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Establishing Good Study Habits of a Child

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Effect of Guidance Services on Study Attitudes, Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students
Abid Hussain Ch.*
Abstract
The substantive aim of the study was to examine the effect of guidance services on students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. An experimental study was devised for the purpose. A guidance programme for secondary school students was developed by the researcher. An experiment was conducted to explore the effectiveness of guidance services in terms of improvement in students’ study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. Ten null hypotheses were tested to explore the effect of guidance services on students’ study habits, study attitudes and academic achievement in five subjects. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study indicated that the guidance services have significant effect on the students’ study attitude, study habits and academic achievement
Introduction
The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of citizens depends on the quality of their education and quality of education besides other factors depends upon study habits and study attitude of the learners. Quality of education is reflected through academic achievement which is a function of study habits and study attitude of the students. Thus to enhance the quality of education, it is necessary to improve the study habits and study attitudes of the students. To improve study habits and study attitude, those factors are needed to be identified which affect these characteristics adversely. Identification of these factors may lead towards remedial measures. To identify factors having negative effect on study habits and study attitudes, to propose remedial measures and to employ strategies for the development of good study habits and study attitudes, well organized guidance services are needed in schools. Guidance refers to leading a person to self-actualization or helping him to develop his full potential. This objective of self-actualization is difficult to be attained if a student is unaware of, or unrealistic about his potential. Bhatnagar & Gupta (1999) define guidance as a process of helping the individual find solutions to his own problems and accept them as his own”. They further say that guidance is an integral part of education; a
*IER, University of the Punjab, Lahore. Effect of Guidance Services 36 continuous service; both generalized and specialized service, for the “whole” child and is not confined only to some specific aspects of his personality. Shertzer (1976) defines guidance: “It is the process of helping an individual to understand himself and his world. Conceptually, guidance involves the utilization of a point of view to help an individual as an educational construct. It refers to the provision of experiences which assist pupils to understand themselves and as a service it refers to organized procedures and process to achieve a helping relationship.” (p. 172) Guidance programmes for secondary school students are designed to address the physical, emotional, social and academic difficulties of adolescence. By resolving physical, emotional, social and academic difficulties of the students and by helping students understand their learning strengths and weaknesses, their study habits can be improved. Better study habits and study skills lead to better achievement scores. The guidance programmes promote academic, educational, personal, social and career development. Guidance programmes foster positive attitude towards school learning and work and hence, improve academic achievement. A study was conducted by Hudesman et al., (1986) to compare the impact of structured and non-directive counseling styles on academic performance of high-risk students. Results indicated that students in structured counseling condition had higher GPAs than those in non-directive counseling condition at the end of semester. Francis and others (1987) also examined the positive effects of counseling on students communication patterns, study habits and academic achievement. The secondary school guidance programme should be a part of the total school programme and complement learning in the classroom. It should be child centered, preventive and developmental. The guidance programme should aim at maximizing the student’s potential by encouraging their social, emotional and personal growth at each stage of their development.

Kochhar (2000) considers guidance necessary to help the pupil with specific problems like lack of relationship between ability and achievement, deficiency in one or several school subjects, faulty study habits, defective methods of learning and poor motivation. Bhatnagar and Gupta (1999) are of the opinion that for better student achievement, it is necessary to aid pupils make progress in their education by removing their difficulties and developing good study skills. Hence guidance programs must include this aspect of student aid. Guidance plays a vital role in removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of the students. Abid 37
The main purpose of instruction is to enable the child to learn, whereas the teacher’s task is to facilitate the learning process and develop study habits and right attitude toward learning. A teacher who has the guidance point of view in teaching will keep all this in mind (Bhatnagar and Gupta, 1999). According to Braddock (2001) the purposes of guidance and counseling services for school children are to:
• Improve academic achievement
• Foster positive attitudes toward school, learning, and work
• Increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills.
• Decrease dropouts.
In modern times the complexity of life has intensified the need of organized guidance services. Both developed and developing countries lay great emphasis on the guidance of their youth to channelize their energies.
Students need to be guided for developing good study habits and adequate preparation to sit in the examination (Kochhar, 2000).
Attitudes are predispositions which have developed through a long and complex process. Anastasi (1990) defined attitude as, “a tendency to react favourably or unfavourably toward a designated class of stimuli.” It is evident that when so defined, attitudes cannot be directly observed, but must be inferred from overt behavior, both verbal and non-verbal. Vaidya (1989) explained attitude as “a condition of readiness for a certain type of activity.” Attitudes held by the individuals may be simple or complex, stable or unstable, temporary or permanent and superficial or fundamental. Judgments based upon insufficient facts are likely to yield wrong results and thereby develop biased attitudes. Attitudes offer great possibilities for successful achievement in studies. They are an important motivator of behaviour and affect the achievement of the students. A great deal of research literature provides an evidence for positive link between attitude and achievement. Simpson et al (1994) reported a correlation of .84 between an affective behaviour checklist and achievement in Biology.

According to Crow & Crow (1979) a child’s attitude towards his work effects his worthwhileness in his activity. A child should not be permitted to do completely as he wishes. He should be stimulated toward desirable activity through the arousal of interest in worthwhile projects. Constructive, objective attitudes encouraged during childhood serve well during adolescence. The attitude of the teacher, group leader is important, in a child’s study habits.

Good (1973) define the term study habits as: “The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc.” Good study habits are perceived to be the determinants of the academic performance. That is why efforts are made to develop and improve study habits in students. Secondary Effect of Guidance Services 38 school students in public schools of Pakistan come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor study habits hence they show poor academic performance. A great deal of evidence is present to show the positive correlation between study habits and academic achievement.

Ansari (1980) found that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables which determine the academic performance of the students. Russell and Petrie (1992) have cited a research study aimed to find out the relationship between study habits and student attitude and academic performance (cumulative GPA) of college students. Findings of this study indicate a positive correlation between study attitude, study habit and academic achievement.

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic achievement. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievements of elementary and secondary school students. Onwuegbuzie (2001) also conducted a series of studies to find out relationship between study habits and academic success and reported positive relationship between study habits and academic success. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of guidance services on students study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement.

