Lame Horse Fire, Perm, Russia. 2009
Disaster Summary
The fire started when sparks from fireworks ignited the low ceiling and its willow twig covering. The fire quickly spread to the walls and damaged the building's electrical wiring, causing the lights to fail. When the evacuation started, some people left via rear exits. The vast intake of oxygen turned the club's hall into a large fire tube and boosted the spread of fire. As fumes and smoke overtook the air, panic erupted and patrons stampeded toward the exit. One leaf of the club's double doors was sealed shut, and the public was unaware of the backdoor exit behind the stage not shown by emergency lighting. At least 153 people died in the blaze, most killed by carbon monoxide gas and smoke.
Lessons Learned
 Fire safety measure:
Use of pyrotechnics should be only in approved facilities. No proper signs and direction for exiting. The second leaves of two sets of double doors were locked shut.

5

Station Nightclub Fire, West Warwick, RI, USA. 2003
Disaster Summary
More than two-thirds of the 462 people in attendance were either killed or injured (100 dead, 230 injured). A live band that was using fireworks as part of its act ignited foam insulation that had been installed around and over the stage. The flames quickly moved to the ceiling, creating billows of smoke and a panicked race for the front door.
Lessons Learned
 Fire safety measure:
The club did not have an automatic fire sprinkler system to extinguish the fire.
Club was at capacity, it was not overcrowded, but most of the victims died at the primary entrance where the rush of frantic spectators created a logjam at the front door. No proper signs or directions to direct the panic people to use exit routes other than the front door.
Ellis Park Stadium Disaster, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2001
Disaster Summary
43 people were crushed to death and 158 injuries at an overcrowed stadium. The accident was caused when an estimated 30,000 extra fans tried to cram into the already full 60,000 capacity stadium by shoving and breaking through the fence around the facility or climbed over gates.
Guards were unable to stop the crowd from pouring into the already full stands. People outside tried to push into
Ellis Park stadium and were trapped against barbed wire.
Movement of a mass people cause a major crush incident.
Lessons Learned
 Overcrowding issues:
Bribed security personnel admited fans without tickets into the stadium and also thousands of complimentary tickets were used. Thus it swelled the numbers far beyond the projections.
 Emergency responses issue:
Failed to clearly identify and designate areas of responsibility. Poor decision-making by security personnel
 No operation commend centre.

6

Uphaar Cinema Fire, Delhi, India. 1997.
Disaster Summary
The fire broke out after the transformer at the parking level burst in the theatre’s basement car park, and 20 cars in the parking lot caught fire, eventually spreading through the cinema. 59 people died and 103 were seriously injured in the subsequent stampede; most of the victims were trapped on the balcony and were suffocated as they tried to reach dimly marked exits to escape the smoke and fire, and found the doors locked.
Lessons Learned
 Emergency responses issue:
Cinema management was blamed for losing precious time in alerting the fire services.
When the fire broke out, the movie was not stopped nor any announcement made to evacuate the audience.
 Fire safety measure:
The proper distance between the transformer room and the car park was not maintained. Exit signs were not battery-operated and once the lights went out, panicstruck people had to grope in the dark for exits, many of which were blocked by seats
Proper responses, different results
Electric Cinema Fire, London, UK. 2012
Event Summary
Around 200 people were evacuated from a cinema after it caught fire on a busy shopping street. up to 60 firefighters battled the blaze and that 12 fire engines were sent to the scene. But the staffs acted quickly, calling emergency services who were on site immediately, and all members and guests were safely evacuated with no injuries
Fine Line Music Cafe Fire, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 2003
Event Summary
Fine Line fire, which left $1.8 million in property damage, was started when a band's pyrotechnics ignited a fire in the ceiling, as it was at The Station Nightclub Fire. But unlike The Station, The Fine Line was prepared for the emergency, not overcrowded and fitted with proper emergency exits. Once the fire was discovered, management and staff evacuated patrons from the building to safety. 120 patrons were escorted to safety within two minutes. There were no injuries.

7

PART I. INDOOR PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL
1. THE DUTIES OF PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL
Place of assembly safety personnel are primarily to “manage the occupants” in the event of a fire or other emergency. Verifying that the exits are unobstructed, immediately accessible, and appropriately identified is only the first step toward achieving safety in a place of assembly. The management of occupants is primarily involved with moving them away from the hazard. In sum, two major duties of the place of assembly safety personnel are: (1) maintaining the safety of the occupants during a gathering; and (2) assisting in implementing the evacuation plan in the event of an emergency.
Place of assembly safety personnel are important in preventing injury and fatalities from fires at places of assembly. They should know how to keep exit paths clear; how to identify potential problems; how to report the fire or other types of emergency to the
FDNY and the responsible person; and how to keep crowds orderly and safe during an emergency. 1.1
Fire safety and evacuation plan
To be an effective place of assembly safety personnel, it is recommended that you have a working knowledge of Fire Safety Plan (FSP). The personnel should be provided with an orientation from the fire safety director/fire safety coordinator, building owner, or other on-site personnel familiar with and responsible for the fire safety and evacuation plan before starting to perform their duties.
If any fire safety director or other building employees responsible for implementing the fire safety and evacuation plan or training FSP staff is provided in the building, the place of assembly safety personnel shall follow their instruction for the emergency procedures.
In the event of a fire, or fire alarm, the place of assembly safety personnel shall direct the evacuation of the area in accordance with directions received and the evacuation plan.
Generally, from the orientation, the safety personnel should know the location of exits and the means of communication with FDNY and occupants in case of emergency.
1.2
Pre-event inspection
Pre-event inspection is important to reduce the potential risks associated with public assembly events. The pre-event inspections should be conducted by the designated person (e.g. your supervisor, you or other responsible person) before the occupancy is to be used or occupied. If any defects are discovered, the building owner or the designated responsible person (e.g. your supervisor, you or other responsible person) should be aware of it and should then make arrangements to have the defects corrected.
The following safety requirements should be met:
(1) All physical features are installed or arranged according to the approved place of assembly drawing.
(2) Door hardware and physical components of the means of egress must be maintained in good working order at all times.
(3) All requires means of egress and access to such including each exit, exit access and exit discharge, must be maintained free from obstructions and impediments to immediate use in the event of fire or other emergency.
(4) No storage of combustible material and combustible waste in corridors.

