Free Essay

Ethics

In: English and Literature

Submitted By lisaguk
Words 3690
Pages 15
Lisa O’Neil
Ethics and Genetic Engineering Essay

Ethics are part of our everyday decisions, in order to be ethical we need to firstly understand the basis of ethics.
The word ‘Ethics’ comes from the greek word ‘ethikos’ which relates to the customary way to behave in society. Ethics is a branch of philosophy dates back to before 367 b.c.

Famously in the history of ethics and philosophy were ‘’The Three Wise Greek Men’’ Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Socrates was a teacher of philosophy and Plato was Socrates student for approximately ten years, and when Socrates died, Aristophanes became Plato's student. Aristotle views were that ‘’ethics is a virtue of happiness, and that the pursuit of virtue is the highest and noblest aim for a human being’’ . Aristotle can be seen as saying ‘’ Nobody would choose to live without friends even if they had everything else they desired ‘’ (quoted from The Puzzle of Ethics- Peter Vardy pg 31).

Socrates took a practical view on ethics, he was concerned with ‘’how an individual would live in order to achieve happiness’’. Socrates can be seem as saying; ‘’Think hard enough and you will always find that doing the right thing is best for you ‘’ ( quoted in Peter singers A companion to Ethics, Blackwell p. 125 ).

Plato's view was much more in depth and most famously contradicts Socrates work.
Plato believes ethics is ‘’ knowledge is the virtue of happiness ‘’ . Plato can be seen as saying ‘’ If you believe something is right than its right, but if you believe something is wrong but still go ahead , this is unethical’’ .
‘’An individual human being is the measure of all things’’ (quoted from The puzzle of ethics-pg 9 Peter Vardy).

There is many different types of ‘ethics’ for example: utilitarianism ethics, where as a person believes the wrong or right thing to do will depend on the outcome for instance; if a man was to choose a man to be tortured in order to save one thousand lives, than a utilitarian would choose for the man to be tortured . Overall he would believe saving one thousand people is the right thing to do .( This would have branched from Plato's theory. )
A utilitarianism decision is based on the grounds ‘’The greatest happiness is the greatest number’’. (Pg 63 The Puzzle of Ethics Peter Vardy)

Whereas if you were to believe in the deontological theory, than the ethics behind the decision would be if you were against murder and torture, and you felt, it was immoral to let a person be tortured than you would not allow this action to happen. A deontological believer would stand by their morals. (This would have branched from Socrates theory.)
Aristotle's approach would have been a consequentialist ethical approach ; the consequences of murdering one person to save another could have rippling effects on the person's mental state in the future . Basically every action good or bad can have repercussions.

Morality is the difference between right and wrong. Ethics is what you do with those beliefs. For example: if a person was to believe abortion was wrong; but was going through I.V.F treatment, and was told the fetus had numerous problems and would be born severely disabled. If that person was given a choice to abort the fetus , and did so, that would be going against ethical believes.
A deontological theory would be to stick by your morals regarding the decision of abortion. However if you had no views regarding abortion and faced with the same scenario, you could apply the kantian theory; by believing to terminate the pregnancy would be the right thing, as the child would suffer more being born and living severely disabled.
Ethics also play a huge role in religion too. Religious debates regarding religion can include: abortion (seen as murder) euthanasia ( assisted suicide) and also genetic engineering ( people believe gods hand plays the part in fatality and that nature should not be messed with).

An example of deontological ethics that may arise regarding religion and ethics is: A nurse who believes against abortion and thinks it is ethically wrong is assigned to a patient who has had a termination and needs care. Does the nurse treat and care for the patient ?, and go against her beliefs. Or as she has decided on a career in caring, does the nurse continue to care for the patient?. As nursing was her choice this could be seen as; consequentialism ethics; if she neglects her patient and refuses care than her patient could be a grave risk and also the nurses could lose her job. She would need to make an ethical decision based on the most positive outcome.