Methods and Procedures The following method and procedures were adopted to conduct the study: Sample Sample of the study was drawn from the 9th graders of Govt. High School Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore. Borg and Gall (1983) have suggested that in causal comparative and experimental research, it is desirable to have a minimum of 15 cases in each group to be compared. group of 25 students was considered manageable for guidance services. Hence research required 50 students, 25 for experimental group and 25 for control group. There were four sections of 9th class in this school. One section out of these four was selected randomly for choosing the sample.
The rational for selecting one full section was that researcher wanted to compare achievement of the experimental and control groups. If the students were drawn from all the sections taught by different teachers, teacher effect would be a confounding variable. To control this effect experimental and control groups were selected from one section. Fifty students were selected randomly using random table, from all the 90 Abid 39students of 9th B. These fifty students were assigned randomly to the experimental and the control groups. Following instruments were used:
Achievement Test: To measure the achievement of students in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology and English Text and Grammar
Comprehension tests were developed. Items were constructed based on the curriculum for 9th class being implemented in the secondary schools.
Necessary procedure preparation of specification table, item construction, test validation and item analysis were adopted. Two types of analysis were performed: reliability of test forms and item analysis. Item analysis consists of item difficulty, item discrimination, and effectiveness of the distracters.
Item analysis was performed on all items of each test. Reliability of each test was calculated using Kuder Richardson Formula 20 selected for its parsimony and simplicity. All the tests were reliable much beyond the acceptance level.
Study Habits and Study Attitude Scale: Study habits and study attitude scales developed by the National Institute of Psychology (NIP), Islamabad was adopted as pre-test and post-test for both groups.
Problem Checklist: Problem checklist developed by National Institute of Psychology (NIP) was used in this study for identification of following problems: i) Educational problems, ii) Problems related with heads and teachers, iii) Problems related with school, iv) Personal and social problems,
v) Problems related with parents, family and relatives.

Factors Affecting Student Academic Success in Gateway Courses at Northern Arizona University
Introduction
The level of success students achieve in their first semesters of college has far-reaching implications for students’ personal and professional lives. Student success has an immediate influence on a student’s academic selfesteem, persistence in elected majors, and perseverance in higher education. Success in early semesters at college also ultimately impacts students’ postcollege experiences, such as career choice, personal income and level of success, and degree and nature of participation in community life. Thus, the experience a student has in the introductory college classes she or he attends can have a significant influence on the course of that student’s adult life. It is therefore alarming that introductory college classes are among the least enjoyed and least understood classes in a student’s postsecondary academic career. Disaffection with and low performance in introductory college classes is a serious problem at colleges and universities nationwide (Horn et al. 2002, Horn and Premo 1995). The problem is especially evident in introductory business, mathematics, and science courses. Such courses are often required and integral components of an undergraduate education, yet many students who enroll in these courses achieve moderate or low levels of success in them. Low levels of success in introductory business, mathematics, and science courses 5result in significant attrition of talented students in these areas of study (Gainen 1995, Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment 1988). Attrition in business, mathematics, and science courses does not occur in all demographic groups at an equal rate. Of the major ethnic groups in the United States, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are less likely to enroll in and more likely to resign from business, mathematics, and science-related majors. Additionally, females are less likely to enroll in and more likely to resign from these courses than are males (Brower and Ketterhagen 2004, National Center for Educational Statistics 2002, Herndon and Moore 2002, Brush 1991, Hilton and Lee 1988). The greatest period of attrition for female students in science-related educational tracks is between the end of high school and the beginning of college (Oakes 1990). When the current employment demographics of science and science-related occupations in the United States are considered (Figures 1 and 2), the notion of undergraduate attrition in the groups that are least well-represented in these areas of employment is disturbing Factors Affecting Student Academic Success in Gateway Courses at Northern Arizona University
Abstract
Students in gateway business, math, and science courses at Northern Arizona University receive non-passing grades (grades of D, F, and W) at high rates. To identify possible trends in demographic groups that receive DFWs and to investigate why students receive DFWs in these courses, a student survey was administered to 719 students in 7 gateway courses, and institutional data were collected on 23255 students enrolled in 15 gateway courses. Student achievement and socioeconomic data on high schools from which gateway students originated were also collected. Student and high school data were analyzed to elucidate differences between ABC and DFW students, and to determine if differences in DFW rates existed between genders and among ethnicities. To determine if instructional style of gateway courses affected DFW rates or patterns in the demographics of DFW distribution, an instrument was used to characterize instructional styles used in the 15 gateway courses. Resulting data were analyzed for trends in DFW rates, gender, and ethnicity.
Data suggest that possible causes of DFWs are inadequate student recruitment standards, student academic under preparedness, lack of student and faculty ethnic and cultural diversity and interaction, and ineffective and inequitable instructional techniques. Possible interventions are discussed.
How to develop good study habits in children by K. Russell *
Created on: August 26, 2007 Last Updated: October 26, 2011
There are plenty of things parents can do to help their children to develop good study habits, the most important being a love of learning. Children are born with a powerful desire to learn. By surrounding children with developmentally appropriate books, routines, and activities, and by showing a strong interest in a child's school work, they are more likely to be motivated to succeed. These simple steps can help parents and teachers promote good study habits in children.
Create routine
Creating a routine adds the force of habit to the decision to study. It also helps to discount the many distractions faced by children today. If a child knows ahead of time that a fun craft activity or time playing video games must wait until after study time, the child will soon learn that failing to study only cuts into their play time.
Create space
Set aside a time and place for studying. Each child is different. Where one needs silence to study effectively, another child may do better in a more chaotic environment. By creating a space that meets the child's study needs, they are more likely to apply themselves and get the the desired results.
Create dialog
Parents should make a habit of sitting down with their child each day to discuss school. Ask open ended questions that encourage the child to share any concerns they may be having. The standard question of, "What did you learn in school today?" is simply too broad for most younger children to answer. By getting them to tell you about something they enjoyed, you will help your child understand that school is something they like.
Once the child begins recalling events from their day, they will find it easier to remember the academic skills covered in the classroom. You can then ask them to "show off" their new skills to you, the interested parent. "So how do you add two numbers?" "Can you draw me a picture of a hippo?" "You know about Spain?!? I've always wanted to go there! What did you find out?" These conversations help your child recall what they've learned, place value on the information, and often encourages them to learn more.