8

(5) Maximum capacity posted (placard required)
(6) Emergency exit lighting.
(7) Exit signs and signs indicating the location of accessible means of egress are posted. (8) The seats should be securely fastened to the floors. For the temporary seating, the seats must be secured together in an approved layout.
(9) A functioning fire alarm and sprinkler system, if available. If any required fire protection system is out of service, additional F-01 fire guard(s) is/are required.

The acronym ESCAPE may be used as a reminder for doing the pre-event inspection:
E - Exits – All exits are unblocked, unlocked, and properly marked
S - Storage – The occupancy is clean, orderly and there is no excessive storage. No storage of combustible material and combustible waste in corridors. The hazardous materials are stored, handled or used only in the designated areas and are away from any ignition sources.
C - Capacity – The number of persons occupying the building or space does not exceed the posted capacity. Capacity certificates are properly posted.
A - Aisles – All aisles are free and clear at all times.
P - Protection – Smoke, fire alarm, sprinkler systems, and fire extinguishers are in proper working order and have up-to-date inspection and testing performed.
E - Emergency exit lighting – All exits signs and emergency exit lighting are working properly. Examples of unacceptable situations
Blocked Exit
Locked Exit

Obstructed Aisle

Obstructed Manual Pull Station

9

1.3

During the event

As a place of assembly safety personnel, your responsibilities include but not limited to the following duties. (1) You should be aware of possible overcrowding by monitoring the amount of people in your area of assembly. If you notice that your responsible area is excessively crowded, you should inform your supervisor immediately and follow his/her instruction. (2) You should monitor the areas and confirm that the exit paths are always staying clear. Required aisles must be unobstructed. People should not be allowed to stand, in or at the head of an aisle.
(3) You should look for situations that could lead to challenges in the event of emergency. 10

An example of a Checklist is shown below
Checklist for your area of responsibility (Indoor)
List
Mark “x”
Note
if yes
Pre-event
If no, obtain such information before
1. Do you know the locations of the exits,

starting your duty. stairways and evacuation routes?
If no, obtain such information before
2. Do you know how to notify the FDNY in case

starting your duty. of emergency?
If no, obtain such information before
3. Do you know how to notify your supervisor in

starting your duty. case of overcrowding and emergency?
4. Exits and stairways- Are they free of obstructions? Are exit doors/gates free of

If no, correct and comply locks? Are self-closing doors all close, and is lighting in exit corridors adequate and fully operational? 5. Storage- Is the area clean, orderly and no

excessive storage? Are the hazardous materials stored, handled or used only in the designated areas and are away from any ignition sources?






If no, correct and comply
If no, correct and comply



6. Capacity certificate placard- Is it posted?
7. Aisle – Are aisles free and clear at all times?
8. Protection –
 Is any fire extinguishers provided and are

If no, correct and comply

If no, correct and comply

they operational?

If yes, where are they located?

 Are fire alarm pull stations provided and operational in my area of responsibility?



_______________________
If not required, what procedures will be used to notify the building occupants of a fire? _______________________

9. Emergency exit lighting – Are they


If no, report to your supervisor operational? During-event inspection
Exit and aisles – Are the exits and exit paths staying clear? Are all marked exits remained

If no, correct and comply unlocked and unobstructed at all times?
Potential hazards- any situation that could lead

If yes, correct and comply to challenges in the event of an emergency?
Emergency Notification Procedures:
 Call 911.
 Notify the building occupants by ____________________________.
 The designated people (e.g. fire safety director or building owner) for emergency situations.
Their phone numbers are:
Name
Phone number
_____________
___________________
_____________

___________________

11

2. SPECIAL FIRE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR THEATERS
Safety personnel are required for performing arts, motion picture theaters or other similar indoor public gatherings. Regular inspections required for theaters. Every theaters admitting an audience, shall be periodically inspected for fire safety in compliance with the Fire Department requirements.
2.1 Daily inspections.
The responsible person must conduct the daily inspections in a performing arts or motion picture theater on any day on which the occupant is to be used and occupied for a performance or other audience event. Such inspections may be performed by you, your supervisor or other responsible person and the inspections shall verify compliance with the following requirements:

(A) Means of egress, including exit access, exits and exit discharges, shall be inspected daily to ensure that they are unobstructed, that there are no impediments to their immediate use and that door hardware and other devices and components are in good working order.
(B) Automatic fire doors shall be inspected to ensure that there are no obstructions to their closing, or otherwise rendered inoperable.
(C) Standpipe and sprinkler systems, including fire pumps and water storage tanks, shall be inspected to ensure they are in good working order.
(D) Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected to ensure that they are readily available for use as required by Fire Code.
(E) If special effects are to be used during the performance, all of the conditions of the permit, including, where applicable, a fire watch and/or additional portable fire extinguishers, are in place.
(F) Manual fire alarm boxes located on the stage of performing arts theaters shall be tested by activating the alarm. Prior notification shall be made to the central station monitoring the fire alarm system.
(G) The means by which skylights and other stage smoke vents may be manually activated are fully operational and/or readily available.
(H) All areas of the theater, including the backstage, under the stage, and outdoor areas near the fresh air intakes for the building’s ventilation system, shall be inspected to ensure that there is no accumulation of rubbish or other combustible waste that, if ignited, could cause a fire or smoke condition. 2.2 During the performance.
The event coordinator should make an audio announcement not more than 10 minutes prior to the start of each performance or program informing the occupants of the location of the exits to be used in case of an emergency. The commissioner may grant an exception if the occupancy has at least one exit clearly visible from every seat or standing area. As a place of assembly safety personnel, you should verify if the following requirements are complied:

