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Eth/125 Mid Term

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Term | Definition | Ethnic group | A group of people who identify with each other by way of language, heritage, culture, and religion. | Anti-Semitism | Suspicion of, hatred toward, or discriminating against the Jewish community. | Islamophobia | Describes prejudice against, hatred or irrational fear of Islam or Muslims. | Xenophobia | An unreasonable fear of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange. | Persecution | The systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. | Religious group | A subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity. |

Part II

Select at least 1 religious and 1 ethnic group not your own from the list below.

* Religious groups (based on http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/affiliations-all-traditions.pdf)

* Christianity

* Evangelical Protestant * Mainline Protestant * Historically Black Churches * Roman Catholic * Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) * Jehovah’s Witnesses * Orthodox (Greek, Eastern)

* Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform) * Buddhism (Theravada or Mahayana) * Islam (Sunni, Shia, Sufism) * Hinduism

* Ethnic groups (based on divisions in U.S. Census Bureau documents)

* Asian (Asian descent) * Black (African descent) * Hispanic and Latino (South or Central American descent) * Pacific Islander (Polynesian descent) * White (European descent) * * Part III *
Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each about the religious group you selected:

* How does your selected religious group differ from other religious groups (such as in their beliefs, worship practices, or values)?

Hinduism is a very complex type of religion it consist of Srauta, Vaishnavism and Shaivism among many other tradition all combined into one. This religion also includes some historical groups such as Kapalikas. Their beliefs and practices consist of philosophies, wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of daily morality. This is all based on the notion of karma, dharma and societal norms. What makes Hinduism is different from most religions because, rather than have a rigid common set of beliefs they have conglomeration of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view. This is a very old religion dating back to the late Neolithic in the early harappan period (5500-2600). There practices include seeking the awareness of god and blessings from devas. Often they will create a shrine consisting of their chosen form(s) of god. They practice at home mostly and visiting temples is not obligatory. The Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year the Hindu calendar usually prescribe there dates.

* What has been the experience of your selected religious group with others that do not share its beliefs or practices?

Well there is not much to go on for the American view of the Hindu religion so after farther research I found that during the Islamic rule of the Indian sub-continent the Muslims caused widespread carnage and terror because, Muslims regarded the Hindus as infidels and therefore slaughtered them and converted millions of Hindus into Muslims. There is no official total of the deaths from this Muslim led rampage. Another big rampage was during the era of Nizam state of Hyderabad. During this era Hindus where severely repressed under the autocratic dictatorial rule of Nizam. Hindus where called gaddaar by the Muslims this meaning traitor. Despite the majority of the population being Hindu there were still treated as second class citizens.

* In what ways has the religious group you selected contributed to American culture?

Hinduism is a minority religion in the United States, American Hindus accounting for an estimated 0.4% of the population in America. Most of the Hindus in America are Indian American immigrants from India, Nepal, and their descendants. Also a small number of coverts may exist as well throughout the United States. With so little of a population in the United States the impact is almost little to none I believe. This religion was very isolated until the passing of the immigration and nationality services (INS) act of 1965. A 2001 study shows that there are 1.1 million adherents of Hinduism in the United States of America. There are some temples in America today, the first was built on July 4, 1977 in northern California its name is Maha Vallabha Ganapathi Devastanam owned by the Hindu temple society of north America in flushing, new York. Another is Malibu Hindu temple, built 1981 and located in Calabasas and owned by the Hindu temple society of southern California. There is another but I was unable to find its location.

* Provide specific examples of prejudice or discrimination your selected religious group has experienced.

The first example of prejudice or discrimination against the Hindu culture is, the persecution of their culture by the Muslim community around (600-10000 A.D. There were widespread killings and uncalled for violence that was pure terror. No one has an exact number of Hindus that were killed during this massacre. The backward castes of Hinduism suffered the most. Monarchs (belonging to backward castes) such as Khusrau Bhangi Khan, were knocked off their throne and executed. Others were arrested and women were forced to commit suicide. Muhammad Ghori committed genocide against the Hindus at Kol (modern day Aligarh), some 20,000 prisoners were slaughter and their heads offered to the crows. Though out history it seems that the Hindu culture is one of the most discriminated religions in history, or at least in my opinion.