Both decisions would involve a great deal of emotivism and will affect the decision in hand.
There would be no right or wrong decision regarding the question in hand.

Joseph Fletcher adapted a different idea to the approach on ethics “situation ethics” (In 1966 Joseph Fletcher published his first book ;Situation ethics sms press) Fletcher's views on situation ethic where there is ‘’no moral rules or ‘rights’ each person is unique and every situation deserves a unique solution’’. Fletcher claims there are ‘’Three approaches to ethics; The legality (based on law) The antinomian (lawless) and The situation approach’’. Fletcher believed that ‘’the only law was ‘agape’.
If the patient was having an abortion due to the fact she could had found out she had a type of cancer, and in order to have chemotherapy she would need to terminate the pregnancy, without the abortion the patient could not receive chemotherapy and die; then the nurse could justify her actions. Whereas the patient was having an abortion just so she wouldn't get ‘’fat’’ than the nurse would indeed be going against her true believes.
Fletcher believed that ethics also rest on ‘’six propositions and four working principles;Pragmatism; the course of action must be practical and work. (outcome judged by love) Relativism; always relative to the situation or to the point. (act lovingly) Positivism; a person may choose to freely believe in agape (Faith) Personalism ( put others first)’’
Propositions are that of love and agape (loving others and not expecting love in return ).
Fletcher can be seen to say ‘’people can make decisions based on themselves that can be seen as selfish’’. (pg 131 Situation ethics-Paul Grosch) Fletchers portrayal of situation ethics also highlights ethics within the church. For example: the catholic church is against abortion , so under the eyes of the catholic church if a patient was to have an ectopic pregnancy and had to abort the child in order to save her life , than this would be an ‘’situational’’ approach. As the catholic church ‘’out of love’’ would be able to justify the abortion in order to save a life.

As humans we often wonder why people do “what they do” are they motivated by ethics morals and beliefs. The virtues ( a normative theory- a person's character not their actions) develop either ethical or moral believes these are; Homeric Virtues ( how to think and act ), Athenian virtues (living a good and moral life cannot get any better) and Medieval virtues ( courage, justice, temperance and wisdom). People sometimes think they are acting ethically and “doing the right thing” become morally wrong for example: why is it acceptable to “put down” a terminally ill animal, and not do the same with a pain stricken terminally ill “vegetable state “ human ?.
Doing good or the right thing does not automatically make you ethical .

A common modern debate regarding ethics is generated around genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering is a scientific process enabling cells carefully being manipulated and DNA gathered and then put into another cell. Taking characteristics from one gene and transferring them into an organism artificially. 2(This cannot be done in natural reproduction).
There are three types of genetic engineering: somatic cell genetic engineering(involves making genetic changes to particular cells) An example would be the removal of cancerous cells and replacing with healthy cells for instance ‘bone marrow’ transplants. Germ-line therapy ( detection of genetic disease can be detected) An example would be if a pregnant woman was told her child had down-syndrome, she could be given the choice of abortion, or to carry on with the pregnancy.
Lastly enhancement genetic engineering ( manipulation of cells , ‘D.N.A, and genes to determine a child's hair colour, eyes, sex etc) An example would be a mother may want the child to have more of her appearance than the fathers.

Genetic engineering has famously made history “In 1996 a new phase of genetic engineering was revolutionized this would be cloning. When Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the (Roslin­ Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland), successfully cloned a sheep named Dolly. Dolly was the first cloned mammal. (Ian Wilmut 5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003)”
3“Wilmut and his colleagues transplanted a nucleus from a mammary gland cell of a Finn Dorset sheep into the enucleated egg of a Scottish blackface ewe.”
This was then shown to be successful genetic engineering and that dolly had become the first cloned sheep. Wilmut (5 july 1996-14 february 2003) said “ It took 276 attempts until the experiment was successful” . The success of “dolly” has implanted the seeds in our heads that we are able to respectfully clone ourselves and have a child.