12

(A) The prohibition against smoking in performing arts, motion picture theaters or other similar indoor public gatherings.
(B) All proscenium wall doors in a performing art theater are kept closed.
(C) Aisles must be unobstructed. It is unlawful to stand, or allow any person to stand, in or at the head of an aisle. The space to be occupied by standing audience members must be separated from the space to be left clear for passage by a rope, tape, barriers, barricades, fencing or other suitable materials at a height of not less than 3 feet nor more than 4 feet above the floor, supported by lightweight posts, all to be constructed and placed so as not to constitute an obstruction in case of panic or emergency. Such standing areas must be clearly demarcated by durable markings on the floor indicating the boundaries of the standing area. For standing in balconies, only one row of persons shall be allowed to stand in balconies.

Aisles must be unobstructed. For standing in passageways:
(i) If the passageway is more than 6 feet and less than 16 feet deep, persons may stand therein, provided an unobstructed passageway of at least 6 feet in depth is left open, and there are no more than four rows of persons standing. (see Figure 1.)
(ii) If the passageway is more than 16 feet deep, any number of persons or rows of persons may stand therein (consistent with the approved occupancy), provided that an unobstructed passageway of at least 10 feet in depth is left open. (see Figure 2.)
Figure 1.

Figure 2.

13

(iii) In places of assembly having a passageway to the rear of the seats, 6 feet or less in depth, and having in addition an outer passageway in the rear thereof, to which all aisle heads have straight and direct access, a maximum of two rows of persons may be permitted to stand in the passageway to the rear of such seats. (see Figure 3.)
Figure 3.

2.3 Regular inspections.
The occupancies shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Fire Code requirements, including conducting the periodic inspection and testing of fire protection systems required by Fire Department. Out-of-service fire alarm, sprinkler or standpipe systems shall be reported immediately to your supervisor. And at least one F-01 Fire guard must be present. The detailed information about the out-of-service fire protection system can be referred to the F-01 Certificate of Fitness study material.

14

PART II. TEMPORARY PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL
3. THE DUTIES OF TEMPORARY PLACE OF ASSEMBLY SAFETY PERSONNEL
3.1
Orientation
Safety personnel is required in any event that needs temporary place of assembly permit
(TPA), for example, festivals, outdoor concerts or other similar temporary public gathering. Prior to the temporary place of assembly event, the sponsor and any promoter of such event shall provide a site plan approved by the Department of Building. The responsible person (your supervisor, you or other designated person) should ensure that its materials, operations and facilities are designed, installed, operated and maintained in compliance with the requirements of the site plan, the Fire Code and the Fire
Department Rules. To be an effective place of assembly safety personnel, it is recommended that you have a working knowledge of the site plan. In some cases, Fire
Department personnel may be on scene and provide additional direction or modification of the site plan when needed.
For TPA activities, the safety personnel may perform their duties for different events based on different site plans. Upon the safety personnel arrival at the area, the personnel should be provided with an orientation from the event coordinator or other on-site personnel familiar with and responsible for the site plan.
Generally, from the orientation, as place of assembly safety personnel, you should know:
(1) the location and number of exits;
(2) the procedures of evacuation and the evacuation routes;
(3) the limitation of the number of occupants;
(4) the concessionaires and the nature of the activity they will conduct and the associate risks;
(5) the locations of fire extinguishers;
(6) if there is a dedicated telephone line to the Fire Department shall be available for an emergency.
Normally, Department of Building requires:
(1) every safety personnel posted at exit shall be equipped with a two way radio communication (walkie-talkie) in order to communicate with persons manning a telephone to the Fire Department for an emergency;
(2) every safety personnel posted at event entrance shall be equipped with a device
(e.g. scanner, hand-held counter, ticket) to verify the occupancy count. (The designated person should monitor the occupants load and actual flow of the public gathering area.)
3.2
Pre-events inspections
The pre-event inspections should be conducted by the designated person (e.g. your supervisor, you or other responsible person) before the area is to be used or occupied.
The following site conditions shall be inspected prior to the event:
Exit- All exits are unblocked, unlocked, and properly marked
Storage- The area should be clean, orderly and no excessive storage. All means of egress should be free of debris and rubbish. No storage of combustible material and

15

combustible waste in corridors. The hazardous materials are stored, handled or used only in the designated areas and are away from any ignition sources.
Capacity Limit- What is limitation of the capacity?
Aisle – All required aisles are free and clear at all times. Temporary seating must be secured together in an approved layout.
Protection –The fire extinguishers are provided at the designated and conspicuous location(s) and they are operational.

All aisles are free and clear at all times.

The area should be clean, orderly. The electric wires should be secured by cord covers in order to minimize the tripping hazards.

Chairs should be ganged.

Temporary, unsecured or un-ganged chairs may pose a great hazard in event of emergency.