Be available
Patents and teachers need to make themselves available to students when help is needed. Problem solving is an important skill that few are born with. By setting the example of how to approach difficult subjects, you will help your child understand that just because something is difficult, doesn't mean it should be avoided.
Most children do not know how to study. Like anything else, this skill requires training, practice, motivation, and parental support. Many parents make the mistake of turning school and homework into a chore, a dreaded daily event to be avoided at all costs. No child wants to be condemned to the dinner table for a backpack dumping and public tirade for not fulfilling their potential. They neither know nor care about their potential.
Children want to have fun and to be admired and loved by their parents. By helping your child view their academic achievements as something to be proud of, something to be shared with the family, you will instill a lifelong love of learning which will make studying new subjects an exciting challenge to be met with enthusiasm. By setting the example of how to approach difficult subjects, you will help your child understand that just because something is difficult, doesn't mean it should be avoided.

by Shashi
Created on: August 27, 2007
Good study habits in children is the first step to success. But remember, this has to start at a young age. It's always easy to teach good habits & good behavior when they are little. Even though it's great to start early, its never too late.. So, start right away..
I have a few tips here which can help you cultivate those good study habits in your children.

1. Our primary goal is to make studying interesting to them. This cannot be done in a day. Start with reading to them at a young age. This gets them interested in books.
2. Whenever you go out, talk to them about surroundings, science, nature around them and anything that can relate to studies. This increases curiosity in them.
3. Come up with a plan or a time table to be followed everyday. This should include not just study time, but play time, snack time, homework time, reading time etc. Playing keeps the children energetic. Remember, no playing makes the kids dull. It's your responsibility to make sure they follow that. Once they get into that routine, they will do it themselves. Just the beginning can be hard. This also makes them independent & responsible.
4. Take them to the library once a week. Borrow educational books. The more they are into books, the more they will be into studies.
5. Talk to them about importance of studying and how successful they can be when they grow up. Talk to them about a famous personalities and the things they have achieved because of their good studies. Also tell them that even adults have to study in their daily life in their jobs and some other things.
6. Set up a specific place for your child to study everyday. It should a quiet place with sufficient lighting with no TV or any other distractions. This provides a consistency. Children tend to follow rules when there is consistency like at school.
7. Make sure all the items required like pencil, pen, eraser, paper, dictionary, calculator are easily accessible to the child.
8. Make sure you verify that the child completes all the assignments given and does not skip anything. If the child need help studying, its your responsibility to provide assistance and make sure the children understand what they are doing.
9. You can play word games, games about states and their capitals, spelling words and some other educational games when you go on long drives. This also helps in children's studies.
10. You should monitor our children & make sure they are doing things in the right way.
11. One other important thing is, do not stress them out too much. Children lose interest and cannot keep up with things when they are stressed out.
12. Goals can be set to children, like they get a surprise if they do good grades. This give the children an urge to do things better.
Try this and I'm sure you will get big rewards for your effort.
Good luck!

by Joan Inong *
Created on: May 09, 2009
Education and a love of learning should be instilled in people at a very young age. It is important, more than ever, that the young generations of today receive a good education. At the same time, many distractions, like the television or video games, stand in the way of children's study times. The following tips will help you to cultivate good study habits in your children.
Successful children are organized children. If your children's study habits are not scheduled, regular, and internalized, then they stand the risk of not succeeding academically. First, make sure that your children know their priorities. Then, help them keep those priorities managed. For instance, once your children get home from school, allow them to rest for thirty minutes. During that time they can eat a snack or just rest. Then, tell them that it is time to do homework.
At this point, however, many parents run into an obstacle. Most children, once they get home from school, just want to lay around and watch t.v. or go outside and do whatever they want to do. However, as a parent, you have the responsibility and the power to tell them what they should be doing. So, tell them that they can do whatever they want to do once homework is done. Tell them that if they cooperate, homework time will take less time out of their play time.
However, don't make homework time or study time appear to be a blatant obligation. Be patient with your children when you help them with their work. Don't be condescending or get mad. If you show your frustration, then the child will not enjoy studying.
Make study time fun. Don't make it seem as though it is supposed to be a boring "quiet" task. Children thrive on excitement and spontaneity. They need a schedule, but you cannot make their lives so scheduled that it poses no excitement for them.
Every night, try to get your child to read something educational. If your child is in middle school, then encourage him or her to study for at least thirty minutes every night before he or she goes to bed (even if his science test won't be for another week!). At any rate, get your child to choose and to read a novel.
The key to helping your children succeed is to never give up on them. Remember to be patient and to keep at it, but also keep in mind that if something isn't working, then you should fix it or try another method. If your children see that you are dedicated to seeing them succeed, then they will also dedicate themselves to success.

by Leeanna Haugen
Created on: March 26, 2009
Your child comes home with their report card and there it is a big fat F. There is no doubt in your mind that your child is intelligent. Why, you often catch yourself thinking about how bright they are. How could this happen. The answer you are looking for has nothing to do with your child's IQ. It is just a matter of their less than perfect study habit. Here are some tips on helping your child be more prepared for there schoolwork.
1. Time Management. Have your child devote a specific time each day to studying. Help them prioritize projects. Most importantly make this time available by not overbooking. Don't plan dinner reservations at the same time your child studies. You want your child to value their education so you must also value their education.
2. Study skills. Every child learns different. You know your child the best, so it is up to you to brainstorm the most effective things your child can do to get the most out of what they are studying. If they learn visual, help them make flashcards. If they do better with audio stimulation, have them read material into a recorder and listen to it. Some children have to actually write down key points to retain them in their memory.
3. Nutrition and sleep. Nobody functions at there optimum level on an empty stomach. Bedtimes and balanced meals go a long way to preparing your child's mind for learning.
4. Distractions. Keep siblings away from your child why they are studying. Have your child study in a room that they normally do not use. Your bedroom or an office are good places that would be free of distractions that would tempt your young child.
5. Supervise. Until you are confident your child can accept responsibility for their own study habits let them know you are their to enforce guidelines. Be there if they need help or have a question. Stopping in every once in a while and asking if they need any help goes a long way. Also, keep track of assignments your child has. If they need supplies, make sure these are available when your child needs them.
Your child will find themselves falling back on their skills throughout various times in their life. From college essays to sitting down with tax papers, it is vital to have the skills to get the most out of the information you need to know. When we are looking over our insurance papers do we do so on the way to work at stop lights? No, we go in the office and look at them when the kids are asleep so we can concentrate. The same goes for children. They just don't realize they need this information. That's our job.

