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Estrategia Zara

In: Business and Management

Submitted By gonzaloarranz
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El primer paso para poder analizar la estrategia de Zara es comprender su misión, visión y valores. Dado que Zara es tan solo una parte del grupo Inditex, podemos referirnos a los valores del grupo para comprobar que se encuentran totalmente alineados. De hecho, al buscar la misión, visión de valores de
Zara, la empresa nos redirige a la web del Grupo, no sin antes afirmar la siguiente frase: "El cliente es el centro de nuestro particular modelo de negocio, que integra diseño, fabricación, distribución y venta, a través de una amplia red de tiendas propia.” [1]
De los valores del grupo inditex destacamos la primera frase: “El principal objetivo del Grupo es ofrecer productos de la máxima calidad a todos sus clientes garantizando la sostenibilidad de sus procesos a largo plazo.” [2]
Como podemos observar tanto la versión Zara como la versión completa del Grupo indeitex mencionan un elemento clave para su actividad: el cliente. Podría decirse que uno de los principales objetivos de
Zara es el de presentar una gama de productos de buena calidad y diseño a un precio razonable. Lograr este objetivo tan amplio no es sencillo, por este motivo, Zara decide segmentar el mercado posicionarse competitivamente enfocándose hacia un público joven, informal pero exigente y con gusto para la ropa de diseño.
Una de las decisiones principales de alto nivel tomadas por Zara es el situarse en un gran numero de mercados internacionales. Actualmente Zara tiene abiertas más de 2000 tiendas en 87 países [8]. El llegar a este volumen no ha sido un proceso rápido ni sencillo pero ha sido facilitado en gran parte por la estructura de la compañía que está optimizada con este fin en mente.
Otro de los objetivos principales de la empresa es el lograr adaptarse rápidamente a la demanda cambiante. Como es conocido, Zara no trata de predecir la demanda, si no de adaptarse ella. Este factor puede parecer no muy relevante pero es crítico pues revoluciona el paradigma anterior basado en la ropa de temporada donde las prendas tan solo varian cada cuatro meses hacia un nuevo modelo en el que cada pocos días el inventario de cada tienda es completamente distinto [3].
Este elemento es clave para entender las decisiones estratégicas de Zara. El parámetro que mejor mide la capacidad de adaptarse a la demanda es el "time to market”, esto es, el tiempo que tarda Zara desde que detecta la necesidad de una prenda hasta que es capaz de comercializarla. Este parámetro han conseguido optimizarlo en gran medida gracias una integración vertical de todos los procesos involucrados: Prospección, diseño, confección, distribución y venta que permite limitar las ineficiencias que surgen de tener que externalizar parte de los procesos clave. Se estima que el time to market de
Zara es de en torno a 2 semanas, mientras que la media de la industria es de 4-5 meses [4].
Este control sobre la cadena de valor de su negocio tiene muchos beneficios, pero también obliga a Zara a adoptar una serie de medidas para poder llevar a cabo la tarea de distribuir sus productos rápidamente. Una de ellas es la de centralizar una gran parte de la confección cerca de sus oficinas centrales en Arteixo (Galicia), lugar de nacimiento de la empresa y donde ademas se encuentra el centro de logística desde el cual Zara distribuye sus productos a todas sus tiendas [5]. Destaca que el 78% de su plantilla de más de cien mil empleados trabaje en Europa (40% en España). Esta decisión contrasta con la tendencia de otras grandes empresas del sector que optan por confeccionar sus productos en
Asia, donde la mano de obra tiene un coste menor. Zara también confecciona parte de su inventario en
Asia, pero se limitan a prendas básicas, llamadas “circular", como camisetas que venden durante temporadas largas [6].
Otro factor de gran importancia para poder llevar a cabo estos procesos de forma eficiente es el uso que se da a los sistemas de información. Estos sistemas son de vital importancia para comunicar los distintos procesos entre si y poder agilizarlos. En este sentido, la estrategia de sistemas de información seguida por Zara está en linea con lo esperado conociendo la estrategia corporativa.
También es importante mencionar el compromiso medioambiental y social de Zara dado que aparece reflejado una y otra vez en la información corporativa que proporciona la empresa [7]. Zara remarca que todos los procesos que llevan acabo, todos sus productos y servicios siguen una serie de criterios comunes al resto de empresas del Grupo Inditex en cuanto a eficiencia energética y uso de productos ecológicos y sostenibles.
[1] http://www.zara.com/es/es/empresa-c11112.html
[2] http://www.inditex.com/es/our_group/our_approach

[2] http://www.inditex.com/es/our_group/our_approach
[3] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/11/magazine/how-zara-grew-into-the-worlds-largest-fashionretailer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
[4] http://economics-files.pomona.edu/jlikens/SeniorSeminars/Likens2013/reports/inditex.pdf
[5] http://www.trendencias.com/noticias-de-la-industria/el-interior-de-zara-un-viaje-a-la-sede-centralde-inditex-en-arteixo
[6] http://www.laopinioncoruna.es/economia/2015/03/18/inditex-da-trabajo-arteixo-3500/938104.html
[7] http://www.zara.com/es/es/empresa/nuestro-compromiso-c18001.html
[8] https://www.inditex.com/es/brands/zara

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