16

3.3
Prohibitions
3.3.1
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
The storage, handling and use of CNG are prohibited at outdoor public gatherings.
3.3.2

Flammable Liquids

It shall be unlawful to store, handle or use flammable liquids at outdoor public gatherings, except in listed generators or other device, equipment or system or operation approved by the Department. Incidental storage of flammable liquids is prohibited, and all fueling of generators and other approved devices, equipment and systems shall be conducted only at times other than when the event is open to the public.
3.4
During the event
As a place of assembly safety personnel, your responsibilities include but not limited to the following duties.
(1) You should prevent overcrowding by monitoring the amount of people in your area of assembly. If you notice that your responsible area is excessively crowded, you should inform your supervisor immediately and follow his/her instruction. (2) You should monitor the areas and confirm that the exit paths are always staying clear. Required aisles must be unobstructed. People should not be allowed to stand, in or at the head of an aisle.
(3) You should look for situations that could lead to challenges in the event of emergency. 17

An example of a Checklist is shown below
Checklist for your area of responsibility (Outdoor)
List
Mark
Note
“x” if yes Pre-event
If no, obtain such information before

1. Do you know the evacuation routes? starting your duty.
If no, obtain such information before
2. Do you know how to notify the FDNY in

starting your duty. case of emergency?
3. Do you know how to notify your
If no, obtain such information before

supervisor in case of overcrowding and starting your duty. emergency? 4. If you are posted at an exit, are you
If no, obtain one before starting your

equipped with a two-way communication duty. device (e.g. walkie-talkie)?

5. Exits and stairways- Are they free of

obstructions? Are exit doors/gates free of locks? Are self-closing doors all close, and is lighting in exit corridors adequate and fully operational? □

If no, correct and comply



If no, correct and comply



If no, obtain such information before starting your duty.



If no, correct and comply



If no, obtain such information before starting your duty.



If no, correct and comply



If yes, correct and comply

6. Storage- Is the area clean, orderly and no excessive storage? Are the hazardous materials stored, handled or used only in the designated areas and are away from any ignition sources?
7. Capacity limit- Are you aware of the limitation of the capacity?
8. Aisle – Are aisles free and clear at all times. 9. Protection –
 Is any fire extinguishers provided?
Where are they? Are they operational?
During-event Inspection
Exit and aisles – Are the exits and exit paths staying clear? Are all marked exits remained unobstructed at all times?
Potential hazards- any situation that could lead to challenges in the event of an emergency? Emergency Notification Procedures:
 Call 911.
 Notify the area occupants by ____________________________.
 The designated people (e.g. fire safety director or event coordinator) for emergency situations. Their phone numbers are:
Name
Phone number
_____________
___________________
_____________

___________________

18

PART III. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM, EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
4. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
4.1

Manual or pull station devices

Fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency. Some fire alarm systems are activated automatically. Other fire alarm systems must be activated manually. Fire alarm systems that are manually activated use fire alarm pull stations. The interior manual pull stations may not directly transmit a signal to the Fire Department. A telephone call must always be made to 911 or the Fire Department dispatcher. Do NOT assume that the Fire
Department has been notified because you hear a fire alarm or smoke detector sounding in the building.
Fire alarm pull stations shall be located near the exits throughout the protected area so that they are conspicuous, unobstructed, and accessible. Activating the pull station is the most effective way to notify the building occupants in case of an emergency.
There must be at least one manual fire alarm station on each floor of a building except residential buildings. Manual fire alarm pull stations should be of contrasting color to the background on which they are mounted. Approved plastic covers are permitted to protect fire alarm manual pull stations and provide relief from false alarms. There are two types of manual fire alarm pull stations. They are called single action and double action stations.
A. Single action stations: Single action stations require only one step to activate the alarm. The cover on these alarm stations serves as a lever. An example of a single action station is shown below. This kind of alarm station is often found indoors, e.g., in office buildings. When the cover is pulled down, it allows a switch inside to close. This sends the alarm signal.

Single action stations

Activate a single action station

B. Double action stations: Double action stations require two steps in order to activate the alarm. The user must first break a glass, open a door or lift a cover. The user can then gain access to a switch or lever which must then be operated to initiate an alarm.
To activate this type of alarm station the cover must be lifted before the lever is pulled.
This kind of double action station is often found indoors. Another kind of double action break glass station requires someone to break a small pane of glass with a small metal mallet. 19

Double action station
Activate a double action station
The Certificate of Fitness holder must know how to manually operate each alarm station on the premises. Once activated, the fire alarm system can not be re-set at the fire alarm manual pull station only. The alarm must be re-set at a main FACP (Fire Alarm Control
Panel) after the pull station reset to its normal condition. The alarm may be re-set only by an S-95 Certificate of Fitness holder after by instructed by a Fire Department representative if it is caused by a fire or a fire related emergency. Once activated, a key may be required to reset the manual pull station.
Certificate of Fitness holders should become familiar with the location of all fire protection devices, as well as, interior and street fire alarm pull stations. All fire alarm pull stations installed or relocated after April 1, 1984 should be installed so that the handle is approximately four feet from the floor and it is located within 5 feet of the exit doorway opening. Manual stations should never be blocked or obstructed.
4.2

Safety requirements

Several types of safety signs may be posted at various locations inside the building. The signs are designed to ensure the safety of occupants. For example these signs may indicate: (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

The general fire safety procedures to be followed during a fire emergency.
The location of fire extinguishers and emergency exits.
How to use the fire extinguishers and related fire fighting equipment.
How to sound the fire alarm in case of an emergency.
That the elevators must not be used in case of a fire unless otherwise instructed by the Fire Department.
(f) The floor numbers.
The Certificate of Fitness holder should be familiar with the requirements for the fire safety signs. Having knowledge of this signs would help this person to perform his duties.
He/she should also make sure that exit signs posted above doors are always illuminated.
Examples of some of these signs are shown below.

