Free Essay

Estadyguade

In: Film and Music

Submitted By xyemengx
Words 54497
Pages 218
Study Guide to Accompany Meggs’ History of Graphic Design
Fourth Edition

Prepared by

Susan Merritt
Professor and Head of Graphic Design School of Art, Design, and Art History San Diego State University (SDSU) With assistance from Chris McCampbell and Jenny Yoshida

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. i

DISCLAIMER
The information in this book has been derived and extracted from a multitude of sources including building codes, fire codes, industry codes and standards, manufacturer’s literature, engineering reference works, and personal professional experience. It is presented in good faith. Although the authors and the publisher have made every reasonable effort to make the information presented accurate and authoritative, they do not warrant, and assume no liability for, its accuracy or completeness or fitness for any specific purpose. The information is intended primarily as a learning and teaching aid, and not as a final source of information for the design of building systems by design professionals. It is the responsibility of users to apply their professional knowledge in the application of the information presented in this book, and to consult original sources for current and detailed information as needed, for actual design situations. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2006 by John Wiley and Sons. All rights reserved Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information about our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. This material may be reproduced for educational purposes by students using the text Meggs: Meggs’ History of Graphic Design, Fourth Edition, (ISBN: 0471-69902-0) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ii

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Author Biography

Part One Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4

The Prologue to Graphic Design: The visual message from prehistory through the medieval era The Invention of Writing Alphabets The Asian Contribution Illuminated Manuscripts

Part Two Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8

A graphic renaissance: The origins of European typography and design for printing Printing Comes to Europe The German Illustrated Book Renaissance Graphic Design An Epoch of Typographic Genius

Part Three Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12

The Bridge to the Twentieth Century—The Industrial Revolution: The impact of industrial technology upon visual communications Graphic Design and the Industrial Revolution The Arts and Crafts Movement and Its Heritage Art Nouveau The Genesis of Twentieth-Century Design

Part Four Chapter 13

The Modernist Era: Graphic design in the first half of the twentieth century The Influence of Modern Art iii

Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17

Pictorial Modernism A New Language of Form The Bauhaus and the New Typography The Modern Movement in America

Part Five Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24

The Age of Information: graphic design in the global village The International Typographic Style The New York School Corporate Identity and Visual Systems The Conceptual Image National Visions within a Global Dialogue Postmodern Design The Digital Revolution and Beyond

Answer Key

iv

Acknowledgments
I would like to thank Chris McCampbell and Jenny Yoshida for their assistance in the development of these online materials. They provided pertinent student perspectives, and their insight, diligence, and calming personalities were invaluable. Without their help, completing this project would have been even more difficult than it was. I am grateful to my friend and colleague Michelle Hays, assistant professor of communication design, Department of Art and Design, Texas State University, San Marcos, for her guidance and expertise in matters of teaching and learning. Special thanks to my husband and partner in design, Calvin Woo, for his unwavering support; Senior Editor, Margaret Cummins, and Assistant Developmental Editor, Lauren LaFrance, of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. for their patience and encouragement; and copyeditor Andrew Miller for his expertise. I would like to acknowledge Phil Meggs for his contributions to design education and for making all of us aware through his book of the rich history of graphic design.

v

Author Biography
Susan Merritt Professor and Head of Graphic Design School of Art, Design, SM and Art History San Diego State University (SDSU)

Professor Merritt teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in the School of Art, Design, and Art History at San Diego State University. She is a design principal at CWA, Inc. in San Diego, and co-founder, with business partner Calvin Woo, of the Design Innovation Institute, a nonprofit organization committed to interdisciplinary design research and education. Professor Merritt is also co-author, with Jack Davis, of The Web Design Wow! Book, and has served on the board of the San Diego chapter of the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA), on the chapter’s advisory board, its education committee, and as curriculum director for AIGA’s national Creativity Kits Project. She is the founder of the AIGA student group at SDSU, and a Friend of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (ICOGRADA). SM Friend is a “membership” category. Technically, individuals cannot be members since only organizations are members. Everyone knows the organization as ICOGRADA. Professor Merritt was a graduate student from 1971 to 1976 at the Kunstgewerbeschule-Basel (Basel School of Design), where she studied with Armin Hofmann, Wolfgang Weingart, André Gürtler, and Kurt Hauert. While living in Europe for six years, and later in Hawaii for five years, where she was on the faculty of the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Professor Merritt developed a deep appreciation for different cultures and their communities. She continues to travel and research the role of visual communication design within the context of culture, with an emphasis on consumer packaging design. While at Basel, Professor Merritt became interested in letterpress printing, which spawned an interest in book arts. She spent a month in residence at the Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, where she studied the museum’s collection of historical wood type, and printed broadsides, on the museum’s letterpresses.

vi

Chapter 1 – The Invention of Writing

Introduction, 4 Prehistoric visual communication, 6 The cradle of civilization, 6 The earliest writing, 6 Mesopotamian visual identification, 9 Egyptian hieroglyphs, 10 Papyrus and writing, 12 The first illustrated manuscripts, 14 Egyptian visual identification, 17

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Ideograph, page 4 Petroglyph, page 4, (Fig. 1-2) Pictograph, page 4 Substrate, page 4 Mesopotamia, page 6 Ziggurat, page 6 Cuneiform, page 7, (Fig. 1-7) Phonogram, page 7 Rebus writing, page 7 Scribe, page 7 Edubba, page 8 1

Cylinder seal, page 9, (Fig. 1-12) Stele, page 9, (Figs. 1-10 and 1-11) Determinatives, page 10 Hieroglyphics, page 10, (Fig. 1-15) Obelisk, page 10 Rosetta Stone, page 10, (Fig. 1-16) Ankh, page 12 Cartouche, page 12, (Fig. 1-18) Papyrus, page 12 The Book of the Dead, page 14, (Fig. 1-25) Coffin texts, page 14 Demotic script, page 14, (Fig. 1-24) Hieratic script, page 14 Papyrus manuscripts, page 14 Pyramid text, page 14 Recto, page 14 Verso, page 14

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Sumerians, page 6 Hammurabi, page 8 Dr. Thomas Young, page 10, (Fig. 1-17) Jean-François Champollion (A.D. 1790–1832), page 10 Study Test

2

Chapter 1 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. It is not known precisely when or where the biological species of conscious, thinking people, Homo sapiens, emerged. It is believed that we evolved from a species that lived in the southern part of __________. A. Europe B. Africa C. Australia D. China 2. These early hominids ventured out onto the grassy plains and into __________ as the forests slowly disappeared in that part of the world. In the tall grass, they began to stand erect and their hands developed an ability to carry food and hold objects. A. canyons B. caves C. trees D. mountains 3. Found near Lake Turkana in _________, a nearly three-million-year-old stone that had been sharpened into an implement proves the thoughtful and deliberate development of a technology—a tool—which may have been used to dig for roots or to cut away flesh from dead animals for food. A. Kenya B. Spain C. France D. Turkey 4. A number of quantum leaps provided the capacity to organize a community and gain some measure of control over human destiny. Speech—the ability to make sounds in order to communicate—was an early skill developed by the species on the long evolutionary trail from its archaic beginnings. __________ is the visual counterpart of speech. 3

A. Talking B. Painting C. Writing D. Drawing 5. The invention of writing brought people the luster of civilization and made it possible to preserve hard-won knowledge, experiences, and thoughts. The development of visible language had its earliest origins in ___________. A. letterforms B. abstract color fields C. simple pictures D. hieroglyphs 6. From the early Paleolithic to the Neolithic period (35,000–4000 B.C.), early Africans and Europeans left paintings in caves, including the Lascaux caves in France and __________. A. the grassy plains of southern Africa B. Lake Turkana in Kenya C. Altamira in Spain D. the Persian Gulf region 7. These early cave drawings were probably created for three of the reasons below. Which does NOT belong? ___________ A. art B. ritual C. survival D. utility 8. The animals and objects painted on the caves are ___________elementary pictures or sketches representing the things depicted. A. petroglyphs B. ideographs C. phonograms D. pictographs 4

9. Throughout the world, from Africa to North America to the islands of New Zealand, prehistoric people left numerous __________, which are carved or scratched signs or simple figures on rocks. A. petroglyphs B. ideographs C. phonograms D. pictographs 10. Some of the carved or scratched signs on the rocks may be __________, or symbols to represent ideas or concepts. A. petroglyphs B. ideographs C. phonograms D. pictographs 11. By the late Paleolithic period, some __________ had been reduced to the point that they almost resembled letters. A. petroglyphs and phonograms B. petroglyphs and pictographs C. phonograms and pictographs D. petroglyphs and ideographs 12. Until recent discoveries indicated that early peoples in Thailand may have practiced agriculture and manufactured pottery at an even earlier date, archaeologists had long believed that the ancient land of ___________, “the land between rivers,” was the cradle of civilization. A. Kenya B. Mesopotamia C. Egypt D. Turkey 13. In “the land between rivers,” early humans ceased their restless nomadic wanderings and established a village society. Around 8000 B.C., wild grain was planted, animals were domesticated, and agriculture began. By the year 6000 B.C., objects were being hammered from copper. The Bronze Age was ushered in about 3000 B.C., when copper was alloyed with tin to make durable tools and 5

weapons; the invention of the wheel followed. The leap from village culture to high civilization occurred after the __________ people arrived near the end of the fourth millennium B.C. A. Hittite B. Babylonian C. Persian D. Sumerian 14. Of the numerous inventions that launched people onto the path of civilization, the invention of ____________ brought about an intellectual revolution that had a vast impact upon social order, economic progress, and technological and future cultural developments. A. a system of gods B. architecture C. writing D. a god-man relationship 15. Writing may have evolved in Sumeria because ancient temple chiefs needed _________. A. ornament for the ziggurat B. to employ scribes C. to keep records systematically D. intellectual stimulation 16. The __________ may be the oldest extant artifact combining words and pictures on the same surface. A. Rosetta stone B. Blau monument C. Code of Hammurabi D. Sarcophagus of Aspalta 17. The stele of Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792–1750 B.C., is an artifact of the Babylonian culture written in careful cuneiform. The text contains ________. A. a code of laws and consequences for violating them B. a narrative about Hammurabi’s military conquests 6

C. annual records of crop production from the late eighteenth century B.C. D. a calendar of important Babylonian holy days 18. Two natural byproducts of the rise of village culture were the ownership of property and the specialization of trades or crafts. Both made visual identification necessary. Proprietary marks and __________ were first developed so that ownership could be established. A. cattle brands B. printing C. symbols D. contracts 19. In Mesopotamia, _______________ provided a forgery-proof method for sealing documents and proving their authenticity. Images and writing were etched into their surfaces. When they were rolled across a damp clay tablet, a raised impression of the depressed design, which became a “trademark” for the owner, was formed. A. finger prints B. cylinder seals C. adhesive made from papyrus D. Persian chalcedony stamps 20. All but one of the scripts listed below is found on the Rosetta Stone. Which does NOT belong? __________ A. Greek B. Latin C. hieroglyphic D. demotic 21. The third phase in the evolution of __________ was the Book of the Dead. A. biographies B. papyri C. funerary texts D. written communication

7

22. Three of the following are characteristics of ancient Egyptian illustrated manuscripts. Which does NOT belong? ___________ A. Important persons were shown in larger scale than other persons. B. One or two horizontal bands, usually colored, ran across the top and bottom of the manuscript. C. Images were inserted on separate pages opposite the text they illustrated. D. A sheet was sometimes divided into rectangular zones to separate text and images. 23. The ancient Egyptians inherited the use of ___________ from the Sumerians. A. papyrus B. identification seals C. books of the dead D. writing palettes

Matching
I. Match the following terms with their correct definition: 1. determinatives ____ 2. cartouche ____ 3. hieroglyphics ____ 4. homonyms ____ 5. ankh ____ 6. obelisk ____

A. This hieroglyph of a cross surmounted by a loop had modest origins as the symbol for a sandal strap yet gained meaning as a symbol for life and immortality. B. Having the same name C. Egyptian pictograms that depict objects or beings D. Signs that indicate how the preceding glyph should be interpreted

8

E. A tall, geometric, totem-like Egyptian monument F. F. Bracket-like plaques containing the glyphs of important names, such as Ptolemy and Cleopatra

II. Match the following terms with their correct definition: 1. demotic ____ 2. papyrus ____ 3. recto ____ 4. hieratic ____ 5. verso ____

A. A paperlike substrate for manuscripts made from a plant that grew along the Nile in shallow marshes and pools B. The upper surface of horizontal fibers of the finished sheets of this Egyptian substrate C. The bottom surface of vertical fibers of the finished sheets of this Egyptian substrate D. A simplification of the hieroglyphic book hand developed by priests for religious writings, from the Greek word “priestly” E. An abstract script of the hieroglyphic book hand that came into secular use for commercial and legal writing, from the Greek word for “popular”

III. Match the following terms with their correct definition: 1. edduba ____ 2. ziggurat ____ 3. phonograms ____ 4. rebus ____ 5. stele ____ 6. cuneiform ____

9

A. An inscribed or carved stone or slab used for commemorative purposes B. An abstract sign writing style from the Latin for “wedge shaped” C. A multistory stepped brick temple constructed as a series of recessed levels that were smaller toward the top D. Pictures representing words and syllables with the same or similar sound as the object depicted E. A writing school or “tablet house” F. Graphic symbols representing sounds

Image Identification
I. Identify the title and the date of the following images: 1. Fig. 1-1 ________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 1-5 ________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 1-10 _______________________________________________ 4. Fig. 1-12 _______________________________________________ 5. Fig. 1-16 _______________________________________________ 6. Fig. 1-26 _______________________________________________ 7. Figs. 1-27 and 1-28 ______________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the correct name of the writing style used. 1. Fig. 1-2 ____ 2. Fig. 1-11 ____ 3. Fig. 1-23 ____

A. hieroglyphs B. petroglyphs C. cuneiform

10

Chapter 2 – Alphabets

Introduction, 18 Cretan pictographs, 18 The north Semitic alphabet, 19 The Aramaic alphabet and its descendants, 20 The Greek alphabet, 22 The Latin alphabet, 26 The Korean alphabet, 29

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Alphabet, page 18 Minoan civilization, page 18, (Fig. 2-1) Crete, page 18, (Fig. 2-2) Substrate, page 19 Principle of movable type, page 19 North Semitic writing, page 19 Phoenicia, page 19 Sui generis, page 19 Byblos, page 19 Sinaitic script, page 19 Acrophonic, page 19 Ras Shamra script, page 20, (Fig. 2-3) Alphabetical order, page 20 11

Phoenician alphabet, page 19 Aramaic alphabet, page 20, (Fig. 2-4) Square Hebrew alphabet, page 20, (Fig. 2-5) Arabic writing, page 21 Kufic, page 21, (Fig. 2-6) Naskhi, page 21, (Fig. 2-7) Qur’an or Koran, page 21 Calligraphy, page 21 Greek alphabet, page 22, (Fig. 2-9) (Fig. 2-1) Votive stela, page 23, (Fig. 2-11) Boustrophedon, page 24 Uncials, page 24, (Fig. 2-12) Latin alphabet, page 26, (Fig. 2-1) Capitalis Monumentalis, page 26, (Figs. 2-17 and 2-18) Serif, page 26 Capitalis Quadrata, page 28, (Fig. 2-19) Capitalis Rustica, page 28, (Fig. 2-20) Vellum, page 29 Codex, page 29 Scroll, page 29 Rotulus, page 29 Signatures, page 29 Hangul, page 29, (Fig.s 2-22 through 2-24)

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

12

Phoenicians, page 19 Cadmus of Miletus (dates unknown), page 22 Etruscans, page 26, (Fig. 2-16) Spurius Carvilius (c. 250 B.C.), page 26 Ptolemy V of Alexandria (ruled c. 205–181 B.C.), page 28 King Eumenes II of Pergamum (d. 160/159 B.C.), page 28 Sejong (A.D. 1397–1450), page 29

13

Chapter 2 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Early visual language systems were complex and required knowledge of hundreds of signs and symbols, whereas an alphabet, a set of visual symbols or characters that represent the elementary __________ of a spoken language, require only twenty or thirty easily learned signs. A. vowels B. sounds C. consonants D. concepts 2. Unearthed in Crete in 1908, the __________ contains pictographic and seemingly alphabetic forms imprinted on both sides in spiral bands. A. Greek signature seal B. Greek allotment token C. Phaistos Disk D. Etruscan Bucchero vase 3. During the second millennium B.C., the __________ became seafaring merchants whose ships linked settlements throughout the Mediterranean region. Influences and ideas were absorbed from other areas, such as cuneiform from Mesopotamia in the west and Egyptian hieroglyphics and scripts from the south. A. Greeks B. Etruscans C. Romans D. Phoenicians 4. Around 1500 B.C., Semitic workers in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai desert developed an acrophonic adaptation of Egyptian hieroglyphics called Sinaitic script. In an acrophonic system, pictorial symbols or hieroglyphs are used to represent _________.

14

A. the most important words in a sentence B. the most important vowel sound in a word C. the initial sound of the object depicted D. an abstract idea 5. The Phoenician alphabet was adopted by the ancient Greeks and spread through their city-states around 1000 B.C. The Greeks changed five consonants to vowels and, most importantly, they modified the Phoenician characters by making them __________. A. resemble animal forms in nature B. more geometrically structured C. resemble cuneiform characters D. calligraphic and gestural 6. When the Greeks adopted Phoenician writing, they developed a writing method called boustrophedon, which means __________. A. alternating left to right and right to left B. left to right C. right to left D. bottom to top 7. Writing tools and substrates influenced written forms. For example, as early as the second century A.D., Greek scribes made their pens from hard reeds cut into nibs and split at the tip to aid ink flow. These pens gave their writing style a different character than writing by Egyptian scribes, who used soft reeds to brush ink onto the substrate. The Greeks developed a more rounded writing style called _________, which could be written more quickly because the rounded letters were formed with fewer strokes. A. uncials B. Capitalis Monumentalis C. Capitalis Rustica D. Capitalis Quadrata 8. In the fourth century B.C., Alexander the Great expanded Greek culture throughout the ancient world, including Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Reading and writing had become more important by this time because ___________.

15

A. Alexander the Great wished to build vast libraries in distant countries B. military leaders required a means of transferring information across geographic areas C. an oral culture no longer had the capacity to contain and document knowledge and information D. demand rose for Greek philosophical and dramatic works 9. The Greek alphabet fathered three of the following alphabets. Which one does NOT belong? __________ A. Latin B. Cyrillic C. Phoenican D. Etruscan 10. The Latin alphabet came to the Romans from Greece by way of the_______, who dominated the Italian peninsula in the first millennium B.C. A. Ionians B. Spartans C. Etruscans D. Corinthians 11. Around the first century B.C., the Roman alphabet—the forerunner of the contemporary English alphabet—contained twenty-three letters. The letters J, V, and W were added __________. The J is an outgrowth of the I, which was lengthened to indicate use with consonantal force, particularly as the first letter of some words. Both U and W are variants of V, which was used for two different sounds in England. A. after the advent of the printing press B. during the Middle Ages C. by seventeenth-century Greek scholars D. when they were rediscovered in the first century A.D. 12. The __________, a revolutionary design format, came to be used increasingly in Rome and Greece beginning about the time of Christ. The durability and permanence of this format appealed to Christians because their writings were considered sacred. The Christians also sought this format as a means to distance themselves from pagan formats. 16

A. codex B. rotulus C. scroll D. disk 13. The Roman letter _______________ was designed by Spurius Carvilius around 250 B.C. to replace the Greek zeta, which at the time was of little value to the Romans. After this addition, the Latin alphabet contained twenty-one letters. A. W B. G C. J D. Y 14. The Aramaic alphabet is a major early derivation from the North Semitic script. It is the predecessor of hundreds of scripts, including modern Hebrew and Arabic. ______________, a bold inscriptional Arabic lettering with extended, thick characters, was widely used on coins, manuscripts, and inscriptions on metal and stone. It is still used for titles and decorative elements. A. Sinaitic B. Naskhi C. Ras Shamra D. Kufic 15. King Eumenes II of Pergamum developed the process of making _________ to overcome an embargo placed by Ptolemy V during a fierce rivalry. A. paper B. codices C. parchment D. papyrus 16. The Hangul alphabet, which was introduced by the Korean monarch Sejong by royal decree in A.D. 1446, consists of fourteen consonants represented by __________. A. abstract depictions of the mouth and tongue B. acrophonic symbols 17

C. dots placed next to horizontal or vertical lines D. letters similar to those of the early Phoenicians

Matching
I. Match the key words with the correct definitions. 1. vellum ____ 2. serifs ____ 3. signature ____ 4. Capitalis Quadrata ____ 5. Capitalis Monumentalis ____ 6. parchment ____ 7. Capitalis Rustica ____

A. Rome took great pride in its imperial accomplishments and conquests, and created these letterforms for architectural inscriptions celebrating military leaders and their victories. B. The most important form of the Roman written hand, this style, which was written carefully and slowly with a flat pen, was widely used from the second century A.D. until the fifth century. C. Small lines extending from the ends of the major strokes of Roman letterforms D. Another form of the Roman written hand, these condensed letterforms, which were written quickly and saved space, were widely used from the second century A.D. until the fifth century. E. A writing surface made from the skins of domestic animals, particularly calves, sheep, and goats F. The finest of writing surfaces, made from the smooth skins of newborn calves G. G. Two, four, or eight sheets gathered then folded, stitched, and bound

True/False
18

1. The invention of the alphabet and the subsequent spread of literacy had a leveling effect on society; it eventually diminished the power of priest/scribes found in earlier societies. _____ 2. The Hangul writing system—the Korean alphabet—is based on the Chinese writing system but is more complex. _____ 3. Around 2000 B.C., the Phoenicians developed an early alphabetic writing system called sui generis, which was a script devoid of any pictorial meaning. _____ 4. Capitalis Quadrata were capitals of the Roman Latin alphabet created for architectural inscriptions celebrating military leaders and their victories. _____ 5. The modern book format, which replaced the scroll in Rome and Greece beginning at the time of Christ, was made by gathering parchment into signatures and binding them to form codices. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the title and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 2-2 ________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 2-11 _______________________________________________ 3. Fig. 2-12 _______________________________________________ 4. Fig. 2-16 _______________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the correct writing style. 1. Fig. 2-18 ____ 2. Fig. 2-19 ____ 3. Fig. 2-20 ____

A. Capitalis Quadrata B. Capitalis Monumentalis C. Capitalis Rustica

19

Chapter 3 – The Asian Contribution

Introduction, 31 Chinese calligraphy, 31 The invention of paper, 34 The discovery of printing, 35 The invention of movable type, 40

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Chinese calligraphy, page 31 Paper, page 31 Logograms, page 31 Chiaku-wen (bone-and-shell script), page 31, (Figs. 3-1 and 3-2) Oracle bones, page 31 Chin-wen (bronze script), page31, (Fig. 3-3) Hsiao chuan (small-seal style), page 32, (Fig. 3-1) Chen-shu or kai-shu (regular style), page 32, (Fig. 3-4) Li, page 32 Tao, page 34 Relief printing, page 35 Chop, page 35, (Fig. 3-8) Cinnabar, page 35 Woodblock printing, page 36 Diamond Sutra, page 37

20

Dharani, page 36 Accordion-style book, page 38 Codex-style book, page 39 Pen Ts’ao, page 39 Movable type, page 40

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Ts-ang Chieh, page 31 Prime Minister Li Ssu (c. 280–208 B.C.), page 32 Li Fangying, page 32, (Fig. 3-6) Shitao Yuanji (A.D. 1630–c. 1707), page 34, (Fig. 3-7) Ts’ai Lun, page 34 Pi Sheng (A.D. 1023–1063), page 40

21

Chapter 3 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Legend suggests that by the year 2000 B.C., a culture was evolving in China in virtual isolation from the pockets of civilization in the West. Three innovations developed by the ancient Chinese that changed the course of human events are listed below. Which does NOT belong? __________ A. oil paint B. gunpowder C. paper D. the compass 2. About 1800 B.C., __________ was inspired to invent Chinese writing by claw marks of birds and footprints of animals. Elementary pictographs of things in nature were highly stylized and composed of a minimum number of lines. A. Shih Huang Ti B. Li Ssu C. Ts-ang Chieh D. Li Fangying 3. There is no direct relationship between the spoken and written Chinese languages. Written Chinese was never broken down into syllabic or alphabetic signs for elementary sounds. The Chinese calligraphic writing system consists of ___________, graphic signs that represent an entire word. A. pictographs B. logograms C. cartouches D. ideograms 4. The earliest known Chinese writing, called __________, was in use from 1800 to 1200 B.C. and was closely bound to the art of divination, an effort to foretell future events through communication with the gods or long-dead ancestors. It

22

was also called bone-and-shell script because it was incised on tortoise shells and the flat shoulder bones of large animals, called oracle bones. A. chin-wen B. hsaio chuan C. chen-shu D. chiaku-wen 5. In earlier times, the Chinese wrote on bamboo slats or wooden strips using a bamboo pen and dense, durable ink. After the invention of woven silk cloth, it, too, was used as a writing substrate; however, it was very costly. __________, a Chinese high government official, is credited with the invention of paper in A.D. 105, and was deified as the god of the papermakers. His process for making paper from natural fibers continued almost unchanged until papermaking was mechanized in nineteenth-century England. A. Ts’ai Lun B. Li Tsu C. Chu-Yun-Ming D. Yuan Chao Meng-fu 6. One theory about the origins of relief printing in China focuses on chops, seals made by carving calligraphic characters into a flat surface of jade, silver, gold, or ivory. Another theory focuses on the practice of making __________ from inscriptions carved in stone. A. inked rubbings B. impressions in soft clay C. playing cards D. calligraphy 7. The oldest surviving printed manuscript is the ________, which was printed by one Wang Chieh to honor his parents and widely distributed in A.D. 868. It consists of seven sheets of paper pasted together to form a scroll. Six sheets of the text convey Buddha’s revelations to his elderly follower Subhuti. A. Album of Eight Leaves B. Yuan Chao Meng-fu (A Goat and Sheep) C. Mountain and River Landscape scroll D. Diamond Sutra 23

8. China became the first society in which ordinary people were in daily contact with printed images. In addition to block prints of religious images and texts, paper ___________ began to be designed and printed around A.D. 1000 due to an iron shortage. A. charms, called dharani, B. playing cards C. money D. medical herbals 9. In China beginning in the ninth or tenth century A.D., the scroll evolved into a paged format. Instead of rolling the scroll, it was folded ___________. In the tenth or eleventh century, stitched books were developed: two pages of text were printed from one block; the sheet was folded down the middle, then the sheets were gathered and sewn to make a codex-style book. A. European-style B. accordion-style C. like a letter D. in half 10. When making a woodblock print in China, the wood around each character is painstakingly cut away. Around A.D. 1045, the Chinese alchemist Pi Sheng extended this process by developing the concept of __________, an innovative printing process that was never widely used in Asia because the sheer number of characters made the process too tedious. A. stamping B. relief printing C. casting type D. moveable type 11. The painting of bamboo from the ___________ by Li Fangying shows how vividly descriptive strokes made with a bamboo brush join calligraphy, painting, poem, and illustration into a unified communication. A. bamboo scrolls B. Mountain and River Landscape scroll C. Album of Eight Leaves D. Diamond Sutra 24

Matching
I. Match the key term with the correct definition. 1. chin-wen ____ 2. hsaio chuan ____ 3. k’ai-shu ____ 4. chia-ku-wen ____

A. This phase in Chinese calligraphy is called bronze script because it consisted of inscriptions on cast-bronze objects, such as food and water vessels, musical instruments, weapons, coins, and seals. B. When one wished to consult an exalted ancestor or a god, the royal diviner was asked to inscribe the message on a polished animal bone. This writing was called bone-and-shell script. C. Small seal script was a new writing style designed by Prime Minister Li Ssu during the reign of emperor Shih Huang Ti. This graceful, flowing style is much more abstract than other styles. D. The final step in the evolution of Chinese calligraphy, regular script is considered the highest art form in China, more important even than painting.

True/False
1. Chinese calligraphy is a purely visual language. _____ 2. The Chinese calligraphic system consists of about forty characters. _____ 3. In contrast to Western writing, Chinese calligraphic strokes express spiritual states and deep feelings. _____ 4. The Chinese were immediately receptive to the use of paper in its early decades because of its greater elitist appeal. _____ 5. During the Han Dynasty, seals, called chops, were made by carving the background away from a calligraphic character. The resulting print was a red character on a white background. _____

25

6. In the tenth century A.D., Prime Minister Feng Tao ordered the use of wood blocks to print Confucian classics so that they would be available to the masses. _____ 7. Relief printing is the process of removing the negative spaces surrounding an image and then inking the raised surface, which is rubbed onto paper. 8. The pages of the Pen Ts’ao medical herbal were assembled as a folded accordion-style book, which replaced the scroll format in the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.

Image Identification
I. Identify the title and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 3-6 _________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 3-8 _________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 3-15 ________________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the correct writing style. 1. Fig. 3-2 ____ 2. Fig. 3-3 ____ 3. Fig. 3-4 ____

A. Chiaku-wen (bone-and-shell script) B. Chen-shu (regular style calligraphy) C. Chin-wen (bronze script)

26

Chapter 4 – Illuminated Manuscripts

Introduction, 42 The classical style, 43 Celtic book design, 44 The Caroline graphic renewal, 47 Spanish pictorial expressionism, 51 Romanesque and Gothic manuscripts, 54 Judaic manuscripts, 56 Islamic manuscripts, 56 Late medieval illuminated manuscripts, 58

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Illuminated manuscript, page 42 Gold leaf, page 42 Scriptorium, page 42 Scrittori, page 42 Copisti, page 42 Illuminator, page 42 Colophon, page 42 Musical notation, page 42 Frontispiece, page 43 Classical style, page 43, (Fig. 4-1) Medieval, page 43 27

Uncials, page 44, (Fig. 4-2) Uncia, page 44 Semi-uncials or half-uncials, page 44, (Fig. 4-3) Majuscules, page 44 Minuscules, page 44 Ascenders, page 44 Descenders, page 44 Celtic style, pages 44–47, (Fig. 4-4 through 4-9) Carpet pages, page 45, (Fig. 4-6) Interlace, page 45, (Fig. 4-4) Lacertines, page 45, Diminuendo, page 45, (Fig. 4-5) Scriptura scottia (insular script), page 46, (Fig. 4-5) (Fig. 4-9) Carolingian or Caroline miniscule, page 42, (Fig. 4 -10) Turba scriptorium, page 49 Labyrinth page, page 52, (Fig. 4-12) Apocalypse, page 53, (Figs. 4-13 and 4-14) Textura, page 54, (Fig. 4-15) Haggadot, page 56, (Fig. 4-17) Qur’an or Koran, page 56 Aniconism, page 57 Book of Hours, page 58

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Charlemagne (c. 742 or 747–814), pages 47–49, (Fig. 4 -10) 28

Chapter 4 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Production of illuminated manuscripts in the scriptorium, or writing room, included the head of the scriptorium, called the scrittori, a well-educated scholar who understood Greek and Latin and functioned as both an editor and art director. The __________ was a production letterer who spent his days bent over a writing table penning page after page in a trained lettering style. A. colophon B. scrittori C. copisti D. illuminator 2. The Vatican Virgil, completely Roman and pagan in its conception and execution, is an example of the __________ manuscript style. This volume, created in the late fourth or early fifth century A.D., contains two major poems by Rome’s greatest poet, Publius Vergilius Maro: the Aeneid and the Georgics. The illustrations combine rustic capitals with echoes of the rich colors and illusionist space of the wall frescoes of Pompeii. A. classical B. Celtic C. Mozarabic D. Gothic 3. __________ design, as seen in the Book of Durrow, is abstract and extremely complex; geometric linear patterns weave, twist, and fill the space with thick visual textures, and bright, pure colors are used in juxtaposition. A. Classical B. Carolingian C. Celtic D. Gothic

29

4. A radical design innovation in Celtic manuscripts was using __________ to separate strings of letters into words allowing readers to recognize them more quickly. A. punctuation B. lacertine animals C. diminuendo D. word spaces 5. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, who was declared emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day, A.D. 800, fostered a revival of learning and the arts. He recruited ___________ to come to his palace at Aachen and establish a school and a scriptorium where master copies of important religious texts were prepared. A. a turba scriptorium B. the scribe Florentius C. the English scholar Alcuin of York D. the Limbourg brothers 6. Charlemagne mandated reform by royal edict in A.D. 789 and succeeded in reforming the alphabet with the use of four guidelines, ascenders, and descenders. The resulting uniform script, called __________, is the forerunner of our contemporary lowercase alphabet. A. Caroline miniscules B. Celtic unicials C. diminuendo D. Celtic semi-unicials 7. Many examples of Moorish-influenced manuscripts from Spain, such as the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse from the Beatus of Fernando and Sancha, in which arrows pierce the hearts of nonbelievers, are texts on ___________. A. prayers and calendars of saints’ days B. the Book of Revelation C. the Qu’ran D. classical literature from ancient Rome

30

8. During the Romanesque period (A.D. c. 1000 to 1150), which saw renewed religious fervor and even stronger feudalism, universal design characteristics seemed possible because ___________. A. travel increased due to the crusades and pilgrimages B. isolated villages had minor skirmishes C. barbaric tribes became nomadic D. feudal lords increased their territories 9. The textura lettering style (from the Lain texturum, meaning woven fabric or texture) seen in Gothic manuscripts—composed of vertical strokes capped with pointed serifs—was also called by other terms, which were misleading and vague. Which name was the preferred name during its time? ___________ A. littera moderna B. lettre de forme C. black letter D. old English 10.Muhammad called upon his followers to learn to read and write, and calligraphy quickly became an important tool for government business and religion. Islamic manuscript decoration is characterized by all but one of the elements below. Which does NOT belong? __________ A. Rosettes drawn to separate verses B. Intricate geometric and arabesque designs C. Ornate vowel marks D. Figurative illustrations 11.In the early 1400s, the___________, a private devotional text that contained religious texts, prayers, and calendars listing the days of the important saints, became Europe’s most popular book. A. Commentary of Beatus B. Book of Hours C. Apocalypse D. Four Gospels 12.In the early scriptorium, the ________ was responsible for the execution of ornament and image in visual support of the text. 31

A. colophon B. scrittori C. copisti D. illuminator 13.The ____________ of a manuscript or book is an inscription, usually at the end, containing facts about its production. A. colophon B. frontispiece C. copisti D. lacertine 14.Manuscripts in the ____________ style were often lettered in rustic capitals in one wide column on each page, with illustrations of the same width as the text column framed in bright bands of color. A. Celtic B. medieval C. classical D. Renaissance 15.So named because they were written between two guidelines that were one inch apart, __________ were rounded, freely drawn letters more suited to rapid writing. A. miniscules B. uncials C. descenders D. majuscules 16.In the early fifteenth century, the Limbourg brothers created their masterpiece, ___________, which included an illustrated calendar depicting the seasonal activities of each month crowned with graphic astronomical charts. They sought a convincing realism as atmospheric perspective pushed planes and volumes back in deep space. A. the Vatican Virgil B. the Book of Kells 32

C. Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry D. the Ormesby Psalter

Matching
I. Match the key term with the correct definition. A. Gothic ____ B. classical style ____ C. Celtic ____

A. This manuscript style was lettered in rustic capitals in one wide column on each page, usually above or below an illustration. B. This manuscript style originated in Ireland and used ornate initials, diminuendo, carpet pages, and half-uncial script. C. This manuscript style used textura lettering, often in two columns. Illustrations were divided into segments by elaborate framing; figures were elongated and wore fashionable clothing.