* What were the sources of this prejudice or discrimination?

Muslims were the main source of discrimination It seems that there were many wars waging against Pakistan which is mainly Muslim and India which is mostly Hindu. Now whether this has a lot to do with the hatred between the two or not this still has to have played a significant part in the violence. I believe the biggest problem is the fact that ever religion in history has had a radical person in power and just wants to be kill a group of people just to do it. History has taught us many things about war and why countries invade others for resources and oil or whatever material thing that the opposing side wants. I strongly believe that the persecution endured by the Hindu culture is purely out of hate.

* Does what you’ve learned about this religious group help you understand it? In what ways?

The understanding of the Hindu culture that I have learned about is very complex there are so many different beliefs and backgrounds all into one that the concept for me is just too much. There is a rich history behind the Hindu ways there entire train of though is so different from ours that most Hindus don’t let discrimination get to them, they believe in peace and harmony. Karma is one of their big beliefs they tend to not harm anyone and they do good so that it does not come back to them later in life. Another of their beliefs is Dharma which is fulfilling ones purpose in life to their fullest potential. Something that was very interesting to me was Brahman. This is where they believe in the ultimate reality when the eternal, conscious, irreducible, infinite, omnipresent, spiritual source of the universe of finiteness and change. I don’t believe this is a religion that can be understood overnight, I think it would take much getting to know and lots of getting used to!

Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each about the ethnic group you selected:

* How does your selected ethnic group differ from other ethnic groups (such as differences in ancestry, language, or culture)?

The differences that are associated with African Americans and other cultures are dark skin color, taller individuals, and the fact that the African Americans native language can consist of as many as 3000 different types. 500 languages exist in just the Congo region alone. The African Americans native foods are fruits, cereal grains, and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In much of tropical Africa cow’s milk is very rare and cannot be produced locally mostly involving the various diseases affecting the livestock. In central Africa the food dishes consist of mostly cassava, peanut and Chile pepper plants which arrived along with the slave trade during the 16th century. There are many differences between the cultures and those are just a few I have listed.

* What has been your selected ethnic group’s experience with other ethnic groups?

The African American culture has been subject to many different experiences though out history most have been very horrible thing for any culture to endure. Early in the 16 the century the people of Africa were kidnapped and made slaves by Spanish explorers, this began a long and bloody road for their culture. The Spanish was the first to interact with the African population thus the Spanish transported them to present day South Carolina. Soon after arrival there was an uprising and the slaves fled to refuge in the native American tribes. After these events the African were subject to hard labor as slaves for the British working as servants as well as hard manual labor. The harsh conditions were killing the settlers so more and more Africans were brought in to do work. A race based slave system did not fully exist until the 18th century. The Dutch west India Company is responsible for introducing slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam now New York. This continued until 1863 when Abraham Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation. The African American still fought hard through the years facing adverse hatred and discrimination to get where we are today and still there seems to be some prejudice in the world just not as much.

* In what ways has the ethnic group you selected contributed to American culture?

From their earliest presence in North America, African Americans have contributed literature, art, agricultural skills, foods, clothing styles, music, language, social and technological innovation to American culture. The cultivation and use of many agricultural products in the U.S., such as yams, peanuts, rice, okra, sorghum, grits, watermelon, indigo dyes, and cotton, can be traced to African and African American influences. Notable examples include George Washington Carver, who created 300 products from peanuts, 118 products from sweet potatoes, and 75 from pecans; and George Crum, who invented the potato chip in 1853. African American music is one of the most pervasive African American cultural influences in the United States today and is among the most dominant in mainstream popular music. Hip hop, R&B, funk, rock and roll, soul, blues, and other contemporary American musical forms originated in black communities and evolved from other black forms of music, including blues, doo-wop, barbershop, ragtime, bluegrass, jazz, and gospel music. African American-derived musical forms have also influenced and been incorporated into virtually every other popular musical genre in the world, including country and techno. African American genres are the most important ethnic vernacular tradition in America, as they have developed independent of African traditions from which they arise more so than any other immigrant groups, including Europeans; make up the broadest and longest lasting range of styles in America; and have, historically, been more influential, inter-culturally, geographically, and economically, than other American vernacular traditions. African Americans have also had an important role in American dance. Bill T. Jones, a prominent modern choreographer and dancer, has included historical African American themes in his work, particularly in the piece "Last Supper at Uncle Tom's Cabin/The Promised Land". Likewise, Alvin Ailey's artistic work, including his "Revelations" based on his experience growing up as an African American in the South during the 1930s, has had a significant influence on modern dance.