20

Typical Safety Signs
Exit Signs

Special Exit Signs

Fire Extinguisher Sign

Elevator Warning Sign

Sprinkler Sign

No-smoking Sign

Stair Signs

(posted by outside of door)

21

(posted by door inside of stairwell) 4.3

Sprinkler system

A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection requirement specified by FDNY regulations and laws. All apartment buildings constructed after March 1999 are required by law to be equipped with fire sprinkler systems throughout the building. It consists of a water supply system that provides adequate pressure and flows at a rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Its purpose is to control the fire and to extinguish the fire.
Sprinklers are intended to control the heat release rate of the fire to prevent building structure collapse, and pre-wet the surrounding materials to prevent fire spread. The fire is only extinguished when the burning combustibles are exhausted or after manual extinguishment is done by Firefighters. Water reactive substances may pose special risks at locations. When the sprinkler system is out of service, it can not extinguishing fires directly to prevent the spread of flames throughout other areas of the buildings. When sprinklers are not present, the chances of dying in a fire or the property loss in a fire will be significantly increased.
The sprinkler system is fitted with automatic devices designed to release water on a fire.
These devices are called sprinkler heads. The sprinkler heads are normally closed by a disk or cap. This cap is held in place by a heat sensitive releasing element. A rise in temperature to a predetermined level causes the sprinkler head to open. Water is then discharged in the form of spray. When the sprinkler heads open they are said to have fused. The sprinkler heads are fitted at standard intervals on the piping. If more than one head opens, the area sprayed by each overlaps that of the sprinkler head next to it.
A Certificate of Fitness for S-12 for Supervision of Citywide Sprinkler System is responsible for conducting inspections and ensuring maintenance in compliance with
Fire Code.
A typical fusible link type sprinkler head is shown in the picture below.

A typical sprinkler head

22

4.4

Standpipe system

A standpipe system is a fire protection system that is designed to provide rapid access to water in the event that a fire breaks out. Standpipes are installed as stand alone systems which act like building-specific fire hydrants. Standpipe systems can be combined with sprinkler systems. They can provide automatic or manual sprinklers as well as connection points for fire hoses. If the standpipe system is out of service, fire fighters may not be able to access to the water delivery system for manual firefighting.
These systems are most commonly installed in buildings which are tall, large, or highly specialized or in other buildings. Dry standpipe systems consist of a series of pipes which bring water to various points in a building when it is used by Fire fighters. The pipes are dry and empty whenever there is not a need. Wet systems are “charged,” meaning that they always are filled with water. Water reactive substances may pose special risks at locations. 4.5

Fire alarm system
Manual fire alarm pull station Smoke detector

Fire alarm systems are required in many premises as part of a fire protection system. The new Fire Code has expanded the requirement for fire alarm systems which include but are not limited to the following buildings: hospitals, universities or as specified in New
York City Building Code. The primary purpose of fire alarm systems within protected premises is to warn building occupants and transmit signals indicating a fire condition to the Fire Department via an approved central station company. The out-of-service fire alarm system may cause a delay in building users and the Fire Department being alerted to a fire and then lead to a risk of serious property loss, personal injury or death.
A fire alarm system is a system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm and supervisory signal-initiating devices, and to initiate the appropriate response to these signals.
In general, a fire alarm system is classified as automatic, manually activated, or both. If a fire condition occurs, the alarm system warns the occupants within the premises by actuating loud sirens, gongs, bells, speakers, horns and flashing lights (strobes). An S-95
Certificate of Fitness for Supervision of Fire Alarm System is responsible for conducting inspections and ensuring maintenance.

23

5. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
5.1
General emergency procedures
The safety personnel must have a method of communicating to the emergency services.
The building owner or the designated person should provide a communication method for the safety personnel to notify FDNY in case of fire or other types of emergency.
Notifying by phone is the most direct and effective way to notify the Fire
Department. The safety personnel must also sound the fire alarm pull station when available. Activating the pull station is the most effective way to notify the building occupants in case of an emergency.
To report an emergency event by telephone, the safety personnel must dial 911. After calling 911, the safety personnel should follow the emergency reporting protocols provided by your supervisor or the designated responsible person. For example, the designated responsible person or the building owner should be notified. The designated responsible person or the building owner will also issue instructions to the safety personnel. The safety personnel must follow the instructions closely. For example, the responsible person may instruct the safety personnel how to take the safest evacuation route from the building.
5.2
Fire emergency
In case of a fire emergency, the most direct and effective way to notify FDNY are calling
911 and also activating the manual pull station when available. The fire alarm will send an alarm signal and it may also notify an approved central station company. The Fire
Department should be contacted directly by phone or other approved device.
In case of a fire emergency, building occupants may have to be evacuated. If the safety personnel is responsible for assisting in the evacuation, the safety personnel should remain composed and in control of the situation. He/she should speak in a clear and concise manner when assisting with the evacuation. The safety personnel's instructions and his/her actions play an important role in reducing panic during an emergency.
Occupants should be instructed to be calm and move quickly to the nearest exit in an orderly manner. The safety personnel should guide the occupants not to use the elevators and should identify the stairwells or other routes of egress for occupants and direct them to use only those stairwells or routes of egress.
In summary, the procedures should be:
 Call 911. Provide the following information: o Business name and street address. o Nature of fire: the extent of the fire (small, large, etc), and type of fire if you identify it (ordinal combustible, flammable liquids, electrical, etc) o The exact location of the fire (building and floor or room number), if known. o Telephone number for return call.
 Notify the building occupants by using the fire alarm pull station, if available.
 Notify the designated building personnel (e.g. fire safety director or building owner).
 If there is any fire safety director or any EAP staff on duty, follow their instruction for evacuation. If there is no fire safety director or any EAP staff in charge, evacuate the area (in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation of building