True/False
1. Illuminated manuscripts in the Middle Ages were costly and time consuming to produce. In addition to expensive minerals for ink, the skins of up to five animals were often required to make parchment for one text. _____ 2. The illustrations and decorations in illuminated manuscripts were intended to educate the reader as well as beautify the book. _____ 3. The frontispiece of a manuscript is the front cover, usually made of ivory or precious metals encrusted with semiprecious gems. _____ 4. Illustrations in late medieval illuminated manuscripts from the fifteenth century are characterized by elongated, vertical figures and increased naturalism. _____ 5. The Haggadot are Judaic texts containing Jewish historical accounts and proverbs. _____ 6. A diminuendo is the transition from large introductory script into the smaller text. _____

33

7. In manuscripts that were created in the Renaissance style, such as the Vatican Virgil, the text is lettered in crisp rustic capitals. Illustrations could be positioned either at the top, middle, or bottom of a page, usually adjacent to a single column of text. _____ 8. Aniconism was a common theme used in Islamic manuscripts. _____ 9. The invention of musical notation has also been attributed to scribes working in medieval monasteries. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the title and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 4-6 __________________________________________________ 2. Figs. 4-7 through 4-9 ________________________________________ 3. Fig. 4-10 _________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 4-11 _________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 4-13 _________________________________________________ 6. Fig. 4-19 _________________________________________________ 7. Figs. 4-20 and 4-21 ________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the correct style of the design. 1. Fig. 4-5 2. Fig. 4-16 3. Fig. 4-18

A. Islamic book design B. Celtic book design C. Gothic manuscript

34

Chapter 5 – Printing Comes to Europe

Introduction, 64 Early European block printing, 64 Movable typography in Europe, 69 Copperplate engraving, 77

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Xylography, page 64 Typography, page 64 Watermark, page 64 Block print, page 64 Ars moriendi, page 65 Block book, page 65 Biblia Pauperum, page 67, (Fig. 5-8) Forty-two Line Bible, page 69, (see Fig. 5-13) Textura, page 69 Ligature, page 70 Punch, page 70, (Fig. 5-10a) Matrix, page 70, (Fig. 5-10b) Letters of indulgence, page 71, (Fig. 5-12) Rubrication, page 71 Psalter, page 73 Colophon, page 73 35

Copperplate engraving, page 77

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Procopius Waldfoghel, page 69 Johann Fust (c. 1400–1466), page 71 Peter Schoeffer (c. 1425–1502), page 71 Fust and Schoeffer, page 71 Master of the Playing Cards, page 77, (Fig. 5-17)

36

Chapter 5 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. ___________, which ranged in size from small enough to fit in a person’s hand to about 10 by 14 inches, were the first known European block printings with a communications function. Image and lettering were cut from the same block of wood and printed as a complete word-and-picture unit. A. Devotional prints of saints B. Block books C. Playing cards D. Paper monetary bills 2. Death was an ever-present preoccupation in fourteenth-century Europe. The great cycles of bubonic plague, called the Black Death, claimed one fourth of Europe’s inhabitants during the fourteenth century and caused thousands of villages to either vanish totally or become critically depopulated. ___________ was a type of block book that offered advice on preparing for death and how to meet one’s final hour. A. The Book of Hours B. The Psalter C. The Ars Moriendi D. The Biblia Pauperum 3. Several factors created a climate in fifteenth-century Europe that made typography feasible: an insatiable demand for books, an emerging literate middle class, students in the rapidly expanding universities who had seized the monopoly on literacy from the clergy and created a vast new market for reading material, and the slow, expensive, process of bookmaking, which had changed little in one thousand years. However, without _____________, which reached Europe by way of a six-hundred-year journey, the speed and efficiency of printing would have been useless. A. writing B. the alphabet C. moveable type 37

D. paper 4. Printers in Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy sought after the mechanization of book production by such means as movable type. It was _______________ of Haarlem in Holland who explored the concept of movable type first by cutting out letters or words from his woodblocks for reuse. A. Laurens Janszoon Coster B. Procopius Waldfoghel C. Johann Gensfleisch von Gutenberg D. John Baskerville 5. In Avignon, France, goldsmith _______________ was involved in the production of “alphabets of steel” around 1444, but with no known results. A. Laurens Janszoon Coster B. Procopius Waldfoghel C. Johann Gensfleisch von Gutenberg D. John Baskerville 6. Around 1450, Johann Gutenberg was the first to bring together the complex systems and subsystems necessary to print a typographic book, including a thick, tacky ink that could be smoothly applied and did not run off the metal type; a strong, sturdy press; and a metal alloy that was soft enough to cast yet hard enough to hold up for thousands of impressions. But the key to his invention was the __________ used for casting the individual letters. A. brass matrix B. antimony C. type mold D. steel punch 7. Johann Gutenberg adopted ___________, the style of manuscript lettering commonly used by German scribes of his day, as the model for his type, because early printers sought to compete with calligraphers by imitating their work as closely as possible. A. rustic capitals B. square capitals C. half uncials

38

D. textura 8. Early surviving examples of typographic design and printing include a German poem on the Last Judgment, four calendars, and a number of editions of a Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus. The earliest dated examples of typographic printing are the ____________, issued in Mainz, Germany in 1454. A. “Letters of Indulgence” by Pope Nicholas V B. “Ninety-Five Theses” by Martin Luther C. Decameron stories by Boccacio D. Shipping News broadsheets for Venetian merchants 9. A heroic effort was required to produce the Forty-two Line Bible, so-named because the first nine pages have forty lines per column, the tenth page has forty-one lines per column, and the remaining pages have forty-two lines per column. The increase of two lines per column saved an additional sixty pages. Gutenberg’s original format included three characteristics below. Which does NOT belong? ___________ A. 1,282 pages in two volumes B. 11-3/4-by-15-inch pages C. 418 full-page illustrations D. Blank spaces for decorative initials to be drawn in later by a scribe 10. At the same time (and in the same area of Europe) that Johann Gutenberg invented moveable type, an unidentified artist called the Master of the Playing Cards created the earliest known __________. A. printed materials using wooden printing blocks B. copperplate engravings C. special ink that would not rub off on card players’ hands D. heavy paper that was used for making playing cards 11. In papermaking, a translucent emblem, or ______________, can be produced by pressure from a raised design on a mold. It is visible when a sheet of paper is held up to light. These were used in Italy as early as 1282, and as they grew in popularity, they began to be used to designate sheet and mold sizes as well as paper grade. A. heraldic shield B. watermark 39

C. ligature D. matrix 12. The magnificent Latin Psalter published by _________ on August 14, 1457, was the first book to bear a printer’s trademark and imprint, printed date of publication, and colophon. In addition, the Psalter had large red and blue initials printed from two-part metal blocks that were inked separately, reassembled, and either printed with the text in one press impression, or stamped after the text was printed. These famous decorated two-color initials were a major innovation. A. Johann Gutenberg B. Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer C. Jost Amman D. Procopius Waldfoghel

Matching
I. Match the key terms with the correct definition. A. punch ____ B. xylography ____ C. matrix ____ D. engraving ____ E. typography ____

A. A printing process during which the image is incised or cut down into the printing surface B. The technical term for the relief printing from a raised surface that originated in Asia C. In casting type, a steel bar with a character engraved into the top, which is then pressed into a softer metal to make a negative impression of the character D. Printing with independent, movable, and reusable bits of metal or wood, each of which has a raised letterform on one face

40

E. In casting type, the negative impression of a character is pressed into this, then filled with a molten lead alloy that creates the finished piece of type.

True/False
1. The press Johann Gutenberg used for printing was based on the cheese or wine press, familiar in the Rhine wine-producing area of Germany. _____ 2. Although Johann Fust loaned money to Johann Gutenberg, he later foreclosed on Gutenberg and confiscated his printing equipment. _____ 3. According to one account, Johann Fust attempted to sell printed Bibles in Paris as manuscripts. _____ 4. Printers left the city of Mainz, Germany in 1462 because of an outbreak of the plague. _____ 5. The Biblia Pauperum was a block book intended to instruct the faithful in Old and New Testament parallel narratives. _____ 6. Copperplate printing, like typographic printing, is a relief process. _____ 7. In addition to the rapid spread of knowledge, the invention of the typographic press is also directly responsible for increased literacy in the fifteenth century. _____ 8. With his moveable type, Johann Gutenberg used an ink made from boiled linseed oil colored with lampblack. _____ 9. In early block books, woodblock images were cut separately from the wood type and could be set in different arrangements on the page. _____ 10. Fust and Shoeffer’s Rationale divinorum officiorum (Rationale of Holy Duties) was an important innovation because it was the first typographic book to use a small-sized type style to conserve space. ______ 11. The printing of classics from antiquity spurred interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture. The fusion of the medieval with the classical became a catalyst for the creation of the modern world. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the title and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 5-2 _________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 5-5 _________________________________________________ 41

3. Fig. 5-7 _________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 5-9 _________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 5-12 ________________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 5-11 ____ 2. Fig. 5-13 ____ 3. Figs. 5-14 and 5-15 ____

A. Jost Amman B. Fust and Schoeffer C. Johann Gutenberg

42

Chapter 6 – The German Illustrated Book

Introduction, 78 Origins of the illustrated typographic book, 79 Nuremberg becomes a printing center, 81 The further development of the German illustrated book, 89 Typography spreads from Germany, 91

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Incunabula, page 78 Broadsheet, page 78 Broadside, page 78 Incipit, page 79 Ex libris, page 79 Nuremburg, page 81 Exemplar, page 83 Criblé, page 93 Polyglot, page 93

Key People and their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Martin Luther (c. 1483–1546), page 79 Albrecht Pfister (c. 1420–c.1470), page 79, (Fig. 6-2) 43

Günther Zainer (d. 1478), page 79, (Fig. 6-3) Johann Zainer, page 79, (Figs. 6-4 and Fig. 6-5) Erhard Reuwich, page 81, (Fig. 6-6) Anton Koberger (c. 1440–1513), page 81, (Figs. 6-7 through 6 -10) Michael Wolgemuth (1434–1519), page 81, (Figs. 6-11 and 6-12) Wilhelm Pleydenwurff (d. 1494), page 83, (Figs. 6-11 and 6-12) Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), page 83, (Figs. 6-13 through 6-16) Hans Schäufelein (c. 1480–c.1540), page 89, (Fig. 6-18) Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), page 89, (Fig. 6-19) Hans Cranach (d. 1537) and Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515–1586), page 91, (Figs. 6-20 and 6-21) Conrad Sweynheym (d. 1477) and Arnold Pannartz (d. 1476), page 91, (Fig. 6-22) William Caxton (c. 1421–1491), page 91, (Fig. 6-23) Phillipe Pigouchet, page 93, (Fig. 6-25)

44

Chapter 6 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. The Renaissance innovators altered the perception of information by creating two visual systems: painting and typography. Typography created a sequential and repeatable ordering of information and space, as well as three of the following situations. Which one does NOT belong? ____________ A. Typography led people toward linear thought and logic. B. Typography led people toward a categorization and compartmentalization of information that formed the basis of empirical scientific enquiry. C. Typography evoked illusions of the natural world on flat surfaces through such means as the fixed viewpoint. D. Typography fostered individualism, a dominant aspect of Western society since the Renaissance. 2. After Johann Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type, typographic printing spread rapidly. By 1500, printing was practiced in over 140 towns throughout Europe. In addition to books, a vast array of ephemera, including religious tracts, pamphlets, and broadsides, were printed during this period. Books printed from Gutenberg’s invention of typography until the end of the fifteenth century are referred to as _____________ texts, a Latin word that means “cradle” or “rebirth.” A. exemplars B. ex libris C. incunabula D. broadsheets 3. Early printers followed the manuscript custom of putting the title and author at the top of the first page, in the same size and style lettering as the text. A short space was skipped, then Incipit, the Latin term for “__________,” launched the book. A. in God we trust B. dedicated to the glory of God C. here begins

45

D. in your honor 4. Woodcut artists and typographic printers in Germany during the last half of the fifteenth century collaborated to develop the illustrated typographic book. A favored page proportion was the golden rectangle, whose ratio is _______________. A. 3:4 B. 1:1 C. 2:3 D. 1:1.618 5. At his press in Ulm, ____________ used woodblock prints in many of his books that were not completely enclosed with rectangular borders, allowing the white space from the margins to flow into the pictures. This approach can be seen in the 175 woodcuts of the 1479 edition of Aesop’s Vita et fabulae (Life and Tales). A. Anton Koberger B. Albrecht Pfister C. Johann Zainer D. Erhard Reuwich 6. Erhard Reuwich was the first __________ to be identified as such in a book for his work in Peregrinationes in Montem Syon (Travels in Mount Syon), which was printed with Peter Schoeffer’s types in 1486. A. printer B. illustrator C. papermaker D. typesetter 7. Published in German and Latin versions in 1493, this six-hundred-page book was an ambitious history of the world from the biblical dawn of creation until 1493. The title page for the index is a full-page woodblock of calligraphy attributed to the scribe George Alt. The book contained 1,809 woodcut illustrations in its complex, carefully designed, 18-by-12-inch pages and is considered one of the masterpieces of graphic design from this period. A. Nuremberg Chronicle B. Polyglot Bible C. Peregrinationes in montem Syon (Travels in Mount Syon) 46

D. Aesop’s Vita et fabulae (Aesop’s Fables) 8. This Renaissance artist, whose godfather was Anton Koberger, became well known at age twenty-seven for his detailed woodcuts in the Latin and German editions of The Apocalypse. The woodcuts have an unprecedented emotional power and graphic expressiveness. __________ became a major influence in the cultural exchange that saw the Renaissance spirit filter into Germany. He believed German artists and craftsmen were producing work inferior to that of the Italians because they lacked theoretical knowledge. This inspired his first book, Underweysung der Messung mit dem Zirkel und Richtscheit (A Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler), which included theoretical discussions of linear geometry, two-dimensional geometric construction, and clear instructions for constructing beautifully proportioned Roman capitals. A. Michael Wolgemuth B. Martin Kranz C. Ulrich Gering D. Albrecht Dürer 9. Martin Luther found a loyal friend and follower in __________, who had been called to Wittenberg by the electors of Saxony. He operated a studio as well as a printing office, a bookshop, and a paper mill. He furthered the cause of the Protestant Reformation by portraying the reformers and their cause in books and broadsides. Ironically, he also regularly accepted commissions for Madonnas and Crucifixions from Catholic clients, and many of the woodcuts he produced for the Luther Bible were also used in a subsequent Catholic edition. A. Anton Koberger B. Johann Schoensperger C. Lucas Cranach the Elder D. Adolph of Mainz 10. Italy was at the forefront of Europe’s transition from the feudal medieval world to one of cultural and commercial renaissance. Italy sponsored the first printing press outside of Germany when Cardinal Turrecremata of the Benedictine monastery at Subiaco invited two printers, _____________, to establish a press. The types that they designed marked the first step toward a Roman-style typography based on letterforms that had been developed by Italian scribes. They created a typographic “double alphabet” by combining the capital letters of ancient Roman inscriptions with the rounded miniscules that had evolved in Italy from the Caroline miniscule. A. Hans Cranach and Lucas Cranach the Younger

47

B. Hans Schaufelein and Vincent Rockner C. William Caxton and Colard Mansion D. Arnold Pannartz and Conrad Sweynheym 11. William Caxton left his native land for the textile center of Bruges in the Low Country, where he set up his own business as a merchant and diplomat. In the early 1470s, while spending a year and a half in Cologne, he learned printing. Upon returning to Bruges, he set up a press. The typographic works of William Caxton are significant for three of the reasons listed below. Which does NOT belong? ______________ A. They were elegant and refined. B. They unified various dialects spoken in the British Isles. C. They encompassed major English literature to 1500. D. They stabilized written language. 12. Philippe Pigouchet’s Horae (Book of Hours) established the graphic excellence of this popular book form, such as his 1498 Horae Beatus Virginis Mariae (Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary). The dense complexity of illustration, typography, and ornaments compressed into the space is typical of Pigouchet’s book design. He is credited with introducing criblé, a technique for woodblock printing that features ________. A. line illustrations that were not completely enclosed with rectangular borders B. white dots punched into black areas to create tone C. cross-hatching to create tone D. line drawings that combined textured areas with some solid blacks 13. A single leaf of paper printed on both sides is frequently called a ___________. A. newspaper B. broadsheet C. broadside D. pamphlet 14. Handmade model layouts and manuscript texts, such as the Latin version created for the Nuremberg Chronicle by Michael Wolgemuth and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, were used as guides for the woodcut illustrations, typesetting,

48

page design, and makeup of books. These _______________ provide rare insights into the design and production process during the fifteenth century. A. matrices B. indulgences C. exemplars D. block books

True/False
1. Printing with moveable type was a technological advancement eagerly welcomed by artisans involved in book production throughout Europe. _____ 2. Rubrication, decoration, and illumination were almost always done by hand in the period just following Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type due to the difficulties of color printing and, possibly, because of political pressure. _____ 3. Albrecht Pfister’s edition of Johannes von Tepl’s Der Ackerman aus Böhmen (Death and the Plowman) is an example of popular literature, in contrast to the theological and scholarly texts published by many contemporary printers of his time. _____ 4. By the 1490s, most German printers had abandoned large page sizes for their books. _____ 5. In Italy, empty space was left for initial capitals to be hand rendered. Sometimes the initial letter was never added, and eventually the blank space alone indicated a paragraph. _____ 6. Martin Luther’s “Ninety-five Theses” spread word of the Protestant movement through Europe quickly due to the innovations in typography and printing. _____ 7. Arñao Guillen de Brocar’s Polyglot Bible was a uniquely Spanish masterpiece because it was the first book printed solely in the Spanish language. _____

Matching
I. Match the key term with the correct definition. 1. ex libris ____ 2. fraktur ____ 3. broadside ____ 49

4. exemplar ____

A. A single leaf of paper printed on one side only B. Textura-style type designed by court calligrapher Vincenz Rockner for Melchior Pfintzing’s Teuerdank, distinguished by its flowing calligraphic curves C. Layout for illustrated books or broadsides D. Book plate

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 6-4 _________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 6-9 _________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 6-14 ________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 6-20 ________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 6-25 ________________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 6-7 ____ 2. Fig. 6-15 ____ 3. Fig. 6-21 ____

A. Lucas Cranach the Younger B. Albrecht Dürer C. Anton Koberger

50

Chapter 7 – Renaissance Graphic Design

Introduction, 94 Graphic design of the Italian Renaissance, 94 Italian writing masters, 103 Innovation passes to France, 103 Basel and Lyons become design centers, 110 The seventeenth century, 113

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Renaissance, page 94 Trademarks, page 95 Reversed designs, page 97 Type specimen sheet, page 99 Fleurons (printer’s flowers), page 99 Humanism, page 100 Pocket book, page 101 Cancelleresca, page 101 Renaissance man, page 104 Headpiece, page 110 Tailpiece, page 110 Imagines Mortis (The Dance of Death), page 111 Arabesque, page 112 Bracketing, page 116

51

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Johannes de Spira (d. 1470), page 94, (Fig. 7-1) Nicolas Jenson (c. 1420–1480), page 94, (Fig. 7-2) Erhard Ratdolt (1442–1528), page 95, (Fig. 7-6) (Fig. 7-9) Johannes Nicolai de Verona, page 99 Aldus Manutius (1450–1515), page 100, (Figs. 7-15 through 7-17) Francesco da Bologna, surnamed Griffo (1450–1518), page 100, (Fig. 7-14) Ludovico Arrighi (d. c. 1527), page 103, (Fig. 7-20) Henri Estienne (d. 1520), page 103, (Fig. 7-21) Simon de Colines (d. 1546), page 103, Robert Estienne (1503–59), page 103, (Fig. 7-22) Geoffroy Tory (1480–1533), page 104, (Figs. 7-27 and 7-28) Claude Garamond (c. 1480–1561), page 104, (Fig. 7-32) Oronce Finé (1494–1555), page 108, (Fig. 7-33) Johann Froben (1460–1527), page 110 Hans Holbein the Younger (1497–1543), page 110, (Figs. 7-36 and 7-37) Johann Oporinus (1507–1568), page 111, (Fig. 7-38) Jean de Tournes (1504–1564), page 111, (Fig. 7-39) Robert Granjon (d. 1579), page 112, (Fig. 7-40) Christophe Plantin (1514–1589), page 112, (Fig. 7-41) Stephen Daye (c. 1594–1668), page 113, (Fig. 7-43) Christoffel van Dyck (1601–1669), page 116, (Fig. 7-46)

52

Chapter 7 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. ___________, the center of commerce and Europe’s gateway to trade with the eastern Mediterranean nations, India, and the Orient, led the way in Italian typographic book design. A. Milan B. Rome C. Florence D. Venice 2. A goldsmith from Mainz, Germany, _______________ was given a five-year monopoly on printing in Venice. He printed the first typographic book with page numbers, the 1470 edition of De civitate dei, and designed an innovative and handsome Roman type that cast off some of the Gothic qualities found in earlier fonts. A. Johannes de Spira B. Henri Estienne C. Christophe Plantin D. Ludovico Arrighi 3. _______________, who had been master of the Royal Mint of Tours, France, was a highly skilled cutter of the dies used for striking coins. He established Venice’s second press. One of history’s greatest typeface designers and punch cutters, his fonts were characterized by extreme legibility and established a new standard of excellence, with wider letterforms, lighter tone, and a more even texture of black strokes on the white background. A. Erhard Ratdolt B. Nicolas Jenson C. Geoffroy Tory D. Hans Holbein the Younger 4. Fear and superstition were swept away as scientists began to understand natural phenomena, leading to a shift in content for graphic design. In Erhard Ratdolt’s 53

____________, sixty diagrams printed in black and yellow were used to scientifically explain solar and lunar eclipses. The understanding of eclipses moved from black magic to predictable fact, and the book contains a three-part mathematical wheel for calculating solar cycles. A. Geometriae elementa B. Calendarium C. Lune Solarium D. Ars Moriendi 5. Roberto Valturio’s manual on warfare, De re militari (About Warfare), which is identified as having been printed by Johannes Nicolai de Verona, includes examples of the fine-line style of woodblock illustration that became popular in Italian graphic design later in the fifteenth century. This extraordinary book is a compendium of contemporary techniques and devices for scaling walls, catapulting missiles, ramming fortifications, and torturing enemies. The text is set in a tight column with wide margins, and the freely shaped images are spread across the pages in dynamic, __________ layouts. A. symmetrical B. asymmetrical C. reversed D. bordered 6. A new concern for human potential and value characterized Renaissance humanism, a philosophy of human dignity and worth that defined man as capable of using reason and scientific inquiry to achieve an understanding of the world and self-meaning. This new spirit was accompanied by a renewed study of classical writings. _______________ was an important humanist and scholar of the Italian Renaissance who established Aldine Press and published major works of the great thinkers of the Greek and Roman cultures. A. Robert Granjon B. Nicolas Jenson C. Aldus Manutius D. Ludovico Arrighi 7. In 1501, the Aldine Press published Virgil’s Opera (Works), which was the prototype of the ________ book. This edition had a 3.75-by-6-inch page size and was set in the first italic type font. Between the smaller type size and the narrower width of italic characters, a 50 percent gain in the number of characters

54

per line of a given measure was achieved over Nicolas Jenson’s and Francesco Griffo’s types. A. type specimen B. abecedarian C. pocket D. incunabula 8. _______________ was a brilliant typeface designer and punch cutter who cut Roman, Greek, Hebrew, and the first italic types for Aldine Press editions. His initial project in Venice was a Roman face for De Aetna by Pietro Bembo in 1495, which survives as the book text face Bembo. He researched pre-Caroline scripts to produce a Roman type that was more authentic than Nicolas Jenson’s designs. A. Erhard Ratdolt B. Johannes de Spira C. Aldus Manutius D. Francesco Griffo (Francesco da Bologna) 9. The publication of Ludovico Arrighi’s small volume of 1522 entitled La Operina da Imparare di scrivere littera cancellerescha was the first of many sixteenthcentury _____________ manuals and marked the beginning of a new era that ended the exclusive domain of the scriptorium. A. illustration B. printing C. reading D. writing 10. With the sack of Rome, the Italian Renaissance began to fade and eventually innovation in book design and printing passed to ___________, where two brilliant graphic artists, Geoffroy Tory and Claude Garamond, created visual forms that were embraced for two hundred years. A. The Netherlands B. France C. England D. Spain

55

11. A true renaissance man, Geoffroy Tory’s accomplishments include the following. Which does NOT belong? _______________ A. Translating, editing, and publishing Latin and Greek texts B. Introducing the apostrophe, accent, and cedilla to the French language C. Issuing the first printer’s type specimen sheet D. Writing books on the proportions of roman letters. 12. ___________, the first punch cutter who worked independently of printing firms, established his type foundry to sell cast type that was ready to distribute into compositors’ cases. The fonts he cut during the 1540s achieved a tighter fit that allowed closer word spacing and a harmony of design between capitals, lowercase letters, and italics. A. Francesco Griffo B. Geoffroy Tory C. Antoine Augereau D. Claude Garamond 13. A mathematics professor and author, his abilities as a graphic artist complemented his scientific publications. __________ illustrated his own mathematics, geography, and astronomy books and worked closely with printers, particularly Simon de Colines, in the design and production of his books. The border on the title page for his 1533 book Arithmetica used carefully measured strapwork, symbolic figures representing areas of knowledge, and a criblé background. This border, combined with de Coline’s typography, created a masterpiece of Renaissance graphic design. A. Hans Holbein B. Oronce Finé C. Robert Estienne D. Jacques Kerver 14. When a serious arm injury ended Christophe Plantin’s bookbinding career in the early 1550s, he changed his occupation to printing, and the Netherlands found its greatest printer. His company became the world’s largest and strongest publishing house and printed a full range of material, including classics and Bibles, herbals and medicine books, music and maps. Plantin’s main design contribution was the use of __________ to illustrate his books. A. stylized renderings

56

B. copperplate engravings C. delicate arabesques D. contour-line woodblock prints 15. A _______________ is a word, phrase, symbol, or design—or a combination of words, phrases, symbols, or designs—that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others. A. colophon B. criblé C. fleuron D. trademark 16. In 1639, _______________, a Bristish locksmith and his son, designed and printed the first book in the English American colonies, The Whole Booke of Psalms (now called The Bay Psalm Book). The design and production of this book understandably lacked refinement. In spite of strong censorship and a stamp tax on newspapers and advertising, printing grew steadily in the colonies. A. Stephen and Matthew Daye B. Robert and Henri Estienne C. Hans Holbein the Elder and Hans Holbein the Younger D. Robert Granjon and Christophe Plantin

True/False
1. The Medicis, a wealthy family in Florence, embraced humanism but rejected the technology of printing. _____ 2. The Aldine Press trademark, designed around 1500, consisted of a lion and a shield that signified the epigram, “Make haste slowly.” _____ 3. Aldus Manutius designed new capitals for his book Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (The Strife of Love in a Dream or The Dream of Poliphilus), which used a one-toten stroke weight to height proportion advanced by leading mathematicians of the era and made the height of the lowercase ascenders taller than the capitals to correct an optical color problem that had plagued earlier Roman fonts. _____ 4. The 1476 book entitled Calendarium (Record Book) by Regiomontanus contained the first complete title page used to identify a book. _____

57

5. The pot cassé trademark Geoffroy Tory used on the sign of his bookseller’s shop in Paris was symbolic of the death of his daughter. _____ 6. Tory’s Champ Fleury was the author’s attempt to analyze, describe, and prescribe rules of the French language, both spoken and written. _____ 7. Hans Holbein the Younger created a series of forty-one woodcuts illustrating Imagines Mortis (The Dance of Death), in which skeletons are depicted leading the living to their graves. _____ 8. Not much innovation occurred in typography during the seventeenth century in Europe. Since there was an abundance of stock ornaments, punches, matrices, and woodblocks, there was little incentive for printers to commission new graphic material. _____

Matching
I. Match the key terms with the correct definitions. 1. bracketing ____ 2. fleurons ____ 3. headpiece ____ 4. tailpiece ____ 5. trademarks ____ 6. type specimen sheet ____

A. An emblem designed to identify a book produced by a certain printer B. Decorative elements cast like type C. The connecting curves that unify a serif with the main stroke of a letter D. An ornamental design at the top of a page E. An ornamental design at the bottom of a page F. Displays a range of typographic sizes and styles—Erhard Ratdolt issued the first one upon his return to Augsburg, Germany from Venice

II. Match the key people with their accomplishments.

58

1. Francesco da Bologna, surnamed Griffo ____ 2. Claude Garamond ____ 3. Robert Granjon ____ 4. Nicolas Jenson ____ 5. Aldus Manutius ____ 6. Geoffroy Tory ____

A. A master of the Royal Mint of Tours, France, he was a highly skilled cutter of the dies used for striking coin. He established Venice’s second press shortly after Johannes de Spira’s death, and became one of history’s greatest typeface designers and punch cutters, whose ability to design the spaces between the letters and within each form created an even tone throughout the page. The characters in his fonts aligned more perfectly than those of any other printer of his time. His types first used in Eusebius’s De praeparatione evangelica (Evangelical Preparation) present the full flowering of Roman type design. B. An important humanist and scholar of the Italian Renaissance, he founded the Aldine Press, which published major works of the great thinkers of the Greek and Roman worlds and the prototype of the pocket book, which addressed the need for smaller, more economical books. Especially noteworthy is Aldine’s 1499 edition of Fra Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (The Strife of Love in a Dream or The Dream of Poliphilus), a masterpiece of graphic design that achieved an elegant harmony of typography and illustration that has seldom been equaled. C. A brilliant typeface designer and punch cutter at Aldine Press whose initial project in Venice was a roman face for De Aetna by Pietro Bembo, in 1495, which survives today as the book text face Bembo. D. A true renaissance man who introduced the apostrophe, the accent, and the cedilla to the French language and developed a uniquely French Renaissance school of book design and illustration, as seen in Champ Fleury (subtitled The art and science of the proper and true proportions of the attic letters, which are otherwise called antique letters, and in common speech roman letters). In Champ Fleury, first published in 1529, he discusses the history of roman letters and compares their proportions with the ideal proportions of the human figure and face, which influenced a generation of French printers and punch cutters. He became the most influential graphic designer of his century.

59

E. A typeface designer and punch cutter who was the first to work independently of printing firms, he established his type foundry to sell cast type ready to distribute into compositors’ cases. The types he cut during the 1540s achieved a mastery of visual form and a tighter fit that allowed closer word spacing and a harmony of design between capitals, lowercase letters, and italics. The influence of writing as a model diminished in his work, for typography was evolving into a language of form rooted in the processes of making steel punches, casting metal type, and printing instead of imitating forms created by hand gestures. F. He created delicate italic fonts featuring beautiful italic capitals with swashes to replace regular capitals that were being used with italic lowercase letters. The fleurons he designed were modular and could be put together in endless combinations to make headpieces, tailpieces, ornaments, and borders.

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. A. Fig. 7-7 and 7-8 _________________________________________ B. Fig. 7-9 ________________________________________________ C. Figs. 7-16 and 7-17 ______________________________________ D. Fig. 7-25 _______________________________________________ E. Fig. 7-27 _______________________________________________ F. Fig. 7-28 _______________________________________________ G. Fig. 7-37 _______________________________________________ H. Fig. 7-38 _______________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 7-9 ____ 2. Fig. 7-31 ____ 3. Fig. 7-43 ____

A. Simon de Colines 60

B. Erhard Ratdolt C. Stephen and Matthew Daye

61

Chapter 8 – An Epoch of Typographic Genius

Introduction, 117 Graphic design of the rococo era, 117 Caslon and Baskerville, 121 Origins of information graphics, 125 The imperial designs of Louis-René Luce, 125 The modern style, 126 The illuminated printing of William Blake, 128 The epoch closes, 130

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Romain du Roi, page 117 Folio, page 117 Old style, page 117 Pouce, page 117 Point, page 117 Type family, page 118 Engraving, page 119 Packing, page 123 Paper with laid finish, page 124 Paper with wove finish, page 124 Calendaring paper, page 124 Analytic geometry, page 125 62

Axes, page 125 Cartesian coordinates, page 125 Line (or fever) graph, page 125 Modern, page 127 Neoclassicism, page 127, (Fig. 8-17) Maigre (thin), page 127 Gras (fat), page 127 Pied de roi, page 127 Stereotyping, page 128 Éditions du Louvre, page 128 Romanticism, page 129 Wood engraving, page 130

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune (1712–1768), page 117, (Figs. 8-4 through 8-7) George Bickham the Elder (d. 1769), page 119, (Fig. 8-8) John Pine (1690–1756), page 119, (Fig. 8-9) William Caslon (1692–1766), page 121, (Fig. 8-10) John Baskerville (1706–1775), page 122, (Figs. 8-11 through 8-13) René Descartes (1596–1650), page 125, William Playfair (1759–1823), page 125, (Fig. 8-14) Louis-René Luce (d. 1773), page 125, (Fig. 8-15) Giambattista Bodoni (1740–1813), page 126, (Figs. 8-16 through 8-18) François Didot (1689–1757), page 127 Françoise-Ambroise Didot (1730–1804), page 127, (Fig. 8-19)

63

Pierre Didot (1761–1853), page 127, (Fig. 8-20) Firmin Didot (1764–1836), page 127 William Blake (1757–1827), page 128, (Fig. 8-21) William Bulmer (1757–1830), page 130, (Fig. 8-23) Thomas Bewick (1753–1828), page 130, (Fig. 8-22)

64

Chapter 8 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. In 1695, Louis Simonneau created large engraved copperplate prints of the master alphabets for France’s Imprimerie Royale, the royal printing office. These copperplate engravings were intended to establish graphic standards for the new typeface, which was called ____________. A. Garamond B. Romain du Roi C. Bodoni D. Baskerville 2. The Romain du Roi types began a new category of types called ____________ roman. The new typeface had increased contrast between thick and thin strokes, sharp horizontal serifs, and an even balance to each letterform. A. old style B. fraktur C. modern D. transitional 3. Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune was influenced by the Romain du Roi and by the ornate French rococo style. Fournier le Jeune and his contemporary, LouisRené Luce, contributed to the French monarchy’s graphic expression of authority and opulence through their type designs and series of letterpress borders, ornaments, trophies, and other devices. Fournier le Jeune’s other typographic innovations include three of the following. Which one does NOT belong? __________ A. The idea of a type family of various weights and widths, and roman and italic faces B. Moveable type C. Single-, double-, and triple-ruled lines up to 35.5 cm (about 14 inches)

65

4. The renowned English writing master and engraver ___________ was the most celebrated penman of his time. In 1743, he published The Universal Penman. A. John Baskerville B. George Bickham C. William Caslon D. William Playfair 5. Englishman John Pine printed independent books such as Opera Horatii (Works of Horace), in which he ____________, resulting in the serifs and thin strokes of letterforms being reduced to delicate lines. The contrast in the text was dazzling and inspired imitation by typographic designers. A. included delicate copperplate engravings with typographic text B. printed both the illustrations and text from one copper plate for each page C. combined woodcuts and copperplate prints to illustrate the text D. hand colored the neoclassical woodblock prints 6. In 1722, William Caslon, an engraver of gunlocks and barrels, designed Caslon Old Style and its italic version. ________________ introduced the typeface Caslon into the American colonies, where it was used extensively, including for the official printing of the Declaration of Independence. A. George Washington B. William Blake C. George Bickham D. Benjamin Franklin 7. A native of rural Worcestershire, John Baskerville had “admired the beauty of letters” as a boy; as a young man, he became a master writing teacher and stonecutter. After making a fortune manufacturing japanned ware, he returned to his first love, the art of letters, and began to experiment with printing. His refined printing resulted from three of the four elements listed below. Which does NOT belong? _________ A. elegant type B. ink made of boiled linseed oil with resin C. paper formed by a mold with fine, woven wires D. arabesques in headpieces and tailpieces 66

8. Baskerville’s type design represents the zenith of the __________ style. His types are wider, the contrast between the weight of the thick and thin strokes greater, and the serifs flow smoothly out of the major strokes and terminate in fine points. A. modern B. old C. transitional D. Egyptian 9. _____________, the Scottish author and scientist who converted statistical data into symbolic graphics, introduced the first “divided circle” diagram (called a pie chart today) in his 1805 English translation of The Statistical Account of the United States of America. He created a new category of graphic design, now called information graphics. A. John Baskerville B. William Bewick C. William Playfair D. François Didot 10. The revolt against the French monarchy led to rejection of the lush designs that were popular during the reigns of Louis XV and XVI. All areas of design required a new approach to replace the outmoded rococo style. Giambattista Bodoni led the way in evolving new ___________ and page layouts. A. typefaces B. bookbinding methods C. papermaking methods D. printing equipment 11. Giambattista Bodoni was asked to take charge of the Stamperia Reale, the official press of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma. He accepted, became the private printer of the court, and printed official documents and publications as well as projects he conceived and initiated himself. Bodoni redefined roman letterforms, giving them a more mathematical, geometric, and mechanical look. He reinvented the serifs by making them hairlines that formed sharp right angles to the upright strokes; the thin strokes of his letterforms were the same weight as the hairline serifs. His typeface design exemplifies the ________________. A. old style 67

B. modern style C. transitional style D. sans-serif style 12. Late works printed by Giambattista Bodoni, such as Virgil’s Opera (Works) reflect the contemporary late eighteenth-century ____________ style, which demonstrated a return to “antique virtue.” A. baroque B. rococo C. neoclassical D. romantic 13. Giambattista Bodoni had planned a monumental type specimen book presenting three hundred type fonts that he had designed. After his death, his widow and foreman published the two-volume __________ in 1818. This massive work celebrated Bodoni’s genius and is a milestone in the history of graphic design. A. Éditions du Louvre B. Essai d’une Nouvelle Typographie C. Manuel Typographique D. Manuale Tipografico 14. The Didot family type foundry revised Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune’s system of type measurement and created the ___________ system, which divided a French inch into seventy-two points. Type size was identified by the measure of the metal type body in points. In 1886, the Didot system was revised to suit the English inch and adopted as a standard point measure by American type foundries. A. pied de roi B. point C. maigre D. petit romain 15. Pierre Didot l’Aîné printed the Éditions du Louvre from the printing office once occupied by the Imprimerie Royale, The Éditions du Louvre series included ____________. A. novels by Balzac 68