by Effie Moore Salem *
Created on: August 17, 2007 Last Updated: July 24, 2012
Developing good study habits should have been developed in kindergarten but it is never too late to begin. At the start of each school year the family should get together and make workable plans of study for the coming year. You do this anticipating future confusion and pleas of 'just this once mom, can I play for an hour and then do my homework'. Once these are established, you will have less trouble getting them to do their homework.
Included in this family homework session are: When is homework to be done? Is it as soon as Jack comes home from and has a fifteen minute break to get a snack and change into play clothes; or is he allowed to have an hour of playtime and then do the homework. Or should homework be done an hour before bedtime.
Whatever time is decided on it should not be done just before bedtime. Then they will too tired to concentrate. Personally I would say it should be done after a snack and maybe a half hour of playtime. Most always before dinner would be a better than afterwards but however it is settled it should be a routine that is unchangeable.
Let him help decide and then there will be less resentment afterward. Allowance must be made for special interference that cannot be foreseen. These will be dealt with easier later on if they are planned for ahead of time. Once in a while if unforeseen things come up, it is all right to maybe delay homework or change the time, but let him know this is one time deal.
Right up front let Jack know that homework is his responsibility, but you and his father will help when asked. If he forgets that he had homework, give him the benefit of the doubt the first time, but let him know the next time it happens he will have the teacher with no homework, should he 'forget' again.
Whatever, you as parents do, do not let him get by with excuses, etc. Life is not lived that way. Make sure he understands what responsibility means and hold him to it. Stay out of the 'punishment' for not doing homework, facing the teacher without having finished his assignments will be punishment enough.
Of course you are not heartless parents. If your child has a genuine problem with his homework and the assignments are too much for him, you will need to consult with the school so this can be adjusted. Then help with the work as is directed by those who are educating your child.
Children benefit from schedules and from knowing that you love them but there are some rules that must be enforced. They will try to get out of doing their homework because they have been at school all day and want no of it. You understand but that does not mean you give in. You just let them know there are certain things in life that must be done. Homework is one of these.

by Allison Hickman
Created on: March 21, 2008
Consistency is a must when introducing good study habits to your child. It involves planning a daily study routine that is maintained and well prepared for both parent and child. There are several contributing factors to consider when designing a plan that can lead to a lifetime of successful study habits.
Routine is all about performing the same task at the same time in the same place. Setting up a comfortable, quiet place where your child can concentrate and feel relaxed while completing school work will help them unwind after a day at school. Some children require time to relax after school and require a snack before starting their studies, (I prefer this option) while others are ready to get to it as soon as they return home. No matter what method is chosen, excuses for not doing the school work should be quelled from the very start of this plan. It could take 3 days or 3 weeks, but if you stand your ground EVERY TIME, they will eventually back off and get the message that they are fighting a loosing battle.
Helping your child is greatly encouraged, but be careful not to be too accessible so that they can learn how to trust their own conclusions. When they finish an assignment, check over it with them to make sure they understand the material. As time goes on you may be surprised to find that they won't express the need to have you around for reassurance. Independence builds confidence and trains them to be self sufficient.
I strongly support praise and understanding 110%. The more encouragement and POSITIVE feedback they receive outside of school the more enthusiasm toward their studying they will become.
Setting up a weekly homework chart is a great way for children to keep track of completed work and reinforce motivation. Each completed daily assignment can be marked with a sticker and according to what the "winning" criteria is, give a small reward at the end of the week like stickers or an occasional trip to get ice cream. Make the rules very clear from the beginning to prevent any meltdowns (for you and them!). Just a note; keeping track of an entire week of work can be daunting for some small children. In this case, follow a day by day completion and work up to a week.
If you feel you need more resources, start with your child's teacher. When I taught fourth grade I encouraged parents to introduce questions regarding study habits and how to initiate them into homework time. Teachers want the same outcome that you do; to do whatever it takes for your child to succeed in achieving their goals. With early planning and commitment a triumphant study plan can develop and become an important tool in helping your child live a more productive life.

by Sam Smart *
Created on: August 24, 2007 Last Updated: February 10, 2010
Children who are ambitious enjoy studying during their leisure hours. On the other hand, there are other children who do not enjoy studying. The children who wish to push their books aside often spend quality time hanging out with friends as a recreation, watching television, or playing video games. The more serious students who want to succeed in school set plenty of time for keep their heads in the books.
At any grade level, children need to understand the value of studying. It helps them grow naturally and develops them with character. By having tutors spending time with children studying, the results will include satisfactory grades and improved study habits for those children.
*Assign Tutors
To enable the children to study well, they need tutors. Tutors should be happy to help them practice material that is being taught in school. Tutors can assign times to meet with the children regularly, and then work on the assignments. If the assignments have to do with reading, the tutors can read storybooks aloud and quiz the children for comprehension. Using flash cards will be beneficial for arithmetic or vocabulary.
*Have the Children Understand Priorities
The children need to be aware that playing video games or watching cartoons is not considered important. Once the day homework is assigned by teachers, that needs to be completed first. Television, video games, and playing on computers will only eat away the study hours. Although entertainment can still be used for relaxation, it is best that children do their homework and study first before they play games or watch TV shows.
*Allow the Children to Study in Quiet, Comfortable Areas
While children are studying on their own, it is important for them to concentrate in a quiet, relaxed environment. Their libraries provide excellent ways for studying in a peaceful atmosphere. If studying at home, they should find a well-lit, quiet room that has a desk and is free from any noise or distractions. Television sets that are left turned on in the same room tend to interfere in the children's focusing on their studies. Some children prefer studying outdoors in the fresh air and sunshine. City parks with plenty of open space should have tranquil areas for studying.
Many parents understand that studying may not be their children's favorite thing to do, as the adults themselves have experienced it when they were growing up as children. The children need to keep in mind, however, that once they study, it will help create open minds needed for their future tests and quizzes. It does make sense that knowledge is power.