24

occupants) along evacuation routes to assembly areas designated by the evacuation plan. 5.3
Medical emergency
In the case of injury or some other medical emergency, inform the designated person. For the place of assembly events with attendance of over 5,000 people, an on-site emergency health care facility may be provided. If an emergency health care facility is provided on site, the building owner or the designated person (e.g. your supervisor) should provide a communication method for you to notify the facility for any medical emergency. If there is no on-site emergency health care facility, the safety personnel should call 911 and also follow the medical emergency reporting protocols.
In summary, the procedures should be:
 Call 911/notify the emergency health care facility.
 State the immediate medical need and describe: o Your location and the location of victim(s) (if different from your location), including the business name, street address and room number if you know. o Telephone number for return call. o The number of victim(s).(if different from your location) o Nature of injury or illness or the victim(s)’s present condition (e.g. bleeding, breathing erratically, conscious/unconscious, etc) o Hazards involved.
 Follow the exact instructions of the 911 operators or the instructions of the onsite medical technician of the emergency facility.
 Alert trained employees (members of the medical response team) to respond to the victim’s location and stay with the victim(s). Only the trained responders/employees should provide first aid assistance. If there are no trained responders/employees in the premises, designate a responsible person (e.g. member of Fire Brigade) stay with the victim(s).
 Arrange for an elevator to be placed on stand by.
 Do no move the victim unless the victim’s location is unsafe.
 Control access to the scene.
 Arrange a designated person to meet the ambulance at the nearest entrance or emergency access point; direct them to victim(s)
5.4
Bomb or other explosion threats
If you suspect any suspicious packages and are unable to verify its contents, you should follow the emergency reporting protocols provided by your supervisor. Generally, you should do the following:
 Do not touch/move/open the article.
 Your supervisor or the designated person (e.g. fire safety director or emergency action plan director) should be notified. Wait for the instruction from the first respondent. If there is any fire safety/ emergency action plan director on duty, follow their instruction.
 If you call 911. Provide the following information: o Your location and the location of suspicious package (if different from your location), including the business name, street address and room number if you know. o Telephone number for return call.

25

5.5
Chemical incident or release
 In case of a major spill, you must notify the Fire Department by calling 911 immediately. After calling 911, your supervisor or the designated person (e.g. fire safety director or emergency action plan director) should be notified.
 Wait for the instruction from the first respondent. If there is any fire safety/ emergency action plan director on duty, follow their instruction.

26

6. PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
The Certificate of Fitness holder must be familiar with the use of the fire extinguisher. All fire extinguishers must be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 ft above the floor and the clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor is not less than 4 in. In other words, no fire extinguisher is allowed to be on the floor.

A stackable and portable stand is convenient for temporary installation.

(1) The top of the fire extinguishers must not be more than 5 ft above the floor.
(2) The fire extinguishers must be accessible and unobstructed.

27

The bottom of the extinguisher must be at least 4 in above the floor. In the event of a fire extinguisher has been discharged, a fully charged replacement is required before work can resume. The C of F holder is recommended to be trained for the use of portable fire extinguisher.
Portable fire extinguishers are important in preventing a small fire from growing into a catastrophic fire, however, they are not intended to fight large or spreading fires.
The trained Certificate of Fitness holders should only consider extinguishing fires when they are limited in size and spread such that they can readily be extinguished using a portable fire extinguisher. By the time the fire has spread, fire extinguishers, even if used properly, will not be adequate to extinguish the fire. Such fires should be extinguished by the building fire extinguishing systems or trained firefighters only. In case of any fire, FDNY must be notified. Fire extinguishers must be used in accordance with the instructions painted on the side of the extinguisher. They clearly describe how to use the extinguisher in case of an emergency. The Certificate of Fitness holder should be familiar with the use of portable fire extinguishers. When it comes to using a fire-extinguisher just remember the acronym P.A.S.S. to help make sure you use it properly.
P.A.S.S. stands for Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep.

The Certificate of Fitness holder must be familiar with the different types of fire extinguishers available at the work site. The Certificate of Fitness holder must know how to operate the extinguishers in a safe and efficient manner. The Certificate of Fitness holder must also know the difference between the various types of extinguishers and when they may be used. An example of these instructions is depicted in the picture.
Class A fires are caused by ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, and cloth). To extinguish a Class A fire, these extinguishers utilize either the heat-absorbing effects of water or the coating effects of certain dry chemicals.
Class B fires are caused by flammable or combustible liquids and gases such as oil, gasoline, etc. To extinguish a Class B fire, the blanketing-smothering effect of oxygenexcluding media such as CO2, dry chemical or foam is most effective.
Class C fires involve electrical equipment. These fires must be fought with fire extinguishers that do not conduct electricity. Foam and water type extinguishers must not be used to extinguish electrical fires. After shutting off the electrical equipment, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used.

28

Class D fires are caused by ignitable metals, such as magnesium, titanium, and metallic sodium, or metals that are combustible under certain conditions, such as calcium, zinc, and aluminum. Generally, water should not be used to extinguish these fires.
Class K fires are fires that involve vegetable oils, animal oils, or fats in cooking appliances. This is for commercial kitchens, including those found in restaurants, cafeterias, and caterers.
A multi-purpose dry chemical fire extinguisher may be used to extinguish multi-classes fires. Examples of some fire extinguishers are shown below.
Examples of fire extinguishers
10-B:C (10BC)

6.1

3-A:40-B:C(3A40BC)

3-A:40-B:C(3A40BC), wheeled Typical fire extinguishers

Symbols may also be painted on the extinguisher. The symbols indicate what kind of fires the extinguisher may be used on. Examples of these symbols are shown below. The symbol with the shaded background and the slash indicates when the extinguisher must not be used. The Certificate of Fitness holder must understand these symbols. All fire extinguishers should be kept in good working order at all times.