B. classics by Virgil C. plays by Molière and Beaumarchais D. essays by Voltaire and Rousseau 16. The process of ___________ involves casting a duplicate of a relief printing surface by pressing a molding material (such as damp paper pulp, plaster, or clay) against it to make a matrix, then pouring molten metal into the matrix to form a duplicate printing plate. This achievement of Firmin Didot’s made longer press runs possible. A. stereotyping B. duplicate engraving C. packing D. double casting 17. British national pride led to the establishment of the ______________ in 1786, which printed editions of equal quality to the folio volumes of Paris and Parma. A. Tudor Press B. Oxford Editions C. Shakespeare Press D. London Editions 18. William Blake’s illustrations for his poetry are in the style known as _____________, which contrasted with the styles of layout and typography of Bodoni and Didot. A. the baroque B. the rococo C. neoclassicism D. romanticism

True/False
1. Old style typefaces retain calligraphic qualities and have bracketed serifs. _____ 2. Fournier Le Jeune’ s type specimen book, Modèles des Caractères de l’Imprimerie (Models of Printing Characters), presented transitional roman forms based on the Romain du Roi letters from 1702. _____ 69

3. The wove finish paper used by John Baskerville had a textural pattern of horizontal lines created by heavier wire woven into a screen of thinner wire. _____ 4. Cartesian coordinates on an x- and y-axis represent use a pair of numbers to represent a point in space and are named after the French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist René Descartes. _____ 5. Types designed for the Imprimerie Royale brought about an upgrade of printing throughout Paris when they appeared in booksellers’ shops. _____ 6. Louis-René Luce, who had designed letterpress borders and ornaments for the Imprimerie Royale, found that his designs were being used in political tracts after the French Revolution. _____ 7. The rococo style of art, closely associated with the reign of King Louis XV, is best represented in the graphic designs of the Didot family of printers. _____ 8. Thomas Bewick in England developed a “white line” technique of engraving, which came to be used as an illustration method in letterpress printing until it was replaced by the halftone printing method. _____ 9. William Caslon modified Nicolas Jenson’s type designs for his own types. _____ 10. Giambattista Bodoni was an important innovator in typographic design and processes, more so than the Didot family in Paris. They were rivals, and therefore were never influenced by each other. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 8-1 and 8-2 __________________________________________ 2. Fig. 8-8 _________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 8-9 _________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 8-16 ________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 8-20 ________________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 8-7 ____ 2. Fig. 8-12 ____

70

3. Fig. 8-14 ____

A. John Baskerville B. William Playfair C. Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune

71

Chapter 9 – Graphic Design and the Industrial Revolution

Introduction, 134 Innovations in typography, 135 The wood-type poster, 139 A revolution in printing, 140 The mechanization of typography, 141 Photography, the new communications tool, 142 The inventors of photography, 143 The application of photography to printing, 147 Defining the medium, 149 Photography as reportage, 150 Popular graphics of the Victorian era, 152 The development of lithography, 153 The Boston school of chromolithography, 153 The design language of chromolithography, 155 The battle on the signboards, 157 Images for children, 159 The rise of American editorial and advertising design, 160 Victorian typography, 165

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Industrial Revolution, page 134, (Fig. 9-1) Fat faces, page 135, (Fig. 9-2) 72

Egyptian type, page 137, (Fig. 9-3) Bracket, page 137, (Fig. 9-5) Clarendon typeface, page 137, (Fig. 9-6) Tuscan-style letters, page 137, (Fig. 9-7) Sans-serif type, page 138, (Fig. 9-12) Wood type, page 139 Compositor, page 139 Fourdrinier machine, page 141 Linotype machine, page 141, (Figs. 9-17 and 9-18) Monotype machine, page 142 Phototypography, page 142 Camera obscura, page 142, (Fig. 9-19) Bitumen of Judea, page 143 Heliogravure, page 143, (Figs. 9-20 and 9-21) Daguerreotype, page 144, (Fig. 9-22) Photogenic drawings, page 145, (Fig. 9-23) Photograms, page 145, (Fig. 9-23) Negative, page 145, (Fig. 9-24) Positive, page 145, (Fig. 9-25) Photography, page 145 Calotype, page 145 Talbotype, page 145 The Pencil of Nature, page 145, (Fig. 9-26) (Fig. 9-40) Collodion, page 145 Kodak camera, page 147, (Fig. 9-27) Gelatin emulsion, page 147, Halftone screen, page 147, (Figs. 9-31 and 9-32)

73

First photographic separation, page 149, First photographic interview, page 149, (Fig. 9-36) Victorian Era, page 152, (Fig. 9-40) Great Exhibition or Crystal Palace Exhibition, page 153 Lithography, page 153 Planographic printing, page 153 Chromolithographie, page 153 Rotary lithographic press, page 153 Scrap, page 155 Toy books, page 159, (Fig. 9-54) Harper’s Illuminated and New Pictorial Bible, page 161, (Fig. 9-57) Electrotyping, page 161 Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, page 161, (Fig. 9-58) Harper’s Weekly, page 161, (Fig. 9-59) Harper’s Bazaar, page 161 Harper’s Young People, page 161 Century typeface, page 164

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Joseph Jackson (1733–1792), page 135 Thomas Cotterell (d. 1785), page 135, (Fig. 9-1) Robert Thorne (d. 1820), page 135, (Fig. 9-2) William Thorowgood (d. 1877), page 135 Vincent Figgins (1766–1844), page 137, (Fig. 9-3) (Fig. 9-13) William Caslon IV (1781–1869), page 138, (Fig. 9-12)

74

Darius Wells (1800–1875), page 139 William Leavenworth (1799 –1860), page 139 Lord Stanhope, page 140, (Fig. 9-15) Friedrich Koenig (1774–1883), page 140, (Fig. 9-16) William Cowper (1731–1800), page 141 Nicolas-Louis Robert (1761–1828), page 141 John Gamble, page 141 Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854–99), 141, (Fig. 9-17) Tolbert Lanston (1844–1913), page 142 American Type Founders Company (ATF), page 142 Joseph Niepce (1765–1833), page 143, (Figs. 9-20 and 9-21) Louis-Jacques Daguerre (1799–1851), page 144, (Fig. 9-22) William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877), page 145, (Fig. 9-23) (Fig. 9-26) (Fig. 9-40) Sir John Herschel (1792–1871), page 145, (Figs. 9-24 and 9-25) Frederick Archer (1813–1857), page 145 George Eastman (1854–1932), page 147, (Fig. 9-27) John Calvin Moss (b. 1838), page 147, (Fig. 9-28) Stephen H. Horgan (1854–1941), page 147, (Figs. 9-31 and 9-32) Frederick E. Ives (1856–1937), page 149 Max Ives and Louis Levy, page 149 David Octavius Hill (1802–1870), page 149, (Fig. 9-33) Robert Adamson (1821–1848), page 149, (Fig. 9-33) Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–1879), page 149, (Fig. 9-34) Frenchman F. T. Nadar (1820–1910), page 149, (Figs. 9-35 and 9-36) Mathew Brady (c. 1823–1896), page 149, (Fig. 9-37) Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), page 151, (Fig. 9-39) Queen Victoria (1819–1901), page 152

75

A. W. N. Pugin (1812–1852), page 152, (Fig. 9-41) Owen Jones (1809–1874), page 153, (Fig. 9-42) Richard M. Hoe (1812–1886), page 153, (see Fig. 9-47) John H. Bufford (d. 1870), page 153, (Figs. 9-43 and 9-44) Louis Prang (1824–1909), page 154, (Figure 9-45) L. Prang and Company, page 154 Walter Crane (1845–1915), page 159, (Fig. 9-54) Randolph Caldecott (1846–1886), page 160, (Fig. 9-55) Kate Greenaway (1846–1901), page 160, (Fig. 9-56) James (1795–1869) and John (1797–1875) Harper, page 160 Wesley (1801–1870) and Fletcher (1807–1877) Harper, page 160 Harper and Brothers, page 160, (Fig. 9-57) (Fig. 9-58) Thomas Nast (1840–1902), page 161, (Fig. 9-60) Charles Dana Gibson (1867–1944), page 163, (Fig. 9-61) Howard Pyle (1853–1911), page 163, (Fig. 9-62) Volney Palmer, page 164 N. W. Ayer and Son, page 164 MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan Foundry, page 165, (Fig. 9-64)

76

Chapter 9 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. During the Industrial Revolution—a radical process of social and economic change that occurred in England between 1760 and 1840—the role of graphic design and graphic communications expanded due to three the following situations. Which does NOT belong? __________ A. Factory output increased and designers were needed to help market goods. B. Signage was needed to guide residents through the streets of fast-growing cities. C. Greater human equality sprang from the French and American Revolutions and led to increased public education and literacy. D. The production of printed materials increased due to advances in technology, which lowered per-unit costs. 2. During the Industrial Revolution, the range of typographic sizes and letterform styles exploded, and type grew steadily bolder. Around 1803, Robert Thorne of England created a major category of type design called ___________, roman faces whose contrast and weight were increased by expanding the thickness of the heavy strokes. The ratio of the stroke width to the capital height was 1 to 2.5 or even 1 to 2. A. sans-serif faces B. Tuscan style faces C. Egyptian faces D. fat faces 3. A second major innovation of nineteenth-century type design were the antique faces, also known as ___________, which convey a bold, machine-like feeling through slablike serifs, an even weight throughout the letters, and short ascenders and descenders. Vincent Figgins displayed a full range of antiques in his 1815 printing specimens. A. sans-serif faces B. Tuscan-style faces C. Egyptian faces 77

D. fat faces 4. A third major innovation of nineteenth-century type design were the __________ faces, which were introduced in an 1816 specimen book issued by William Caslon IV. The specimen looked a lot like an Egyptian face with its serifs removed, which is probably how Caslon designed it. A. sans-serif B. Tuscan-style C. Egyptian D. fat 5. Vincent Figgins’s 1815 printing specimens also showed the first nineteenthcentury version of __________ letters whose serifs are extended and curved, sometimes with bulges, cavities, and ornaments. A. sans-serif B. Tuscan-style C. Egyptian D. fat-face 6. Each designer and foundry assigned its own name to type without serifs: William Caslon called them “Doric,” William Thorowgood named them “grotesque,” Stephenson Blake named its version “sans-surryph,” and in the United States, the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry called them “Gothic.” But ___________ called them “sans serif” in his 1832 specimen in recognition of the style’s most apparent feature, and the name stuck. A. Robert Thorne B. Vincent Figgins C. Woods and Sharwoods D. Robert Besley 7. An American printer named __________ experimented with hand-carved wooden types and in 1827 invented a lateral router that enabled the economical mass manufacture of wood types for display printing. A. Friedrich Koenig B. William Leavenworth C. William Cowper

78

D. Darius Wells 8. In 1834, ___________ combined the pantograph with the router, making it so easy to introduce new wood-type fonts that customers were invited to send a drawing of one letter, based on which the manufacturer would design and produce the entire font—without any additional charge. A. Friedrich Koenig B. William Leavenworth C. William Cowper D. Darius Wells 9. In the late nineteenth century, poster houses specialized in letterpress display materials, and wood and metal types were used together freely in the design of handbills, posters, and broadsheets. Designers had access to a broad range of type sizes, styles, weights, and novel ornaments, and the design philosophy was to use it all. However, there was a practical reason for the extensive mixing of styles: the ___________. A. desire to emphasize particular words B. competition among printers for virtuoso designs C. need to command the viewer’s attention D. limited number of characters in each font 10. Many people, including the writer Mark Twain, invested millions of dollars in the search for automatic typesetting. Ottmar Mergenthaler, a German immigrant working in a Baltimore machine shop, demonstrated his Linotype machine on July 3, 1886, in the office of the New York Tribune. The Linotype allowed the operator to compose an entire line of type by operating a keyboard that released a __________ for a particular character. A. metal type B. brass matrix C. steel punch D. wood type 11. ___________, the first person credited with producing a photographic image, was a lithographic printer of popular religious images who was searching for a new way to make printing plates other than by drawing. A. Eadweard Muybridge

79

B. Sir John Herschel C. Louis-Jacques Daguerre D. Joseph Niepce 12. On January 7, 1839, Louis-Jacques Daguerre presented his process to the French Academy of Sciences. The members marveled at the clarity and minute detail of Daguerre’s early daguerreotype prints, one-of-a-kind images of predetermined size with polished surfaces that had a tendency to produce glare. In the daguerrotype “Paris Boulevard,” the Paris street appears almost empty because Daguerre made the image __________. A. at daybreak when little activity took place on the streets B. after a Paris uprising, and many residents had fled to rural areas C. with a long exposure time, so moving subjects, such as carriages and pedestrians, were not recorded D. after arranging a time with local residents, who cleared the streets 13. An adventurous photographer who lived in San Francisco and photographed Yosemite National Park, Alaska, and Central America, Eadweard Muybridge helped settle a $25,000 bet by documenting a trotting horse and demonstrating that the horse lifted all four feet off the ground simultaneously. The development of ___________ was a logical extension of Muybridge’s innovation. A. anatomical studies for surgeons B. motion picture photography C. train design D. mechanical engineering (machines based on natural forms) 14. A ___________ changes continuous tones into dots of varying sizes. Squares are formed by horizontal and vertical rules etched on pieces of glass. The amount of light that passes through each square determines the size of each dot. A. photogram B. daguerreotype C. halftone screen D. photoengraving 15. Victoria became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1837, and her reign spanned two-thirds of the nineteenth century. Three of the

80

following advances in graphic design occurred during the Victorian era. Which does NOT belong? ______________ A. An influential approach to children’s graphics through the development of toy books B. The beginning of the monthly pictorial magazine and the weekly periodical news magazine C. The first use of sans-serif typography as a running book text D. The development of advertising agencies and conventions of persuasive selling 16. Graphics from the Victorian era can be identified by their ____________. A. unified harmony B. angry aggression C. aesthetic confusion D. playful classicism 17. The English designer, author, and authority on color _____________ became a major design influence in the mid-nineteenth century. During his mid-twenties, he traveled to Spain and the Near East and made systematic studies of Islamic design. He introduced Moorish ornament to Western design in his 1842–1845 book Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Details of the Alhambra, but his main influence was through his widely studied 1856 book of large color plates, The Grammar of Ornament. This catalog of design possibilities from Eastern and Western cultures, “savage” tribes, and natural forms became the nineteenthcentury designer’s bible of ornament. A. A. W. N. Pugin B. Louis Prang C. Owen Jones D. William Sharp 18. Based on the simple chemical principle that oil and water do not mix, ____________ is the process of printing color pictures and lettering from a series of stone or zinc printing plates. Each color requires a separate stone or plate and a separate run through the press. A. Letterpress B. Chromolithography

81

C. Electrotyping D. Wood engraving 19. The Victorians developed a more tender attitude toward children, and this was expressed through the development of colorful picture books for preschool children called ____________. A. toy books B. abecedarians C. illuminated Bibles D. nursery rhymes 20. As a teenager, ____________ apprenticed as a wood engraver and was twenty years old when Railroad Alphabet, a children’s picture book, was published in 1865. Breaking with the tradition of earlier children’s books, this illustrator sought to entertain rather than teach or preach to the young. His inspiration came from the flat color and flowing contours of Japanese woodblock prints. A. Randolph Caldecott B. Kate Greenaway C. Howard Pyle D. Walter Crane 21. ____________developed a passion for drawing, possessed a unique sense of the absurd, and had an ability to exaggerate movement and facial expressions of both people and animals: dishes and plates are personified, cats make music, children are at the center of society, and adults become servants. This illustrator’s humorous drawing style became a prototype for children’s books and later, animated films. A. Randolph Caldecott B. Kate Greenaway C. Howard Pyle D. Walter Crane 22. James and John Harper launched a New York printing firm in 1817 and by midcentury, Harper and Brothers had become the largest printing and publishing firm in the world. With the rapid expansion of the reading public and the economies resulting from new technologies, publishers focused on large press runs and modest prices. In 1859, the firm opened the era of the pictorial magazine. Which of the following does NOT fall into this category? ______________ 82

A. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine B. Harper’s Illuminated and New Pictorial Bible C. Harper’s Weekly D. Harper’s Young People 23. Dissatisfied with the thin modern typefaces used in one of the magazines that his firm printed, Theodore Low De Vinne commissioned Linn Boyd Benton to design a blacker, more readable typeface that was slightly extended, with thicker thin strokes and short slab serifs. This typeface is called __________. A. Columbus B. Century C. Jenson Old Style D. Houghton 24. The development of advertising agencies such as N. W. Ayer and Son not only placed advertisements in periodicals but also provided additional services. Which services below did advertising agencies during the Victorian period NOT offer? _________ A. market research B. art direction C. media selection D. copywriting

True/False
1. During the Industrial Revolution, the unity that had existed between design and production ended, and the specialization of the factory system fractured graphic communications into separate design and production components. _____ 2. During the Industrial Revolution, type foundries modified letterforms and proportions and applied all manner of decoration to their alphabets because the mechanization of manufacturing processes made the application of decoration more economical and efficient. _____ 3. The basic organizing principle of the wood-type poster was horizontal and vertical emphasis, which resulted from the need to lock all elements tightly on the press. _____

83

4. During the Industrial Revolution, inventors applied mechanical theory to the design of printing presses, and new presses with cast-iron parts eventually replaced the wooden hand presses, increasing efficiency and the size of the impression. _____ 5. The Fourdrinier machine, from which an unending sheet of paper can be manufactured, is still in use today. It is a mechanized papermaking process that pours a suspension of fiber and water in a thin stream upon a vibrating wiremesh conveyer belt. _____ 6. The Linotype led to a surge in the production of periodicals and illustrated weeklies, including the Saturday Evening Post and Collier’s. ____ 7. The typographic poster houses that produced letterpress posters began to decline after 1870, in part because of the increased use of colorful lithographic posters and the decline of traveling entertainment shows. _____ 8. Before early experiments with photography, the camera obscura was used by artists to capture images without the use of a drawing utensil. _____ 9. William Henry Fox Talbot’s calotypes were sharp and clear, in contrast to daguerreotypes. _____ 10. In 1844, William Henry Fox Talbot began publishing The Pencil of Nature, which included twenty-four photographs in each issue. _____ 11. In 1888, George Eastman, an American dry-plate manufacturer, introduced the Minolta camera, which allowed ordinary citizens to create images and preserve a graphic record of their lives and experiences. _____ 12. Victorian type and hand-drawn lettering were characterized by simplicity with few embellishments. _____ 13. In the four decades from 1860 to 1900, lithography was the dominant printing medium for advertising posters. _____ 14. Scrap refers to printer’s proofs that lithographers discard after the plates of colors have been approved for the final printing. _____ 15. During the nineteenth century, product packaging was printed in reverse on thin paper, then transferred to tin under great pressure. The paper backing was soaked off, leaving printed images on the tin plate. ____ 16. Charles Dana Gibson’s images of young women, called Gibson Girls, were featured in Scribner’s magazine posters and established a canon of physical beauty in the mass media. Gibson was as meticulous in his selection of type as he was in his renderings of idealized beauty. _____

84

Matching
I. Match the key people with their major contributions. 1. William Henry Fox Talbot ____ 2. Sir John Herschel ____ 3. Stephen H. Horgan ____ 4. Julia Margaret Cameron ____ 5. Mathew Brady ____

A. Sent a score of his photographic assistants to document the American Civil War, which had a profound impact upon the public’s romantic ideas about war. His 1862 photograph “Dunker Church and the Dead” was shot in the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. B. An eminent astronomer and chemist, was the first to use sodium thiosulfate to fix the photographic image on paper, thereby halting the action of light. He also named the process of photography (from the Greek photos graphos, meaning “light drawing”). C. Invented the halftone screen. D. Pioneered a process of making images without the use of a camera by holding objects over paper treated with silver compounds and exposing it to light. He called these images photogenic drawings, and they formed the basis for both photography and photographic printing plates. E. Received a camera and the equipment for processing collodion wet plates as a forty-ninth birthday present and extended the artistic potential of photography through portraiture that recorded “faithfully the greatness of the inner man as well as the features of the outer man.”

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 9-2 ________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 9-18 _______________________________________________ 3. Fig. 9-22 _______________________________________________

85

4. Fig. 9-26 ______________________________________________ 5. Figs. 9-31 and 9-32 _____________________________________ 6. Fig. 9-34 ______________________________________________ 7. Fig. 9-37 ______________________________________________ 8. Fig. 9-43 ______________________________________________ 9. Fig. 9-56 ______________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 9-21 ____ 2. Fig. 9-39 ____ 3. Fig. 9-61 ____

A. Joseph Niepce B. Charles Dana Gibson C. Eadweard Muybridge

86

Chapter 10 – The Arts and Crafts Movement and Its Heritage

Introduction, 167 The Century Guild, 169 The Kelmscott Press, 172 The private press movement, 176 A book-design renaissance, 180

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) The Elements of Euclid, page 167, (Fig. 10-2) Arts and crafts movement, page 167 Red House, page 168 Societies and guilds, page 169 The Century Guild Hobby Horse, page 169 Wren’s City Churches, page 171, (Fig. 10-6) Private press movement, page 171 Golden typeface, page 172, (Fig. 10-15) (see Fig. 7-2) Troy typeface, page 172, (Fig. 10-17) Chaucer typeface, page 172 The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, page 172, (Figs. 10-18 and 10-19) Essex House Psalter of 1902, page 176, (Fig. 10-22) Doves Press Bible, page 177, (Fig. 10-23) Brook typeface, page 179, (Fig. 10-26) Netherlands arts and crafts, page 180 87

Lutetia typeface, page 181, (Fig. 10-30) Camelot typeface, page 185 Graphic designer, page 186 Caledonia typeface, page 186 Centaur typeface, page 187, (Fig. 10-40) Cloister family, page 188, (Fig. 10-44) Cheltenham family, page 188 Century Schoolbook typeface, page 188, (Fig. 10-44)

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

William Pickering (1796–1854), page 167, (Fig. 10-1) (Fig. 10-2) William Morris (1834–1896), page 167, (Fig. 10-3) (Fig. 10-4) (Fig. 10-16) (Fig. 10-15) (Figs. 10-18 and 10-19) John Ruskin (1819–1900), page 167 Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898), page 168, (Figs. 10-18 and 10-19) Philip Webb (1831–1915), page 168 Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828–82), page 168 Arthur H. Mackmurdo (1851–1942), page 169, (Fig. 10-5) (Fig. 10-6) (Fig. 10-7) (Fig. 10-8) (Fig. 10-9) Selwyn Image (1849–1930), page 169, (Figs. 10-10 and 10-11) Herbert Horne (1864–1916), page 169, (Fig. 10-12) (Fig. 10-14) Century Guild, page 169, (Fig. 10-8) (Fig. 10-9) (Figs. 10-10 and 10-11) Sir Emery Walker (1851–1933), page 171 Art Workers Guild, page 172 Combined Arts Society, page 172 Walter Crane, page 172, (Fig. 10-17), (Fig. 10-20)

88

Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, page 172 Kelmscott Press, page 172, (Fig. 10-16) (Fig. 10-17) (Figs. 10-18 and 10-19) William H. Hooper (1834–1912), page 172 Charles R. Ashbee (1863–1942), page 176 Essex House, page 176 Essex House Press, page 176 T. J. Cobden-Sanderson (1840–1922), page 177, (Fig. 10-23) Doves Press, page 177, (Fig. 10-23) Edward Johnston (1872–1944), page 177, (Fig. 10-23) Ashendene Press, page 177, (Fig. 10-24) C. H. St. John Hornby, page 177, (Fig. 10-24) Elbert Hubbard (1856–1915), page 179 Lucien Pissarro (1863–1944), page 179, (Fig. 10-26) (Fig. 10-27) Eragny Press, page 179, (Fig. 10-27) Sjoerd H. De Roos, page 180, (Fig 10-28) Jan van Krimpen (1892–1958), page 181, (Fig. 10-29) (Fig. 10-30) Charles Nypels (1895–1952), page 181, (Fig. 10-31) (Fig. 10-32) A. A. M. (Sander) Stols (1900–1973), page 182, (Fig. 10-33) Jean François van Royen (1878–1942), page 183, (Fig. 10-34) De Zilverdistel, page 185 De Kunera Pers, page 185 Rudolph Koch (1876–1934), page 185, (Fig. 10-35) (Fig. 10-36) Klingspor Type Foundry, page 185 Frederic W. Goudy (1865–1947), page 185, (Fig. 10-37) (Fig. 10-38) Camelot Press, page 185 Booklet Press, page 185 Village Press, page 185, (Fig. 10-37)

89

Village Letter Foundry, page 186 William Addison Dwiggins (1880–1956), page 186, (Fig. 10-39) (Fig. 10-40) (Fig. 10-41) (Fig. 10-42) Riverside Press, page 186 Beatrice Warde, page 187 American Type Founders Company (ATF), page 188, (Fig. 10-43) Morris F. Benton (1872–1948), page 188, (Fig. 10-43) (Fig. 10-44) Thomas Maitland Cleland (1880–1964), page 188, (Fig. 10-43) Bertram Goodhue (1869–1924), page 188

90

Chapter 10 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. William Pickering played an important role in the separation of graphic design from printing production. Pickering’s 1847 edition of Oliver Byrne’s The Elements of Euclid, a geometry text, marked a break from tradition because ______________. A. color was used to identify the lines and shapes in the diagrams B. it used sans-serif type C. it was bound in a soft cover D. it was commissioned by a national school system 2. John Ruskin, an English social critic, writer, and artist inspired the philosophy of the arts and crafts movement. He rejected the mercantile economy and pointed toward the union of __________ and labor in service to society as exemplified in the design and construction of the medieval Gothic cathedral. A. art B. religion C. the Renaissance guilds D. the factory system 3. As a twenty-six-year-old architect, Arthur Mackmurdo met William Morris and was inspired by his ideas and accomplishments in applied design. He led the group that established the Century Guild, which aimed to elevate the design arts. They incorporated Renaissance and __________ design ideas into their work. Their designs provide one of the links between the arts and crafts movement and the floral stylization of art nouveau. Some of their swirling organic forms, in fact, seem to be pure art nouveau in their conception and execution. A. medieval B. Mesopotamian C. incunabula D. Japanese

91

4. William Morris, a pivotal figure in the history of design, was concerned about the problems of industrialization and the factory system and tried to implement John Ruskin’s ideas. Committed to recapturing the beauty of incunabula books, Morris established the Kelmscott Press and designed three typefaces for use in books printed at the press. Two were based on incunabula types, but _____________ was based on Nicolas Jensen’s Venetian roman faces, which were designed between 1470 and 1476. A. Chaucer B. Troy C. Golden 5. The private press movement, which included Kelmscott, Doves, and Essex House Presses, was most concerned with _______________. A. quick production to meet consumer needs B. the integration of industrial technologies to improve printing C. the promotion and dissemination of great literature D. regaining high standards of design, materials, and workmanship 6. _____________, architect, graphic designer, jeweler, silversmith, and follower of John Ruskin, established a workshop in 1888 called the Guild of Handicraft, which was inspired by socialism and the ideals of the arts and crafts movement. In 1890, the guild leased Essex House and formed the Essex House Press, where its design masterpiece, the Essex House Psalter of 1902, was produced. The Psalter was based on a unique graphic program for each psalm that consisted of a roman numeral, the Latin title in red capitals, an English descriptive title in black capitals, an illustrated woodcut initial, and the body of the psalm. A. William Morris B. Charles R. Ashbee C. T. J. Cobden-Sanderson D. Emery Walker 7. Kelmscott Press’s The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer included all of the following EXCEPT: ___________ A. Eighty-seven woodcut illustrations from drawings by Edward Burne-Jones B. Fourteen large borders and eighteen small frames designed by William Morris

92

C. The use of seven different colors of ink D. The Chaucer typeface, developed specifically for the book by William Morris 8. The long-range effect of William Morris’s body of work was ______ throughout the world. A. an angry rejection of machine production B. a revival of interest in the medieval past C. a significant upgrade of book design D. interest in one-of-a-kind works of art 9. The most important of the German type designers during the early twentieth century was Rudolf Koch, who designed the Neuland typeface. He was deeply mystical, medieval in his viewpoints, and a devout Catholic who felt that the _________ was a supreme spiritual achievement of humanity. A. alphabet B. book C. Bible D. printing press 10. In America, the arts and crafts movement had an influence on the revitalization of typography and book design. Frederic W. Goudy had a passionate love of letterforms and, inspired by the Kelmscott Press, he established the Camelot Press and then designed Camelot, his first typeface. Goudy went on to design a total of 122 typefaces, many of which were based on ____________ type designs. A. German incunabula B. Morris’s Kelmscott C. transitional D. Venetian and French Renaissance 11. In the 1920s, ____________ was the first to use the term “graphic designer” to describe his professional activities. He was a book designer who established a house style for the Alfred A. Knopf publishing company, where he designed hundreds of books. He also designed Caledonia, one of the most widely used book faces. A. Frederic Goudy 93

B. William Addison Dwiggins C. Albert Bruce Rogers D. Morris Benton 12. Inspired by Kelmscott Press books, the interest of ___________ shifted toward the total design of books. He joined the Riverside Press of the Houghton Mifflin Company in 1896 and designed books with a strong arts and crafts influence. In 1900, Riverside established a special department for high-quality limited editions, and he was the designer for sixty limited editions over the next twelve years. Centaur, his 1915 typeface design, is one of the finest of the numerous fonts inspired by Nicolas Jenson. He applied the ideal of the beautifully designed book to commercial book production and set the standard for twentieth-century book design. A. Frederic Goudy B. William Addison Dwiggins C. Albert Bruce Rogers D. Morris Benton 13. The head of typeface development at the American Type Founders Company, Morris F. Benton designed important revivals of many typefaces, including one of Nicolas Jenson’s, under the name Cloister. He carefully studied human perception and reading comprehension to develop ___________ Schoolbook, a type designed for and widely used in textbooks. A. Franklin Gothic B. Souvenir C. Cheltenham D. Century 14. This company established an extensive typographic research library and produced revivals of past typeface designs, such as Bodoni and Garamond. _________ A. Morris and Company B. The Century Guild C. American Type Founders Company (ATF) D. Klingspor Type Foundry

94

15. __________ established Eragny Press, where both the past and the present inspired them. They collaborated on designing, wood engraving, and printing. Their books combined the traditional sensibilities of the private press movement with an interest in the blossoming art nouveau movement and expressionism. A. Bruce Rogers and Beatrice Warde B. Lucien and Esther Pissarro C. T. J. Cobden-Sanderson and Emery Walker D. Arthur H. Mackmurdo and Herbert Horne 16. In the Netherlands, the traditional vanguard, led by Sjoerd H. De Roos and __________, the preeminent book designer of his generation, sought to revive the printing arts through a return to traditional standards. Their guidelines included symmetrical layouts, tranquil harmony and balance, careful margin proportions, proper letter and word spacing, single traditional typefaces in as few sizes as possible, and skillful letterpress printing. They believed the typographer should first serve the text and otherwise remain in the background. A. Jean François van Royen B. Charles Nypels C. A. A. M. Stols D. Jan van Krimpen 17. In 1912, Type Foundry Amsterdam issued ___________, the first typeface designed and produced in the Netherlands for over a century. Designed by Sjoerd H. de Roos, the text face was based on fifteenth-century Venetian types. This was followed by eight more type designs from de Roos. A. Hollandsche Mediaeval B. Stymie Medium C. Centaur D. Cloister

True/False
1. According to John Ruskin, art and society separated after the Renaissance. Industrialization and technology brought the separation to a critical stage. _____ 2. John Ruskin, along with other artists, believed that beautiful things were valuable simply because they were beautiful. _____ 95

3. William Morris, whose own family was poor, sought quality goods for all. _____ 4. The first book to be printed in Morris’ Kelmscott Press was the 556-page The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. _____ 5. The Doves Press Bible is best known for its exquisite line illustrations and decorative elements. _____ 6. The art of calligraphy was greatly influenced by the research and teachings of Edward Johnston, who gave up his medical studies for the life of a scribe. _____ 7. William Morris strongly supported the Guild of Handicraft, Charles Ashbee’s program to unify the teaching of design with workshop experience. _____ 8. In a Hobby Horse article, Selwyn Image defined art as painting and crafts as applied arts such as printing. _____ 9. Ironically, while William Morris was returning to printing methods of the incunabula, he used modular, interchangeable, and repeatable elements; he applied industrial production methods to the printed page. _____ 10. Lucien and Esther Pisarro of Eragny Press were best known for purely typographic books, which contained no illustrations or decorations. _____ 11. Elbert Hubbard’s Roycrofters arts and crafts center in upstate New York brought relatively high-quality products to ordinary people who could not likely have afforded them otherwise. _____ 12. Those involved in the Dutch book design movement at the turn of the twentieth century viewed the Industrial Revolution as a blessing and soon adopted the fully automated methods of printing. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 10-2 __________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 10-6 __________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 10-10 _________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 10-22 _________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 10-23 _________________________________________________ 6. Fig. 10-37 _________________________________________________

96

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 10-18 ____ 2. Fig. 10-32 ____ 3. Fig. 10-36 ____

A. Charles Nypels B. William Morris C. Rudolf Koch

97

Chapter 11 – Art Nouveau

Introduction, 190 The influence of ukiyo-e, 190 Art nouveau, 194 Chéret and Grasset, 195 English art nouveau, 199 The further development of French art nouveau, 202 Art nouveau comes to America, 207 Innovation in Belgium and the Netherlands, 211 The German Jugendstil movement, 216 The Italian pictorial tradition, 219

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Ukiyo-e, page 190 Tokugawa period (1603–1867), page 190 Shogun, page 190 Emaki, page 190 “The floating world,” page 190 Edo, page 190 Surimono, page 192 Yellowbacks, page 192 Mount Fuji, page 192, (Fig. 11-5) Japonisme, page 194 98

Art nouveau, page 194 Historicism, page 195 Anachronistic, page 195 French symbolist movement, page 195 Chérettes, page 197, (Fig. 11-11) Jules Chéret Museum, page 199, (Fig. 11-14) The Studio, page 199, (Fig. 11-15) (Fig. 11-16) “The black spot,” page 200, (Fig. 11-17) The Yellow Book, page 200 Rodolphe Salis’s Le Chat Noir, page 202 La Belle Époque (The Beautiful Era), page 203, (Fig. 11-25) Le style moderne, page 205 Le style Mucha, page 205 L’art nouveau, page 205 Jugendstil, page 205 Sezessionstil, page 205 Stile Floreale or Stile Liberty, page 205 Modernismo, page 205 Nieuwe Kunst, page 205 Archetypal, page 205 Combinaisons ornementales, page 205, (Fig. 11-36) General Electric (GE), page 207, (Fig. 11-38) Harper’s magazines, page 207, (Fig. 11-39) Bradley: His Book, page 208, (Fig. 11-44) Chapbooks, page 209 Chapbook style, page 209, (Fig. 11-45) American Chap-Book, page 209, (Fig. 11-45)

99

Cercle des XX (Group of Twenty), page 211, (Fig. 11-52) Van Nu en Straks (Today and Tomorrow), page 211, (Fig. 11-53) Driehoeken bij ontwerpen van ornament (Triangles in the Design of Ornament), page 215, (Fig. 11-60) Theosophy, page 215 Klingspor Foundry, page 217, (Fig. 11-71; see also Fig. 12-32) Eckmannschrift, page 217, (Fig. 11-71; see also Fig. 12-32)

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Hishikawa Moronobu (1618–94), page 190, (Fig. 11-1) Okumura Masanobu (1686–1764), page 191 Suzuki Harunobu (c. 1725–1770), page 191 Kitagawa Utamaro (c. 1753–1806), page 191, (Fig. 11-3) Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849), page 191, (Fig. 11-5) (Fig. 11-4) Ando Hiroshige (1797–1858), page 193, (Fig. 11-6) Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858), page 194 Samuel Bing (1838–1905), page 194 Baron Victor Horta (1861–1947), page 195 Jules Chéret (1836–1933), page 195, (Fig. 11-8) (Fig. 11-9) (Fig. 11-10) (Fig. 11-11) Eugène Grasset (1841–1917), page 195 Eugene Rimmel, page 196 Charles Gillot, page 199 Aubrey Beardsley (1872–1898), page 199, (Figs. 11-17 and 11-18) Walter Crane (1845–1915), page 199 Charles Ricketts (18861931), page 201, (Fig. 11-23) Georges Auriol (1863–1939), page 202, (Fig. 11-36) 100