by Robert Cole
Created on: August 28, 2007
Children and studying does not coincide too well. Young minds want to wander, explore, imagine and discover without pressure or direction. The trick for adults is to use these traits in kids to an advantage by shaping teaching strategies to accommodate children's minds.
Action is often a very good way to get children interested in studies and school. Brooding over a science book is one way, or parents could shakes things up with a project that simulates an idea and puts the information in a 3d interaction. Flash cards are helpful when a child is studying at home, but poster boards may work better, making the study whimsical and fun.
If you want your kids to improve their study habits gradually, tell them what you want done about it and monitor them regularly. If they get just a little bit more organized from one day to the next and follow your guidelines, tell them that you are proud of them. Kids love to be told that you are proud of them, and they will most definitely keep on trying to make you happy with them if they feel that it is possible.
On the other hand, if they get a little bit more disorganized or mess up on improving the habits that you want them to focus on, sympathize with them. Tell them that you love them and that you know that they can do better; make them know that you care for them and that you only want them to improve because you do love them. Also, make sure that you discipline your children from time to time if they do not meet your standards; though it may seem detrimental to the relationship between you and your child at the time, it subconsciously tells your child that you want to be involved in his/her life for the good and the bad.
Only use discipline for study habits in conjunction with positive reinforcement. If discipline is used on its own, it can greatly damage the relationship between you and your kids. They will start to see you as an enemy and will not listen to what you say about study habits or just about anything else.
Outside of yourself, you can also talk to your students' teachers about monitoring your student's study habits. If the teachers are monitoring the study progress as well, the kids will probably feel that it is not in their best interests to slack off and that it would just be better to do the work rather than have people at school and home disappointed in them.
The best way to develop good study habits in your children is to monitor them; give them a pat on the back when they are heading in the right direction and a spanking on the butt when they are not. Both show that you care and promote improvement.

by Katarzyna Radzka *
Created on: May 13, 2009 Last Updated: May 23, 2009
Children are sponges that take in lots of information, sometimes they manage to take in what they are not supposed to and bypass the important stuff, at other times they're not interested in anything that has got to do with school or studying.
Good study habits are ingrained in us from a very early age, even before we start studying for exams and tests. Parents need to understand that it is their responsibility to develop good study habits in their children and also lead by example.
It's important to introduce study times in your child's day before they start getting homework. You might think that preschool is too early, but it actually may be the right time to start. Of course you have to be reasonable and don't overdo it. Spend ten minutes every day, in a stable environment, like the kitchen table, discussing what your child did and what they learnt, what they enjoyed and what they preferred not to do.
Once your child is in first grade, you should continue this ritual, and extend it to match your child's needs. The homework at this age will be simple and might only be things like colouring in a picture or doing cut outs, counting to ten or learning to do the ABCs. Regardless, your child should know that straight after school or at a time decided by you, they have to take time out to do their homework.
Later in primary school, the amount of homework increases and your child needs to put in more effort. By this time you have already ingrained the basics and the importance of good study habits which hopefully will stay with them for all their school years.
Routines are important. Homework should be done at the same time each day, or at least around the same time each day. If there's no homework, children should be at least encouraged to read or review some of the material they have covered in school. This depends on the type of school they go to and what grade they are in.
If your child doesn't understand their homework, they may get frustrated and refuse to do their homework or even lie that the teacher had not set any. Ask them what was for homework and offer to answer any questions they may have. It's a good idea to often check their school books and talk with their teachers to make sure that they are on track.
Talk with your child so that they understand the importance of regularly doing their homework. They need to know that it is their responsibility and not the parents. Like household chores and responsibilities, homework comes before play. Once this habit is ingrained, it is more likely to stay with your child for life.
Good study habits depend not only on whether they have been practiced every day, but also on the personality of the child. Sometimes children don't want to study, if this occurs it's important to make learning fun. Play games, move away from the desk and discuss the issues they are learning about. If children find pleasure in studying, they are more likely to stick with it.