29

Fire Extinguisher Identification Symbols
6.2

Fire extinguisher inspections

The extinguishers are required to be inspected (quick check) monthly. The owner of the premises is responsible to designate a person to perform a monthly inspection.
This
inspection is a "quick check" that a fire extinguisher is available and will operate.
The quick check should check if
(1) the fire extinguisher is fully charged;
(2) it is in its designated place;
(3) it has not been actuated or tampered with;
(4) there is no obvious or physical damage or condition to prevent its operation.
The information of the monthly inspection record must include the date the inspection was performed, the person performing the inspection, and those portable fire extinguishers found to require corrective action. At least once per year, all fire extinguishers must be maintained by a FDNY approved company and a W-96 Certificate of Fitness holder.

Monthly inspection tag.

30

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...How to determine custom essay editing company that is legitimate This is the company you will find great editors to provide you with custom essay editing service. Students whose first language is not English may find speaking and writing in English as a difficult task for them. Most of these students are international students who have enrolled in various universities in America and in the UK. The main teaching language is English, American and Standard English respectively. It is essential for students to master well the language of instruction because it is a medium through which they are required to write their assignments and speak in classroom. Competence and fluency in English language will help students to read and understand the teaching material provided to them. It is important therefore for students to ask for support from custom essay editing services which deal with the tips of writing good essays among other academic papers and also to write for them assignment essays. Our writing and editing services is created both for students and professionals. We deal with both the non academic and academic editing and writing services to fulfill your needs. At our custom essay editing, you will find editors who are qualified in linguistics and English language. We are ready to provide you the custom essay editing service at any time of the day or night because we operate as a 24/7 service. Our custom essay editing service comprises of creative thinkers, skillful......

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...An essay is usually a short piece of writing. It is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can be literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population provide counterexamples. It is very difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject: Like the novel, the essay is a literary Abstract This article will examine the reasons why it is important both linguistically and psychologically to build a vocabulary quickly when learning a foreign language. The article asserts that very little can be achieved or learned in a foreign language with a small vocabulary and that by building a sizable vocabulary quite quickly one can soon be able to function adequately. You may also wish to look at http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/95/feb/meara.html   Introduction   It is obvious that in order to learn a foreign language one needs to learn many many words. But how many?......

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...There are some teachers who are going to require you to write a 250 word essay. Actually, it is a very short essay for that matter but for some students, it may also be a burden to have a word limit in writing. Let us take a look at the scenarios that you need to understand to compose a well developed essay. For some students, it may be limiting to have a word factor quota in writing an article. There are some individuals who can tell more out of a topic and that having 250 words will not suffice to tell everything in their minds. That is why you need to have the skills in budgeting the words that you have to write without sacrificing the ideas that you have to deliver. There are different essay types that you also need to consider so having a word limit cannot simply be an easy task. Still for some students, a 250 word essay may mean too much because there are also some people who do not want to waste their time writing. No matter what the essay structure may be, these types of people are not really eager to translate their thoughts to written form so they think 250 words simply equates to too much work. Anyway, you need to understand that having this kind of limit will eventually benefit the students as they improve their discipline, being responsible and being resourceful individuals. We can offer you to buy essays from us so you do not have to worry about the number of words in writing. Let our writers make your life easier...

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...Essay Writer can provide students with the exact answers to their essay assignments through our free essay section as well as our custom essay writing services. All of Essay Writer’s free essays are uploaded to our site by some college and university students in the UK to serve as informative guides and comparative templates to help you finish your own essay writing tasks with greater ease and clarity. These sample essays are readily downloadable and very easily accessible; just simply select a subject area or topic from our list of available subjects. You can then go through our list of available essay titles under that subject. Welcome to Essay Writer’s free essays section! You can now access our very extensive collection of free essays. These essays are all original and previously not made available to anyone, and are excellently written and submitted by some well meaning college students who wish to share their knowledge to help you do better in writing your own essays. Below is the list of the subject areas we cover in our free essays section. Simply select the subject that corresponds to your need. You will then be shown a list of all the essay titles available for that specific subject. Essay Writer regularly updates its free essay database. Keep checking back for additional subjects or topics. You may also bookmark our Free Essays page to make it easier to check back on the availability of our free essays. To bookmark this page, simply click on the......

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...Process and Procedure Essay Samples are Helpful Guides in Writing Saturday, June 20th, 2009 Process and Procedure Essay Samples will Assist You in Understanding this Essay Format First of all let’s find out what essay is called process and procedure essay. It is an essay which sometimes called “how to” essay for it guides in certain activities or gives instructions as how to do some job (procedure) or complete a certain task. When you feel difficulty with this essay type, you can find process and procedure essay samples which can give you useful tips into creating an essay which will be have high rating. Process and procedure essay outlining certain procedures or directions to perform certain activity is an important task if one needs to learn how to compile clear instructions to serve the needs of professionals in different fields. These can be helpful for engineers, teachers, doctors and even housewives when it concerns cook books which are also some kind of instructive writing. Procedure essay writing is a useful skills for managerial personnel as they need to organize people and direct them toward certain activities. Process and procedure essay samples can be found online in abundance. Through these essay examples one can get some notion about procedure writing and take some notes how to complete a good piece of process essay. One may note that procedure can include descriptions, warnings and recommendations to the procedures described. To provide guidelines......