Also “In 1978 the world was astounded by the breakthrough of a new lease of genetic engineering which would be I.V.F 4( “In vitro fertilization is the process by which eggs are removed from your ovaries and mixed with sperm in a laboratory culture dish. Fertilisation takes place in this dish, "in vitro", which means "in glass". ) 5“Dr Patrick Steptoe led to the birth in July 1978 of ­Louise Brown, the world’s first ‘test tube baby”.
The breakthrough in I.V.F would mean that more couples who were unable to conceive naturally would now be given a chance”.

I.V.F or in vitro fertilization is a genetic engineering process that an egg is removed and fertilized out of the womb with a sperm; in which becomes an embryo and inserted back into the womb to be grown.
The I.V.F process can be long and draining; firstly the women would need to inject herself with a hormone to increase the egg amounts, the eggs are than removed and than sperm is used to fertilize the eggs to become embryos; sometimes multiple embryos are inserted back into the womb. Not all cases are successful, and not always are all eggs/embryos used.

The subject regarding ethics and genetic engineering; especially the I.V.F process have thrown many controversial debates ; for example: I.V.F can be preserved; as “we can have what ever we want, whenever we want it”. Many people believe a child is a gift and not everyone has the right to become a parent.
Many debates regarding the use of genetic engineering and its ethics have continued to cause controversy. Thousands of babies have now been born through I.V.F since 1978, and with the pioneering advances scientists can now manipulate the D.N.A and genes, and any traces of genetic disease can be detected. The disorders can than be effectively eliminated.
If a couple had had a previous child with a genetic disorder they would now be able to prevent their future off-spring from the disorder.
Genetic engineering with I.F.C can be seen as manufacturing your children; some say what is the ethical difference between rectifying a disorder after a baby is born, and rectifying some disorder by manipulating genes before the baby is born?. many people see that a embryo is not yet a baby, only when a baby is born is it a viable life.

I.V.F has also brought controversy to the way embryos are discarded. The daily telegraph reported that ‘1.7 million human embryos had been created for I.V.F than thrown away’.(Thursday 6th March 2014- The daily telegraph-Andrew Hugh )
Ethically the discarding of unwanted eggs can be seen as a waste of life.

The process of the disregarding of embryos can be portrayed as if a’’ human life’’ is no good, or not needed. So we can just throw it away. No one has the right to own a child and with parents agreeing for their “spare” embryos to be used in research can be seen as an invasion of human life.

Many debates around the topic of I.V.F and abortion is, when does life actually begin, is it from conception, when there is an established Embryo or when the fetus is viable. Some people believe a ‘’human ‘’ is not a person until it is born and takes its first breath. The catholic church believes that both a sperm ,and an egg have a soul and when they become fertilized there souls join; this is called ‘dualist’ and the soul becomes a life.
If an embryo was used for scientific experiments, and that embryo was successfully reared into a ‘ human’ or ‘person’ who would have the rights to the child, would it be the professor , the donor, or would the child be kept continuously as a science experiment.
Would that child have any rights itself? . Would the child have a choice in life?.

Within 8 weeks of pregnancy already the fetus resembles a human ; arms, a head and legs developing. By twenty weeks the fetus is near on formed and even the sex can be determined. In the U.K it is still legal to abort a pregnancy up until 24 weeks. The baby would have expressed movements inside the womb and a heart beat would be strong . If the fetus was aborted at this stage it would be born alive - and left to die. This is why such controversy surrounds abortion.

This has caused more controversial debate regarding I.V.F. is it right and acceptable to offer couples the chance to full fill their wish for a child; or do they have a justified right to one ? . Also when the child grows up and is told about their ‘start to life’ and find out that its I.Q could have been higher or inherited blue eyes, and blonde hair, will that child resent its parents and maybe see them as selfish ? . Or do the parents ‘own’ the right to determine what the child inherited. Can it be deemed fair that only they welfare can prevent their child having a genetic disease?, whilst the less fortunate have to life in hope that their child is has not inherited a 'bad' gene.
This leads back to the topic ‘who has the right to determine the characteristics of an embryo ’ and are we exploiting human life. Is the reason behind the decisions based ethically.