by Sandee Foxten
Created on: August 28, 2007
Developing good study habits for your children starts with you, the parent. It wasn't until I lost my job and was able to be home with my children more that I realized how vital it is to help them with their homework and study for tests. I worked shift work in production jobs all my life and mostly twelve hour shifts, so time never was on my side when it came to actually sitting down and analyzing their schoolwork in a way that would be beneficial to my kids. After the death of my husband in 2004, my oldest daughter was in eighth grade and my youngest in the third, I began to realize that my full presence in their lives was greatly needed. My oldest daughter finished the eighth grade second in her class. Today, she just started her senior year in high school and has the highest GPA in her class. My youngest just entered sixth grade and is hoping to attend Duke University after she graduates. Both my daughters have a great love for animals and they both have a passion to become veterinarians. They may fight some right now, but I believe in the future and by following their dreams, they will end up working together in their own veterinarian office one day. How do I help my kids study and how do they study on their own? Here are a few examples:
1. My oldest daughter is alot like me when I was her age. Most of her studying she does in her room and usually she will have the radio on very low. I do not see music as a disturbance, but as a relaxing way to study. Sometimes, it is easy to remember things that you were studying by remembering songs that were playing while you were studying. Playing a favorite cd may help more than just listening to the radio. Planning out a study guide such as listening to a certain track while studying a particular chapter may help to remember easier. If the music becomes a distraction, it is best to turn it off. And if your child feels tired while studying, have them ask someone to study with them, like a parent, sibling or a friend.
2. Helping my kids study for a test can be fun sometimes. To help them remember things, I try to make up funny stuff while we study. This method especially works for my sixth grader. While studying, make up stuff that you know may help your child by bringing up stuff that really interests them. Don't just read the questions and let them answer, that becomes boring. One example I will give you is a math test my daughter had a few days ago. Her studies consisted of vocabulary for math. I had to read the definition by Noor Razak
Created on: August 29, 2007
Studying can never be a favourite past time for children. Most of them try to run away from it if they can. Why study those thick books and memorizing the contents of it which may not even be useful to them in the future? Children will most likely prefer watching their favourite shows in television, or even playing with their friends or their little game consoles then studying. It is definitely not easy to develop good study habits in children but with frequent practise, i'm sure that it is not possible.
A few tips to develop good study habits in children:
1) Set aside a corner in the house especially for studying. Basically, if a child wants to study, it has to be done in that little space. Most childrent tend to study in front of the television, or the computer by their side or even on their bed. As a result, they tend to get distracted easily and could not direct their full attention to their studies. Therefore, a study corner will give them a mental note that this little area is only meant for studying and nothing else.
2) Never, ever force a child to study long period of times. Breaks should be given in between. For example, for every 30 minutes or 45 minutes of studies done, the child should be allowed to have at least 5 to 10 mins of break. This is essential as it helps the child to refresh himself and give his brain a rest. Also, cramming every information without any breaks can result in less efficient method of studying. The child will have difficulty retaining what he had studies for that last few hours and the whole point of studying becomes pointless.
3) Having a time-table for a children can be helpful as well. This will usually make the child more disciplined and will allow him to get use to the habit of studying. Although the first few weeks of sticking to the time-table may prove to be difficult, after a while he will get used to studying at particular time that it becomes an automatic response from him.
4) Giving rewards for studying can also be helpful. A child will tend to cultivate good habits better if its accompanied by rewards. However, this should be done at intervals for it to be effective. Don't give a child a reward everytime! Give him every now and then just as a sign of motivation and encouragement. by Mike King
Created on: August 26, 2007
In the impressionable early years, parents are the models that children seek to emulate. They want to do like them and they want to be like them. Just watch daughters in supermarkets and sons who follow their father around, just a glance, a smile, a single word can spark interest and turn on a smile.
If we assume then, that it is good for children to be like mom and dad, our next assumption is what kind of study habits do we have as parents? Parents who are available around homework time can do a lot to help with the simple act of just being there and not off at the mall or lost in a soap opera.
Network or cable television has been shown to be destructive to study habits,mental health, and is detractive to notions like order, as opposed to chaos and concentration and total focus on the worst values that are available..including all that is bad about human nature and life in general. Some impressionable kids, who are confused about life and the value of life itself, have been shown to ape the kinds of values that parents and society detest. For me, the irrefutable facts are that allowing kids access to "garbage and reality tv" is not appropriate.
In return, a child who does well even with their radio and their own music while doing homework does not seem problematic, though it can be. It can be used to bargain..no network TV for your own music while studying. A clean, lighted area that is conducive to study and instills the notion that homework is important may be considered as a worthy study habit. A desk in a bedroom or den is appropriate as long as it is not in the home traffic pattern. Tools are ready to use so that finding a pencil or paper out of the study area is not necessary.
Time to do homework should be immediately after school. If kids are allowed to mope around until close to bed time, bringing up the subject of homework will usually bring about a chorus of moans and excuses. A parent will keep hours open or available for supervising homework, which may mean just being in the same house.
All humans(yes, even kids) like a reward for doing good work or for doing any work at all. Kids are no different. "Its a bribe!" is the common response by many parents.
So? Everyone likes recognition. Those little stars on a paper mean as much as a raise or promotion at a grownup job. A little money, clothes, Cd's are all motivators.
The reward needs to be consistent and timely, not the end of the year but weekly or even daily. A little checking, now and again with the child's teacher can stir interest and show that the parent takes schoolwork and the child seriously.
To conclude:
Network and cable TV are not conducive to child growth, and can be destructive.
Children need to learn to live with these known detractors to school work.
Parents should have their own well developed habits that consistently remind youngsters that good habits are a worthy goal. These habits lead to desirable qualities in individuals. Place of study should be stocked and well lighted, not in high family traffic. The kid does homework same time every day. Rewards, given judiciously are motivators. A parent, supervisor should be on hand to answer questions and to supervise that the work is quality and fully completed.
Parents attend parent- teacher activities. Parents monitor homework with teachers input. Homework study habits develop with parent-teacher input. It is not only up to kids but parents also have a huge influence in developing quality study habits.

by Laura Leigh Fields
Created on: August 20, 2007
It is important to get kids interested in studying at an early age. The more they get comfortable with the idea of learning, the more they will want to know. Encourage your child that they can be or do anything they set their mind to. Help boost your child's esteem by feeding their desire to learn.
Stay as involved as you possibly can with your child's classroom. Volunteer to be a classroom parent. Go to the parent/teacher conferences. Keep track of your child's progress. The more interested you are in your child's education, the more they are willing to work with you.
Set a designated homework time every day. If there is no homework that day, let your child study words or read a book during that time. Pick a certain spot away from distractions for your child to do their assignments. Encourage them to stick to all work until it is finished.
Make learning as fun as you can. Help your child learn by using things they can relate to, such as their favorite cartoon character. You can also buy flash cards and electronic learning toys for your kids. Children are often more willing to learn if the problems don't seem so complicated.
Help your child but don't do it for them. Sit with them during study time, or at least make yourself available for any questions they may have. Try to help them figure it out on their own. If you don't understand, don't guess and get it wrong, try to help your child find the answer.
If your child needs extra help, check into getting them a tutor. They may also be able to join a peer study group. This is a good idea for kids who want to brush up skills or just want to stay familiar with the material, too. Talk to your child's teacher about additional studying options.
Summer programs help children to maintain study habits throughout summer. If your child is not eligible for Summer School, enroll them in another type of learning program. Many day care centers have lesson plans during the summer months. The local library will probably have a reading program your child can participate in. This is an excellent way to boost your child's reading confidence. You can make or buy your child custom worksheets to practice during the time school is out. Review old skills and teach your child new ones, too.
Praise and encourage your child for their accomplishments. Post assignments with good grades to the refrigerator door. Display your pride. Stay positive about schoolwork. Don't yell at your kid for doing their best. This will only discourage them more. It is also never a good idea to punish your child by making them do homework or school related activities. They will only grow to resent school.
Offer incentives for good grades and efforts. This will help your child feel like they have something to work towards. They deserve a reward for their hard work, sometimes too. Take them to their favorite spot, go out to eat, or allow them to go somewhere fun. It doesn't matter how big or simple the reward may be, it only matters that you acknowledge your child's efforts. Sometimes, they want a little recognition too.