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901), page 202, (Figs. 11-24, 11-25, 11-26, and 1127) Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen (1859–1923), page 202 Alphonse Mucha (1860–1939), page 205, (Fig. 11-33 and 11-34) Samuel Bing (1838–1905), page 205 Emmanuel Orazi (1860–1934), page 207 Louis Rhead (1857–1926), page 207 William H. Bradley (1868–1962), page 207, (Figs. 11-41, 11-42, and 11-43) (Fig. 11-43) Ethel Reed (b. 1876), page 209, (Fig. 11-46) Edward Penfield (1866–1925), page 210 William Carqueville (1871–1946), page 210, (Fig. 11-50) Maxfield Parrish (1870–1966), page 211, (Fig. 11-51) Henri Clemens van de Velde (1863–1957), page 211, (Fig. 11-53) (Fig. 11 – 54 Privat Livemont (1861–1936), page 214, (Fig. 11-58) Gisbert Combaz (1869–1941), page 214, (Fig. 11-59) Chris Lebeau, page 215, (Fig. 11-61) Jan Toorop (1858–1928), page 216, (Fig. 11-62) (Fig. 11-63) Sjoerd Hendrik de Roos (1877–1966), page 216 Hans Christiansen (1866–1945), page 217, (Fig. 11-66) (Fig. 11-68) Peter Behrens (1868–1940), page 217, (Fig. 11-67) (Fig. 11-69) (Fig. 11-72) Otto Eckmann (1865–1902), page 217, (Fig. 11-70) (Fig. 11-71) Adolfo Hohenstein (1854–1928), page 219, (Fig. 11-73) Leopoldo Metlicovitz (1868–1944), page 219, (Fig. 11-74) Giovanni Mataloni (1869–1944), page 219, (Fig. 11-75) Marcello Dudovich (1878–1962), page 219, (Fig. 11-76) Franz Laskoff (1869–1918), page 220, (Fig. 11-77) Leonetto Capiello (1875–1942), page 220, (Fig. 11-78)

101

Chapter 11 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. During Japan’s Tokugawa period, the country adopted an official policy of national seclusion. This was a time of economic expansion, internal stability, and flourishing cultural arts. The entertainment districts of major cities were called “the floating world,” and became the focus of inspiration for many artists. The earliest Japanese ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) were __________ depicting these entertainment districts of urban Japan. A. lithographic prints B. screen paintings C. stone engravings D. copper reliefs 2. Katsushika Hokusai apprenticed as a woodblock engraver before turning to drawing and painting. During seven decades of artistic creation, he produced an estimated thirty-five thousand works that spanned the gamut of ukiyo-e subjects, including album prints, genre scenes, historical events, illustrations for novels, landscape series, nature studies, and privately commissioned prints for special occasions called surimono. He is perhaps best known for _______________, his series of prints that depicts the external appearances of nature and symbolically interpret the vital energy forces found in the sea, winds, and clouds surrounding Japan’s famous twelve-thousand-foot volcano. A. Hokusai Soga B. Famous Places in Edo: A Hundred Views C. Fifty-three Stages of the Tokaido D. Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji 3. Although art nouveau artists did not use a historicist approach to their designs, they were influenced by past as well as contemporary art. All but one of the examples below were influences on art nouveau. Which does NOT belong? _____________ A. Japanese decorative designs B. the rococo style

102

C. Celtic ornament D. Assyrian motifs 4. Jules Chéret, the father of the modern poster, featured beautiful young women in his posters. At a time when options for women were limited, these self-assured, happy women were depicted enjoying life to the fullest, wearing low-cut dresses, dancing, drinking wine, and even smoking in public. Dubbed ___________, these female archetypes became the new role model for women in the late Victorian period. A. Victorianettes B. “fallen women” C. Chérettes D. les enfants terribles 5. Upon viewing Aubrey Beardsley’s illustrations in a new edition of Thomas Malory’s Morte d’Arthur, ____________ was so angry that he considered legal action because he believed Beardsley had vulgarized the design ideas of the Kelmscott style by replacing the formal, naturalistic borders with more stylized, flat patterns. A. Walter Crane B. William Morris C. Jan Toorop D. Edward Burne-Jones 6. In 1894, Oscar Wilde’s Salomé received widespread notoriety for the obvious erotic sensuality of __________’s illustrations. Late-Victorian English society was shocked by the celebration of evil, which reached its peak in an edition of Aristophanes’s Lysistrata. Banned by English censors, it was widely circulated on the Continent. A. Eugène Grasset B. Charles Ricketts C. Jan Toorop D. Aubrey Beardsley 7. There is an affinity between the posters and prints of Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen and his friend and sometime rival, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Steinlen’s first commissions were drawings for _____________. He had a mania for cats and during the 1880s and 1890s became a prolific illustrator. His radical political 103

views, socialist affiliations, and anticlerical stance led him toward asocial realism, and he chose to depict poverty, exploitation, and the working class. A. the Moulin Rouge B. Le Chat Noir C. the actress Sarah Bernhardt D. the printer Charles Verneau 8. On Christmas Eve 1894, the young Czech artist Alphonse Mucha was at the Lemercier’s printing company correcting proofs for a friend when the printing firm’s manager burst into the room, upset because the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt was demanding a new poster for the play Gismonda by New Year’s Day. Mucha was the only artist available, so he received the commission. He used the basic pose from an earlier poster of Bernhardt in Joan of Arc that had been done by __________. A. Jules Chéret B. Eugène Grasset C. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec D. Théophile Alexandre Steinlen 9. During an 1895 visit to the Boston Public Library, Will Bradley studied the collection of small, crudely printed books from colonial New England called chapbooks. These inspired a new direction in graphic design that became known as the chapbook style. All of the following traits except one apply. Which does NOT apply? _______________ A. Caslon types with wide letter spacing B. a mix of roman, italic, and all-capital type C. yellow covers D. sturdy woodcuts and plain rules 10. Many trademarks of art nouveau origin have been in continuous use since the 1890s, such as those of General Electric and Insel-Verlag, both of which are characterized by __________. A. geometric ordering of space B. being contained in squares C. the use of sans serif type D. swirling organic lines 104

11. A member of the Flemish Group of Twenty, Henri van de Velde had enormous influence on design and architecture. His only poster design was for Tropon, ____________, for which he created labeling and advertisements in 1899. Rather than communicating information about the product or depicting people using it, van de Velde engaged the viewer with symbolic form and color. A. a salad oil B. a concentrated food supplement C. a coffee concentrate D. a cocoa powder 12. In his teaching and writings, Belgian designer Henri van de Velde became a vital source for the development of twentieth-century architecture and design theory. He taught that all branches of art share a common language of form and are of equal importance to the human community. He demanded __________. He saw ornament not as decoration but as a means of expression that could achieve the status of art. A. appropriate materials, functional forms, and a unity of visual organization B. machine-made objects that appeared to be handmade C. abolishing the past and starting anew D. a lot of decoration and ornament 13. The Dutch book design style of Nieuwe Kunst spanned roughly the fourteen years between 1892 through 1906. After 1895, mathematics was seen as a creative source in itself, with symmetry and rationalism each playing a part. Some of the special qualities of the movement’s book design are described below. Which one doe NOT apply? ____________ A. unpredictable B. eccentric C. geometric D. illustrative 14. One of Dutch designer Jan Toorop’s biggest sources of inspiration was ___________, which can be seen especially in his use of silhouette, his linear style, and the forms, expressions, and hair styles of his female figures. A. Renaissance era use of space B. Javanese culture

105

C. geometry D. medieval illustration 15. While German Jugendstil shared common characteristics with French and English art nouveau, one distinction was that it reflected the German interest in ____________, as can be seen in the blending of contradictory influences in Eckmannschrift by Otto Eckmann. A. medieval letters B. landscapes in deep space C. value gradients and shading for volume D. traditional figurative subjects 16. The new art had different names in different countries. Which of the following was NOT one of them? _____________ A. Nieuwe Kunst B. Jugendstil C. Sezessionstil D. Surimono

True/False
1. Ukiyo-e refers to an art movement beginning in the seventeenth century and ending in the nineteenth century, a time period when Japan actively sought trade with Western European countries. _____ 2. In Japan, ukiyo-e practitioners were considered mere artisans, but they captivated European artists, who drew inspiration from their calligraphic line drawing, abstraction and simplification, flat color and silhouettes, unconventional use of black shapes, and decorative patterns. _____ 3. The late-nineteenth-century Western mania for all things Japanese is called japanned ware. _____ 4. Unlike contemporary literary artists, visual artists working in the art nouveau style rejected realism in favor of the metaphysical and the sensuous. _____ 5. Eugène Grasset, like his rival Jules Chéret, incorporated exuberant women in his poster illustrations. _____

106

6. The coloring book style of Aubrey Beardsley used a thick black contour drawing to lock forms into flat areas of color in a manner similar to medieval stained-glass windows. _____ 7. Although Charles Ricketts’s page designs were influenced somewhat by William Morris, his work tended to be much lighter, more open, and geometric. _____ 8. The Netherlands’ relationship with the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) allowed Dutch designers to access the traditional craft of batik. Its introduction as a contemporary design medium was one of Holland’s important contributions to the international art nouveau movement. _____ 9. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec developed a journalistic, illustrative style that captured the nightlife of La Belle Époque (“The Beautiful Era”)—a term used to describe late-nineteenth-century Paris. _____ 10. Art nouveau was first seen in America on Harper’s magazine covers illustrated by Will Bradley, one of the two major American practitioners of art nouveau–inspired graphic design and illustration. _____ 11. Beginning in 1894, Will Bradley’s work for the Inland Printer and the Chap Book ignited art nouveau in America. _____ 12. Ethel Reed became the first woman in England to achieve national prominence for her work as a graphic designer and illustrator. _____ 13. Henri van de Velde’s works are early examples of the modernist integration of form and function; their forms communicated their uses objectively and clearly. _____ 14. Eckmannschrift, designed by Otto Eckmann, attempted to revitalize typography by combining fraktura with modern type. _____ 15. Jugendstil artist Otto Eckmann abandoned painting in order to turn his full attention to the applied arts. _____
16. Jugend, an art nouveau–style magazine popular in Germany, allowed each

week’s cover designer to design a different logotype to match his or her own illustration. _____
17. Italian turn-of-the-century posters were characterized by sensuous exuberance

and elegance like that of France’s La Belle Époque. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 11-7 ________________________________________________ 107

2. Fig. 11-16 _______________________________________________ 3. Figs. 11-21 and 11-22 _____________________________________ 4. Fig. 11-24 _______________________________________________ 5. Fig. 11-28 _______________________________________________ 6. Fig. 11-33 _______________________________________________ 7. Fig. 11-45 _______________________________________________ 8. Fig. 11-55 _______________________________________________ 9. Fig. 11-58 _______________________________________________ 10. Fig. 11-70 _______________________________________________

II. Match each of the images shown with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 11-3 ____ 2. Fig. 11-5 ____ 3. Fig. 11-11 ____ 4. Fig. 11-20 ____ 5. Fig. 11-32 ____ 6. Fig. 11-43 ____ 7. Fig. 11-65 ____

A. Jules Chéret B. Katsushika Hokusai C. Aubrey Beardsley D. Alphonse Mucha E. Kitagawa Utamaro F. Will Bradley G. Otto Eckmann

108

Chapter 12 – The Genesis of Twentieth Century Design

Introduction, 221 Frank Lloyd Wright and the Glasgow School, 221 The Vienna Secession, 225 Peter Behrens and the new objectivity, 233 Design for the London Underground, 242

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) The Studio, page 221 The Glasgow School (The Four), page 222, (Figs. 12-2 through 12-4) Sezessionstil (The Vienna Secession), page 225, (Figs. 12-9 through 12-16) (Fig. 1223) Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring) (Ver Sacrum), page 225, (Figs. 12-11 through 12-16) Line and Form, page 231, (Fig. 12-24) Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Workshops), page 231, (Figs. 12-29 through 12-31) Celebration of Life and Art: A Consideration of the Theater as the Highest Symbol of a Culture, page 234, (Fig. 12-33) Berthold Foundry, page 235, (Fig. 12-35) Akzidenz Grotesk, page 235, (Fig. 12-35) Behrensschrift, page 235, (Fig. 12-36) Deutsche Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen), page 237 Gesamkultur, page 238 Sachlichkeit, page 238 Analogous colors, page 239 109

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959), page 221, (Fig. 12-1) Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868 –1928), page 221, (Fig. 12-4) J. Herbert McNair (1868–1955), page 221, (Fig. 12-3) Jessie Marion King (1876–1949), page 225, (Fig. 12-5) Talwin Morris (1865–1911), page 225, (Figs. 12-6 through 12-8) Gustav Klimt (1862–1918), page 225, (Fig. 12-9) Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867–1908), page 225 Josef Hoffmann (1870–1956), page 225, (Fig. 12-14) (Fig. 12-16) (Figs. 12-29 through 12-31) Koloman Moser (1868–1918), page 225, (Fig. 12-10) (Fig. 12-13) (Fig. 12-16) (Figs. 1222 and 12-23) (Fig. 12-19) Adolf Loos (1870–1933), page 229 Alfred Roller (1864–1935), page 231, (Fig. 12-17) (Fig. 12-20) (Fig. 12-25 through 1227) Berthold Löffler (1874–1960), page 231, (Fig. 12-28) Peter Behrens, page 233, (Figs. 12-32 through 12-34) (Figs. 12-36 and 12-37) (Figs. 12-9 through 12-48) J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks (1864–1932), page 236, (Fig. 12-38) Emil Rathenau, page 236 Frank Pick (1878–1941), page 242, (Fig. 12-51) Edward Johnston (1872–1944), page 243, (Figs. 12-50 and 12-51)

110

Chapter 12 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. As the nineteenth century drew to a close and the twentieth century began, designers across the disciplines of architectural, fashion, graphic, and product design searched for new forms of expression. Technological and industrial advances fed these concerns. The artists and designers discussed in Chapter 12 moved away from the floral and curvilinear elements of art nouveau toward a more____________ style of composition. A. Victorian B. international C. geometric D. Celtic 2. During the final years of the nineteenth century, American architect ____________ was becoming known to European artists and designers not only for his architecture, but for his design interests in furniture, fabrics, wallpapers, and stained-glass windows. He rejected historicism and saw space as the essence of design. His repetition of rectangular zones and use of asymmetrical spatial organization were adopted by other designers. A. Robert Venturi B. Frank Lloyd Wright C. Charles Rennie Mackintosh D. J. Herbert McNair 3. “The Studio” and its reproductions of work by Aubrey Beardsley and Jan Toorop had a strong influence on a young group of Scottish artists who became friends at the Glasgow School of Art. The students began to collaborate and were soon christened _____________. The rising verticality and integration of flowing curves with a rectangular structure are hallmarks of their mature works, as shown here in Margaret Macdonald’s 1896 bookplate design (Fig. 12-2). A. Hobbyhorses B. Dadaists C. Futurists 111

D. The Four 4. Among those who drew inspiration from the Glasgow School were ______________, whose medieval-style fantasy illustrations accompanied by stylized lettering influenced fiction illustration throughout the twentieth century, and _____________, who became the art director of the Glasgow publishing firm Blackie’s, which provided a forum for applying the geometric spatial division and lyrical organic forms of the Glasgow group to mass communication. A. Josef Hoffmann and J. Herbert McNair B. Joseph Maria Olbrich and Adolf Loos C. Jessie Marion King and Talwin Morris D. Frances Macdonald and Charles Rennie Macintosh 5. Financed by industrialist Fritz Wändorfer, the _____________ was an outgrowth of Sezessionstil and sought a close union of the fine and applied arts in the design of lamps, fabrics, books, greeting cards, and other printed matter. The goal was to offer an alternative to poorly designed, mass-produced articles and trite historicism. Decoration was used only when it served these goals. A. Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Workshops) B. Deutsche Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) 6. The most beautiful of the turn-of-the-century magazines was the Vienna Secession’s elegant _____________, published from 1898 until 1903. A continuously changing editorial staff, design responsibility handled by a rotating committee of artists, and unpaid contributions of art and design were all focused on experimentation and graphic excellence. The publication was more of a design laboratory than a magazine and enabled designers to experiment with innovative graphics as they explored the merger of text, illustration, and ornament into a lively unity. A. Jugend B. The Chap-Book C. Black and White D. Ver Sacrum 7. The German artist, architect, and designer ____________ played a major role in charting a course for design in the first decade of the twentieth century. He sought typographic reform and was an early advocate of sans-serif typography. In 1900, he set the twenty-five-page booklet Celebration of Life and Art: A Consideration of the Theater as the Highest Symbol of Culture in sans-serif type. The German typographic historian Hans Loubier believed this booklet may 112

represent the first use of sans-serif type as running book text. His work pushed twentieth-century design toward rational geometry as an underlying system for visual organization. He introduced the concept of Gesamkultur (total design) to industry with the first comprehensive visual identification system that included graphic design, architecture, and product design. A. Charles Rennie Mackintosh B. Peter Behrens C. Talwin Morris D. Josef Hoffmann 8. ____________ is a sans-serif typeface designed by the Berthold Foundry. Ten variations were designed: four weights plus three expanded and three condensed versions, which allowed compositors to achieve contrast and emphasis within one family of typefaces. This was a major step in the evolution of the unified and systemized type family. A. Behrenschrift B. Akzidenz Grotesque 9. In 1916, dissatisfaction with typography on Underground materials prompted Frank Pick to commission the eminent calligrapher __________ to design an exclusive, patented typeface for the world’s first underground electric railway system, which had opened in London in 1890. Railway Type is a sans-serif typeface whose strokes have consistent weight; however, the letters have the basic proportions of classical Roman inscriptions. The designer achieved absolute functional clarity by reducing the characters to the simplest possible forms: the M is a perfect square whose forty-five degree diagonal strokes meet in the exact center of the letter. The O is a perfect circle. All of the letters have a similar elemental design. The lowercase I has a tail to avoid confusion with the uppercase I. A. Alfred Roller B. Peter Behrens C. Edward Johnston D. Walter Crane 10. Three schools that were influential in the evolution of graphic design and design education were introduced in Chapter 12. Which one does not belong? ________ A. Glasgow School of Art in Scotland B. The Bauhaus in Germany

113

C. Vienna School for the Applied Arts in Austria D. Düsseldorf school of Arts and Crafts in Germany

True/False
1. Dutch architect J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks, who was fascinated with geometric form, developed grids that began with a square circumscribed around a circle and made numerous permutations by subdividing and duplicating this basic structure. _____ 2. The Berthold Foundry designed a family of ten sans-serif typefaces that were variations on one original font, Akzidenz Grotesk (called Standard in the United States). This marked a major step in the evolution of the unified and systematized type family and had a major influence on twentieth-century typography. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, title, and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 12-5 _________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 12-6 _________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 12-19 ________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 12-20 ________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 12-26 ________________________________________________ 6. Fig. 12-30 ________________________________________________ 7. Fig. 12-33 ________________________________________________

II. Match each of the three images shown with the correct name of the designers. 1. Fig. 12-23 ____ 2. Fig. 12-27 ____ 3. Fig. 12-46 ____

A. Alfred Roller 114

B. Peter Behrens C. Koloman Moser

115

Chapter 13 – The Influence of Modern Art

Introduction, 248 Cubism, 248 Furturism, 250 Dada, 256 Surrealism, 262 Expressionism, 264 Photography and the modern movement, 266

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Analytical cubism, page 249 Collage, page 249 Synthetic cubism, page 249 Futurism, page 250 Manifesto, page 250 Parole in libertà, page 251, (Figs. 13-8 through 13-12) Pattern poetry, page 251, (Fig. 13-13) Calligrammes, page 253, (Figs. 13-15 and 13-16) Simultaneity, page 255 Artist’s book, page 256 Dada, page 256, (Fig. 13-23) Ready-made, page 257, (Fig. 13-24 and Fig. 13-25)

116

Photomontage, page 259 Merz, page 259, (Fig. 13-27) Surrealism, page 262 Frottage, page 263 Decalcomania, page 263 Emblematics, page 264 Expressionism, page 264 Die Brücke (The Bridge), page 265 Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), page 265 Fauves, page 266 Vortographs, page 266 Solarization, page 267, (Fig. 13-52) Rayographs, page 267, (Fig. 13-54) (Fig. 13-53)

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Pablo Picasso (1881–1973), page 248 Georges Braque (1881–1963), page 249 Juan Gris (1887–1927), page 249, (Fig. 13-4), Fernand Léger (1881–1955), page 250 Filippo Marinetti (1876–1944), page 250 Arno Holz (1863–1929), page 251 Stéphane Mallarmé (1842–98), page 253, (Fig. 13-14) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880–1918), page 253 Antonio Sant’Elia (1888–1916), page 255, (Fig. 13-18) Fortunato Depero (1892–1960), page 255, (Fig. 13-19) (Figs. 13-20 and 13-21)

117

Hugo Ball (1886–1927), page 257 Tristan Tzara (1896–1963), page 257, (Fig. 13-22) Jean (Hans) Arp (1887–1966), page 257 Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), page 257 Raoul Hausmann (1886–1977), page 259 Hannah Höch (1889–1978), page 259 Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948), page 259, (Fig. 13-30) John Heartfield (1891–1968), page 259 Wieland Herzfelde (b. 1896), page 259, (Fig. 13-38) George Grosz (1893–1959), page 259, (Fig. 13-39) André Breton (1896–1966), page 260 Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978), page 262, (Fig. 13-41) Max Ernst (1891–1965), page 262 René Magritte (1898–1967), page 263, (Fig. 13-43) Salvador Dali (1904–1989), page 264, (Fig. 13-44) Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (1867–1945), page 265, (Fig. 13-46) Wassily Kandinsky (1866–1944), page 265, (Fig. 13-47) Paul Klee (1879–1940), page 265, (Fig. 13-48) Henri Matisse (1869–1954), page 266 Francis Bruguière (1880–1945), page 266 Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882–1966), page 266, (Fig. 13-50) Man Ray (1890–1976), page 266

118

Chapter 13 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Which form of cubism depicted the essence of an object rather than a representation of the subject matter based on its outward appearance? _______ A. Analytical cubism B. Synthetic cubism 2. ____________ moved cubism away from the initial impulses of its founders and took Paul Cézanne’s famous dictum, “treat nature in terms of the cylinder and the sphere and the cone,” far more seriously than any other cubist. The letterforms in his graphic work, such as those shown in Fig. 13-7, pointed the way toward geometric letterforms. His flat planes of color, urban motifs, and the hard-edged precision of his machine forms helped define the modern sensibility after World War I. A. Juan Gris B. Fernand Léger C. Georges Braque D. Pablo Picasso 3. Futurism was launched when the Italian ____________ Filippo Marinetti published his “Manifesto of Futurism” in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro on February 20, 1909. His stirring words established futurism as a revolutionary movement through which all artists could test their ideas and forms against the new realities of a scientific and industrial society. A. painter B. sculptor C. poet D. businessman 4. Dada artists claim to have invented photomontage, the technique of manipulating found photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations. ____________ created outstanding work in the medium.

119

A. Pablo Picasso B. Annie French C. Fernand Léger D. Hannah Höch 5. Guillaume Apollinaire’s unique contribution to graphic design was the 1918 publication of a book entitled _____________, poems in which the letterforms are arranged to form a visual design, figure, or pictograph, such as the poem entitled “Il Pleut.” A. La Fin du Monde B. Line and Form C. Merz D. Calligrammes 6. A Die Brücke artist, ____________ had great empathy for the suffering of women and children. Her figurative paintings and woodblock prints were forged with thick, raw strokes, often becoming bold statements about alienation, anxiety, and despair. A. Hannah Höch B. Jessie Marion King C. Margaret Macdonald D. Käthe Kollwitz 7. “Der Blaue Reiter” artists sought a spiritual reality beyond the outward appearance of nature and explored problems of form and color. Two founding members of this group included Russian émigré __________ and the Swiss artist ____________. A. Fortunato Depero and Hugo Ball B. Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee C. Tristan Tzara and Jean Arp D. Salvador Dali and Max Ernst 8. ____________ used the harsh disjunctions of photomontage as a propaganda weapon and was an innovator in the preparation of mechanical art for offset printing. A Berlin Dadaist, he held revolutionary political beliefs and oriented many of his artistic activities toward visual communications to raise public consciousness and promote social change. In a 1930 poster, he attacked the 120

press: a head wrapped in newspaper appears over the headline, “Whoever reads the bourgeois press turns deaf and blind….” His montages are the most urgent in the history of the photomontage. A. Max Ernst B. Kurt Schwitters C. John Heartfield D. Marcel Duchamp 9. ____________ frequently made photographic exposures with moving beams of light. He also used distortion, printing through textures, and multiple exposures as he searched for dreamlike images and new interpretations of time and space in his professional photography assignments, such as the poster design for the London Underground, Fig. 13-54. A. Kurt Schwitters B. Man Ray C. Paul Klee D. Wassily Kandinsky

True/False
1. Dada writers and artists were concerned with shock, protest, and nonsense. _____ 2. Man Ray was the first photographer to explore the creative potential of solarization, the reversal of the tonal sequence in the denser areas of a photographic negative or print, which adds strong black contours to the edges of major shapes. _____

Matching
I. Amid the social, political, cultural, and economic turbulence of the early twentieth century, visual art and design experienced a series of creative revolutions that brought the role of art and design in society into question, along with the longheld values and approaches to organizing space. These modern movements influenced the graphic language of form and visual communications in the twentieth century. Match the descriptions of the five movements with the names of the movements listed below.

121

1. Expressionism ____ 2. Surrealism ____ 3. Cubism ____ 4. Futurism ____ 5. Dada ____

A. An explosive and emotionally charged poetry that defied correct syntax and grammar set this movement in motion. The movement’s leaders initiated the publication of manifestos, typographic experimentation, and publicity stunts, forcing poets and graphic designers to rethink the very nature of the typographic word and its meaning. B. Young French writers and poets in Paris sparked this movement in 1924. They sought the “more real than real world behind the real”—the world of intuition, dreams, and the unconscious realm explored by Freud. They professed a poetic faith in man and his spirit, believing humanity could be freed from its social and moral conventions, and that intuition and feeling could be freed as well. In his 1924 manifesto, the movement’s founder imbued the world with all the magic of dreams, the spirit of rebellion, and the mysteries of the subconscious. C. Reacting against a world gone mad, the participants in this movement claimed to be anti-art and had a strong negative and destructive element. Its writers and artists were concerned with shock, protest, and nonsense. They bitterly rebelled against the horrors of the world war, the decadence of European society, the shallowness of blind faith in technological progress, and the inadequacy of religion and conventional moral codes. Rejecting all tradition, they sought complete freedom. Through a synthesis of spontaneous chance actions with planned decisions, they further rid typographic design of its traditional precepts and continued the concept of letterforms as concrete visual shapes, not just phonetic symbols. D. By innovating a new approach to visual composition, this movement changed the course of painting and graphic design. Its visual inventions became a catalyst for experiments that pushed art and design toward geometric abstraction and new approaches to pictorial space. E. This movement emerged as an organized movement in Germany before World War I and was characterized by the tendency to depict not objective reality, but subjective emotions and personal responses to subjects and events. Revolting against conventional aesthetic forms and cultural norms, the movement’s leaders felt a deep sense of social crisis, especially during the years surrounding World War I. Many of its adherents rejected 122

the authority of the military, education, government, and the emperor; felt deep empathy for the poor and social outcasts, who were frequent subjects of their work; and believed art was a beacon pointing toward a new social order and improving the human condition.

II. Match the key words with the correct definitions. 1. collage ____ 2. manifesto ____ 3. pattern poetry ____ 4. calligrammes ____ 5. simultaneity ____ 6. photomontage ____

A. A public declaration of principles, policies, or intentions B. Concurrent existence or occurrence, such as the presentation of different views in the same work of art C. The technique of manipulating found photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations D. A composition of elements glued onto a surface E. Guillame Apollinaire’s name for poems in which the letterforms are arranged to form a visual design, figure, or pictograph F. The futurist concept that writing and/or typography could become a concrete visual that expressed auditory effects by such devices as omitting capitalization and punctuation, varying word spacing to signify pauses, and using multiple punctuation marks for emphasis

III. Match the techniques listed below with the definitions listed at right. 1. Photomontage ____ 2. Solarization ____ 3. Automatism ____

123

A. This technique seeks uninhibited truth through stream-of-consciousness writing. B. This technique manipulates found photographic images to create jarring juxtapositions and chance associations. C. This technique adds strong black contours to the edges of major shapes and is achieved by giving a latent or developing photographic image a second exposure to light.

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, the movement, and date of the following images. 1. Fig. 13-9 _____________________________________________ 2. Fig. 13-29 ____________________________________________ 3. Fig. 13-42 ____________________________________________ 4. Fig. 13-46 ____________________________________________

124

Chapter 14 – Pictorial Modernism

Introduction, 269 Plakatstil, 270 Switzerland and the Sachplakat, 272 The poster goes to war, 274 The maverick from Munich, 277 Post-cubist pictorial modernism, 278

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) The Beggarstaffs, page 269 Plakatstil (poster style), page 270 Sachplakat, page 274, (Fig. 14-17) Mein Kampf, page 278 Swastika, page 278 Art deco, page 279 Zigzag line, page 279 Armory Show, page 279

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

James Pryde (1866–1941), page 269

125

William Nicholson (1872–1949), page 269 Dudley Hardy (1866–1922), page 270 Lucian Bernhard (1883–1972), page 270, (Fig. 14-7) Hans Rudi Erdt (1883–1918), page 271, (Figs. 14-8 and 14-9) Julius Gipkens (b. 1883), page 271, (Fig. 14-10) Julius Klinger (1876–1950), page 271, (Fig. 14-19) Emil Cardinaux (1877–1936), page 272, (Fig. 14-15) Niklaus Stoeklin (1896–1982), page 274 Herbert Leupin (1814–99), page 274 Otto Lehmann (b. 1865), page 275, (Fig. 14-24) Alfred Leete (1882–1933), page 275 James Montgomery Flagg (1877–1960), page 275, (Fig. 14-27) Joseph C. Leyendecker (1874–1951), page 275 Jesse Willcox Smith (1863–1935), page 276, (Fig. 14-30) Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), page 277 Violet Oakley (1874–1961), page 277 Ludwig Hohlwein (1874–1949), page 277 Edward McKnight Kauffer (1890–1954), page 279, (Figs. 14-38 through 14-40) A. M. Cassandre (1901–1968), page 279 Jean Carlu (1900–1989), page 283 Paul Colin (1892–1989), page 283, (Fig. 14-51) Austin Cooper (1890–1964), page 283, (Fig. 14-52) Joseph Binder (1898–1972), page 284 Abram Games (1914–1996), page 285

126

Chapter 14 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. The modern-art movements and the communication needs of world war affected the approach to poster design. The shift from naturalism, which began with Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, continued with the work of James Pryde and William Nicholson during their brief advertising career. But it was Lucian Bernhard who inspired the design approach that emerged in Germany early in the twentieth century known as _____________. A. pictorial modernism B. Sachplakat C. Plakatstil D. art deco 2. Bernhard’s approach, and the subsequent style that he inspired, was characterized by three of the following. Which does NOT belong? ___________ A. concept B. flat color C. product name D. dominant, simple images 3. Brothers-in-law James Pryde and William Nicholson, both respected academic painters, opened an advertising design studio in 1898. To protect their reputations as artists, they took on the pseudonym _____________. A. Priester B. Manoli C. Metropolis D. The Beggarstaffs 4. During their brief collaboration, James Pryde and William Nicholson developed a new technique that was later named _____________. Their 1895 poster for Harper’s Magazine (Fig. 14-2) is an example that uses this technique. A. collage 127

B. Plakatstil C. Sachplakat D. art deco 5. In Switzerland, even after modern production procedures such as offset printing began to be used for most poster production, traditional lithographic crafts were retained in what was known as Basel realism. The works of Niklaus Stoecklin, Otto Baumberger, and Herbert Leupin, which were characterized by a simple, laconic, and sometimes hyperrealistic approach, were called _____________ because they featured individual objects as the main subject. A. collage B. Plakatstil C. Sachplakat D. art deco 6. The poster reached the zenith of its importance as a communications medium during World War I (1914–18). Which of the following communications goals does NOT belong to the role of the poster during this period? ______________ A. Posters were used to recruit soldiers and to boost public morale to maintain popular support for the war effort. B. Posters helped raise money to finance the war and prevent government bankruptcy. C. Posters rallied public support for conservation and home gardening to lessen the risk of acute shortages while resources were diverted to the war effort. D. Posters promoted radio programs that kept listeners informed about the conditions of the war. E. Posters assailed the enemy for its barbarism and threat to civilization. 7. A direct application of ____________ can be seen in this poster by Austin Cooper (Fig. 14-52), which attempts to spark memories of the viewer’s earlier Continental visits by presenting fragments and glimpses of landmarks. A. futurism B. expressionism C. Dada D. cubism 128

E. surrealsim 8. ____________ of Munich began his career as a graphic illustrator with work commissioned by Jugend magazine as early as 1904. James Pryde and William Nicholson were his initial inspiration; however, he applied a rich range of texture and decorative pattern to his images. During the first half of the twentieth century, his work evolved with changing social conditions. Hitler’s ideas gained a visual presence through his work as the repetition of his images reinforced Nazi propaganda. As the Nazi dictatorship consolidated its power, his work moved toward a bold, imperial, and militaristic style of tight, heavy forms and strong, tonal contrasts. His reputation as a significant graphic designer was seriously tarnished by his close collaboration with the Nazis. A. Edward McKnight Kauffer B. A. M. Cassandre C. Ludwig Hohlwein D. James Montgomery Flagg 9. During World War I, posters of the Central Powers countries (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary) differed from those of the Allied Powers countries (led by France and Great Britain and joined by the United States in 1917). Posters from the United States, for example, tended to be more ____________ than those from Germany. A. expressive B. restrained C. symbolic D. illustrative 10. All of the following but one were influences on art deco. Which one does NOT belong? ___________ A. cubism B. the Vienna Secession C. Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz D. Egyptian motifs 11. His love of letterforms is evidenced by an exceptional ability to integrate words and images into a total composition. He achieved concise statements by combining telegraphic copy (text), powerful geometric forms, and symbolic imagery created by simplifying natural forms into almost pictographic silhouettes. Among his well-known works are the Dubonnet advertising campaign (Fig. 14129

46), the 1931 poster for the ocean liner L’Atlantique, and typefaces for the Deberny and Peignot type foundry, including Bifur, a quintessential art deco display typeface. ___________ A. Lord Horatio Kitchener B. A. M. Cassandre C. Edward McKnight Kauffer D. James Montgomery Flagg 12. In 1924, Austin Cooper made an interesting foray into the use of pure geometric shape and ____________ to solve a communications problem for the London Underground, in which he symbolized the temperature changes as one leaves the cold street in winter or the hot street in summer for the greater comfort of the underground railway. A. color B. solarization C. textura typography D. photomontage

True/False
1. In the style known as Plakatstil, which emerged during the 1920s and 1930s, streamlining, zigzag, and decorative geometry were used to express the modern era of the machine while still satisfying a passion for decoration that carried over from art nouveau. _____ 2. The posters “L’Atlantique” (“The Atlantic”) and “L’Étoile du Nord” (“North Star Paris-to-Amsterdam Night Train”) include areas of value gradients (shading), which soften the severe geometry of the work. _____ 3. While the poster was an important vehicle for propaganda during World War I, it was secondary to the new medium of radio. _____

Image Identification
I. Identify the designer, the style, and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 14-3 _______________________________________________ 2. Fig. 14-7 _______________________________________________ 130

3. Fig. 14-8 _______________________________________________

II. Match the image with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 14-36 ____ 2. Fig. 14-38 ____ 3. Fig. 14-53 ____

A. Austin Cooper B. Ludwig Hohlwein C. Edward McKnight Kauffer

131

Chapter 15 – A New Language of Form

Introduction, 287 Russian suprematism and constructivism, 287 De Stijl, 299 The spread of constructivism, 305

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Cubo-futurism, page 287 Suprematism, page 287 Constructivists, page 289 Tectonics, page 289 Texture, page 289 Construction, page 289 PROUNS, page 290, (Fig. 15-8) Novyi lef (Left Front of the Arts), page 294 Serial painting, page 295, (Fig. 15-29) Infantilism, page 298, (Figs. 15-38 and 15-39) (Figs. 15-40 and 15-41) De Stijl, page 299, (Figs. 15-42 through 15-44) De Stijl journal, page 300 Clementarism, page 301 Mechano-faktura theory, page 304, (Fig. 15-62) Roklama mechano, page 307