Increased genetic engineering regarding I.V.F may lead to a risk of a human being regarded as 'only' his or her genes. The potential 'individual' of a human may be at risk.
Parents may also lose track on the importance in being a human , no amount of genetic engineering can determine this trait.
"In 1976 Richard Dawkins wrote ''The Selfish Gene'' many humans characteristics were linked to certain genes linking the way people behaved for example they could inherit; depression. homosexuality, alcoholism, intelligence. In reducing human genes this could be a conflict of human rights. ''

There are many different reasons for people wanting I.V.F these can include:
Woman's fallopian tubes can be missing or blocked, Endometriosis ( can affect the reproductive system ), A mans low sperm count, unexplained infertility, a couple wants to test for inherited disorders, another reason for I.V.F is that of a surrogate mother 6(a woman who bears a child on behalf of another person; be it a gay couple or a single person, either from her own egg fertilized by the other parties partner, or from the implantation in her womb of a fertilized egg from the other woman).

The arguments that surround the issues and ethics around I.V.F can be portrayed at where do we stop ? can I.V.F be justified to same sex couples or single people who would like a child even without a partner.
Utilitarianism ethics state that maximum welfare of humans is paramount and making people safe and happy is the ‘right’ thing to do. Whereas the kantian theory suggests to do the right things for the right reasons and not using others to gain personal happiness. Both ethics can be quite contractual . If a couple who wanted to undergo I.V.F but did not believe in murder or abortion but agreed to donate their eggs for scientific use- this could be deemed as unethical .
With the more chance of having ‘multiple births’ both mother and child can be put at risk. Statistically most multiple births are normally induced or premature; putting the child at risks from defects; also the mother is at risk from needing surgery and medical aftercare. Mothers can also be more sceptical to post natal depression.

I.V.F has helped thousands of people have a child that through natural breeding would not be possible.
It has brought many discussions whether I.V.F is ethical or moral.
Is it ok to choose; your childs hair colour, eyes, gender, build or intelligence?. Is it ok to have two dads and not a mother or father ?, can we justify ruling out genetic diseases ?
Although I.V.F have undoubtedly given so many the people the opportunity or parenthood a good question would be “how will the child feel “?.
When that child grows up and learns that it was genetically modified to not have their fathers “red” hair colour, or that she inherited her mothers “intelligence”, what rights actually do the parents have over this decision making . Would the child thank the parents for making them ‘special’ or resent them for being ‘different’.

Genetic engineering fascinating as it; can be seen as a “double edged sword “ on one side genetic engineering is changing peoples lives for better, be it: IVF, surrogacy, GE crops and even using animals in order to experiment to save human life.
Dr Ray Bohlin (R. Bohlin 2000) expressed his knowledge on genetic engineering to detect genetic illness . Bohlins take on the matter was that 9“One is simply to attempt to alleviate the symptoms of a genetic disease. This entails gene therapy, attempting to transfer the normal gene into only those tissues most affected by the disease’’.

On the other side of the sword “genetic engineering can be seen as “immoral” and “unethical” . Is it right to interfere with nature, or what gives us the right to determine what genes to give someone in order to make them “taller” or more “intelligent “.
Could we be making our world more overpopulated ?. Do we mess with what is nature and meant to be or do we disturb it and face consequences? . The kantian ethical theory suggests that we shouldn't use over people or objects to gain self satisfaction. This could be seen as; using an unnatural procedure and going against human rights to the; embryo in order to satisfy the right to have a child could be seen as unethical.