by Karin Becton
Created on: August 25, 2007
One of the most common things heard among college freshmen is the phrase "Now I'm actually going to have to learn to study!" Some kids can sail through middle school and high school and barely crack a book, but it is wise to help your child to develop good study habits when they are young so they don't have to struggle to learn to study in college.
There are three things you need to have in place to develop good study habits: PET-PLACE, ENVIRONMENT, AND TIME.
PLACE-Some children study best in their rooms; others find it too easy to be distracted there. When I was a teenager, I usually did my homework while I was curled up on the sofa. My daughter often does her homework in the car, while I am driving. The kitchen table might be a good place, unless there is a lot of family traffic. The ideal spot might be a desk or table that is in a calm part of the house. It's best to be comfortable, but not so cozy that they are tempted to fall asleep.
ENVIRONMENT-Many parents think the ideal study environment is one that is completely free of noise, clutter, or distractions. For many children, this is true. But what do you do when your child insists he has to listen to music or have the TV on in order to do homework?
Observe your child. If music seems to help him concentrate, allow it. Some children need background noise to help them focus. Complete silence is distracting to them. But be alert to signs that he is using this as an excuse to put off homework and be entertained instead.
TIME-Anyone who has ever crammed the night before a big exam can tell you this-it is better to study a little every evening than to try and learn it all in one night. Try to pick a certain time each day as homework and study time, if possible. After school activities and other things may make it hard to find the same time every day, but try to set aside at least thirty minutes a day for your child to look over their work, go over notes, re-read or ask questions about anything that was not understood. If there is homework, more time can be added as needed.
If I asked my daughter, "Do you have homework?" she would often say no, then I would find her later looking over a spelling list or studying for a test. To her, homework only meant assigned homework or work she did not finish in class. Explain to your child that "homework" can be anything from studying for a test to looking over the notes from that day. Spending at least a few minutes every day studying is a habit that will benefit your child for years to come. by Neifi Perez
Created on: August 18, 2007
Each child is unique and gifted in their own way. Jimmy might be able to begin studying right as he arrives home from school, however, Craig might need to take a hour break and grab a bite to eat first. Both of them might exhibit great study habits and be world class students.
Finding a quiet place to study and finish homework is probably a universally agreed upon piece of advice. It simply doesn't not make sense to have the radio on in the background and especially silly to have the T.V. playing. Do I really need to explain why? It might even be detrimental to have music in your ear with those iPods and such. Proper study habits can do wonders for a students performance in school. Why wouldn't you then avoid any possible distractions?
Good study habits should be instilled in the child by the time they enter middle school(6th grade). By the time middle school rolls around students are faced with pop quizzes and sometimes weekly tests. It would behoove all students to spend a minimum of 10 minutes a night reviewing all of their notes from each class, even on night where there are no tests to study for. If you have six classes, that makes for one hour of review a night. I find it hard to believe a motivated student can't make time for one hour of study each night. Even a unmotivated student should be able to squeak out close to an hour worth of review.
It's vital for parents to remind their child that studying properly will eliminate a big chunk of stress that often preludes tests. Students who are primarily free of stress usually perform better on quizzes and tests than those who are stressed and lack confidence. Confidence correlates positively with good study.
Taking clear notes in class is key to quality study. Take notes that make sense and are legible. There's nothing more frustrating than not being able to read notes that are supposed to help you on homework or for studying, especially for a math class or a science class such as chemistry or physics.
Avoid frequent trips back and forth to the fridge or to the sink while you're studying. If you're the type that likes to always have water handy, then make it standard practice to always have it with you when you settle down to study. I'm not saying you have to study for three hours straight, but it's really important not to take breaks every 15 minutes.
Rewriting notes that you have taken in class is also very beneficial to a good study session. Reading the notes out loud can also ingrain the material into memory. Highlighting bits of info can also help students focus on the important facts of the subject.
Finally, everybody can go into a study session with a positive attitude and a willingness to give a hundred percent. It's really that simple. I think we can all agree that education is the key to economic freedom and hopefully professional happiness.
I think most students will attest, I can too, that there's no better feeling than receiving an A grade on a test that they studied their butts off for.

by Ashley Smith
Created on: January 08, 2010 Last Updated: January 09, 2010
The last thing most children want to do is to sit down and learn. Tell them it's time to learn dates, names and places won't work if it's too structured, the learning in most cases needs to be more subtle. Everything a child does in their life can be turned in to a lesson in something, especially the younger ones. Every walk down the street can be a lesson, every trip to the park and every trip in the car. In the car for example you can play games counting car colours for example, even the more advanced car snooker. In car snooker you must have 15 reds, the respective colours and then the black, finding a pink car may be hard.
You can walk down the street and read street signs, check colours of items and have counting games. Go to the shops and ask the child to pick out the items from the list and then to pick the right amount as per the list. Then when home with thew shopping the child can have a role in food preparation, even if it's just collecting items to use. Then if you transfer any of these fun skills to a more structured environment then there is a greater likely hood that the child will accept the work. Especially if you can link the work to the outside world, read a book at home that has items you have seen outside. Even better when you are out take some pictures and turn them into your own book, a photo diary perhaps.
Also try and make sure the child gets some help within their play and relaxation time, TV shows that have an educational value for a start. A program that practises words and perhaps tells a useful story. Also try and get your child to talk about what they have seen and what has happened during the program. This helps with many things including memory, observation and interpretation of what they have witnessed. This can also be used for after you have taken the children to a place away from home for a visit, or a visit organised from school.
If you go to a castle, for example you can see where things happened, where people lived and how they went about their daily business. You could show how they cooked, how they eat and how they went about their daily business such as washing. The child of any age can get a massive amount from any trip they undertake , also school or work at home can be linked in easily. Lessons can be on what was seen, what the materials of the building were and on the history of the place visited. Work can be done on how people lived their life and the children can write as if they lived in that time. They could also comment on the differences between the way they live know and the way the characters from the place they visited lived.
Of course, getting a child to sit at a desk and listen to the teacher at the front recite instructions is an integral part of the school life. The child must get used to this and must be able to learn like this but learning can also be great fun. This is why many schools include structured play in their school day. Simply painting or cutting pictures from a magazine has educational value, playing in a sand pit has value. The child's day is limited in time and spaces to learn but all areas can be utilised with thought and care, the time can be very useful in a child's development.