132

Dev\tsil (Nine Forces), page 307

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Kasimir Malevich (1878–1935), page 287, (Fig. 15-5 through 15-7) Vladimir Tatlin (1885–1953), page 287 Alexander Rodchenko (1891–1956), page 287, (Figs. 15-25 through 15-29) Aleksei Gan (1893–1942), page 289 El Lissitzky, page 289, (Figs. 15-8 through 15-10) (Fig. 15-12 through 15-17) Salomon Telingater, page 295, (Fig. 15-30) Georgii (1900–1933) and Vladimir Augustovich (1899–1982) Stenberg, page 295, (Figs. 15-31 through 15-33) Gustav Klutsis (1895–1944), page 295, (Figs. 15-34 through 15-37) Vladimir Vasilevich Lebedev (1891–1967), page 296, (Figs. 15-38 through 15-41) Théo van Doesburg (1883–1931), page 299, (Fig. 15-43) Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), page 299, (Fig. 15-42) Bart Anthony van der Leck (1876–1958), page 299, (Figs. 15-44 and 15-45) Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), page 299, (Figs. 15-46 and 15-47) Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (1890–1963), page 299, (Fig. 15-55) László Moholy-Nagy (1895–1946), page 300, (Figs. 15-69 and 15-70) Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), page 303, (Fig. 15-54) Henryk Berlewi (1894–1967), page 304, (Fig. 15-62) Ladislav Sutnar (1897–1976), page 307, (Figs. 15-64 through 15-66) Karel Teige (1900–1951), page 307, (Fig. 15-67)

133

Chapter 15 – Study Questions
1. The constructivist ideal was best exemplified by ____________, who was influenced by Kasimir Malevich and applied suprematist theory to constructivism, as evident in the 1919 poster “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” (Fig. 15-9), in which he transformed suprematist design elements into political symbolism for communication purposes. A. Ilya Zdanevich B. El Lissitzky C. Vladimir Tatlin D. Alexander Rodchenko 2. By 1920, a deep ideological split developed in Russia concerning the role of the artist in the new communist state. Some artists argued that art should remain an essentially spiritual activity apart from the utilitarian needs of society. They rejected a social or political role, believing the sole aim of art to be realizing perceptions of the world by inventing forms in space and time. Others renounced “art for art’s sake” to devote themselves to industrial design, visual communications, and applied arts serving the new communist society. For example, _____________ turned from sculpture to the design of a stove that would provide maximum heat from minimum fuel, and ____________ gave up painting for graphic design and photojournalism. A. Edward McKnight Kauffer and A. M. Cassandre B. Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko C. Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens D. Kasimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky 3. One of the most influential book designs of the 1920s was ______________, a forty-eight-page pictorially illustrated portfolio that El Lissitzky edited with Dadaist Hans Arp. The format for this book was an important step toward the creation of a visual program for organizing information. Other important design considerations included asymmetrical balance, silhouette halftones, a skillful use of white space, and sans-serif typography with bold rules, an early expression of the modernist aesthetic. A. For the Voice B. Notes of a Poet C. The Isms of Art 134

D. Basic Concepts of Form-Making 4. ______________, the master of propaganda photomontage, referred to the medium as “the art construction for socialism.” He used the poster as a means of extolling Soviet accomplishments, as in the 1931 poster “Building Socialism Under the Banner of Lenin.” His work has been compared to John Heartfield’s powerful political posters. A. Vladimir Augustovich Stenberg B. Alexander Rodchenko C. El Lissitzky D. Gustav Klutsis 5. With the growth of the Soviet children’s book industry under Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy of the 1920s, ______________ became the father of the twentieth-century Russian picture book. He cultivated “infantilism” in his work by borrowing the spontaneous and naïve techniques of children’s art. In his picture books, he illustrated Marxist parables on the superiority of the Soviet system to capitalism. A. Gustav Klutsis B. Vladimir Vasilevich Lebedev C. Georgii Stenberg D. Saloman Telingater 6. The de Stijl movement’s founder and guiding spirit _____________ was de Stijl, so it is understandable that de Stijl as an organized movement did not survive his death at age forty-seven in 1931. A. Théo van Doesburg B. Piet Mondrian C. Bart Anthony van der Leck D. Vilmos Huszár 7. After World War I, constructivist ideas were adopted by artists in other countries, including Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. In Czechoslavakia, __________ became the leading supporter and practitioner of functional design. He advocated the constructivist ideal and the application of design principles to every aspect of contemporary life. His book jackets and editorial designs evinced an organizational simplicity and typographic clarity, giving graphic impact to the communication. A good example is the 1929 cover design for Getting Married, in

135

which a triangle creates a strong focal point, unifies the silhouetted figures, and becomes the main structural element in a delicately balanced composition. A. Henryk Berlewi B. Ladislav Sutnar C. László Moholy-Nagy 8. In 1921, the Hungarian ____________ moved to Berlin, where El Lissitzky, Kurt Schwitters, and Théo van Doesburg were frequent visitors to his studio. He saw type as form and texture, to be composed with a rectangle, lines, and spatial intervals in order to achieve dynamic equilibrium through which clarity of communication and harmony of form could be achieved, as in his design for Arthur Lehning’s avant-garde publication i10 (Fig. 15-70). This is one of the purest examples of de Stijl principles applied to typography. A. László Moholy-Nagy B. Ladislav Sutnar C. Henryk Berlewi 9. The Polish designer ____________ evolved his mechano-faktura theory while working in Germany in 1922 and 1923. He believed that modern art was filled with illusionistic pitfalls, so he mechanized painting and graphic design into a constructed abstraction that abolished any illusions of three dimensions, as on page 6 of the 1925 Putos Chocolates brochure (Fig. 16-63). A. László Moholy-Nagy B. Ladislav Sutnar C. Henryk Berlewi

Image Identification
I. Match the figure with the name of its designer or appropriate movement. 1. Fig. 15-18 __________ A. El Lissitsky B. Théo van Doesburg C. Alexander Rodchenko 2. Fig. 15 -17 __________ A. El Lissitsky 136

B. Théo van Doesburg C. Alexander Rodchenko 3. Fig. 15-23 __________ A. El Lissitsky B. B. Théo van Doesburg C. Alexander Rodchenko 4. Fig. 15-43 _________ A. constructivism B. Dada C. suprematism D. de Stijl 5. Fig. 15-48 __________ A. Piet Mondrian B. Bart van der Leck C. Théo van Doesburg D. Gerrit Rietveld

II. During the postwar years, when Edward McKnight Kauffer and A. M. Cassandre were applying synthetic cubism’s planes to the poster in England and France, a formal typographic approach to graphic design emerged in Holland and Russia. Match the description of the movement listed below with the name of the movement. 1. The leaders of this movement rejected both utilitarian function and pictorial representation, instead seeking the “expression of feeling, seeking no practical values, no ideas, no promised land.” They believed that the essence of the art experience was the perceptual effect of color. Visual form became the content, and expressive qualities developed from the intuitive organization of the forms and colors. ____ 2. This movement symbolized the creative process and the search for laws of visual organization. The movement’s leader developed a painting style that he called PROUNS (“projects for the establishment of a new art”), which introduced three-dimensional illusions that both receded behind the

137

picture plane and projected forward form the picture plane. He developed visual ideas about balance, space, and form in his paintings, which became the basis for his graphic design and architecture. He put increasing emphasis on graphic design, as he moved from private aesthetic experience into the mainstream of communal life. ____ 3. This movement was launched in the Netherlands in the late summer of 1917. Working in an abstract geometric style, the leaders of this movement sought universal laws of equilibrium and harmony for art, which could then be a prototype for a new social order. They worked within a proscribed SM Should be prescribed ( a rule to be followed) visual vocabulary that was reduced to the use of primary colors (red, yellow, and blue) with neutrals (black, gray, and white), straight horizontal and vertical lines, and flat planes limited to rectangles and squares. They advocated the absorption of pure art by applied art. The spirit of art could then permeate society through architectural, product, and graphic design. Under this system, art would not be subjugated to the level of the everyday object; the everyday object (and, through it, everyday life) would be elevated to the level of art. ____

A. de Stijl B. suprematism C. constructivism

III. As with earlier movements, unique publications spread ideas about suprematism, constructivism, and de Stijl. Match the descriptions of the magazines below with the titles of the publications. 1. Théo van Doesburg edited and published this journal. He designed a logo for the magazine with letters constructed from an open grid of squares and rectangles. The publication advocated the absorption of pure art by applied art and became a natural vehicle for expressing the movement’s principles through graphic design. ____ 2. During the early 1920s, the Soviet government offered official encouragement to the new Russian art and even sought to publicize it through an international journal created by Ilya Ehrenburg and El Lissitzky. They saw the publication as a meeting point for new works from different nations in which parallel yet isolated art and design movements that had occurred during a seven-year period of isolation caused by revolution and war could be showcased. The title was chosen because the editors believed that art meant the creation of new objects. ____

138

3. Alexander Rodchenko designed this magazine for all fields of the creative arts. His design style was rooted in strong, static horizontal and vertical forms. Overprinting, kiss registration, and photomontage were used regularly. Rodchenko delighted in contrasting bold, blocky type and hardedged shapes against the softer forms and edges of photomontages, as shown in Chapter 17 on the magazine’s cover designs. ____

A. Novyi lef (Left Front of the Arts) B. De Stijl magazine C. Veshch/Gegenstand/Objet

139

Chapter 16 – The Bauhaus and the New Typography

Introduction, 310 The Bauhaus at Weimar, 310 The impact of László Moholy-Nagy, 312 The Bauhaus at Dessau, 315 The final years of the Bauhaus, 317 Jan Tschichold and Die Neue Typographie (The New Typography), 319 Typeface design in the first half of the twentieth century, 323 The Isotype movement, 326 The prototype for the modern map, 327 Independent voices in the Netherlands, 328 New approaches to photography, 333

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) The Bauhaus, page 310 Bauhaus Manifesto, page 310 Utopia, page 310 Typophoto, page 313, (Fig. 16-8) Photoplastics, page 314, (Fig. 16-11) Die Neue Typographie, page 319 Kabel, page 324, (Fig. 16-40) (see Fig. 10-35) Isotype, page 326, (Fig. 16-42) Typotekt, page 330 140

Experimenta Typographica, page 333, (Figs. 16-57 and 16-58) Graphis, page 334

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Walter Gropius (1883–1969), page 269 Johannes Itten (1888–1967), page 311 Lyonel Feininger (1871–1956), page 312 László Moholy-Nagy, page 312 Gyorgy Kepes (1906–2002), page 313 Herbert Bayer (1900–1985), page 316, (Fig. 16-19) Joost Schmidt (1893–1948), page 317, (Fig. 16-22) Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969), page 318 Jan Tschichold (1902–1974), page 319 Eric Gill (1882–1940), page 323 Stanley Morison (1889–1967), page 324 Paul Renner (1878–1956), page 324 Rudolf Koch, page 324, (Fig. 16-40) Otto Neurath (1882–1945), page 326 Marie Reidermeister (1898–1959), page 326 Gerd Arntz (1900–1988), page 326, (Fig. 16-43) Rudolf Modley (1906–1976), page 327 Henry C. Beck (b. 1903), page 327 Piet Zwart (1885–1977), page 328, (Fig. 16-50) Hendrik N. Werkman (1882–1945), page 331 Paul Schuitema (1897–1973), page 331

141

Willem Sandberg (1897–1984), page 333, (Figs. 16-57 and 16-58) Herbert Matter (1907–1984), page 333, (Fig. 16-62) Walter Herdeg (1908–1995), page 334, (Fig. 16-65)

142

Chapter 16 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Located in _____________ from 1919–1924, the Bauhaus was the German design school where ideas from all the advanced art and design movements were explored, combined, and applied to problems of functional design and machine production. Workshops were taught both by an artist who focused on form, and a craftsman who focused on production. At first the workshops were organized like medieval guilds—master, journeyman, and apprentice. The original slogan of the school, “A Unity of Art and Handicraft,” was later replaced by “Art and Technology, A New Unity.” A new seal designed by Oscar Schlemmer replaced the 1919 Bauhaus seal, which is attributed to Johannes Auerbach. A. Dessau, Germany B. Weimar, Germany C. Dusseldorf, Germany D. Ulm, Germany 2. Due to growing tension between the Bauhaus and the city government, on December 26, 1924, the director and masters of the school all signed a letter of resignation. Two weeks later the students signed a letter informing the government that they would leave with the masters. In April 1925, the Bauhaus moved to _____________. A new building complex was designed, and the curriculum was reorganized in the fall of 1926. A. Dessau, Germany B. Weimar, Germany C. Dusseldorf, Germany D. Ulm, Germany 3. ____________’s passion for typography and photography inspired a Bauhaus interest in visual communications and led to important experiments in the unification of these two arts. He saw graphic design, particularly the poster, as evolving toward the “typophoto.” He called this objective integration of word and image to communicate a message with immediacy “the new visual literature.” The 1923 “Pneumatik” poster is an experimental typophoto. He also believed that the photogram, because it allowed an artist to capture a patterned interplay of 143

light and dark on a sheet of light-sensitive paper without a camera, represented the essence of photography. A. Herbert Bayer B. Walter Gropius C. László Moholy-Nagy D. Joost Schmidt 4. During the period from 1925–1932, the typography workshop at the Bauhaus taught by _____________ solicited printing orders from local businesses and made typographic design innovations along functional and constructivist lines. Sans-serif type was used almost exclusively. This professor experimented with flush-left, ragged-right typesetting; established visual hierarchy after careful analysis of content; and explored open composition on an implied grid and a system of sizes for type, rules, and pictorial images. He designed a universal type that reduced the alphabet to clear, simple, and rationally constructed forms. He argued that we print and write with two alphabets (capital and lowercase) that are incompatible in design and that two totally different signs represent the same spoken sound. A. Walter Gropius B. László Moholy-Nagy C. Herbert Bayer D. Josef Albers 5. The accomplishments and influences of the Bauhaus transcend its fourteen-year life, thirty-three faculty members, and approximately 1,250 students. It created a viable, modern design movement spanning architecture, product design, and visual communications. A modernist approach to visual education was developed, and the faculty’s class preparation and teaching methods made a major contribution to visual theory. In dissolving the boundaries between fine and applied arts, the school tried to bring art into a close relationship with life by way of design, which was seen as a vehicle for social change and cultural revitalization. The ______________, which dominated the city council, canceled faculty contracts in 1932. The faculty voted to dissolve the school, and on August 10, 1933, it closed. A. Thuringian government B. Nazi Party C. Catholic Church D. Bolsheviks 144

6. Much of the creative innovation in graphic design during the first decades of the twentieth century occurred as part of the modern-art movements and at the Bauhaus, but these explorations toward a new approach to graphic design were often seen and understood only by a limited audience outside the mainstream of society. It was ______________, the son of a designer and sign painter in Leipzig, Germany, who applied the new design approaches to a wide audience of printers, typesetters, and designers through his book Die Neue Typographie (The New Typography). He was disgusted with the “degenerate typefaces and arrangements” and sought to find a new, asymmetrical typography to express the spirit, life, and visual sensibility of the day. His objective was functional design by the most straightforward means, and he declared the aim of every typographic work to be the delivery of a message in the shortest, most efficient manner. A. Mies van der Rohe B. Walter Gropius C. Herbert Bayer D. Jan Tschichold 7. Which typeface is associated with Paul Renner? _________ A. Times New Roman B. Leichte Kabel C. Futura D. Universal Alphabet 8. Which typeface is associated with Herbert Bayer? _________ A. Times New Roman B. Leichte Kabel C. Futura D. Universal Alphabet 9. Which typeface is associated with Rudolph Koch? _________ A. Times New Roman B. Leichte Kabel C. Futura D. Universal Alphabet

145

10. Which typeface is associated with Stanley Morison, the typographic advisor to the British Monotype Corporation, who supervised the design of a major twentieth-century typeface that was introduced on October 3, 1932? _________ A. Times New Roman B. Leichte Kabel C. Futura D. Universal Alphabet 11. An architectural apprentice dropout tutored by Edward Johnston at the turn of the nineteenth century, type designer ___________ embraced historical influences, such as the Trajan capitals, medieval manuscripts, the incunabula, Baskerville, and Caslon. He designed Golden Cockerel, which is a revitalized roman incorporating both old style and transitional qualities. He also designed Perpetua, an antique roman face inspired by the inscription on Trajan’s column but subtly reconceived to accommodate the needs of typecasting and printing. Another typeface he designed was named after him. His work for The Four Gospels (Fig. 16-36) demonstrates a synthesis of old and new. A. Paul Renner B. Jakob Erbar C. Rudolph Koch D. Eric Gill 12. The important movement toward developing a “world language without words” began in the 1920s, continued into the 1940s, and still has important influences today. The ____________ concept involves the use of elementary pictographs to convey information. The originator of this effort was Vienna sociologist Otto Neurath. He felt that the social and economic changes following World War I demanded clear communication to assist public understanding of important social issues relating to housing, health, and economics. A system of elementary pictographs to present complex data, particularly statistical data, was developed. A. pictographic B. Isotype C. Typotekt D. Bauhaus 13. In the Netherlands, several designers were influenced by the modern movements and the new typography. Among them was Dutch designer _____________, who combined the Dada movement’s playful vitality and de Stijl’s functionalism and formal clarity. As his work evolved, he rejected both traditional symmetrical 146

layouts and de Stijl’s insistence on strict verticals and horizontals. Instead, he designed the space as a “field of tension” brought alive by rhythmic composition, vigorous contrasts of size and weight, and a dynamic interplay between typographic form and the background page. His personal logo is a visual/verbal pun based on his last name. A. Hendrik N. Werkman B. Piet Zwart C. Willem Sandberg D. Paul Schuitema 14. Dutch designer _____________ is noted for his experimentation with type, printing ink, brayers, ink rollers, and a small press to produce monoprints that he called druksels (prints). In September 1923, he began publication of The Next Call, a small magazine of typographic experiments and texts, in which he explored type as concrete visual form as well as alphabetic communication. His process of building a design from ready-made components can be compared to the creative process of the Dadaists, particularly collage (Fig. 16-54), pages 4 and 5 of the January 24, 1924 issue of The Next Call. A. Hendrik N. Werkman B. Piet Zwart C. Willem Sandberg D. Paul Schuitema 15. Another important Dutch constructivist graphic designer, _____________ integrated objective photography with typography (Fig. 16-55). This example of a brochure cover was for Berkel Model Z scales, one of his most important clients. He taught at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten (Royal Academy of Fine Arts) in The Hague for thirty years, where he inspired several generations of designers. A. Hendrik N. Werkman B. Piet Zwart C. Willem Sandberg D. Paul Schuitema 16. _____________ was the director of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam from 1945 until 1963. While hiding and working for the Resistance during World War II, he created his Experimenta Typographica, a series of probing typographic experiments in form and space that was published in the mid-1950s. He was fascinated by serendipity, such as the unexpected relationship that occurred 147

when the rough edges of torn paper were juxtaposed with crisp edges of type (Figs.16-60 and 16-61), the cover and inside spread from Nu (Now) no. 2, 1968. A. Hendrik N. Werkman B. Piet Zwart C. Willem Sandberg D. Paul Schuitema 17. The role of photography as a graphic communications tools was expanded by ________________. At age 25 he returned to Switzerland from Paris, where he had studied painting under Fernand Léger and worked with the Deberny and Peignot type foundry. His posters from the 1930s for the Swiss National Tourist Office use montage, dynamic scale changes, and an effective integration of typography and illustration. Photographic images become pictorial symbols that have been removed from their naturalistic environments and linked together in unexpected ways. In his travel poster proclaiming that all roads lead to Switzerland, three levels of photographic information combine in a dramatic expression of space. In the foreground, a cobblestone road photographed from ground level thrusts back into the space. Its motion is stopped by a ridge bearing the famous Swiss roadway that twists and winds over the mountains. Finally, a majestic mountain peak soars up against the blue sky. A. Walter Herdeg B. Herbert Matter 18. During the depths of World War II, graphic designer Walter Herdeg launched a bimonthly international graphic design magazine called _____________. He published, edited, and designed the magazine for forty-two years and 246 issues. This magazine stimulated an unprecedented global dialogue among graphic designers and is still being published today. A. CA B. Graphis C. ID D. Typographische Monatsblätter

148

Chapter 17 – The Modern Movement in America

Introduction, 336 Immigrants to America, 339 The Works Progress Administration Poster Project, 342 The flight from fascism, 342 A patron of design, 342 The war years, 344 After the war, 346 International and scientific graphics, 350

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Armory Show, page 336 Rural Electrification Administration, page 338 Works Progress Administration (WPA), page 342 Federal Art Project, page 342 Container Corporation of America (CCA), page 342, (Fig. 17-21)

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

William Addison Dwiggins (1880–1956), page 336, (Fig. 17-2) S. A. Jacobs, page 337, (Fig. 17-3) Merle Armitage (1893–1975), page 337, (Fig. 17-4) 149

Lester Beall (1903–1969), page 337, (Fig. 17-5) Erté (Romain de Tirtoff) (1892–1990), page 339, (Fig. 17-9) Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha (1896–1978), page 339 Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971), page 339, (Figs. 17-11 through 17-14) Alexander Liberman (1912–1999), page 339, (Fig. 17-16) Carmel Snow (1887–1961), page 339 Martin Munkacsi (1896–1963), page 339, (Fig. 17-10) Joseph Binder (1898–1972), page 341, (Fig. 17-45) Herbert Bayer (1900–1985), page 342 (also see Chapter 16) Will Burtin (1908–1972), page 342, (Fig. 17-20) Jean Carlu (1900–1997), page 342, (Fig. 17-24) George Giusti (1908–90), page 342 Herbert Matter (1907–1984), page 342 Ladislav Sutnar (1897–1976), page 342, (Fig. 17-48) Walter P. Paepcke (1896–1960), page 342 Elizabeth Nitze Paepcke (1902–94), page 342 Egbert Jacobson (1890–1966), page 342 Charles Coiner (1898–1989), page 343 John Atherton (1900–1952), page 344, (Fig. 17-25) Ben Shahn (1898–1969), page 344, (Fig. 17-28) Art Kane (1925–1995), page 348

150

Chapter 17 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. America was introduced to modernism at the 1913 _____________ but it was met by public protest and initially rejected. The same reaction awaited Jan Tschichold’s Élémentaire Typographie insert. However, a small number of American typographers and designers, such as William Addison Dwiggins, S. A. Jacobs, Merle Armitage, and Lester Beall, recognized the value of the new ideas, and modernism slowly gained ground in book design, editorial design for fashion and business magazines catering to affluent audiences, and promotional and corporate graphics. By the 1930s, modernist European design had become a significant influence in America. A. New York World’s Fair B. Armory Show C. Federal Art Project 2. The modernist approach slowly gained ground in America on several fronts. Among the transitional designers in America was _____________. After two decades in advertising, he began designing books for Alfred A. Knopf in 1926, and established Knopf’s reputation for excellence in book design. He experimented with uncommon title page layouts, two-column book formats, and collage-like stenciled ornaments that reflected the influence of cubism, as seen in the 1936 title pages from The Power of Print and Men (Fig. 17-2). He also designed eighteen typefaces for Mergenthaler Linotype, including the text face Caledonia; Electra, a modern design with reduced thick and thin contrast; and Metro, Linotype’s geometric sans-serif created to compete with Futura and Kabel. A. S. A. Jacobs B. Merle Armitage C. William Addison Dwiggins D. Lester Beall 3. The work of __________ broke with traditional advertising layout. He understood Jan Tschichold’s new typography and the Dada movement’s random organization, the intuitive placement of elements and role of chance in the creative process. He often combined flat planes of color and elementary signs, such as arrows with photography. He admired the strong character and form of 151

nineteenth-century American wood types and incorporated them into his work. He sought visual contrast and a rich level of information content. In his posters for the Rural Electrification Administration, a Federal agency charged with bringing electricity to less densely populated areas of the United States, the benefits of electricity are presented through signs understandable to illiterate and semiliterate audiences. A. Alexey Brodovitch B. Martin Munkácsi C. Lester Beall D. William Addison Dwiggins 4. A migratory process began slowly and reached the end of a crescendo by the late 1930s as cultural leaders from Europe, including many graphic designers, came to America. __________ became art director of Harper’s Bazaar in 1934 and remained in this position until 1958. A Russian immigrant to France, he established himself as a leading contemporary designer in Paris before heading to the United States in 1930. He had a passion for white space and open pages. He rethought the approach to editorial design and sought a musical feeling in the flow of text and pictures, which was energized by the art and photography that he commissioned from major European artists. He taught designers how to use photography. His choices for cropping enlarging, and juxtaposing images, and his exquisite selections from contact sheets all relied on his extraordinary intuition. He saw contrast as a dominant tool in editorial design and paid close attention to the individual page, the spread, and the graphic movement through the editorial pages of each issue (Figs. 17-11 and 17-12). A. A. M. Cassandre B. Erté C. Joseph Binder D. Alexey Brodovitch 5. On the eve of World War II, world events forced the United States to cast aside its neutrality, traditionalism, and provincialism; the new embrace of modernist design was part of this process. This 1939 poster for the New York World’s Fair by _____________ (Fig. 17-17) signifies America’s embrace of modernism, technology, and global power. This designer’s strong cubist beginnings yielded to a stylized realism, and his technique became more refined, in part because he used an airbrush to achieve highly finished forms. A. A. M. Cassandre B. Will Burtin

152

C. Joseph Binder D. Jean Carlu 6. In 1935, as part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal, the federal government created the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which provided job opportunities for the unemployed. The WPA’s _____________ enabled actors, musicians, visual artists, and writers to continue their professional careers. A poster project was included, and thousands of posters were designed and silk-screen printed for government-sponsored cultural events, including theatrical performances and art exhibitions, and public-service communications about health, crime prevention, housing, and education. The flat color characteristic of silk-screen combined with influences from the Bauhaus, pictorial modernism, and constructivism, producing a modernist result that contrasted with the traditional illustration style that dominated American graphic communication during this time. A. Great Ideas of Western Man B. Federal Art Project C. Great Books of the Western World D. World Geo-Graphic Atlas 7. A major figure in the development of modern design beginning in the 1930s was a Chicago industrialist named Walter P. Paepcke, who founded __________ in 1926. Paepcke was unique among the captains of industry of his generation, for he recognized that design could serve both a pragmatic business function and become a major cultural thrust by the corporation. The company’s ad campaign, called “Great Ideas of Western Man,” for example, separated it from its army of competitors. The campaign made the company appear somehow different to diverse audiences: a company whose management spent a portion of its advertising budget to convey great ideas must likewise possess positive social and cultural values. A. Upjohn B. Knoll Associates C. Sweet’s Catalog Service D. the Container Corporation of America 8. America’s wartime graphics, commissioned by the U.S. Office of War Information, ranged from posters to informational training materials and amateurish cartoons. Illustrator John Atherton, social realist Ben Shahn, and designers Joseph Binder, Edward McKnight Kauffer, and Herbert Bayer were among those commissioned by the Office of War Information to create posters in support of the war effort. A 1943 poster by _____________ (Fig. 17-25) 153

penetrates to the heart of the problem of careless talk, gossip, and discussion of troop movements as a source of enemy information. A. John Atherton B. Ben Shahn C. Joseph Binder D. Edward McKnight Kauffer E. Herbert Bayer 9. In 1941, as America’s entry into the global conflict became more obviously inevitable, the federal government began to develop propaganda posters to promote production. This famous poster (Fig. 17-24), created by _____________ for the Office of Emergency Management, is one of the finest designs of his career. Known as the “America’s answer! Production” poster, visual and verbal elements are inseparably interlocked into an intense symbol of productivity and work. Over 100,000 of these posters were distributed throughout the country and the designer was recognized with a top award by the New York Art Director’s Club Exhibition. A. John Atherton B. Jean Carlu C. Joseph Binder D. Edward McKnight Kauffer E. Herbert Bayer 10. Working closely with Sweet’s research director Knut Lönberg-Holm, ____________ developed a philosophy for structuring information in a logical and consistent manner. In two landmark books, Catalog Design and Catalog Design Progress, they documented and explained their approach. Informational design is defined as a synthesis of function, flow, and form. Function is utilitarian need with a definite purpose: to make information easy to find, read, comprehend, and recall. Flow means the logical sequence of information. Form refers to the arrangement of information. As he approached problems of form, static and uniform arrangements of information gave way to dynamic information patterns and clear, rational organization. A. Will Burtin B. Ladislav Sutnar C. Herbert Bayer D. Joseph Binder 154

11. An important milestone in the visual presentation of data was the publication in 1953 of the World Geo-Graphic Atlas by the Container Corporation of America. _____________, the designer and editor, worked for five years on the 368-page atlas, which contained 120 full-page maps of the world and 1,200 diagrams, graphs, charts, symbols, and other graphic communications about the planet. A. Will Burtin B. Edward McKnight Kauffer C. Herbert Bayer D. Joseph Binder E. Jean Carlu

True/False
1. During the 1920s and 1930s, graphic design in America was dominated by traditional illustration. _____

Image Identifiaction
I. Match the figure with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 17-11 ________ A. Alexey Brodovitch B. Erté C. M. Cassandre 2. Fig. 17-9 _________ A. Alexey Brodovitch B. Erté C. M. Cassandre 3. Fig. 17-23 _________ A. Alexey Brodovitch B. Erté C. M. Cassandre 155

4. Fig. 17-28 _________ A. Herbert Bayer B. Joseph Binder C. Ben Shahn 5. Fig. 17-31 _________ A. Herbert Bayer B. Joseph Binder C. Ben Shahn 6. Fig. 17-45 _________ A. Herbert Bayer B. Joseph Binder C. Ben Shahn

156

Chapter 18 – The International Typographic Style

Introduction, 356 Pioneers of the movement, 356 Functional graphics for science, 359 New Swiss sans-serif typefaces, 361 A master of classical typography, 361 Design in Basel and Zurich, 363 The International Typographic Style in America, 370

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) International Typographic Style, page 356 Art concret, page 356 Semiotics, page 357 Semantics, page 357 Syntactics, page 358 Pragmatics, page 358 Tectonic element, page 360 Univers, page 361, (Figs. 18-13 and 18-14) Helvetica, page 361, (Fig. 18-15) Manuale Typographicum, page 363, (Figs. 18-17 and 18-18) The golden mean, page 365

157

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Ernst Keller (1891–1968), page 356, (Fig. 18-1) Théo Ballmer (1902–1965), page 356, (Figs. 18-2 and 18-3) Max Bill (1908–1994), page 356, (Fig. 18-4) Otl Aicher (1922–1991), page 357, (see Figs. 22-37 through 22-40) Anthony Froshaug (1918–1984), page 357, (Fig. 18-6) Max Huber (1919–1992), page 358, (Figs. 18-7 and 18-8) Anton Stankowski (1906–1998), page 359, (Figs. 18-9 through 18-12) Adrian Frutiger (b. 1928), page 361, (Figs. 18-13 and 18-14) Edouard Hoffman (d. 1980) and Max Miedinger (1910–1980), page 361, (Fig. 18-15) Hermann Zapf (b. 1918), page 361, (Figs. 18-16 through 18-18) Emil Ruder (1914–1970), page 363, (Fig. 18-19) Armin Hofmann (b. 1920), page 363, (Figs. 18-20 through 18-23) Karl Gerstner (b. 1930), page 363 Carlo L. Vivarelli (1919–1986), page 364, (Fig. 18-25) Josef Müller-Brockmann (1914–1996), page 364, (Figs. 18-30 through 18-33) Siegfried Odermatt (b. 1926), page 365, (Figs. 18-36 through 18-38) Rosmarie Tissi, (b. 1937), page 370, (Fig. 18-39) Rudolph de Harak (b. 1924), page 370, (Figs. 18-40 through 18-42) Jacqueline S. Casey (1927–1991), page 372, (Fig. 18-43) (Fig. 18-45) Ralph Coburn (b. 1923), page 373, (Figs. 18-44) Dietmar Winkler (b. 1938), page 373, (Fig. 18-46) Arnold Saks (b. 1931), page 373, (Fig. 18-47)

158

Chapter 18 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. During the 1950s, a design movement emerged in Switzerland and Germany that has been called Swiss design or, more appropriately, the __________. The visual characteristics of this design movement include visual unity of design achieved through the asymmetrical organization of the design elements on a mathematically constructed grid; objective photography and copy that present visual and verbal information in a clear and factual manner, free from the exaggerated claims of much propaganda and commercial advertising; and sansserif typography set flush left, ragged right. The initiators of this movement believed sans-serif typography expressed the spirit of a progressive age and that mathematical grids were the most legible and harmonious means for structuring information. This design movement won converts throughout the world and remained a major force for over two decades, and its influence continues. A. Dada B. Memphis C. International Typographic Style D. new wave 2. The emerging Swiss design gained its alphabetical expression in several sansserif type families designed in the 1950s. The geometric sans-serif styles, mathematically constructed with drafting instruments during the 1920s and 1930s, were rejected in favor of new designs inspired by nineteenth-century Akzidenz Grotesk fonts. One of the new typefaces designed during this period was _____________, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually related fonts. All twenty-one have the same x-height and baseline, and all ascenders and descenders are the same length. Numbers replaced conventional nomenclature. A. Neuland B. Futura C. Helvetica D. Univers 3. __________ was the designer of the typeface mentioned in the preceding question, which was created as a palette of twenty-one visually-related fonts that 159

all have the same x-height and baseline and whose ascenders and descenders are the same length. A. Adrian Frutiger B. Emil Ruder C. Karl Gerstner D. Otl Aicher 4. Another new sans-serif was released as Neue Haas Grotesk by Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. When this design was produced in Germany by the now-defunct D. Stempel AG in 1961, the face was renamed with the traditional Latin name for Switzerland. _________ A. Neuland B. Futura C. Helvetica D. Univers 5. More important than the visual appearance of Swiss design is the attitude developed by early pioneers about their profession. Which of the following statements does NOT belong? ____________ A. Design is a socially useful and important activity. B. Personal expression and eccentric solutions were rejected, while a more universal and scientific approach to design problem solving was embraced. C. The designer is not an artist but an objective conduit for spreading important information among various components of society. D. Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality. E. Achieving clarity and order is the ideal. 6. A native of Nuremberg, Germany, _____________ apprenticed as a photo retoucher and studied calligraphy after he acquired a copy of Rudolph Koch’s book Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit (Writing as an Art Form). He became a freelance book designer and typographic designer, and at age twenty-two the first of his more than fifty typefaces was designed and cut for Stempel foundry. He developed an extraordinary sensitivity to letterforms in his activities as a calligrapher, typeface designer, typographer, and graphic designer. He viewed typeface design as “one of the most visible visual expressions of an age.” He designed Palatino in 1950, Melior in 1952, and Optima in 1958.