Professor Stephen Hawking even though he is not a geneticist, has commented often and publicly on the future of genetic engineering. One possibility he suggests is that 9 “ once an intelligent life form reaches the stage we're at now, it proceeds to destroy itself, redesigning the race to minimize our aggressive nature and give us a better chance at long-term survival. Humans will change their genetic makeup to give them more intelligence and better memory," (S.Hawkins Fall 1999)

Genetic engineering comes at a price . IVF specifically is a costly treatment . I.V.F treatment is offered once for “free”on the N.H.S, but only if you fall within the strict criteria which is: 10 ‘’“the woman is aged between 23 and 39 at the time of treatment, and one or both of you has been diagnosed with a fertility problem (such as having no sperm or both fallopian tubes blocked), or you’ve been infertile for at least two years.”(NHS.Co.uk)
Is genetic engineering really about helping others and “bettering” our lives or is it just another way of gaining a better economy ? . Some people believe children are a gift not an entitlement . Are ethics even fitted into the genetic engineering equation ? We could debate why is abortion legal and given freely on the NHS whereas IVF is only offered to selected couples once .

Total word count 3200

Bibliography.

Website Referencing;
The daily telegraph
The daily Telegraph -Andrew Hugh 4th March 2014. ( 4th March 2014) ww.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9772233/1.7-million-human-embryos-created-for-IVF-thrown-away.html Well being . com http://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/in-vitro-fertilization-for-infertility(IVF)(4th march 2014) - IVF and reproduction.
How science works- http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/genetic/cloning3.htm ( dolly the sheep )(3rd March 14)
Blogs- Hindu times ( surrogacy) March 4th 14) http://blogs.hindustantimes.com/expat-on-the-edge/2009/12/09/is-commercial-surrogacy-in-india-ethical/ (surrogacy)
Science forum- genetic engineering (march 5th 14) http://www.srforum.org/articles/genetic-engineering-foe-or-friend/ BBc.co.uk - ethics and animal testing.(march 4th 2014) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/biotechnology_1.shtml http://www.greens.org/s-r/20/20-01.html(stephen Hawkins) March 4th 2014 Professer interveiw . http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/humgeneng.html ( March 6th 2014) http://www.methodist.org.uk/who-we-are/views-of-the-church/genetic-engineering( march 6th methodists church)

Authors and Books;
The puzzle of Ethics- Peter Vardy and Paul Grosch. published 1994 revised 1999
Genetic Engineering- William H. Sofer 1991 ( 7th March 2014)

PUBLISHERS
Peter Vardy (8th March 2014)
Elizabeth H Ormandy (May 2011)
Ian Willmout (1996)
Dr Patrick Steptoe (1978)
Dr Ray Boulin (200)
Hindustin times (2002)
Professor Stephen Hawkins(1999)

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics MGT 498 November, 2012 Ethics Edward O Wilson, an American biologist and theorist proposed that in the end, success or failure will come down to an ethical decision; one on which those now will be judged for generations to come (ThinkExist, 2012). Organizations require members to adhere to the established guidelines and ethics to maintain compliance with internal and external directives. The ability of the company to remain profitable without sacrificing ethics is a competitive advantage that will ensure consumer loyalty and enhance its reputation. Additionally, ethical decision-making contributes to a company’s fulfillment of corporate social responsibility. This analysis will describe how ethics and social responsibility influence the development of a strategic plan. Furthermore, it will provide an example of an unethical action and present an alternative method for handling the situation. Influence of Ethics The Free Dictionary.com (2012), defines ethics as a set of principles of right conduct or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession (Ethics). Although many believe that ethics and business cannot exist simultaneously, the cost of unethical behavior in organizations is unacceptable. According to Wheelen and Hunger (2010), a survey by the Ethics Resource Center of 1,324 employees of 747 U.S. companies found that 48% of employees surveyed said that they had engaged in one or more unethical and/or illegal actions during the...