ORAL HABITS AMONG PRE-ELEMENTARY CHILDREN IN BITOLA
A b s t r a c t: Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral habits (nail biting, fingersucking) among the pre-elementary children in Bitola.
Methods: In the observational average, (cross-sectional) study were covered 890 children 3 and 5 years old, who came to regular medical checkups during the period from January to December 2009, in the Health Centre in Bitola. During the research the following methods were applied: psychological testing (Chuturik Test), clinical paediatric examination, interview with the parents and applying the Questionnaire on Children’s Behaviour, Child Behaviour Checklist-Achenbach, 1981, in Hill R., & Castrol E.

(2002): Getting rid of Ritalin, Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc. Results: The research included 890 children, of whom 401 were three yeas old and 489 five years old, and 51.6% male and 48.4% female. The prevalence of oral habits among the subjects was 35.39%. Statistical analyses showed that these habits can be found (p < 0.05) among 3-year-old children, but the tested difference concerning the gender was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Children who live in a rural environment, who do not have their own room and do not use a computer, statistically significantly manifested oral habits more often (p < 0.05). Tested differences in the frequency of oral habits according to the number of family members were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05).
Children whose parents have primary education and whose mothers are working and have minimal incomes manifested a significantly more frequent presence of oral habits for the level of p < 0.01 and p < 0.05.
Conclusion: These oral habits have a prevalence of 35.39% among the preelementary children in Bitola and should be viewed as a major public health problem. Because of their influence on the development of the orofacial system, the responsibility primarily of paediatrist and children's dentists is great for their prevention, early diagnosis and treatment in collaboration with other specialists, the child and parents.

The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic
Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners Semra DEMİR∗∗∗Erciyes University, Turkey
Mehmet KILINC Ministry of National Education, TurkeyAli DOGAN
Ministry of National Education, Turkey
Received: October, 2011 / Revised: April, 2012 / Accepted: June, 2012

Abstract
Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of “Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum” on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pretest-post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is our wish to make a comparison between the group on which curriculum was implemented (experiment group), and the group on which curriculum was not implemented (control group) in terms of academic achievement, and acquiring efficient studying skills. Study population of this research covers 7th grade students from Refika Küçükçalık Primary
School in Kocasinan district of Kayseri which is located in the middle of Turkey during 2011-2012 academic year (8 units, 320 students). Sample of the study was determined according to purposive sampling which is one of non-probability sampling types. Obtained data were analysed employing
Covariance Analysis (ANCOVA). As a result, this research indicated that students can acquire efficient studying skills by means of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills and they increase their academic achievements thanks to these studying habits. In this sense, if quality of education is desired to be increased, students with high level of academic achievements are intended and growing youth is expected to compete with the young population of other states with the effect of globalization, it is necessary to make students acquire efficient studying skills.
Keywords: Study Skills, Curriculum Development, Academic Achievements

. Factors influencing Academic achievement It has been found that the factors like parent’s education, parental occupation, type of family, family size, ordinal position and even gender and age of the child are found to have their impact on the academic achievement of every pupil. Studies dealing with the effect of family environment on student’s achievement suggest that several characteristics of family life are relevant.

2.2.1. Study habit The efficient and effective way of learning depends upon the study habits of the students. Study habits are important they influence the academic achievement of students.
So parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of students. Some investigators have sought to determine what study habits are characteristically used by pupils when left to work by themselves with little or no direction. For this purpose used
Questionnaires, Schedules, Study habits inventories etc and tried to find out the factors influencing the study habits. Teachers in schools should become facilitators of learning. The finite treasure within every learner should be discovered and nurtured for the purpose of improving learning effective study skills have to be taught. Study skills involve reference, reading listening, study habits and strategies. Learning improves with planning of where, when and how much to study. Positive attitude, proper physical condition and balanced emotional states are important factors influencing study habits (Crow and Crow, 1956). Some of such studies are reviewed in this chapter.

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...Promoting good nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development and advances economic growth and eradication of poverty. Studies have shown that proper nutrition has a direct effect on student performance and behavior in school In many studies, cases of socioeconomic status seem to be an indicator of food insufficiency, which is simply the lack of available food to a household. Food insufficiency has been shown to directly affect children’s cognitive development. (Nutrition And Its Effects On Academic Performance How Can Our Schools Improve? By Amy Ross ) Poor nutrition on the other hand, is a chronic problem linked to poverty, poor nutrition understanding and practices, and deficient sanitation and food security. Lack of proper nutrition contributes to worse class performance, lower test scores, and eventually less successful students and a less productive and competitive economy. It is shown to have important negative consequences for children’s school performance in the form of delays in enrollment, grade repetition, a higher chance of dropping out, and lower achievement while in school.( Children’s Nutrition, School Quality and Primary School Enrollment in the Philippines Sharon Ghuman, Population Council Jere R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania ) Childhood malnutrition is common and contributes to the global burden of disease. Childhood is a particularly important time to achieve good nutrition status, because poor nutrition has the capability to lock a......

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