160

A. Adrian Frutiger B. Max Miedinger C. Edouard Hoffman D. Hermann Zapf 7. ___________ was a leading design theorist and practitioner in Zurich, Switzerland. He sought absolute and universal graphic expression through an objective and impersonal presentation, communicating to the audience without the interference of the designer’s subjective feelings or propagandistic techniques of persuasion, as in his 1960 public awareness poster “Weniger Lärm” (“Less Noise”). In his celebrated concert posters, like the “Musica Viva” concert poster of 1972, the language of constructivism created a visual equivalent to the structural harmony of the music to be performed. He worked extensively with mathematical grid structures. His 1960 exhibition poster “der Film” demonstrates the universal design harmony achieved by mathematical spatial division. A. Josef Müller-Brockman B. Armin Hofmann C. Siegfried Odermatt D. Rudolph de Harak 8. The _____________has a three-to-five ratio. A rectangle with this ratio was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the most beautifully proportioned rectangle. A. tectonic element B. art concret C. golden mean D. manuale typographicum 9. In 1950, Max Bill became involved in developing the graphic design program at the Institute of Design Institute in Ulm, Germany, which attempted to establish a center for research and training to address the design problems of the era. Otl Aicher, one of the Ulm cofounders, played an important role in establishing the graphic design program, and Anthony Froshaug set up the typography workshop. The curriculum included a study of __________: the general philosophical theory of signs and symbols. A. semantics B. pragmatics 161

C. semiotics D. syntactics 10. Particularly innovative in photography, photomontage, and darkroom manipulation of images, visual pattern and form were explored in _____________’s close-up photographs of common objects, whose texture and detail were transformed into abstract images. Ideas about color and form from his paintings often found their way into his graphic designs; conversely, wide-ranging form experimentation in search of design solutions seems to have provided shapes and compositional ideas for his fine art. After the war, his work started to crystallize into what was to become his major contribution to graphic design: the creation of visual forms to communicate invisible processes and physical forces. A. Otl Aicher B. Anthony Froshaug C. Richard Lohse D. Anton Stankowski 11. In his work and in his teaching, __________ sought a dynamic harmony through which all the parts of a design were unified. He saw the relationship of contrasting elements as the means of breathing life into a visual design. These contrasts included light to dark, curved lines to straight lines, form to counterform, and dynamic to static. He began teaching at the Basel School of Design in 1947, after completing his education in Zurich, Switzerland, and working as a staff designer for several studios. At the same time he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife. He applied a deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. He evolved a design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane. His work includes the logotype for the Stadt Theater Basel (Basel Civic Theater), 1954; the poster for the Basel Theater’s production of Giselle, 1959; and the trademark for the Swiss National Exhibition, Expo 1964. A. Emil Ruder B. Max Huber C. Armin Hofmann D. Josef Müller-Brockman 12. In 1947, Armin Hofmann began teaching graphic design at the _____________, and together with Emil Ruder, he developed an educational model linked to the elementary design principles of the Vorkurs (Preliminary Course) established in 1908. The same year, he opened a design studio in collaboration with his wife, Dorothea, where he applied deep aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. As time passed, he evolved a design philosophy 162

based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane, replacing traditional pictorial ideas with a modernist aesthetic. In 1965, he published Graphic Design Manual, a book that presents his application of elemental design principles to graphic design. A. School of Applied Art in Zurich, Switzerland B. Institute of Design in Ulm, Germany C. Basel School of Design in Basel, Switzerland 13. Siegfried Odermatt played an important role in applying the International Typographic Style to the communications of business and industry. He combined a succinct, efficient presentation of information with a dynamic visual quality, using straightforward photography with drama and impact. Ordinary images were turned into convincing and engaging photographs through the careful use of cropping, scale, and lighting, with attention to shape and texture as qualities that cause an image to emerge from the page. In the early 1960s, _____________ joined Odermatt. They loosened the boundaries of the International Typographic Style and introduced elements of chance, the development of surprising and inventive forms, and intuitive visual organization into the vocabulary of graphic design. This phase of the studio’s development marked the beginning of a break with the traditions of Swiss design. A. Emil Ruder B. Karl Gerstner C. Dietmar Winkler D. Rosmarie Tissi 14. The Swiss style was embraced in American corporate and institutional graphics during the 1960s and remained a prominent aspect of American design for over two decades. A notable example was found in the graphic design office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the early 1950s, MIT established a graphic design program enabling all members of the university community to benefit from free, professional design assistance on their publications and publicity materials. This was an early recognition of the cultural and communicative value of design by an American university. MIT based its graphic design program on a commitment to the grid and sans-serif typography. The staff was innovative in the use of designed letterforms, and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. This approach evolved in the work of ___________, the director of the Design Services Office. Letterforms became illustrations, for the design and arrangement of the letters in key words frequently became the dominant image, as in the 1974 poster for an MIT open house in which stencil letterforms announce the open house, and the open O does double duty as a concrete symbol of the opening of the campus to visitors.

163

A. Jacqueline Casey B. Ralph Coburn C. Dietmar Winkler D. Rosmarie Tissi

Image Identification
I. Match the figure with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 18-1 _________ A. Max Bill B. Théo Ballmer C. Ernst Keller 2. Fig. 18-5 _________ A. Max Bill B. Théo Ballmer C. Ernst Keller 3. Fig. 18-25 _________ A. Max Bill B. Théo Ballmer C. Ernst Keller D. Carlo Vivarelli 4. Fig. 18-25 _________ A. Josef Müller-Brockmann B. Carlo Vivarelli 5. Fig. 18-31 _________ A. Josef Müller-Brockmann B. Carlo Vivarelli

164

Chapter 19 – The New York School

Introduction, 374 Pioneers of the New York School, 374 Graphic design education at Yale University, 382 An editorial design revolution, 383 Editorial design after the decline, 386 The new advertising, 389 American typographic expressionism, 391

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Visual/verbal syntax, page 390 “The new advertising,” page 391 Figurative typography, page 391 Phototypography, page 392 Typogram, page 393

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Paul Rand (1914–1996), page 374, (Figs. 19-1 through 19-7) Bill Bernbach (1911–1982), page 375 Alvin Lustig (1915–1955), page 375, (Figs. 19-8 through 19-13) Alex Steinweiss (b. 1916), page 377, (Fig. 19-14) 165

Bradbury Thompson (1911–1995), page 377, (Figs. 19-15 through 19-18) Saul Bass (1919–1996), page 378, (Figs. 19-19 through Fig. 19-21) George Tscherny (b. 1924), page 381, (Figs. 19-23 and 19-24) Robert Brownjohn (1925–1970), page 381 Ivan Chermayeff (b. 1932), page 381 Thomas H. Geismar (b. 1931), page 381 Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar, page 381, (Figs. 19-25 through 19-27) Norman Ives (1923–1978), page 383 Leo Lionni (1910–1999), page 383, (Fig. 19-32) Alexander Liberman (1912–1999), page 383 Cipe Pineles (1910–1991), page 383, (Fig. 19-31) Otto Storch (b. 1913), page 384, (Figs. 19-33 through 19-36) Henry Wolf (b. 1925), page 385, (Figs. 19-37 through 19-40) Peter Palazzo (1926–2005), page 387, (Figs. 19-42 and 19-41) Dugald Stermer (b. 1936), page 388, (Fig. 19-43) Bea Feitler (1938–1982), page 388, (Fig. 19-44) Michael Salisbury (b. 1941), page 389, (Figs. 19-45 and 19-46) Doyle Dane Bernbach Agency, page 389, (Figs. 19-47 through 19-50) Bob Gage (b. 1919–2000), page 389 Phyllis Robinson (b. 1921), page 389 Gene Frederico (1919–1999), page 391, (Fig. 19-53) Edward Rondthaler (b. 1905), page 393 John Alcorn (1935–1992), page 393, (Fig. 19-55) Herb Lubalin (1918–1981), page 393, (Figs. 19-56 through 19-70) Aaron Burns (1922–1991), page 396 International Typeface Corporation (ITC), (Figs. 19-68 through 19-70) George Lois (b. 1931), page 397, (Figs. 19-71 through 19-73)

166

Chapter 19 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Although talented European immigrants who had fled totalitarianism in Europe introduced modern design in America during the 1940s, an original American approach to modernist design gained international prominence in the 1950s and continued as a dominant force in graphic design until the 1970s. An egalitarian society with capitalist values, limited artistic traditions before World War II, and a diverse ethnic heritage engendered an original approach to American modernist design. Where European design was often theoretical and highly structured, American design was pragmatic, intuitive, and less formal in its approach to organizing space. Emphasis was placed on the expression of _____________ and an open, direct presentation of information. Novelty of technique and originality of concept were much prized in this highly competitive society, and designers sought to solve communications problems while satisfying a need for personal expression. A. modernism B. ideas C. politics D. simultaneity 2. Just as Paris had been receptive to new ideas and images during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ____________ assumed that role during the middle of the twentieth century. A. Berlin B. London C. New York City D. Zurich 3. More than any other designer, ____________ initiated the American approach to modern design. He had an ability to manipulate visual form (i.e., shape, color, space, line, and value), and to skillfully analyze communications content, reducing it to a symbolic essence without making it sterile or dull. Visual contrasts marked his work: he played red against green, organic shape against geometric shape, photographic tone against flat color, cut or torn edges against 167

sharp forms, and the textural pattern of type against white margins. The cover design for Direction magazine shows the important role of visual and symbolic contrast in his designs. His 1946 book Thoughts on Design inspired a generation of designers. His collaborations with copywriter Bill Bernbach became a prototype for the now ubiquitous art/copy team at advertising agencies. The emphasis of his later work was on trademark and corporate design for such clients as IBM. A. Alvin Lustig B. Bradbury Thompson C. Paul Rand D. Saul Bass 4. _____________ emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. His designs for Westvaco Inspirations, four-color publications demonstrating printing papers, made a significant impact. A thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting, combined with a penchant for adventurous experimentation, allowed him to expand the range of design possibilities. He discovered and explored the potential of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century engravings as design resources. Large, bold, organic and geometric shapes were used to bring graphic and symbolic power to the page. Letterforms and patterns, such as the details from halftone reproductions, were often enlarged and used as design elements or to create visual patterns and movements. During the 1960s and 1970s, he turned increasingly to a classical approach to book and editorial format design. Readability, formal harmony, and a sensitive use of old style typefaces marked his work for periodicals such as Smithsonian and ARTnews. A. Alvin Lustig B. Bradbury Thompson C. Paul Rand D. Saul Bass 5. ____________ brought the sensibilities of the New York School to Los Angeles in 1950. He frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. The simplicity and directness of his work allowed the viewer to interpret the content immediately. He had a remarkable ability to identify the nucleus of a design problem and to express it with images that became glyphs, or elemental pictorial signs, which exerted great graphic power. The 1955 design program for Otto Preminger’s film The Man with the Golden Arm was the first comprehensive design program unifying both print and media graphics for a movie. In addition to his film work, he created numerous corporateidentity programs, such as AT&T’s, the Girl Scouts’, and United Airlines’. 168

A. Paul Rand B. Saul Bass C. Alvin Lustig D. Bradbury Thompson 6. During the 1940s, only a moderate number of American magazines were designed well. These included Fortune, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vogue. An art director’s assistant at Vogue during the 1930s, ____________ made a major contribution to editorial design during the 1940s and 1950s, first as the art director at Glamour, then at Seventeen, Charm, and Mademoiselle. Her publication designs were characterized by a lyrical appreciation of color, pattern, and form. She became the first woman admitted to membership in the New York Art Director’s Club. On a cover for Seventeen she designed in 1949, stripe patterns and a mirror-image reflection achieved a graphic vitality. A. Rosmarie Tissi B. Jaqueline Casey C. Cipe Pineles D. Bea Feitler 7. The initial contribution of Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar to American graphic design sprang from a strong aesthetic background and an understanding of the major ideas of European modern art, which had been reinforced by their contacts with architect-teacher Serge Chermayeff, Ivan Chermayeff’s father; László Moholy-Nagy, with whom Brownjohn had studied painting and design; and Alvin Lustig, for whom Ivan Chermayeff had worked as an assistant. Solutions grew out of the needs of the client, and design problems were characterized by inventive and symbolic manipulation of imagery and forms, including letterforms and typography. Images and symbols were combined with a surreal sense of dislocation to convey the essence of the subject on posters and book jackets, such as the cover of Bertrand Russell’s Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare, on which the atomic blast became a visual metaphor for the brain. In 1960, Brownjohn left the partnership and moved to England, where he made significant contributions to British graphic design, especially in the area of film titles, such as for the motion picture Goldfinger. The firm then changed its name to Chermayeff & Geismar Associates and played a major role in the development of _____________. A. furniture design B. corporate identity C. advertising

169

D. packaging 8. Many of the pioneers of the New York School were either guest lecturers or served on the faculty of _____________’s graphic design program under the direction of Alvin Eisenman and later Sheila de Bretteville, the current director. This program has contributed to the advancement of graphic design and design education throughout the world, as many of its alumni have become prominent designers and educators; the first among them to receive an MFA after Josef Spelling Albers restructured the program was Norman Ives. A. New York University B. the Chicago Art Institute C. the School of Visual Arts D. Yale University 9. Over the course of the 1950s, a revolution in editorial design occurred, and editorial design experienced one of its greatest eras. In 1953, ____________ was named the art director of McCall’s magazine and in 1958 was given a free hand to upgrade the graphics; an astounding visual approach subsequently developed. Typography was unified with photography by designing the type to lock tightly into the photographic image. Type was warped and bent, or became the illustration. He ranks among the major innovators of the period. His philosophy that idea, copy, art, and typography should be inseparable in editorial design influenced both editorial and advertising graphics. A. Henry Wolf B. Otto Storch 10. In 1953, Vienna-born ________________ became the art director of Esquire, and in 1958 he became art director of Harper’s Bazaar. He sought to make the magazines he designed visually beautiful. He experimented with typography, making it large enough to fill the page on one spread and then using petite headlines on other pages. His vision of the magazine cover was an exquisitely simple image conveying a visual idea. The sophistication and inventiveness of photography commissioned by Harper's Bazaar during his tenure were extraordinary. A. Henry Wolf B. Otto Storch 11. During the 1960s in America, a new, smaller-format breed of periodicals emerged and thrived by addressing the interests of specialized audiences. The new editorial climate, with more emphasis on content, longer articles, and less opportunity for lavish visual treatment, necessitated a new approach to editorial design. Layout became more controlled, and the use of a consistent typographic 170

format and grid became the norm. Among the magazines listed below, which one became the journal of record for public opposition to the Vietnam War and for a host of other social and environmental issues? The art director, Dugald Stermer, did not commission images to illustrate the articles and topics; he used images as a separate communication to provide “information, direction, and purpose” distinct from the printed word. One cover of this magazine depicted four hands burning facsimile draft cards of Stermer and the three editors. ______________ A. New York B. Ms. C. Ramparts D. Rolling Stone 12. The 1940s were a lackluster decade for advertising. On June 1, 1949, a new advertising agency opened its doors at 350 Madison Avenue in New York City. For each campaign, this agency developed strategy surrounding any important advantage, useful difference, or superior feature of the product. It combined words and images in a new way and established a synergistic relationship between visual and verbal components. It evolved the visual/verbal syntax: word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent. One of its most memorable ad campaigns was for Volkswagen, in which “strange little cars with their beetle shapes” were marketed to a public used to luxury and high horsepower as status symbols. What is the name of the agency? ___________ A. Pentagram B. George Nelson & Associates C. Brownjohn, Chermayeff & Geismar D. Doyle Dane Bernbach 13. In the 1950s and 1960s, a playful direction called ____________ emerged among New York graphic designers. Letterforms became objects; objects became letterforms. Gene Federico was one of the first graphic designers who delighted in using letterforms as images, as shown in this 1953 double-page advertisement from the New Yorker magazine, in which the perfectly round Os of Futura form bicycle wheels. A. the International Typographic Style B. new wave C. figurative typography D. typogram 171

14. Hailed as the typographic genius of his time (1918–1981), ____________’s achievements included advertising and editorial design, trademark and typeface design, posters, and packaging. He abandoned traditional typographic rules and practice and looked at the characters of the alphabet as both visual forms and a means of communication. Words and letters could become images; images could become a word or a letter. He practiced design as a means of giving visual form to a concept or message, as in the proposed logo for Mother and Child magazine, in which the ampersand enfolds and protects the “child” in a visual metaphor for motherly love. Among his typeface designs is Avant Garde. He was also the design director for International Typeface Corporation’s tabloid-size journal known as U&lc. A. George Lois B. Mike Salisbury C. Herb Lubalin

Image Identification
I. Match the figure with the name of its designer. 1. Fig. 19-1 ________ A. Saul Bass B. Ivan Chermayeff C. Alvin Lustig D. Paul Rand 2. Fig. 19-45 _________ A. Dugald Stermer B. Mike Salisbury C. Peter Palzzo D. Bea Feitler

Matching
I. Match the terms with the correct definitions. 1. Phototypography ____

172

2. Visual/verbal syntax ____ 3. Figurative typography ____ 4. Typogram ____

A. The Bernbach approach—word and image fused into a conceptual expression of an idea so that they become completely interdependent— evolved during the 1950s and 1960s by Bill Bernbach at the New York advertising agency Doyle Dane Bernbach. B. A playful direction taken by New York graphic designers during the 1950s and 1960s spearheaded by Gene Frederico, which took many forms. Letterforms sometimes became images, such as the wheels in the Frederico’s ad for Woman’s Day. Sometimes, the visual properties of words themselves, or their organization in space, were used to express an idea, such as in Don Egensteiner’s “Tonnage” advertisement, in which the visual form of the word takes on a connotative meaning. C. The setting of type by exposing negatives of alphabet characters to photographic paper dawned in 1925 with the public announcement of the Thothmic photographic composing machine invented by E. K. Hunter and J. R. C. August of London. A keyboard produced a punched tape to control a long, opaque master film with transparent letterforms. As a given letter moved into position in front of a lens, it was exposed to photographic paper by a beam of light. D. A brief, visual typographic form in which concept and visual form are merged into a oneness.

173

Chapter 20 – Corporate Identity and Visual Systems

Introduction, 399 Design at CBS, 399 The New Haven Railroad design program, 403 Corporate identification comes of age, 404 Programmed visual identification systems, 411 The Federal Design Improvement Program, 412 Transportation signage symbols, 414 Design systems for the Olympic Games, 415 The Music Television logo, 422

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Proprietary marks, page 399 Logotype, page 399 Corporate identity, page 403 Annual report, page 405 Corporate identity manual, page 405 Federal Design Improvement Program, page 412 Idiom, page 419 Sonotube columns, page 419, (Figs. 20-59 and 20-60)

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) 174

Adriano Olivetti (1901–1970), page 399 Giovanni Pintori (1912–1998), page 399, (Fig. 20-1) Frank Stanton (b. 1908), page 399 William Golden (1911–1959), page 399, (Fig. 20-4) Georg Olden (1920–1975), page 401, (Fig. 20-6) Lou Dorfsman (b. 1918), page 402, (Fig. 20-8 through 20-10) Eero Saarinen (1910–1961), page 402 Paul Rand (1914–1996), page 404, (Figs. 20-14 through 20-21) Lester Beall (1903–1969), page 404, (Figs. 20-22 and 20-23) Chermayeff & Geismar, page 404, (Figs. 20-24 through 20-26) Eliot Noyes (1910–1977), page 405 Saul Bass/Herb Yeager & Associates, page 409, (Figs. 20-27 and 20-28) Muriel Cooper (1925–1994), page 409, (Fig. 20-30) Otl Aicher (1922–1991), page 411, (Figs. 20-31 through 20-34) Ralph Eckerstrom (c. 1920–1996), page 411, (Fig. 20-35) Unimark, page 411, (Fig. 20-36) Massimo Vignelli (b. 1931), page 411 Vignelli Associates, page 412, (Figs. 20-39 and 20-40) John Massey (b.1931) SM, page 412 American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA), page 414, (Figs. 20-42 and 20-43) Thomas H. Geismar (b. 1932), page 414, (Fig. 20-42) Roger Cook (b. 1930), page 415, (Fig. 20-43) Don Shanosky (b. 1937), page 415, (Fig. 20-43) Cook and Shanosky Associates, page 415, (Fig. 20-43) Pedro Ramirez Vazquez (b. 1919), page 416 Lance Wyman (b. 1937), page 416, (Figs. 20-44 through 20-48)

175

Peter Murdoch (b. 1940), page 416, (Fig. 20-49) Jerde Partnership, page 419, (Fig. 20-59) Sussman/Prejza & Co., page 419, (Figs. 20-57 and 20-58) (Fig. 20-60) Manhattan Design, page 422, (Figs. 20-61 through 20-64)

176

Chapter 20 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. After World War II, the technological advances made during the war were applied to the production of _____________. A. military tanks B. bombs C. military airplanes D. consumer goods 2. _______________ was the rallying cry within the graphic design community during the 1950s, and more perceptive corporate leaders understood the need to develop corporate design programs to help shape their companies’ reputations for quality and reliability. A. “Design for all.” B. “Good design is good business.” C. “We start by designing the price.” 3. The visual identification systems during the 1950s went beyond_____________ , which had been in use since the medieval guilds, to produce consistent design systems that projected a cohesive image for corporations with expanding national and multinational presences. A. ideographs B. logotypes C. trademarks D. pictographs 4. William Golden designed one of the most successful trademarks of the twentieth century for ____________. Two circles and two arcs form a pictographic eye. When the pictographic eye first appeared, it was superimposed over a cloudfilled sky and projected an almost surreal sense of an eye in a sky. The effectiveness of the symbol demonstrated to the larger management community

177

how a contemporary graphic mark could compete successfully with more traditional illustrative or alphabetic trademarks. A. CBS B. CBS Television Network C. Columbia Broadcasting System D. All of the above 5. Early black-and-white television was incapable of differentiating between subtle color and tonal contrasts, and television sets often markedly cropped the edges of the signal. Two-dimensional titles were only on the air for a few seconds, requiring rapid viewer comprehension. To overcome these problems, _____________ designed on-air graphics from the center out, using simple symbolic imagery with strong silhouettes and linear properties. Emphasis was placed on concepts that quickly captured the essence of each program, using the connotative power of simple signs, symbols, and images, such as the zippered mouth (Fig. 20-6) that becomes an immediate and unequivocal symbolic statement for the television program I’ve Got a Secret. This designer was the grandson of a slave from a northern Kentucky plantation and the first African American to achieve prominence as a graphic designer. A. Lou Dorfsman B. Giovanni Pintori C. Georg Olden D. William Golden 6. _____________ became the art director for CBS Radio in 1946; in 1954 he was named the director of advertising and promotion for the CBS Radio Network. After William Golden’s sudden death at age forty-eight, he became the creative director of CBS Television. He was named director of design for the entire CBS Corporation in 1964 and vice president in 1968, in keeping with CBS President Frank Stanton’s philosophy that design is a vital area that should be managed by a professional. A. Lou Dorfsman B. Eero Saarinen C. Georg Olden D. Reynolds Ruffin 7. Who designed the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad trademark in 1954? The design included a geometric slab-serif capital N above an H, and a red, black, and white color scheme. 178

A. Herbert Matter B. Norman Ives C. Paul Rand D. Chermayeff & Geismar 8. “A symbol is an image of a company, an institution or an idea that should convey with a clear statement, or by suggestion, the activity it represents…. The symbol, besides being memorable and legible, must be designed so that it can be used in many sizes and situations without losing its identity. The designer must distort, unify, and create a new form for the letter, so that it is unique, and yet has the necessary attributes of the letter for recognition. There is no part of a symbol that can be eliminated without destroying the image it creates. It is a true gestalt, in which the psychological effect of the total image is greater than the sum of its parts would indicate….” Who said this in 1960 about the designer’s mission in logo design? A. Herbert Matter B. Norman Ives C. Paul Rand D. Chermayeff & Geismar 9. The trademark for International Business Machines (IBM) was developed from an infrequently used typeface called City Medium, designed by Georg Trump in 1930. City Medium is a geometric slab-serif typeface. The slab serifs and square negative spaces in the B lent the trademark unity and distinction. In the 1970s, the IBM corporate trademark was updated by introducing stripes to unify the three letterforms and evoke scan lines on video terminals. Who designed this powerful logo? ___________ A. Herbert Matter B. Norman Ives C. Paul Rand D. Chermayeff & Geismar 10. Which designer designed the trademarks for the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and Westinghouse? ________ A. Herbert Matter B. Norman Ives C. Paul Rand 179

D. Chermayeff & Geismar 11. Chermayeff & Geismar Associates moved to the forefront of the corporate identity movement in 1960 with a comprehensive visual image program for _____________. The logo was composed of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. It was an abstract form unto itself, free from alphabetic, pictographic, or figurative connotations. Although it had overtones of security or protection because four elements confined the square, it proved a completely abstract form could successfully function as a large organization’s visual identifier. A. NeXT B. the International Paper Company C. Minolta D. Chase Manhattan Bank of New York 12. _____________’s mastery of elemental form can be seen in the iconic and widely imitated trademarks produced by his firm. He believed a trademark must be readily understood yet possess elements of metaphor and ambiguity that will attract the viewer again and again. Many of his trademarks became important cultural icons. Within two years after he redesigned the Bell Telephone System bell trademark, public recognition of the symbol rose from 71 to more than 90 percent. After the AT&T long-distance telephone network was split from the local Bell system telephone companies in 1984, he designed a new mark to reposition the firm as “a global communications company” rather than “the national telephone system.” This concept was expressed through a computer graphics animation with information bits circling a globe, which became the identification tag for AT&T television commercials. A. Ivan Chermayeff B. Saul Bass C. Lester Beall D. Paul Rand 13. _____________, an international design firm, was founded in Chicago by a group of partners including Ralph Eckerstrom, James K. Fogleman, and Massimo Vignelli. The firm rejected individualistic design, believing that design could be a system: a basic structure set up so that other people could implement it effectively. The basic tool for this effort was the grid, which standardized all graphic communications for dozens of large clients, including Alcoa, Ford Motor Company, JCPenney, Memorex, Panasonic, Steelcase, and Xerox. Helvetica was the preferred typeface for all their visual identity systems, as it was considered the most legible type family. Objectivity was the firm’s goal, and it

180

spread a generic conformity across the face of multinational corporate communications. The design programs that it created were rational and so rigorously systemized that they became virtually foolproof as long as the standards were maintained. A. Vignelli Associates B. Unimark C. Chermayeff & Geismar Associates D. Saul Bass & Associates 14. In May 1974, the U.S. government initiated the Federal Design Improvement Program in response to a growing awareness of design as an effective tool for achieving objectives. All aspects of federal design, including architecture, interior space planning, landscaping, and graphic design were upgraded under the program. The Graphics Improvement Program set out to improve the quality of visual communications and the ability of governmental agencies to communicate effectively to citizens. One of the most successful federal visual identification systems was the Unigrid system, developed in 1977 for the _______________. The Unigrid unified the hundreds of informational folders used at about 350 different locations. The standardized format of the Unigrid enabled the publications staff to focus on achieving excellence in the development and presentation of pictorial and typographic information. A. U.S. Internal Revenue Service B. U.S. Department of Transportation C. U.S. National Park Service D. U.S. Department of Labor 15. In 1974, the U.S. Department of Transportation commissioned ____________ to create a master set of thirty-four passenger- and pedestrian-oriented symbols for use in transportation facilities. This effort represented an important first step toward the goal of unified and effective graphic communications transcending cultural and linguistic barriers in a shrinking world. A 225-page book published by the Department of Transportation provides invaluable information about the design and evaluation process used to arrive at this system. A. the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) B. Vignelli Associates C. John Massey D. Chermayeff & Geismar Associates

181

16. By the late 1960s, the concept of comprehensive design systems had become a reality. Planners realized that comprehensive planning for large organizations and events was not only functional and desirable but actually necessary if large numbers of people were to be accommodated. This was particularly true for international events, including world’s fairs and Olympic Games, for which international and multilingual audiences had to be directed and informed. Among many outstanding efforts to develop comprehensive design systems for the Olympic Games, three of the following were cited in Chapter 20 as milestones in the evolution of graphic systems. Which one does NOT belong? ____________ A. the 1968 Mexico City Nineteenth Olympiad B. the 1972 Munich Twentieth Olympiad C. the 1980 Moscow Twenty-second Olympiad D. the 1984 Los Angeles Twenty-third Olympiad 17. The concept of a logo with a constantly changing persona is contrary to the widely held belief that trademarks and visual identifiers should be absolutely fixed and used in a consistent manner. The _____________ logo changed the face, the idea, and the speed of graphic design; it played a major role in redefining visual identity in the electronic age. This logo anticipated the kinetic world of motion graphics soon to explode as cable television, video games, and computer graphics expanded the variety and range of kinetic graphic messages. A. 1984 Los Angeles Olympiad “Star-in-Motion” B. U.S. Department of Labor “Striped Ls” C. Lufthansa Airlines D. Music Television (MTV) 18. Music Television (MTV), a round-the-clock music television station, first went on the air in 1981 at a time when music videos had not yet reached their peak as a creative medium. ___________, a New York City studio noted for its independence and risk-taking experimentation, especially for music-industry clients, was commissioned to design the logo. A. Vignelli Associates B. Chermayeff & Geismar Associates C. Manhattan Design D. John Jerde Partnership 19. Who designed the United States postage stamp commemorating the onehundredth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation?

182

A. Georg Olden B. Massimo Vignelli C. Lou Dorfsman D. William Golden

Matching
I. Match the definition to the correct term. 1. A company brand mark consisting of only letterforms ____ 2. A system of visual elements used in a comprehensive program to project a consistent image of the company ____ 3. A publication that federal law requires all public companies to provide to their stockholders ____ 4. A firm’s book of guidelines and standards for implementing its corporate identity program ____

A. annual report B. corporate identity C. corporate identity manual D. logotype

183

Chapter 21 – The Conceptual Image

Introduction, 424 The Polish poster, 424 American conceptual images, 428 Poster mania, 438 European visual poets, 440 The Third-World poster, 445

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Concept, page 424 Motif, page 424 Metaphysical, page 425 Narrative illustration, page 428 Push Pin Almanack, page 429 Push Pin Studio, page 429 Iconography, page 429 Push Pin style, page 431 Print magazine, page 437 Psychedelic posters, page 438 Twen, page 440 Grapus, page 444 Third-World poster, page 445

184

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Armando Testa (1917–1992), page 424 Tadeusz Trepkowski (1914–1956), page 424, (Fig. 21-3) Henryk Tomaszewski (b. 1914), page 424, (Figs. 21-4 and 21-5) Jerzy Flisak (b. 1930), page 425 Franciszek Starowiejski (b. 1930), page 425 Jan Lenica (b. 1928), page 426, (Figs. 21-9 and 21-10) Waldemar Swierzy (b. 1931), page 427, (Fig. 21-11) Roman Cieslewicz (b. 1930–1996), page 427, (Figs. 21-13 and 21-14) Seymour Chwast (b. 1931), page 429 Milton Glaser (b. 1929), page 429, (Fig. 21-18 and 21-19) (Fig. 21-22) Reynolds Ruffins (b. 1930), page 429, (Fig. 21-17) Edward Sorel (b. 1929), page 429 Barry Zaid (b. 1939), page 432 James McMullan (b. 1934), page 432 Paul Davis (b. 1938), page 433, (Fig. 21-31) Richard Hess (1934–1991), page 433, (Fig. 21-32) Arnold Varga (1926–1994), page 434, (Fig. 21-33) John Berg (b. 1932), page 437, (Figs. 21-39 and 21-40) Stan Richards (b. 1932), page 437 Woody Pirtle (b. 1943), page 437, (Figs. 21-41 and 21-42) Robert Wesley “Wes” Wilson (b. 1937), page 438 Victor Moscoso (b. 1936), page 438, (Figs. 21-45 and 21-46) Peter Max (b. 1937), page 438, (Fig. 21-47) David Lance Goines (b. 1945), page 439, (Fig. 21-48)

185

Gunther Kieser (b. 1930), page 440, (Fig. 21-49) Gunther Rambow (b. 1938), page 441 Robert Massin (b. 1925), page 442 Pierre Bernard (b. 1942), page 444 François Miehe (b. 1942), page 444 Gerard Paris-Clavel (b. 1943), page 444 Raúl Martínez, page 445, (Fig. 21-65) Felix Beltrán (b. 1938), page 445, (Fig. 21-66)

186

Chapter 21 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. During the decades after World War II, the conceptual image emerged. It dealt with the design of the entire space, including the integration of word and image, and conveyed not merely narrative information but ideas and concepts. The creation of conceptual images became a significant design approach in Poland, the United States, Germany, and Cuba. The first poster artist to emerge in Poland after World War I was ______________. His famous 1953 antiwar poster (Fig. 21-3) demonstrates his technique of distilling content to the simplest statement. A few simple shapes symbolize a devastated city, which is superimposed on a silhouette of a falling bomb. The word nie! (no!) expresses the tragedy of war. A. Tadeusz Trepkowski B. Armando Testa C. Jerzy Flisak D. Henryk Tomaszewski 2. After the death of the designer referred to in the previous question, ______________, a professor at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, became the spiritual head of Polish graphic design. His posters, such as the football poster for the Olympic Games in 1948, were composed of bits of torn and cut paper, then printed by the silkscreen process. He led the trend toward developing an aesthetically pleasing approach, escaping from the somber world of tragedy and remembrance into a bright, decorative world of color and shape. A. Tadeusz Trepkowski B. Armando Testa C. Jerzy Flisak D. Henryk Tomaszewski 3. As photography stole illustration’s traditional function, a new approach to illustration emerged. This more conceptual approach to illustration began with a group of young New York graphic artists: Seymour Chwast, Milton Glaser, Reynolds Ruffins, and Edward Sorel banded together and shared a loft studio. Freelance assignments were solicited through a joint publication called the

187

_____________. Published bimonthly, it featured interesting editorial material from old almanacs illustrated by the group. A. Push Pin Graphic B. Push Pin Almanack C. Pushpin Group D. Push Pin 4. Milton Glaser’s 1967 image of the popular folk-rock singer Bob Dylan is presented as a black silhouette with brightly colored hair patterns inspired by _____________ sources. Nearly six million copies of the poster were produced for inclusion in a best-selling record album. It became a graphic icon in the collective American experience. A photographer told Glaser about being on assignment on the Amazon River and seeing the Dylan poster in a hut in a remote Indian village. A. art deco B. art nouveau C. cubism D. surrealism 5. _____________’s vision is very personal, yet communicates on a universal level. In his work, an absolute flatness is usually maintained. He has a love of Victorian and figurative letterforms; the ability to integrate figurative and alphabetic information has enabled him to produce unexpected design solutions. His album cover for The Threepenny Opera demonstrates his ability to synthesize diverse resources—the German expressionist woodcut, surreal spatial dislocations, and dynamic color found in primitive art—into an appropriate expression of the subject. From antiwar protest to food packaging and magazine covers, he has reformulated earlier art and graphics to express new concepts in new contexts. A. Barry Zaid B. Reynolds Ruffin C. Milton Glaser D. Seymour Chwast 6. Both ____________ and _____________ developed a number of novelty display typefaces. Often these began as lettering for assignments that were then developed into full alphabets. Fig. 21-27 shows the logo developed for Artone Ink; the graded version of Blimp, based on old woodtypes; a geometric face inspired by the logo designed for a film studio; a typeface based on lettering first

188

developed for a Mademoiselle poster; and the Buffalo typeface, originally devised for a French product named Buffalo Gum, which was never produced. A. James McMullen and Paul Davis B. Barry Zaid and Reynolds Ruffin C. Seymour Chwast and Milton Glaser D. Richard Hess and Arnold Varga 7. Illustrative, conceptual images and the influence of Push Pin Studios often mingled with Wild West, Mexican, and Native American motifs and colors in a regional school of graphic design that emerged in Texas during the 1970s and became a major force in the 1980s. The work of ______________, one of many major Texas designers who worked for the Stan Richards Group in Dallas during their formative years, epitomizes the originality of Texas graphics. His logo for Mr. and Mrs. Aubrey Hair (Fig. 21-41) evidences an unexpected wit, while his Knoll “Hot Seat” poster (Fig. 21-42) ironically combines the clean Helvetica type and generous white space of modernism with regional iconography. In 1988, he moved on to join the Manhattan office of the British design studio Pentagram. A. John Berg B. Woody Pirtle C. Arnold Varga D. Richard Hess 8. The poster craze in the United States during the 1960s was a grassroots affair fostered by a climate of social activism. These posters made statements about social viewpoints rather than advertising commercial messages. The first wave of poster culture emerged from the late-1960s hippie subculture centered in the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Because the media and general public related these posters to antiestablishment values, rock music, and psychedelic drugs, they were called psychedelic posters. The graphics movement that expressed this cultural climate drew from a number of resources: the flowing, sinuous curves of ____________; intense optical color vibration associated with the brief op-art movement popularized by a Museum of Modern Art exhibition; and the recycling of images from popular culture or by manipulation that was prevalent in pop art (such as reducing continuous-tone images to high-contrast black-and-white). A. art nouveau B. art deco C. de Stijl

189

D. Dada 9. A Grateful Dead poster (Fig. 21-44) designed by Robert Wesley “Wes” Wilson contains swirling lines and letterforms, which are variants of Alfred Roller’s art nouveau. Wilson was the innovator of the psychedelic poster style and created many of its stronger images. According to newspaper reports, respectable and intelligent businessmen were unable to comprehend the lettering on these posters, yet they communicated well enough to fill auditoriums with members of a younger generation who deciphered, rather than read, their messages. Other prominent members of this brief movement included Kelly/Mouse Studios and______________, the only major artist of the movement with formal art training (Figs. 21-45 and 21-46). A. Woody Pirtle B. Wes Wilson C. Milton Glaser D. Victor Moscoso 10. A mundane advertising slogan, “End Bad Breath,” gained new life when it was combined with a blue woodcut and offset-printed green and red areas in this 1968 poster (Fig. 21-26) protesting the American bombing of Hanoi. Who is its designer? _________ A. Seymour Chwast B. Woody Pirtle C. Wes Wilson D. Milton Glaser E. Victor Moscoso 11. Lettering becomes an image, signifying a cultural and generational shift in values in this 1966 concert poster for The Association (Fig. 21-43). Who is its designer? ___________ A. Seymour Chwast B. Woody Pirtle C. Wes Wilson D. Milton Glaser E. Victor Moscoso

190

12. The vibrant contrasting colors and Vienna Secession lettering inside of the sunglasses implies the drug culture of the period in this 1967 poster for the Chambers Brothers. Who is the designer? __________ A. Seymour Chwast B. Woody Pirtle C. Wes Wilson D. Milton Glaser E. Victor Moscoso 13. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1990s, a poetic approach to graphic design emerged in Europe. It was based on imagery and its manipulation through collage, montage, and both photographic and photomechanical techniques. _______________, a German master of this movement, is a brilliant imagist who consistently demonstrated an ability to invent unexpected visual content to solve communications problems. He brings together images or ideas to create a new vitality, new arrangements, and the synthesis of disparate objects. His “Alabama Blues” poster combines two photographs, of a dove and a civil-rights demonstration, with typography inspired by nineteenth-century wood type (Fig. 21-49). His poetic visual statements always have a rational basis that link expressive forms to communicative content. It is this ability that separates him from design practitioners who use fantasy or surrealism as ends rather than means. A. Gunter Rambow B. Willy Fleckhouse C. Gunther Kieser D. Michael van de Sand 14. Launched in Munich in 1959, the German periodical Twen (Fig. 21-52) derived its name by chopping the last two letters from the English word that signified the age group of sophisticated young adults to whom the magazine was addressed. The magazine featured excellent photography used in dynamic layouts by its art director, _____________. A. Gunter Rambow B. Willy Fleckhouse C. Gunther Kieser D. Michael van de Sand