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...HOW TO READ ESSAYS YOU MUST ANALYZE 1. Take a pencil in your hand. 2. Read the essay over once, quickly, looking for the main idea, for what the essay is about in general, and for what the author seems to be saying. Don't get bogged down in details. (If you come to an unfamiliar word, circle it but go on reading). 3. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words. If they seem to be key words, i.e., if the author uses them more than once, scribble a brief definition at the bottom of the page or at the end of the essay. 4. Now re-read more slowly and carefully, this time making a conscious attempt to begin to isolate the single most important generalization the author makes: his thesis. Follow his line of thought; try to get some sense of structure. The thesis determines the structure, so the structure, once you begin to sense it, can lead you to the thesis. What is the main point the author is making: Where is it? Remember, examples or "for instances" are not main points. The thesis is the generalization the author is attempting to prove valid. Your job, then is to ask yourself, "What is the author trying to prove"? Another way of identifying the thesis is to ask yourself, "What is the unifying principle of this essay"? or "What idea does everything in this essay talk about"? or "Under what single main statement could all the subdivisions fit"? If the author has stated his thesis fully and clearly and all in one place, your job is easier. The thesis is apt to be......

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...to write A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present AEB syllabus, there are three main skills being assessed in your essays. 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of social situations and interpreted, and expressed in a critical fashion. You must be aware of the skills being highlighted in the question in order to use the appropriate skills in your essays. You should also practice writing essays regularly and develop a technique which addresses the skills required so that you can actually answer the question set. I hope that this handout should allow you to achieve this. Stage One Many students are too quick into diving into an answer. They have focused on certain key terms and ‘assumed’ what the essay requires from a quick look at the question. Instead, the question should be read a number of times. Task One With the title provided. Analyze the question by underlining the key features in the essay title Double underline the skills being assessed, e.g., describe and explain Identify any terms or concepts contained in the question. These terms will need to be defined, i.e. concepts such as interactionists. Essay questions will also......

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...tutorial x 13 weeks)     Level: Foundation/Matriculation     Lecturers: Ms Fazidah Abdul Jamil., Mdm Goh Wan Chen, Ms Saratha Thevi Ramasamy, Ms Norzaireen Shamsul Kamar Synopsis: This course is designed for students who require the necessary skills for tertiary studies. Some basic grammatical concepts are taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs. Reading skills will cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University Press, UK 2. Paterson, K, and Wedge, R., (2013). Oxford Grammar for EAP. Oxford University Press, UK Recommended References: Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1997), Cambridge University Press, UK Mode of Assessment: [1] Class participation 5% [2] Quiz 1 15% [3] Quiz 2 10% [4] Oral Presentation 10% [5] Mid-Term Examination 20% [6] Final Examination 40% Syllabus – FDENG001 |Week |UNIT |Topics ......

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...Define Your Thesis For essays that are part of an Early Years Care & Education Degree, it is important to clearly define a thesis statement within the first paragraph of the essay. Even if you are given a topic to write, such as the importance of preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods, you need to develop a strong thesis in your own words. Here is an example: "Preschool classes in low-income neighborhoods are a crucial step in helping all children enter elementary school at the same educational level, regardless of the income of the family." Once you have defined a clear thesis, you can proceed to the rest of your essay. However, without a clear thesis, your essay will not hold up. Use Examples The majority of your essay should be a careful and clear argument that supports your thesis statement. Do research and cite as many examples as possible to prove your point. For an essay about the merits of all-day educational opportunities for preschool-aged children, check trustworthy sources such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children and national PTA. Provide each point in a strong and complete paragraph. Each paragraph should have a main statement, supporting information and a conclusion. Tie In Conclusion After you have made your argument, state your conclusion in a clear and concise manner. Whether you have proven that the teacher ratio in a preschool setting should be lower than 4 to 1 or made a case for more national funding for the......

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...from these events? How have they affected your personality or how you deal with situations now? Remember the focus of the essay is on the contrasting impacts of these events in your life. These events do not have to be major events, they could be minor in nature but their impact on you could be great and long lasting. Undertake the task of pre writing for this topic. Select your two events. Describe them in point form. Consider their diverse impacts on your life. By the end of this class you should have completed your pre writing and make sure you get your sheet signed by me. You have the week to work on your first draft. Those of you who would like to show me the first draft are free to submit it to me online and I shall hand them back to you online. I will tell you whether you are on the right track, however this is optional and you will not be penalized if you do not show me your first draft. You need to give me Draft 1 by Tuesday, Feb 26. This will be an online submission under Assignments on ilearn. I will correct it and give it back to you by Sunday March 3, and then you will work on changing the draft according to my corrections and bring it to class on Tuesday, March 5 when we will have a peer review session. So after our class today you need to upload your first drafts of the essay in a week, by Feb 26 in an area marked out as Essay 1 under Assignments on Ilearn. You need to exchange your second drafts with two of your classmates on Tuesday,......

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...Carmen Hollow Mr. Beurskens College English Critique Essay: The Morals of the Prince May 3, 2011 The Grey Area between Good and Evil: A Critique of “The Morals of the Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli Introduction We’ve all made a promise that we couldn’t keep and we have all felt bad about breaking those promises. Whether it was a promise to our parents, our children or a co-worker, we don’t feel good about it, but sometimes it can’t be helped. Usually if we couldn’t keep a promise it was for a good reason and not a selfish one. To the person that we made the promise to, we may be viewed as uncaring or unreliable, but to ourselves we know that we had to make a decision that could hurt someone but at the same time our decision could help that same person or persons. Making a promise and not being able to keep it for one reason or another, is one of the few topics that Machiavelli writes of in his essay “The Morals of the Prince”. He also tells why he believes a prince should be feared rather than loved, and why a prince should be stingy and not generous. He wants us to know how a “perfect” prince should act and behave so that the prince will be viewed upon as a great prince. Summary Machiavelli writes about how he believes a prince should act and behave to be considered a successful prince, one that is loved and feared, liberal and stingy, one that knows when to keep his word and when to break it. In his essay, Machiavelli writes “a prince who wants to keep......

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