* Identify some specific examples of prejudice or discrimination that your selected ethnic group has experienced historically.

The African American culture was subject to slavery which is a heartless and ruthless act on any culture because of their differences. If you were an African American growing up in the early 1900s to present day you would have had to endure name calling, violent attacks, beatings, killings and so much more. The hatred casted on the African American culture over the years has been very dark and grim. Few have stood up to help their culture and made a difference. The KKK or better known as the Klu Klux Klan I the most known source of discrimination towards the black community. They are known for beatings, rapes and hangings of black just because of their skin color. The entire black culture has endured slavery by more than one ethnic culture and still survived. And still to this day some discriminate against African Americans because of their heritage.

* What were the sources of this prejudice or discrimination?

The sources of this prejudice and discriminating I feel lies in the hatred that has been passed on the many generations of people who are un willing to understand the differences between white and black is just that it’s only the skin color that separates us we are all equal no matter how you look at it. The Klu Klux Klan hated against blacks because they were afraid that if the African Americans were seen as equals they would take their jobs and they did not believe it was right for any races to mix and have relationships. I still cannot understand why any person can be so evil of a different color skin. I find it very hard to imagine the hate that any of these people went throw from slavery to being made fun of and sometimes being killed. The world is a very diverse place and we all need to open up our eyes and understand that if we think a culture is different than they also view us the same way but just give them a try and get to know them be for you judge them.

* Does what you’ve learned about this ethnic group help you understand it? How?

I have had a very good understanding of the African American culture for a number of years. But after doing some extensive research on the African American culture I have found that since the days of slavery there has been many things that this culture has done that still helps present day minority groups be heard. For example, When Rosa parks refused to give up her seat on the bus African Americans have been fighting for equal rights. In modern day society minority groups such has homosexuals and Latinos have been fighting for here equal rights for years and there fight has just began. The amount of scrutiny that has faced then African American culture is heart breaking and very disappointing. I strongly feel that anyone who loves history should read up on the African American culture and better understand it before discriminating against it.
Part IV

Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each:

* How are the prejudice and discrimination experienced by your selected religious group and ethnic group similar?

The similarities between the Hindu cultures discrimination and the African Americans discrimination is similar because they were both discriminated against for their culture and beliefs the way they were both treated by more than one culture. African Americans and Hindus were both subjected to mass beatings and kidnappings leading to slavery for the African Americans and genocide for the Hindus. Slavery was also a problem for India in the 17th century In America as well as other countries these two cultures were often seen as outsiders and were persecuted against in many ways alike throughout history. If one was to see either of these cultures as negative or evil in any way it would be solely based on what one had heard or read somewhere rather than fist hand experience. Neither of these two cultures have done anything to deserve the type of treatment they have been given.

* How are they different?

The differences faced by these two cultures are one had to deal with the slavery for many more years (African Americans) there road to freedom was much harder and more complex than that of the slavery that the Hindu culture faced it was more brief and less aggressive. The Hindu religion also separates the twos discrimination and prejudice. Africans practice Christianity or Islam so both would have and most likely faced there problems very differently and were separated in how they took the persecution. Another difference is the way two were persecuted Hindus were mostly
Just killed and beheaded rather than made servants to the people

* Can you draw any conclusions about discrimination from this comparison?

The only conclusion I can make about discrimination from this comparison is that both cultures faced very similar hardships but somehow through all the pain they persevered and now have good lives for the most part in the United States of America. Discrimination and prejudice is something we all will face no matter our culture or ethnic background so being prepared for the worst will never hurt anyone. Teach your kids to love all and hate none so that way our grandkids and their kids can grow up in a world without hatred and war. The world is very diverse in many ways and there is no way one can understand all the different cultures or religions and that’s ok. Just be open to all before judging because of a fews actions. The Hindu religion is one of many that teach there people to be in peace not war but sadly not all cultures agree with this belief system but, keep praying for better days without any prejudice or discrimination.

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