191

15. During the 1960s, literary and graphic design communities throughout the world were astounded and delighted by the experimental typography of French designer ______________, whose work has affinities with futurist and Dadaist typography. His designs for Eugène Ionesco’s plays combine the pictorial conventions of the comic book with the sequencing and visual flow of the cinema. The drama of La Cantatrice Chauve (The Bald Soprano) is enacted through Henry Cohen’s high-contrast photographs (Fig. 21-59). Each character is assigned a typeface for his or her speaking voice (Fig. 21-60) and is identified not by name but by a small photographic portrait. ______________ A. Pierre Bernard B. François Miehe C. Gerard Paris-Clavel D. Robert Massin

Image Identification
From the end of World War II until the dismantling of the Iron Curtain in 1989, the industrialized nations formed two groups: the capitalist democracies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, and the communist bloc led by the Soviet Union. The emerging nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa have been called the Third World. Third-World posters address two constituencies: in their native lands, they tackle political and social issues, motivating people toward one side of a political or social struggle; a secondary audience exists in the industrial democracies, where distributors such as Liberation Graphics in Alexandria, Virginia make posters available to Westerners who feel strongly about international issues. Identify the designers of the following posters: 1. Poster honoring the Cuban people, c. 1970 (Fig. 21-65) ____ A. Raúl Martínez B. Elena Serrano C. Felix Beltrán 2. Poster celebrating the “Day of the Heroic Guerilla”, 1968, (Fig. 21-67) ____ A. Raúl Martínez B. Elena Serrano C. Felix Beltrán

192

Chapter 22 – National Visions within a Global Dialogue

Introduction, 447 Postwar graphic design in the United Kingdom, 447 The rise of Japanese design, 448 Design in the Netherlands, 456

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Pluralistic, page 448 Global village, page 447 Mon, page 448 House style, page 458 Fluxus, page 459 Staged photography, page 461 Closed texts, page 464 Open texts, page 464

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Herbert Spencer (1922–2002), page 447 Alan Fletcher (b. 1931), Colin Forbes (b. 1928), and Bob Gill (b. 1931), page 447 Theo Crosby (1925–1994), page 447 Pentagram, page 447, (Figs. 22-1 through 22-4)

193

Ryuichi Yamashiro (b. 1920), page 448, (Fig. 22-5) Yusaku Kamekura (1915–1997), page 449, (Figs. 22-7 through 22-12) Masuda Tadashi (b. 1922), page 451, (Fig. 22-13) Kazumasa Nagai (b. 1929), page 451, (Fig. 22-14) Ikko Tanaka (1930–2002), page 451, (Figs. 22-15 and 22-16) Takenobu Igarashi (b. 1944), page 453, (Figs. 22-17 through 22-20) Tadanori Yokoo (b. 1936), page 453, (Figs. 22-22 and 22-23) Shigeo Fukuda (b. 1932), page 454, (Figs. 22-24 through 22-26) Koichi Sato (b. 1944), page 455, (Figs. 22-27 through 22-29) Wim Crouwel (b. 1928), Frisco Kramer, and Benno Wissing (b. 1923), page 453 Total Design, page 456, (Fig. 22-31) (Figs. 22-32 and 22-33) Pieter Brattinga (b. 1931), page 458 Jean François van Royen (1878–1942), page 458 R. D. E. Oxenaar (b. 1929), page 458 Anthon Beeke (b. 1940), page 459, (Fig. 22-37) Hard Werken Design, page 459, (Fig. 22-45 and 22-46) Wild Plakken, page 459, (Figs. 22-48 through 22-50) Ghislain (Gielijn) Dapnis Escher (b. 1945), page 460, (Figs. 22-40 through 22-42) Gert Dumbar (b. 1940), page 461, (see Fig. 22-35) (Fig. 22-43)

194

Chapter 22 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. The 1960s saw the beginning of a global dialogue that embraced the fine arts, performing arts, and design. During the 1980s and 1990s, the rapid growth of electronic and computer technology began to change the processes and appearance of design. Overnight express mail, fax machines, global televisual communications such as the continuous Cable News Network (CNN), and directdial international long-distance telephone service all served to further shrink the human community into Marshall McLuhan’s “global village.” This complex world of cultural and visual diversity created an environment in which a vast global dialogue co-existed with national visions, resulting in an explosive and pluralistic era for graphic design. A design partnership, which formed in London in 1962, made significant contributions to international design. Thorough evaluation of the communications problem and the specific nature of the environmental conditions under which the design was to appear combined with British wit and a willingness to try the unexpected summarize the essence of __________ approach to graphic design. A. Push Pin Studios’ B. Pentagram’s C. Chermayeff & Geismar Associates’ D. Vignelli Associates’ 2. __________ became an important voice in renewing British graphic design after World War II through his writing, teaching, and graphic design practice. As editor and designer of the journal Typographica and author of Pioneers of Modern Typography, an influential 1969 book that informed the postwar generation about the accomplishments of earlier twentieth-century designers, he encouraged a worldwide dialogue. A. Alan Fletcher B. Herbert Spencer C. Colin Forbes D. Theo Crosby 3. The traditional Japanese family symbol or crest, called the ___________, was an important inspiration for the Japanese graphic designer. These simplified designs of flowers, birds, animals, plants, and household objects contained in a circle 195

were applied to belongings and clothing and have been in use for thousands of years in Japan. A. total image B. house style C. mon D. Nihon Buyo 4. Plane and shape are the nucleus of _____________’s work. His work is influenced by traditional Japanese motifs and incorporates grid structures and vibrant planes of color that explore warm/cool contrast, close-valued color, and analogous color ranges. In the 1974 poster for Senei Ikenobo’s flower arrangements, mountains and waves are created by a rhythmic sequence of blue and blue-green bands under a graduated tan sky. His 1981 Nihon Buyo poster for the Asian Performing Arts Institute uses planes of color on a twelve-unit grid to define the abstracted and expressive portrait. A. Ikko Tanaka B. Takenobu Igarashi C. Tadanori Yokoo D. Shigeo Fukuda 5. Takanobu Igarashi is a paradigm of the blending of Eastern and Western ideas. After graduating from Tama University in 1968, Igarashi earned a graduate degree from the University of California, Los Angeles. Upon returning to Japan, he found design firms and corporations unreceptive to a designer who had spent time abroad, so he opened his own design office in 1970. Much of his studio’s work is in trademarks, corporate identity, and environmental and product design. By 1976, Igarashi’s experiments with ____________ drawn on isometric grids were attracting clients and international recognition. In 1983, Igarashi began a ten-year project designing the Igarashi Poster Calendar, starting with five years for the Museum of Modern Art in New York. A. Japanese crests B. symbols C. alphabets D. landscapes 6. The work of Japanese designer _____________ demonstrates a fascination with popular art, comic books, and mass media—television, movies, radio, and records. His 1968 poster for a printmaking exhibition entitled “Sixth International

196

Biennial Exhibition of Prints in Tokyo” combines a variety of techniques, including halftone, airbrush, calligraphic writing, and montage. A. Ikko Tanaka B. Takenobu Igarashi C. Tadanori Yokoo D. Shigeo Fukuda 7. Unexpected violations of spatial logic and universal order characterize the work of Japanese designer _____________. Playfulness, humor, and intentional ambiguity are abundant in his designs. In his poster “Victory 1945,” which commemorates the thirtieth anniversary of the end of World War II, the folly of war is expressed simply by turning a shell back toward a gun. The optical illusion featured in his 1975 exhibition poster for the Keio Department Store is typical of his work. A. Ikko Tanaka B. Takenobu Igarashi C. Tadanori Yokoo D. Shigeo Fukuda 8. World War II and German occupation completely disrupted Dutch society; transportation and communication came to a virtual halt, and terrible shortages developed. The postwar years were a time of rebuilding the economy and working to restore prewar cultural and social life. As Dutch design evolved, two strong currents became evident: ____________ and ____________. This duality is not surprising, for the Dutch are known as a thrifty people who favor order and structure; they are also broad-minded and tolerant of diverse political, religious, and artistic ideas. A. pragmatic constructivism B. graphics based on work being produced in New York C. traditional Dutch motifs reinvented in a modernist design idiom D. a vigorous expressionism with jolting images and spontaneous spatial syntax 9. A group known as ______________, which included graphic designer Wim Crouwel, product designer Frisco Kramer, and graphic and architectural designer Benno Wissing, was a comprehensive design firm whose goal was to conceive and implement “ideas on design in all fields, in order whenever possible to achieve a unity of thought…in these fields.” During the 1960s and 1970s, this firm played a dominant role in Dutch design. Projects included visual-identity 197

programs, such as the ones for the PAM petroleum company and Furness Holding, and for museum exhibitions with related graphics, book design, signage, and environments. A. Hard Werken B. Wild Plakken C. Total Design D. PTT 10. Dutch designer ______________’s design philosophy was less emphatic about universal form and standardized formats than that of other Dutch designers. He emphasized the designer as an objective problem solver who finds solutions through research and analysis, simplifying the message and the means for conveying it to an audience. He believed the flood of typographic messages in contemporary society demanded clarity and simplicity. A. Wim Crouwel B. Gert Dumbar C. Anthon Beeke D. Pieter Brattinga 11. Dutch designer ______________ learned all aspects of printing by working at his father’s printing company, De Jong & Co., near Amsterdam. He curated small exhibitions intended to introduce advanced art and graphic design to a wider audience. These exhibitions were held in a small gallery at the printing firm. He designed posters for these exhibitions, which were constructed on a grid of fifteen squares. One or more of these modules always appeared as an element in the design, such as the 1960 exhibition poster for “De Man Achter due Vormgeving van de PTT” (The Man Behind the Design for the Dutch Post Service). He also edited a square-format journal called Kwadraatblad (Quadrate), which was printed at De Jong and showcased the work of leading artists and designers while demonstrating printing capabilities. And he designed posters and publications for the well-known Kröller-Müller Museum in Otterlo. A. Wim Crouwel B. Gert Dumbar C. Anthon Beeke D. Pieter Brattinga 12. The Provo youth movement, which emphasized individual freedom and rejected social conformity, inspired a new expressionism in Dutch graphic design, which increased dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s. Late twentieth-century 198

designers, such as ______________, and groups such as Studio Dumbar, Hard Werken, and Wild Plakken, pushed beyond the traditional values of harmony, unity, and order in their quests for individual meaning and subjective expression. A. Wim Crouwel B. Gert Dumbar C. Anthon Beeke D. Pieter Brattinga 13. A provocateur who pushed for maximum freedom of expression and thought, Dutch graphic designer and photographer _____________ sought unconventional solutions to visual communications assignments. Many of his works, like the 1979 theater poster for Leonce and Lena, contain jolting ambiguities and erotic overtones. His typographic oeuvre is unrestrained, from handwritten titles jotted onto photographs to eloquent classical typography—and sometimes both combined. A. Wim Crouwel B. Gert Dumbar C. Anthon Beeke D. Pieter Brattinga 14. More of an informal association than a structured business, _____________ embraced the contemporary art scene and rejected design refinement. The group, which included Henk Elenga, Gerard Hadders, Tom van der Haspel, Helen Howard, and Rick Vermeulen, developed a relaxed, anything-goes attitude and rejected all styles and theories in favor of the subjective interpretation of a problem. They were open to any conceivable typographic or image possibility. They emphasized the message as well as materials and methods used to convey the message to an audience. A. Wild Plakken B. Studio Dumbar C. Hard Werken 15. Its name can be translated as “Unauthorized Bill-Posting.” The group, believing that designers should match their beliefs to the content of their graphic designs, accepts or rejects commissions based on the client’s ideological viewpoint. Its work has addressed such issues as the environment, women’s rights, gay rights, and racism, such as the 1984 poster for the anti-apartheid movement of the Netherlands. It does all of its own photography, so its designers can feel free to

199

experiment in the darkroom, cutting, tearing, and combining images without needing to maintain the integrity of an outside photographer’s work. __________ A. Wild Plakken B. Studio Dumbar C. Hard Werken

Matching
I. Match the term with its definition. 1. Clear, straightforward images that viewers can only interpret in one specific, carefully controlled way ____ 2. A 1960s neo-Dadaist movement that explored conceptual and performance art, happenings, experimental poetry, and language art ____ 3. Greater freedom for imaginative interpretation by introducing surrealist imagery, photomontages using torn and fragmented images, and brightly colored shapes ____

A. Fluxus B. Closed texts C. Open texts

Image Identification
I. Match the image with the designer or design studio. 1. Cover for Graphis 119, 1965, (Fig. 22-1) __________ A. Pentagram B. Wim Crouwel C. Tadanori Yokoo D. Studio Dumbar 2. Poster for a tree planting campaign, 1961, (Fig. 22-5) ___________ 200

A. Masuda Tadashi B. Takenobu Igarashi C. Ryuichi Yamashiro D. Ikko Tanaka 3. Postage stamp for the Netherlands Postage and Telecommunications Service (PTT), 1976, (Fig. 22-30) __________ A. Studio Dumbar B. Wim Crouwel C. Pieter Brattinga D. Hard Werken Design 4. Exhibition poster postage stamp for the PTT, 1960, (Fig. 22-34) ________ A. Studio Dumbar B. Wim Crouwel C. Pieter Brattinga D. Hard Werken Design 5. PTT corporate identity system, 1989, (Fig. 22-35) __________ A. Studio Dumbar B. Wim Crouwel C. Pieter Brattinga D. Hard Werken Design 6. Theater poster for Leonce and Lena, 1979, (Fig. 22-37) _________ A. R. E. D. Oxenaar B. Pieter Brattinga C. Gert Dumbar D. Anton Beeke

201

Chapter 23 – Postmodern Design

Introduction, 466 Precursors to postmodern design, 466 Early Swiss postmodern design, 468 New-wave typography, 471 The Memphis and San Francisco schools, page 477 Retro and vernacular design, page 481

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Postmodernism, page 466 Late modernism, page 466 Mannerism, page 466 Supermannerism, page 466 Supergraphics, page 466 New-wave typography, page 469 Halftone dots, page 471 Moiré, page 471 “Gutenberg approach,” page 472 Radical modernism, page 475 Retro design, page 481 Vernacular design, page 481

202

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

Wolfgang Weingart (b. 1941), page 467 Robert Venturi (b. 1925), page 467 Barbara Stauffacher Solomon (b. 1932), page 467 Rosmarie Tissi (b. 1937), page 468 Siegfried Odermatt (b. 1926), page 468, (Fig. 23-4) Steff Geissbuhler (b. 1942), page 468, (Fig. 23-8) Dan Friedman (1945–1995), page 472 April Greiman (b. 1948), page 472 Willi Kunz (b. 1943), page 472, (Fig. 23-27) Jayme Odgers (b. 1939), page 475 Kenneth Hiebert (b. 1930), page 477, (Fig. 23-28) Memphis, page 477 Michael Graves (b.1934), page 478 Michael Vanderbyl (b. 1947), page 478, (Fig. 23-31) (Fig. 23-34) Michael Manwaring (b. 1942), page 478, (Fig. 23-35) Michael Cronin (b. 1951), page 478, (Fig. 23-37) Paula Scher (b. 1948), page 481 Louise Fili (b. 1951), page 481 Carin Goldberg (b. 1953), page 481, (Figs. 23-42 and 23-43) Terry Koppel (b. 1950), page 481 Lorraine Louie (b. 1955), page 482 Daniel Pelavin (b. 1948), page 482 (Figs. 23-45 and 23-46) Joe Duffy (b. 1949), page 484 Charles S. Anderson (b. 1958), page 484 (Figs. 23-47 through 23-49)

203

Neville Brody (b. 1957), page 484

204

Chapter 23 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. By the 1970s, many believed the modern era was drawing to a close in art, design, politics, and literature. The social, economic, and environmental awareness of the period caused many to believe the modern aesthetic was no longer relevant in an emerging postindustrial society. People in many fields, including architects, economists, feminists, and even theologians, embraced the term postmodernism to express a climate of cultural change. Maddeningly vague and overused, this term became a byword in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Late modernism and ______________ are proffered as alternative terms for late twentieth-century design. A. new wave B. mannerism C. modern radicalism D. vernacular 2. The term ______________ design refers to artistic and technical expression broadly characteristic of a locale or historical period. A. retro B. Memphis C. new-wave typography D. vernacular 3. Siegfried Odermatt and ____________ sought logical and effective solutions to design problems through a playful sense of form, the unexpected manipulation of space, and designs with strong graphic impact. They achieved typographic vitality by overlapping and combining letterforms in the presentation folder for the printing firm Anton Schöb (Fig. 23-6). Placing typography on geometric shapes whose configuration was generated by the line lengths of the text itself was a technique they frequently used during the 1980s. A. Steff Geissbuhler B. Rosmarie Tissi C. William Longhauser

205

D. Barbara Stauffacher 4. Through his instruction at the Basel School of Design and his personal projects, ____________ consciously sought to breathe a new spirit into the typography of order and neatness by questioning the premises, rules, and surface appearances that were hardening the innovations of the Swiss masters into an academic style in the hands of their followers. In the mid-1970s, he experimented with offset printing and film systems. The printer’s camera was used to alter images, and the unique properties of the film were explored. He began to move away from purely typographic form and embraced collage as a medium for visual communication, as shown in the 1974 announcement from Typographische Monatsblätter magazine (Fig. 23-13). A. Dan Friedman B. Willi Kunz C. Steff Geissbuhler D. Wolfgang Weingart 5. _____________ and other pioneers strongly rejected the notion of style and saw their work as an attempt to expand the parameters of typographic communication, yet their work was so widely imitated, especially in design education, that it gave rise to a prevailing typographic approach in the late 1970s and 1980s. Specific design ideas explored by him and his students in the late 1960s and early 1970s and adopted a decade later include letter-spaced, sansserif type; bold, stair-step rules; ruled lines punctuating and energizing space; diagonal type; the introduction of italic type and/or weight changes within words; and type reversed from a series of bars. A. Dan Friedman B. Willi Kunz C. Steff Geissbuhler D. Wolfgang Weingart 6. Some young designers who spent time at the Basel School of Design came to the United States to teach and practice afterwards. _____________, an American who studied at the Ulm Institute of Design in 1967 and 1968 and at the Basel School of Design from 1968 to 1970, taught courses at Yale University and the Philadelphia College of Art in 1970 and 1971. He addressed the problem of teaching the basics of typography through syntactic and semantic investigations, using such ordinary copy as a daily weather report (Fig. 23-18). He urged his students to make their work both functional and aesthetically unconventional. The 1973 publication of this work in the journal Visible Language had a

206

widespread influence on typographic education in the United States and other countries. A. Dan Friedman B. Willi Kunz C. Steff Geissbuhler D. Kenneth Hiebert 7. Typographic design has usually been the most two-dimensional of all the visual disciplines, but April Greiman evolved a new attitude toward space. She achieved a sense of depth in her typographic pages. Overlapping form, diagonal lines that imply perspective or reverse perspective, floating forms that cast shadows, and gestured strokes that move back in space, overlap, or move behind geometric elements are the means she uses to make forms move forward and backward from the surface of the printed page. Greiman’s typographic space operates with the same governing principle defined by ____________ in his PROUN paintings but that he never applied to his typographic designs. A. Alexander Rodchencko B. El Lissitzky C. Jan Tschichold D. Herbert Bayer 8. _____________ accepted a one-year appointment to teach typography at the Basel School of Design while Wolfgang Weingart was on sabbatical. Inspired by the research of Weingart and his students, and with the type shop at his disposal, he began a series of typographic interpretations of writings by Canadian philosopher Marshall McLuhan. These were hand-printed and published under the title 12 T y p o graphical Interpretations (Fig. 23-25). McLuhan’s thoughts on communications and printing were visualized and intensified by contrasting type weights, sometimes within the same word; geometric stair-step forms; unorthodox letter, word, and line spacing; lines and bars used as visual punctuation and spatial elements; and textual areas introduced into the spatial field. A. Dan Friedman B. Willi Kunz C. Steff Geissbuhler D. Kenneth Hiebert 9. The postmodernist architect _____________ used an energetic, high-spirited geometry of decorative surfaces and tactile repetitive patterns. His visual motifs 207

are expressed in a poster designed by Philadelphia graphic designer William Longhauser (Fig. 23-30) for an exhibition of the architect’s works. In this poster, which became an influential postmodern design in itself, a background pattern of repetitive dots is produced by the letters M I C H A E L letter spaced on a grid. A. Robert Venturi B. Michael Graves C. Ettore Sottsass D. Le Corbusier 10. In the early 1980s in San Francisco, Michael Vanderbyl, Michael Manwaring, and Michael Cronin forged a postmodern design movement that positioned San Francisco as a creative center of design. Although the San Francisco designers share gestures, shapes, palettes, intuitive spatial arrangements, and assign symbolic roles to geometric elements, personal attitudes are nonetheless evident in their work. __________ combines a casual postmodern vitality with a typographic clarity, which reflects his background in the international style. This influence is evident in the 1979 “California Public Radio” poster (Fig. 23-31) and the 1985 promotional mailer for the Simpson Paper Company (Fig. 23-32). A. Michael Vanderbyl B. Michael Manwaring C. Michael Cronin 11. Retro thrived in book jacket design, as is evident in the work of _____________. She finds inspiration in the vernacular graphics of France and Italy, which she collects during summer vacations in Europe. Eccentric letterforms on signs and vernacular graphics with long-lost typefaces discovered in flea markets and used-book stalls inform her highly personal and intuitive approach. A. Paula Scher B. Lorraine Louie C. Louise Fili D. Barbara Stauffacher 12. A famous 1930s Swiss travel poster designed by _____________ is parodied in Paula Scher’s 1985 retro-style poster for Swatch (Fig. 23-40), the Swiss watch manufacturer. A. Armin Hofmann B. Josef Müller-Brockmann

208

C. Herbert Matter D. Walter Herdeg 13. Postmodernism heralded a spirit of liberation that allowed designers to respond positively to vernacular and historic forms and to incorporate them into their work. An atmosphere of inclusion and expanding possibilities encouraged designers to experiment. The English designer _____________ wondered, “Why can’t you take a painterly approach within the print medium?” His work evolves from an effort to discover an intuitive yet logical approach to design, expressing a personal vision that could have meaning to his audience. His typographic configurations project an emblematic authority that evokes heraldry and military emblems (Fig. 23-52). A. Joe Duffy B. Daniel Pelavin C. Charles S. Anderson D. Neville Brody

Matching
I. Match the description of the movement with its name. In the 1970s, the term postmodernism designated the work of architects and designers who were breaking with the international style that had been so prevalent since the Bauhaus. However, graphic design, rapidly changing and ephemeral, was never dominated by the international style the way architecture had been, so postmodern graphic design can be loosely categorized as having moved in several major directions: 1. This movement was characterized by a typographic revolt, as practitioners and teachers schooled in the International Typographic Style sought to reinvent typographic design. ____ 2. As the 1970s closed and the 1980s began, a new movement in postmodern design swept into international prominence. Function became secondary to surface pattern and texture, color, and fantastic forms in the lamps, sofas, and cabinets of this movement’s designers. ____ 3. This movement was characterized by an uninhibited, eclectic interest in modernist European design, particularly in the decades between the world wars; a flagrant disregard for the rules of proper typography; and a fascination with eccentric typefaces designed and widely used during the 1920s and 1930s. ____

209

A. Memphis B. new-wave typography C. retro

Image Identification
I. Match the image with the designer(s) or design studio. 1. Poster for the California Institute of the Arts, 1979 (Fig. 23-24), __________ A. Michael Vanderbyl B. William Longhauser C. Kenneth Hiebert D. April Greiman and Jayme Odgers 2. Trademark for Marine Midland Auto Financing Division, 1985, (Fig. 23-47) __________ A. Charles S. Anderson B. Daniel Pelavin C. Paula Scher D. Daniel Pelavin 3. Book cover for Hoover’s Guide to the Top Southern California Companies, 1994, (Fig. 23-46) _________ A. Charles S. Anderson B. Daniel Pelavin C. Paula Scher 4. “Language is a Deadly Weapon,” 1994 graphic for MTV’s “Free Your Mind” campaign, (Fig. 23-55) __________ A. Charles S. Anderson B. Daniel Pelavin C. Paula Scher

210

II. Identify the postmodern movement associated with the image. 1. Poster for the California Institute of the Arts, 1979, (Fig. 23-24) _________ A. retro B. Memphis A. new-wave typography 2. Book cover for Hoover’s Guide to the Top Southern California Companies, 1994, (Fig. 23-46) __________ A. retro B. Memphis C. new wave

211

Chapter 24 – The Digital Revolution and Beyond

Introduction, 488 The origins of computer-aided graphic design, 488 Pioneers of digital graphic design, 490 Revitalizing magazine design, 495 The digital type foundry, page 498 Digital imaging, page 501 Interactive media, the Internet, and the World Wide Web, page 503 The new conceptual poster, page 507 The conceptual book cover, page 514 A voice from Africa, page 514 A new generation of film titles, page 517 A digital vanguard, page 517 Recent British graphic design, page 519 New typographic expression, page 522 A Mexican vanguard, page 528

Key Terms (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed) Pluralism, page 488 Pixels, page 488 Bit-mapped fonts, page 489, (Fig. 24-2) Bezier splines, page 489, (Fig. 24-3) Linotron, page 489 212

Desktop publishing, page 490 Émigré, page 490, (Figs. 24-6 and 24-7) Entropy, page 493 Kern, page 495 Em, page 495 Gutter, page 495 Zines, page 495 Oxford rules, page 496 Design axis, page 498 Hypertext, page 503 Interactive media/hypermedia, page 503 Linear series, page 504 Spatial zoom, page 504 Parallel texts, page 504 Overlays, page 504 Hierarchies, page 504 Matrix, page 504 Web structure, page 504 Internet, page 504 World Wide Web, page 504 Hyperlinks, page 505 Information superhighway, page 505 Information architecture, page 505

Key People and Their Major Contributions (in order of appearance; the first page number of their appearance is listed)

213

Douglas C. Engelbart (b. 1925), page 488 Susan Kare (b. 1954), page 489, (Fig. 24-2) Pierre Bézier (1910–1999), page 489, (Fig. 24-3) Paul Brainerd, page 489 Rudy Vanderlans (b. 1955), page 490, (Figs. 24-6 and 24-7) Zuzana Licko (b. 1961), page 490, (Fig. 24-8) Katherine McCoy (b. 1945), page 492, (Fig. 24-9) Edward Fella (b. 1939), page 492 David Carson (b. 1956), page 495, (Fig. 24-12) Fred Woodward (b. 1953), page 495, (Figs. 24-15 through 24-17) Gail Anderson (b. 1962), page 495, (Fig. 24-16) John Plunkett (b. 1952) and Barbara Kuhr (b. 1954), page 497, (Figs. 24-19 through 2421) Sumner Stone (b. 1945), page 498, (Fig. 24-22) Carol Twombly (b. 1959), page 498, (Fig. 24-23) Robert Slimbach (b. 1956), page 498, (Fig. 24-24) Matthew Carter (b. 1937), page 500, (Figs. 24-27 and 24-28) Laurie Haycock Makela (b. 1956) and Matt Eller (b. 1968), page 501 Erik Spiekermann (b. 1947), page 504 Netscape Communications, page 505 Jessica Helfand (b. 1960), page 505, (Fig. 24-36 through 24-41) Richard Saul Wurman (b. 1935), page 505 Clement Mok (b. 1958), page 505 Bob Aufuldish (b. 1961) and Kathy Warinner (b. 1957), page 507, (Figs. 24-43 and 2444) Helmut Brade (b. 1937), page 507, (Fig. 24-46) Gitte Kath (b. 1948), page 507, (Figs. 24-47 and 24-48) Luba Lukova (b. 1960), page 508, (Figs. 24-49 and 24-50) 214

Hideki Nakajima (b. 1961), page 508, (Fig. 24-51) Makoto Saito (b. 1952), page 509, (Fig. 24-52) Shin Matsunaga (b. 1940), page 509, (Fig. 24-54) Mitsuo Katsui (b. 1931), page 510, (Fig. 24-55) Jianping He (b. 1973), page 510, (Fig. 24-56) Stefan Sagmeister (b. 1962), page 510, (Fig. 24-57) Werner Jeker (b. 1944), page 511, (Fig. 24-58) Jean-Benoît Lévy (b. 1959), page 511, (Figs. 24-59 and 24-60) Rudi Meyer (b. 1943), page 511, (Figs. 24-61 and 24-62) Niklaus Troxler (b. 1947), page 512, (Figs. 24-63 and 24-64) Karl Dominic Geissbuhler (b. 1932), page 512, (Figs. 24-65 and 24-66) Uwe Loesch (b. 1943), page 512, (Fig. 24-67) Holger Matthies (b. 1940), page 513, (Fig. 24-68) Philippe Apeloig (1962), page 513, (Fig. 24-69) David Tartakover (b. 1944), page 514, (Fig. 24-70) Reza Abedini (b. 1967), page 514, (Figs. 24-71 and 24-72) Charles I. (Chip) Kidd (b. 1964), page 514, (Figs. 24-73 and 24-74) Katsumi Asaba (b. 1940), page 514, (Fig. 24-75) Chaz Maviyane Davies (b. 1952), page 514, (Fig. 24-76) Erik Adigard (b. 1953) and Patricia McShane (b. 1953), page 517, (Figs. 24-80 and 2481) Vaughan Oliver (b. 1957), page 519, (Fig. 24-83) Michael Johnston (b. 1964), page 519, (Fig. 24-84) Vince Frost (b. 1964), page 520, (Fig. 24-88) Alan Kitching (b. 1940), page 520, (Figs. 24-89 and 24-90) Shuichi Nogami (b. 1954), page 522, (Fig. 24-91) Shinnoske Sugisaki (b. 1953), page 522, (Fig. 24-92) Ralph Schraivogel (b. 1960), page 522, (Fig. 24-93) 215

Melchior Imboden (b.1956), page 522, (Figs. 24-94 and 24-95) Paula Scher (b. 1948), page 522, (Figs. 24-96 and 24-97) Nancy Skolos (b. 1955) and Thomas Wedell (b. 1949), page 523, (Figs. 24-98 and 2499) Hans Dieter Reichert (b. 1959), page 523, (Figs. 24-100 and 24-101) Mirko Ilic (b. 1956), page 524, (Fig. 24-102) Wladyslaw Pluta (b. 1949), page 526, (Figs. 24-103 and 24-104) Ahn Sang-Soo (b. 1952), page 527, (Fig. 24-105) Michael Bierut (b. 1957), page 527, (Fig. 24-106) Helmut Schmid (b. 1942), page 527, (Fig. 24-107) Jacques Koeweiden (b. 1957) and Paul Postma (b. 1958), page 528, (Fig. 24-108) Max Kisman (b. 1953), page 528, (Fig. 24-109) Felix Beltrán (b. 1938), page 528, (Fig. 24-110) Luís Almeida Herrera (b. 1946), page 529, (Figs. 24-111 and 24-112) German Montalvo (b. 1956), page 529, (Fig. 24-113) Gabriela Rodriguez (b. 1956), page 529, (Fig. 24-114) Alejandro Magallanes (b. 1971), page 530, (Figs. 24-115 and 24-116)

216

Chapter 24 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. During the 1960s, when ______________ became a prevalent means of typesetting, it took a team of skilled specialists to create and print graphic communications. These specialists included graphic designers, who created page layouts; typesetters, who operated text and display typesetting equipment; production artists, who pasted all of the elements into position on boards; camera operators, who made photographic negatives of the paste-ups, art, and photographs; strippers, who assembled these negatives together; plate makers, who prepared the printing plates; and press operators, who ran the printing presses. A. metal type B. lithography C. phototype D. wood type 2. By the 1990s, ______________ technology enabled one person operating a desktop computer to control most—or even all—of these functions. New photooptical printing machines used computer-controlled lasers to photosensitize printing drums, making short-run and even individualized full-color press sheets possible. A. photographic B. offset lithographic C. laser D. digital 3. During the 1980s, three companies introduced powerful hardware and software to the marketplace, bringing the digital revolution to the desktops of individual graphic designers. Which company does NOT belong to that group? __________ A. Adobe Systems B. Microsoft C. Apple Computer

217

D. Aldus 4. By 1990, ____________ began receiving significant numbers of idiosyncratic and novel fonts from outside designers. Recognizing the originality of many of these submissions, partners Zuzana Licko and Rudy Vanderlans began to license and distribute the designs. Some of these typefaces (Fig. 24-26) were extremely controversial, even as they were rapidly adopted and used extensively in major advertising campaigns and publication designs. Licko designed the two typefaces at the bottom: Mrs Eaves is an exemplary interpretation of John Baskerville’s eighteenth-century transitional fonts, and Filosofia captures the spirit of modernstyle typefaces. A. Adobe Systems B. Émigré Fonts C. Linotype D. Monotype 5. Graphic designer _____________ created a 1987 issue of Design Quarterly magazine for the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis as a 12-by-6-foot single-sheet digital collage executed entirely on the Macintosh computer (Fig. 24-5). Images were captured from video and digitized, and words and pictures were integrated into a single computer file. In 1988, this designer expressed an obligation to “take on the challenge of continuing forward toward a new landscape of communications,” adding, “[t]o use these tools to imitate what we already know and think is a pity. I think there has to be another layer applied here. And that’s about ideas.” A. April Greiman B. Katherine McCoy C. Edward Fella D. Zuzana Licko 6. With roots in American vernacular design and early modernist typography, __________’s experimental work became a major influence on a generation of designers. From 1983 until 1991, he contributed graphics to the Detroit Focus Gallery and produced flyers, such as the one shown here (Fig. 24-10), and catalogues whose typography and lettering challenged the reader in the same way advanced art in a gallery challenged the viewer. He explored entropy, the disintegration of form from repeated copying, and an unbounded range of techniques: found typography, scribbles, brush writing, typesetting, rubdown letters, public-domain clip art, stencils, etc. He investigated the aesthetic potential of invented letterforms, irregular spatial intervals, eccentric characters, personal glyphs, and vernacular imagery. Although his influence permeates work by young

218

designers vigorously committed to computer graphics, he rarely uses computers and favors hand processes. A. David Carson B. Fred Woodward C. Edward Fella D. John Hersey 7. During the 1990s, many designers energized their work through advanced computer graphics. New directions migrated from personal exploration and design education to the mainstream as editorial designers for specialized magazines applied computer experimentation to their pages. As art director/designer for Transworld Skateboarding (1983–1987), Musician (1988), Beach Culture (1989–1991), Surfer (1991–1992), and Ray Gun (1992–1996), ____________ shunned grid formats and a consistent approach to typographic layout. Instead, he chose to explore the expressive possibilities of each subject and each page or spread, rejecting conventional notions of typographic syntax, visual hierarchy, and imagery. In the 1994 article “Morrissey: The Loneliest Monk,” in Ray Gun (Fig. 24-14), the unusual photographic cropping and deconstructed headline convey the musician’s romanticism and mystery. A. David Carson B. Fred Woodward C. Edward Fella D. John Hersey 8. After art directing Texas Monthly and Regardie’s, ____________ became the art director of the semi-monthly rock-and-roll magazine Rolling Stone. An intuitive designer, he tried to match typefaces and images to content. In this 1990 breakthrough layout of an article on Sinead O’Connor (Fig. 24-15), large-scale display type over two pages is used as a dynamic counterpoint to the photographic portrait. A. David Carson B. Fred Woodward C. Edward Fella D. John Hersey 9. A virtual explosion in the release of new typefaces occurred in the 1990s, as large type vendors were joined by independent type foundries set up by studios and individual designers. _________________ became a prolific and influential

219

digital type foundry. An early type family developed for its PostScript pagedescription language was Stone, designed by Sumner Stone. A. Adobe Systems B. Microsoft C. Apple Computer D. Aldus 10. John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, principals of Plunkett + Kuhr, located in Park City, Utah, envisioned a magazine that would do for the information superhighway what Rolling Stone had done for the rock-and-roll a generation earlier. What is the name of this magazine? ____________ A. Ray Gun B. Billboard C. Wired D. Zembla 11. As a staff typeface designer at Adobe, _____________ created original designs and respected digital adaptations of classical typefaces, including three masterful families inspired by historical lettering: Charlemagne, which is freely based on the decorative capitals used as versals and titling in Carolingian-era illuminated manuscripts; Lithos, inspired by the monoline simplicity and even-textured economy of Greek stone inscriptions; and Trajan, inspired by the inscription on Trajan’s column. A. Robert Slimbach B. Carol Twombly C. Sumner Stone D. Susan Kare 12. Standardization and interchangeable parts became the norm of the industrial revolution; in typography, this conformity was realized through the repetition of letterform parts and redundant layout formats. The digital revolution ushered in an era of individualization, flexibility, and customization. London-born ____________’s typeface Walker (Fig. 24-28), designed for the Minneapolisbased Walker Art Center, provides a stunning example of expanding typographic possibilities. Sturdy sans-serif capitals have a series of five “snap-on” serifs, which can be attached at will to the vertical strokes of each letter. A. Rudy Vanderlans

220

B. Matthew Carter C. Robert Slimbach D. Carol Twombly 13. Because electronic imaging software allowed seamless and undetectable image manipulation, the _____________ lost its status as the undisputed documentation of visual reality. The boundaries between photography, illustration, and fine art began to crumble along with those separating designer, illustrator, and photographer. A. illustration B. photograph C. painting D. lithographic print 14. The 1982 press kit cover designed by Pat Gorman of Manhattan Design for _____________ is a forerunner of the image invention made possible with digital computers. This cover was created before the Macintosh computer at a time when the creative potential of electronic technology was seldom explored because designers rarely had access to sophisticated and costly technology. Gorman made color variations of the logo by exploring editing controls in a television studio. Randomly generated color combinations were selected and composed in a repeated pattern to convey the network’s constantly changing character in a nonverbal manner. A. NBC B. ABC C. MTV D. CBS 15. In 1976, architect and designer Richard Saul Wurman coined the term ___________________ and predicted it would become a new profession for individuals who make complex information understandable. Twenty years later, this term became widely used to denote a process of analyzing complex information and giving it structure and order, enabling audiences to glean its essence in an efficacious manner. A. hypermedia B. information superhighway C. information architecture

221

D. network structures 16. ______________, a vast network of linked computers, had its origins in the late 1960s, when scientists at the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) established the ARPAnet computer network so they could transfer data between sites working on similar research projects. This led to a quantum leap forward in computer communications. A. the World Wide Web B. the Internet 17. _____________ , which provides a means to easily organize and access the vast and ever-increasing digital content of text, images, sound, animation, and video, was first developed in 1990 by physicist Tim Berners-Lee at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. Berners-Lee developed the three main building blocks: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), and a specification for the “address” of every file, called the Uniform Resource Locator (URL). A. the World Wide Web B. the Internet 18. _____________’s graphic design is consistently characterized by an uncompromising and harsh directness. On a poster for a Lou Reed album, lyrics from one of Reed’s songs are handwritten across his face like graffiti. Born in Austria, he received his first diploma in graphic design from the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, and while on a Fulbright scholarship, he earned a master’s from Pratt Institute in New York. After first working in New York and later as the creative director for the Hong Kong office of the Leo Burnett advertising agency, he returned to New York in 1993 to found his own studio. He has designed graphics and packaging for the Rolling Stones, David Byrne, Lou Reed, Aerosmith, and Pat Metheny, among other clients. A. Werner Jeker B. Stefan Sagmeister C. Rudi Meyer D. Helmut Brade 19. In his book jacket designs for Alfred A. Knopf, _____________ frequently uses vintage images such as old prints and family albums found in flea markets and junk shops. His visual cues are elusive and require the viewer to excavate the message, as in the 1997 design for David Sedaris’s Naked. In this example, there are two covers in one. After the dust jacket, which shows a pair of boxer shorts, is removed, an X-ray is revealed on the book’s cover. In a recent monograph on his work, author Véronique Vienne stated: “By distancing the title 222

from the image on the cover, he puts a very specific kind of pressure on readers: he asks them to bridge the gap between what they read and what they see. In the process he empowers them by demanding they take control of the communication.” A. Katsumi Asaba B. Angus Hyland C. Chip Kidd D. Andrew Altmann 20. _____________ continues to be a major force in graphic design and to draw upon historical models while transforming them into her own unique form of expression. An example of this ability is her 1994 poster for the Public Theater production of Diva Is Dismissed, which reflects music posters from the 1960s. Her typographic poster for the 1995 New York Shakespeare Festival’s productions of The Tempest and Troilus & Cressida seems like a refined version of the typographic posters of the nineteenth century. A. Nancy Skolos B. Gabriela Rodriguez C. Katherine McCoy D. Paula Scher

True/False
1. Galliard (Fig. 24-27), which was designed by Matthew Carter in 1978, is a masterful adaptation of a sixteenth-century design by Robert Granjon. _____

Matching
I. Match the person with the innovation. 1. Douglas C. Engelbart ____ 2. Susan Kare ____ 3. Pierre Bézier ____ 4. Paul Brainerd ____

223

A. This thirty-six-year-old former newspaper editor formed a company called Aldus (after the fifteenth-century printer Aldus Manutius) to develop software for the Macintosh so newspapers could produce advertisements more efficiently. In 1985, Aldus introduced PageMaker software. B. The French mathematician who invented mathematically generated, nonuniform curves (in contrast to curves with uniform curvatures, called arcs) defined by four control points, which are particularly useful for creating letterforms and computer graphics. C. A scientist at the federal government’s Augmentation Research Center in the 1960s, this person invented the first mouse, a small wooden box on steel wheels. D. This person worked in the Apple Computer design department and designed early bit-mapped fonts that were then released by Apple.

II. Match the term with the definition. 1. entropy ____ 2. kern ____ 3. em ____ 4. zine ____

A. B. C. D.

A horizontal measurement equivalent to the width of the letter m Self-published personal magazines using desktop-publishing software and inexpensive printing or copier reproduction The disintegration of form from repeated copying To increase or decrease the space between pairs of letters

III. Match the typefaces with the type designers who designed them.

1. Zuzana Licko ____ 2. Matthew Carter ____ 3. Robert Slimbach ____

224

4. Susan Kare ____ 5. Carol Twombly ____

A. Lithos B. Geneva C. Mrs Eaves D. Minion E. Bell Centennial

IV. Match each term with its definition. 1. hypermedia ____ 2. hypertext ____ 3. multiple-master typefaces ____

A. Text on a computer screen containing pointers to other text, which can be accessed in a nonlinear way and is instantly available in a nonlinear way by placing the cursor on the key word or icon and clicking on the mouse. B. Two or more master designs that combine to generate an extensive sequence of fonts whose weight, width, style, and optical size are determined by a design axis. C. A combination of audio, visual, and cinematic communications connected to form a coherent body of information.

V. Seven basic structural methods are often used in interactive media. Match the terms with their definitions. 1. linear series ____ 2. spatial zoom ____ 3. parallel texts ____ 4. overlays ____ 5. hierarchies ____ 225

6. matrix ____ 7. web structures ____

A. Networks constructed with links designed to guide the viewer through interconnected information B. Different views of the same information, such as a series of maps showing the Roman Empire at different stages in its history C. A sequence of screens, much like the pages of a book or images in a slide show, which can be called up on the screen one after another D. Modified versions of the same document E. Lets the viewer acquire closer or more detailed data by clicking on a word to see its definition or by focusing in on a detail of a map or diagram F. Organizes data on a grid of interconnected pathways that intersect at appropriate tangential points G. Branching structures organized like a family tree allowing the user to select options that lead down the various branches

VI. Match the people with their contributions. 1. Jessica Helfand ____ 2. Clement Mok ____ 3. Erik Spiekermann ____ 4. Richard Saul Wurman ____

A. Coined the term information architecture for a process of analyzing complex information and giving it structure and order, and predicted it would become a new profession for individuals who made complex information understandable. B. Headed MetaDesign, an information graphics firm with offices in Berlin, London, and San Francisco. Designed the Meta type family and founded the FontShop digital type foundry. C. An Apple Computer creative director who left the company to open a design studio in 1987, which was renamed Studio Archetype in 1996. An early advocate of the graphic designer’s role in the rapidly changing world 226

of interactive media who believed design should be defined not as an isolated entity, such as packaging or graphics that is added onto the product or service, but as an integral part of an organization’s overall vision and strategy. D. Designed the initial website for the Discovery Channel, which demonstrated in the infancy of the medium that graphic designers could create identity, aid navigation, and bring visual interest to websites, and became a paradigm of web design.

Image Identification
Identify the designer and the date of the following images. 1. Fig. 24-5 ______________________________________________________ 2. Fig. 24-9 ______________________________________________________ 3. Fig. 24-10 _____________________________________________________ 4. Fig. 24-13 _____________________________________________________ 5. Fig. 24-57 _____________________________________________________ 6. Fig. 24-59 _____________________________________________________ 7. Fig. 24-61 _____________________________________________________ 8. Fig. 24-82 _____________________________________________________ 9. Fig. 24-99 _____________________________________________________ 10. Fig. 24-105 ____________________________________________________ 11. Fig. 24-106 ____________________________________________________ 12. Fig. 24-109 ____________________________________________________ 13. Fig. 24-114 ____________________________________________________

227

Chapter 1 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Africa 2. B – Caves 3. A – Kenya 4. C – Writing 5. C – Simple Pictures 6. C – Altamira in Spain 7. A – Art 8. D – pictographs 9. A – petroglyphs 10. B – ideographs 11. B – petroglyphs and pictographs 12. B – Mesopotamia 13. D – Sumerian 14. C – Writing 15. C – to keep records systematically 16. B – Blau monument 17. A – a code of laws and consequences for violating them 18. A – cattle brands 19. B – cylinder seals 20. B – latin 21. C – funerary texts 22. C – Images were inserted on separate pages opposite the text they illustrated. 23. B – identification seals 228

Matching
I. 1. determinatives – D 2. cartouche – F 3. hieroglyphics – C 4. homonymous – B 5. ankh – A 6. obelisk – E

II. 1. demotic – E 2. papyrus – A 3. recto – B 4. hieratic – D 5. verso – C

III. 1. ziggurat – C 2. edduba – E 3. phonograms – F 4. stele – A 5. rebus – D 6. cuneiform – B

Image Identification
I. 229

1. Fig. 1-1: Cave painting from Lascaux, c. 15,000–10,000 B.C. 2. Fig. 1-5: Early Sumerian pictographic tablet, c. 3100 B.C. 3. Fig. 1-10: Stele bearing the Code of Hammurabi and detail, c. 1800 B.C. 4. Fig. 1-12: Hittite cylinder seal, undated 5. Fig. 1-16: The Rosetta Stone, c. 197–196 B.C. 6. Fig. 1-26: Vignette from Papyrus of Ani, c. 1420 B.C. 7. Figs. 1-27 and 1-28: Scarab of Ikhnaton and Nefertiti, c. 1370 B.C.

II. 1. Fig. 1-2: B – petroglyphs 2. Fig. 1-11: C – cuneiform 3. Fig. 1-23: A – hieroglyphs

230

Chapter 2 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – sounds 2. C – Phaistos Disk 3. D – Phoenicians 4. C – the initial sound of the object depicted 5. B – more geometrically structured 6. A – alternating left to right and right to left 7. A – uncials 8. C – an oral culture no longer had the capacity to contain and document knowledge and information 9. C – Phoenician 10. C – Etruscans 11. B – during the Middle Ages 12. A – codex 13. B – G 14. D – Kufic 15. C – parchment 16. A – abstract depictions of the mouth and tongue

Matching
I. 1. vellum: F 2. serifs: C 3. signature: G 231

4. Capitalis Quadrata: B 5. Capitalis Monumentalis: A 6. parchment: E 7. Capitalis Rustica: D

True/False
1. True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. True

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 2-2 – The Phaistos Disk, undated 2. Fig. 2-11 – Greek votive stela with four figures, c. 500 B.C. 3. Fig. 2-12 – Greek wooden tablet with uncials, A.D. 326[AM5] 4. Fig. 2-16 – Inscribed Etruscan Bucchero, seventh or sixth century B.C.

II. 1. Fig. 2-18: B – Capitalis Monumentalis 2. Fig. 2-19: A – Capitalis Quadrata 3. Fig. 2-20: C – Capitalis Rustica

232

Chapter 3 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. A – oil paint 2. C – Ts-ang Chieh 3. B – logograms 4. D – chiaku-wen 5. A – Ts’ai Lun 6. A – inked rubbings 7. D – Diamond Sutra 8. C – money 9. B – accordion-style 10. D – moveable type 11. C – Album of Eight Leaves

Matching
1. chin-wen: A 2. hsaio chuan: C 3. k’ai-shu: D 4. chia-ku-wen: B

True/False
1. True 2. Flase 3. True 4. False 233

5. False 6. False 7. True 8. False

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 3-6: Page from the Album of Eight Leaves, A.D. 1744 2. Fig. 3-8: Chinese chop 3. Fig. 3-15: Pages from the Pen Ts’ao, A.D. 1249

II. 1. Fig. 3-2: A – Chiaku-wen (bone-and-shell script) 2. Fig. 3-3: C – Chin-wen (bronze script) 3. Fig. 3-4: B – Chen-shu (regular style calligraphy)

234

Chapter 4 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – copisti 2. A – classical 3. C – Celtic 4. D – word spaces 5. C – the English scholar Alcuin of York 6. A – Caroline miniscules 7. B – the Book of Revelation 8. A – travel increased due to the crusades and pilgrimages 9. A – littera moderna 10. D – Figurative illustrations 11. B – Book of Hours 12. D – illuminator 13. A – colophon 14. C – classical 15. B – unicals 16. C – Les tres riches heures du Duc de Berry

Matching
I. 1. Gothic: C 2. classical style: A 3. Celtic: B

235

True/False
1. False 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. True 7. False 8. True 9. True

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 4-6: The Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698 2. Figs. 4-7, 4-8 and 4-9: The Book of Kells, c. 794–806 3. Fig. 4-10: Caroline minuscules, ninth century A.D. 4. Fig. 4-11: Coronation Gospels, c. 800 5. Fig. 4-13: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1047 6. Fig. 4-19: Islamic manuscript Padishahnamah, c. 1700 7. Figs. 4-20 and 4-21: Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–16

II. 1. Fig. 4-5: B-Celtic book design 2. Fig. 4-16: C-Gothic manuscript 3. Fig. 4-18: A-Islamic book design

236

Chapter 5 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. A – Devotional prints of saints 2. C – The Ars Moriendi 3. D – paper 4. A – Laurens Janszoon Coster 5. B – Procopius Waldfoghel 6. C – type mold 7. D – textura 8. A – “Letters of Indulgence” by Pope Nicholas V 9. C – 418 full-page illustrations 10. B – copperplate engravings 11. B – watermark 12. B – Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer

Matching
I. 1. Punch: C 2. Xylography: B 3. Matrix: E 4. Engraving: A 5. Typography: D

True/False
1. True 237

2. True 3. True 4. False 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. True 9. False 10. True 11. True

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 5-2: Jack of Diamonds woodblock playing card, c. 1400 2. Fig. 5-5: Block book page from The Story of the Blessed Virgin, 1400s 3. Fig. 5-7: Pages from an ars moriendi, 1466 4. Fig. 5-9: Pages from Ars Memorandi per Figuras Evangelistarum (Book of Notable Religious Figures), c. 1470 5. Fig. 5-12: Johann Gutenberg, Letters of Indulgence, c. 1454

II. 1. Fig. 5-11: A – Jost Amman 2. Fig. 5-13: C – Johann Gutenberg 3. Figs. 5-14 and 5-15: B – Fust and Schoeffer

238

Chapter 6 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – Typography evoked illusions of the natural world on flat surfaces through such means as the fixed viewpoint. 2. C – incunabula 3. C – here begins 4. D – 1:1.618 5. C – Johann Zainer 6. B – illustrator 7. A – Nuremberg Chronicle 8. D – Albrecht Dürer 9. C – Lucas Cranach the Elder 10. D – Arnold Pannartz and Conrad Sweynheym 11. A – They were elegant and refined. 12. B – white dots punched into black areas to create tone 13. B – broadsheet 14. C – exeplars

True/False
1. False 2. True 3. True 4. True 5. True 6. True 239

7. False

Matching
I. 1. ex libris: D 2. fraktur: B 3. broadside: A 4. exemplar: C

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 6-4: Johann Zainer, page from De mulieribus claris (On Famous Women), 1473 2. Fig. 6-9: Anton Koberger, pages from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 3. Fig. 6-14: Albrecht Dürer, title page for The Life of the Virgin, 1511 4. Fig. 6-20: Hans Lufft and Lucas Cranach the Younger, pages from Fabian von Auerswald’s Ringer Kunst (Art of Wrestling), 1539 5. Fig. 6-25: Phillipe Pigouchet, pages from Horae Beatus Virginis Mariae (Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary), 1498

II. 1. Fig. 6-7: C – Anton Koberger 2. Fig. 6-15: B – Albrecht Dürer 3. Fig. 6-21: A – Lucas Cranach the Younger

240

Chapter 7 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. D – Venice 2. A – Johannes de Spira 3. B – Nicolas Jenson 4. B – Calendarium 5. B – asymmetrical 6. C – Aldus Manutius 7. C – pocket 8. D – Francesco Griffo (Francesco da Bologna) 9. D – writing 10. B – France 11. C – Issuing the first printer’s type specimen sheet 12. D – Claude Garamond 13. B – Oronce Finé 14. B – copperplate engravings 15. D – trademark 16. A – Stephen and Matthew Dye

True/False
1. True 2. False 3. False 4. True 5. True 241

6. True 7. True 8. True

Matching
I. 1. bracketing: C 2. fleurons: B 3. headpiece: D 4. tailpiece: E 5. trademarks: A 6. type specimen sheet: F

II. 1. Francesco da Bologna, surnamed Griffo: C 2. Claude Garamond: E 3. Robert Granjon: F 4. Nicolas Jenson: A 5. Aldus Manutius: B 6. Geoffroy Tory: D

Image Identification
I. 1. Figs. 7-7 and 7-8: Erhard Ratdolt, Peter Loeslein, and Bernhard Maier, pages from Calendarium, 1476 2. Figs. 7-16 and 7-17: Aldus Manutius, pages from Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, 1499 3. Fig. 7-25: Geoffroy Tory, capital G from a series of criblé initials, c. 1526 242

4. Fig. 7-27: Geoffroy Tory, pages from Champ Fleury, 1529 5. Fig. 7-28: Geoffroy Tory, construction of the letter Q from Champ Fleury, 1529 6. Fig. 7-37: Joannes Frellonius and Hans Holbein the Younger, pages from Imagines Mortis, 1547 7. Fig. 7-38: Johann Oporinus, page from De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Construction of the Human Body), 1543

II. 1. Fig. 7-9: B – Erhard Ratdolt 2. Fig. 7-31: A – Simon de Colines 3. Fig. 7-43: C – Stephen and Matthew Daye

243

Chapter 8 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Romain du Roi 2. D – transitional 3. B – Moveable type 4. B – George Bickham 5. B – printed both the illustrations and text from one copper plate for each page 6. D – Benjamin Franklin 7. D – arabesques in headpieces and tailpieces 8. C – transitional 9. C – William Playfair 10. A – typefaces 11. B – modern style 12. C – neoclassical 13. D – Manuale Tipografico 14. A – pied de roi 15. B – classics by Virgil 16. A – stereotyping 17. C – Shakespeare Press 18. D – romanticism

True/False
1. True 2. True 3. False 244

4. True 5. False 6. False 7. False 8. True 9. False 10. False

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 8-1 and 8-2: Louis Simonneau, master alphabets for the Romain du Roi, 1695 2. Fig. 8-8: George Bickham, “A Poem, On the Universal Penman,” c. 1740 3. Figure 8-9: John Pine, Page from Horace’s Opera, Volume II, 1737 4. Figure 8-16: Giambattista Bodoni, title page from Saggio tipographico (Typographic Essay), 1771 5. Figure 8-20: Pierre Didot, pages from Virgil’s Bucolica, Georgica, et Aeneis (Pastorials, Farming, and Aeneis), 1798

II. 1. Fig. 8-7: C – Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune 2. Fig. 8-12: A – John Baskerville 3. Fig. 8-14: B – Willam Playfair

245

Chapter 9 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Signage was needed to guide residents through the streets of fast-growing cities 2. D – fat faces 3. C – Egyptian faces 4. A – sans-serif 5. B – Tuscan-style 6. B – Vincent Figgins 7. D – Darius Wells 8. B – William Leavenworth 9. D – limited number of characters in each font 10. B – brass matrix 11. D – Joseph Niepce 12. C – with a long exposure time, so moving subjects, such as carriages and pedestrians, were not recorded 13. B – motion picture photography 14. C – halftone screen 15. C – The first use of sans-serif typography as a running book text 16. C – aesthetic confusion 17. C – Owen Jones 18. B – Chromolithography 19. A – toy books 20. D – Walter Crane 21. A – Randolph Caldecott 22. B – Harper’s Illuminated and New Pictorial Bible 246

23. B – Century 24. A – market research

True/False
1. True 2. True 3. True 4. True 5. True 6. True 7. True 8. False 9. False 10. True 11. False 12. False 13. True 14. False 15. True 16. False

Matching
I. 1. A – Matthew Brady 2. B – Sir John Herschel 3. C – Stephen H. Horgan 4. D – William Henry Fox Talbot 247

5. E – Julia Margaret Cameron

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 9-2: Robert Thorne, fat-face types, 1821 2. Fig. 9-18: Ottmar Mergenthaler, Model 5 Linotype machine, 1886 3. Fig. 9-22: Louis-Jacques Daguerre, daguerreotype of Paris boulevard, 1839 4. Fig. 9-26: William Henry Fox Talbot, pages from The Pencil of Nature, 1844 5. Figs. 9-31 and 9-32: Stephen H. Horgan, experimental photoengraving of halftone image, 1880 6. Fig. 9-34: Julia Margaret Cameron, “Sir John Herschel,” 1867 7. Fig. 9-37: Mathew Brady, “Dunker Church and the Dead,” 1862 8. Fig. 9-43: John H. Bufford’s Sons, “Swedish Song Quartett” poster, 1867 9. Fig. 9-56: Kate Greenaway, page from Under the Window, 1879

II. 1. Fig. 9-21: A – Joseph Niepce 2. Fig. 9-39: C – Eadweard Muybridge 3. Fig. 9-61: B – Charles Dana Gibson

248

Chapter 10 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. A – color was used to identify the lines and shapes in the diagrams 2. A – art 3. D – Japanese 4. C – Golden 5. D – regaining high standards of design, materials, and workmanship 6. B – Charles R. Ashbee 7. C – The use of seven different colors of ink 8. C – a significant upgrade of book design 9. A – alphabet 10. D – Venetian and French Renaissance 11. B – William Addison Dwiggins 12. C – Albert Bruce Rogers 13. D – Century 14. C – American Type Founders Company (ATF) 15. B – Lucien and Esther Pissaro 16. D – Jan van Krimpen 17. A – Hollandsche Mediaeval

True/False
1. True 2. True 3. FalseFalse 4. False 249

5. True 6. False 7. False 8. True 9. False 10. True 11. False

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 10-2: William Pickering, pages from The Elements of Euclid, 1847 2. Fig. 10-6: Arthur H. Mackmurdo, title page for Wren’s City Churches, 1883 3. Fig. 10-10: Selwyn Image, title page to The Century Guild Hobby Horse, 1884 4. Fig. 10-22: Charles R. Ashbee, page from the Essex House Psalter, 1902 5. Fig. 10-23: T. J. Cobden-Sanderson and Emery Walker, pages from the Dove’s Press Bible, 1903 6. Fig. 10-37: Frederic W. Goudy, booklet cover, 1911

II. 1. Fig. 10-18: B – William Morris 2. Fig. 10-32: A – Charles Nypels 3. Fig. 10-36: C – Rudolf Koch

250

Chapter 11 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – screen paintings 2. D – Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji 3. D – Assyrian motifs 4. C – Chérettes 5. B – William Mooris 6. D – Aubrey Beardsley 7. B – Le Chat Noir 8. B – Eugène Grasset 9. C – yellow covers 10. D – swirling organic lines 11. B – a concentrated food supplement 12. A – appropriate materials, functional forms, and a unity of visual organization 13. D – illustrative 14. B – Javanese culture 15. A – medieval letters 16. D – Surimono

True/False
1. False 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. False 251

6. False 7. True 8. True 9. True 10. False 11. True 12. False 13. False 14. False 15. True 16. True 17. True

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 11-7: Ando Hiroshige, Evening Squall at Great Bridge near Atake, c. 1856– 59 2. Fig. 11-16: Jan Toorop, The Three Brides, 1893 3. Figs. 11-21 and 11-22: Charles Ricketts, pages from The Sphinx, 1894 4. Fig. 11-24: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, “La Goulue au Moulin Rouge” poster, 1891 5. Fig. 11-28: Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, “Tournée du Chat Noir” poster, 1896 6. Fig. 11-33: Alphonse Mucha, poster for Job cigarette papers, 1898 7. Fig. 11-45: Will Bradley, pages from The American Chap-Book, 1905 8. Fig. 11-55: Henri van de Velde, poster for Tropon food concentrate, 1899 9. Fig. 11-58: Privet Livemont, Rajah Coffee poster, 1899 10. Fig. 11-70: Otto Eckmann, cover for Allgemeine Elektrizitats-Gesellschaft catalogue, 1900

252

II. 1. Fig. 11-3: E – Kitagawa Utamaro 2. Fig. 11-5: B – Katsushika Hokusai 3. Fig. 11-11: A – Jules Chéret 4. Fig. 11-20: C – Aubrey Beardsley 5. Fig. 11-32: D – Alphonse Mucha 6. Fig. 11-43: F – Will Bradley 7. Fig. 11-65: G – Otto Eckmann

253

Chapter 12 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – geometric 2. B – Frank Lloyd Wright 3. D – The Four 4. C – Jessie Marion King and Talwin Morris 5. A – Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna Workshops) 6. D – Ver Sacrum 7. B – Peter Behrens 8. B – Akzidenz Grotesque 9. C – Edward Johnston 10. B – The Bauhaus in Germany

True/False
1. True 2. True

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 12-5: Jessie Marion King, William Morris’s The Defence of Guenevere, 1904 2. Fig. 12-6: Talwin Morris, Red Letter Shakespeare series, c. 1908 3. Fig. 12-19: Koloman Moser, Ver Sacrum, 1901 4. Fig. 12-20: Alfred Roller, Ver Sacrum calendar, 1903 5. Fig. 12-26: Alfred Roller, poster for the Sixteenth Vienna Secession exhibition, 1902 254

6. Fig. 12-30: Josef Hoffmann, Wiener Werkstätte exhibition poster, 1905 7. Fig. 12-33: Peter Behrens, Celebration of Life and Art, 1900

II. 1. Fig. 12-23: C – Koloman Moser 2. Fig. 12-27: A – lfred Roller 3. Fig. 12-46: B – Peter Behrens

255

Chapter 13 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Synthetic cubism 2. B – Fernand Léger 3. C – poet 4. D – Hannah Höch 5. D – Calligrammes 6. D – Käthe Kollwitz 7. B – Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee 8. C – John Heartfield 9. B – Man Ray

True/False
1. True 2. True

Matching
I. 1. Expressionism: E 2. Surrealism: B 3. Cubism: D 4. Futurism: A 5. Dada: C

II. 256

1. collage: D 2. manifesto: A 3. pattern poetry: F 4. calligrammes: E 5. simultaneity: B 6. photomontage: C

III. 1. Photomontage: B 2. Solarization: C 3. Automatism: A

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 13-9: Filippo Marinetti, futurism, 1915 2. Fig. 13-29: Kurt Schwitters, Dada, 1922 3. Fig. 13-42: Max Ernst, surrealism, 1934 4. Fig. 13-46: Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz, expressionism, 1923

257

Chapter 14 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – Plakatstil 2. A – concept 3. D – The Beggarstaffs 4. A – collage 5. C – Sachplakat 6. D – Posters promoted radio programs that kept listeners informed about the conditions of war. 7. D – cubism 8. C – Ludwig Hohlwein 9. D – illustrative 10. C – Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz 11. B – A.M. Cassandre 12. A –color

True/False
1. False 2. True 3. False

Image Identification
I. 1. Fig. 14-3: The Beggarstaffs, Plakatstil, 1896 2. Fig. 14-7: Lucian Bernhard, Plakatstil, 1912 258

3. Fig. 14-8: Hans Rudi Erdt, Plakatstil, 1911

II. 1. Fig. 14-36: B – Ludwig Hohlwein 2. Fig. 14-38: C – Edward McKnight Kauffer 3. Fig. 14-53: A – Austin Cooper

259

Chapter 15 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B –El Lissitzky 2. B – Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko 3. C – The Isms of Art 4. D – Gustav Klutsis 5. B – Vladimir Vasilevich Lebedev 6. A – Théo van Doesburg 7. B – Ladislav Sutnar 8. A – László Moholy-Nagy 9. C – Henryk Berlewi

Image Identification
I. 1. A – El Lissitsky 2. A – El Lissitsky 3. A –El Lissitsky 4. D – de Stijl 5. C – Théo van Doesburg II. 1. C – de Stijl 2. A – suprematism 3. B – constructivism

260

III. 1. C – Novyi lef (Left Front of the Arts) 2. A – De Stijl magazine 3. B – Veshch/Gegenstand/Objet

261

Chapter 16 – Answer Key

Matching
1. B – Weimar, Germany 2. A – Dessau, Germany 3. C – László Moholy-Nagy 4. C – Herbert Bayer 5. B – Nazi Party 6. D – Jan Tschichold 7. C – Futura 8. D – Universal Alphabet 9. B – Leichte Kabel 10. A – Times New Roman 11. D – Eric Gill 12. B – Isotype 13. B – Piet Zwart 14. A – Hendrik N. Werkman 15. D – Paul Schuitema 16. C – Willem Sandberg 17. B – Herbert Matter 18. B – Graphis

262

Chapter 17 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Armory Show 2. C – William Addison Dwiggins 3. C – Lester Bell 4. D – Alexey Brodovitch 5. C – Joseph Binder 6. B – Federal Arts Project 7. D – the Container Corporation of America 8. A – John Atherton 9. B – Jean Carlu 10. B – Ladislav Sutnar 11. C – Herbert Bayer

True/False
1. True

Image Identification
I. 1. A – Alexey Brodovitch 2. B – Erté 3. C – A. M. Cassandre 4. C – Ben Shahn

263

5. A – Herbert Bayer 6. B – Joseph Binder

264

Chapter 18 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – International Typographic Style 2. D – Univers 3. A – Adrian Frutiger 4. C – Helvetica 5. D – Ornamentation was prized for its decorative quality. 6. D – Hermann Zapf 7. A – Josef Müller-Brockman 8. C – golden mean 9. C – semiotics 10. D – Anton Stankowski 11. C – Armin Hofmann 12. C – Basel School of Design in Basel, Switzerland 13. D – Rosmarie Tissi 14. A – Jacqueline Casey

Image Identification
I. 1. C – Ernst Keller 2. A – Max Bill 3. D – Carlo Vivarelli 4. B – Carlo Vivarelli 5. A – Josef Müller-Brockman

265

Chapter 19 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – ideas 2. C – New York City 3. C – Paul Rand 4. B – Bradbury Thompson 5. B – Saul Bass 6. C – Cipe Pineles 7. B – corporate identity 8. D – Yale University 9. B – Otto Storch 10. A – Henry Wolf 11. C – Ramparts 12. D – Doyle Dane Bernbach 13. C – figurative typography 14. C – Herb Lubalin

Image Identification
I. 1. D – Paul Rand 2. B – Mike Salisbury

Matching
I. 1. A – Visual/verbal syntax 266

2. B – Figurative typography 3. C – Phototypography 4. D – Typogram

267

Chapter 20 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. D – consumer goods 2. B – “Good design is good business.” 3. C – trademarks 4. D – All of the above 5. C – Georg Olden 6. A – Lou Dorfsman 7. A – Herbert Matter 8. B – Norman Ives 9. C – Paul Rand 10. C – Paul Rand 11. D – Chase Manhattan Bank of New York 12. B – Saul Bass 13. B – Unimark 14. C – U.S. National Park Service 15. A – the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) 16. C – the 1980 Moscow Twenty-second Olympiad 17. D – Music Television (MTV) 18. B – Manhattan Design 19. A – Georg Olden

Matching
I. 1. D – logotype 268

2. B – corporate identity 3. A – annual report 4. C – corporate identity manual

269

Chapter 21 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. A – Tadeusz Terpkowski 2. D – Henryk Tomaszewski 3. B – Push Pin Almanack 4. B – art nouveau 5. D – Seymour Chwast 6. C – Seymour Chwast and Milton Glaser 7. B – Woody Pirtle 8. A – art nouveau 9. D – Victor Moscoso 10. A – Seymour Chwast 11. C – Wes Wilson 12. E – Victor Moscoso 13. C – Gunther Kieser 14. B – Willy Fleckhouse 15. D – Robert Massin

Image Identification
1. A – Raúl Martínez 2. B – Elena Serrano

270

Chapter 22 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. B – Pentagram’s 2. B – Herbert Spencer 3. C – mon 4. A – Ikko Tanaka 5. C – alphabets 6. C – Tadanori Yokoo 7. D – Shigeo Fukuda 8. A and D – pragmatic constructivism and a vigorous expressionism with jolting images and spontaneous spatial syntax 9. C – Total Design 10. A – Wim Crouwel 11. D – Pieter Brattinga 12. C – Anthon Beeke 13. C – Anthon Beeke 14. C – Hard Werken 15. A – Wild Plakken

Matching
1. B – Closed texts 2. A – Fluxus 3. C – Open texts

Image Identification
271

1. A – Pentagram 2. C – Ryuichi Yamashiro 3. B – Wim Crouwel 4. B – Wim Crouwel 5. A – Studio Dumbar 6. D – Anton Beeke

272

Chapter 23 – Study Questions

Multiple Choice
1. B – mannerism 2. D – vernacular 3. B – Rosmarie Tissi 4. D – Wolfgang Weingart 5. D – Wolfgang Weingart 6. A – Dan Friedman 7. B – El Lissitsky 8. B – Willi Kunz 9. B – Michael Graves 10. A – Michael Vanderbyl 11. C – Louise Fili 12. C – Herbert Matter 13. D – Neville Brody

Matching
I. 1. B – new-wave typography 2. A – Memphis 3. C – retro

Image Identification
I. 1. D – April Greiman and Jayme Odgers 273

2. A – Charles S. Anderson 3. A – Charles S. Anderson 4. C – Paul Scher

II. 1. A – new-wave typography 2. A – retro

274

Chapter 24 – Answer Key

Multiple Choice
1. C – phototype 2. D – digital 3. B – Microsoft 4. B – Émigré Fonts 5. A – April Greiman 6. C – Edward Fella 7. A – David Carson 8. B – Fred Woodward 9. A – Adobe Systems 10. C – Wired 11. B – Carol Twombly 12. B – Matthew Carter 13. B – photograph 14. C – MTV 15. C – information architecture 16. B – the Internet 17. A – the World Wide Web 18. B – Stefan Sagmeister 19. C – Chip Kidd 20. D – Paula Scher

True/False
1. True 275

Matching
I. 1. Douglas C. Engelbart – C 2. Susan Kare – D 3. Pierre Bézier – B 4. Paul Brainerd – A

II. 1. entropy – C 2. kern – D 3. em – A 4. zine – B

III. 1. Zuzana Licko – C 2. Matthew Carter – E 3. Robert Slimbach – D 4. Susan Kare – B 5. Carol Twombly – A

IV. 1. hypermedia – C 2. hypertext – A 3. multiple-master typefaces – B

V. 276

1. linear series – C 2. spatial zoom – E 3. parallel texts – D 4. overlays – B 5. hierarchies – G 6. matrix – F 7. web structures – A

VI. 1. Jessica Helfand – D 2. Clement Mok – C 3. Erik Spiekermann – B 4. Richard Saul Wurman – A

Image Identification
1. Fig. 24-5: April Greiman, 1987 2. Fig. 24-9: Katherine McCoy, 1989 3. Fig. 24-10: Edward Fella, 1987 4. Fig. 24-13: David Carson, 1994 5. Fig. 24-57: Stefan Sagmeister, 1996 6. Fig. 24-59: Jean-Benoît Lévy, 2001 7. Fig. 24-61: Rudi Meyer, 2001 8. Fig. 24-82: John Maeda, 1996 9. Fig. 24-99: Nancy Skolos and Thomas Wedell, 1999 10. Fig. 24-105: Ahn Sang-Soo, 2002 11. Fig. 24-106: Michael Bierut, 2002 12. Fig. 24-109: Max Kisman, 2001 277

13. Fig. 24-115: Gabriela Rodriguez, 2001

278

Similar Documents