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Drucker (1981), he takes us through a journey of evolution of Business Ethics and represents several controversial positions. While explaining the ethics in Western Culture he states that there was agreement on the following statement: “There are only one ethics, one set of rules of morality, one code, that of individual behavior in which the same rules apply to everyone alike” (Drucker, 1981, Page 19). He discusses the examples of "a poor mother", "nepotism in China" and "paid extortion" to articulated the impact of social, economical and cultural norms on implementing this on everyone. He considers practices of questionable morality under different circumstances as ethical. Casuistry (Drucker, 1981, Page 22) was the first attempt to think about social responsibility and embed it in a set of distinctive ethics for people in power. According to Drucker, ethics for people in social responsibility is a cross-benefit calculation involving demand of individual conscience and position. For then, demand of ethics can be excepted if actions result in benefit for other people. Drucker then moves on to introduce The Ethics of Prudence (Drucker, 1981, Page 27) as other major tradition in the West. He proposes that Ethics of Prudence appropriate to a society of organizations. Prudence, the consciousness not to do the wrong thing will enable the leader to exhibit a role model behavior. According to Drucker, Ethics of Prudence do not spell out the “right” behavior, but wrong behavior......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics is a very big issue that involves diverse views and beliefs. Ethics has become more widespread with the public in today’s business world. There are three main theories of ethics. The first is the virtue theory which is all based around good quality ethics and sometimes simplified into being character based ethics. The next theory is the utilitarianism theory which is best described as the group theory. The third theory is the deontological theory. These are the three basic ethics theories of today. Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral instrument as a source of power for ethical behavior. A person's character is the entirety of their personality. Character qualities can be good, bad or somewhere in between. They can be commendable or not. The worthy characteristics are called virtues. Utilitarianism is an ethical way of life in which the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society is considered the maximum good. According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined by its resulting outcome. There is debate over how much thought should be given to actual consequences, potential consequences and planned consequences. Deontological ethics is an approach that focuses on the right or wrong of an action itself contrasting the rightness or wrongness of the penalty of those actions. These three ethical theories address ethics and morality with some similarities and some differences. One of the major differences between virtue theory...

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Names for Theory | Real-world Example | Workplace Example | Duty-based Ethics | Regardless of consequences, certain moral principles are binding, focusing on duty rather than results or moral obligation over what the individual would prefer to do (Treviño & Nelson, 2007, Ch. 4).In ethics, deontological ethics, or deontology (Greek: deon meaning obligation or duty), is a theory holding that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others. Some systems are based on biblical or tenets from sacred. | Deontology, pluralism, moral rights, rights-basedCategorical imperativeGolden rule | C * I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. | It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures. | Consequence-based Ethics | A consequence-based approach to ethics gives priority to the value, outcome of a decision we attach to the results of an action. Where the end justifies the means as the main determining factor if an action is being ethical or not. Williams, (1998) said it best it is a theory of “good states of affairs”. (para 1)“In ethics, telos also comes from Greek, this meaning end or purpose. “Many ethicists call this type of ethical approach goal-based, because the people who practice this type of ethics approach believe there is an intricate design to the universe, and......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethic

...1 Virtue Theory, Utilitarianism, and Deontological Ethics. Judith Glowinski ETH/316 - 4/16/2013 MARY CARTER 2 When comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology we find that they all deal with how one judge’s morality and ethics. These theories all include judging in different aspects, whether it is in the moment, what happens after, or over a lifetime. The ethics and morality behind these theories all deal with what is right, or what is best for the present, then separate paths as the theories work toward the future. With virtue ethics a person strives for excellence performing duties, and acquiring traits that others would admire. With utilitarianism a person makes a decision based on the best results, and what is best for the most amounts of people. With deontology a person makes a decision depending on what he or she thinks is morally correct, not necessarily based on the best results for the people, but more for the wellbeing of that person. The similarities between the three theories all deal with results. These theories all work toward the best result depending on what someone believes the best result may be. Many people will take different sides when it comes to a decision that benefits either the present or future, whether a person’s decision is the best for the moment or best for the future is what differentiates these theories. Putting the best interest of the team before one’s personal......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Shanice Naidoo 212538675 Ethics 101: Essay African ethics and its characteristics This essay seeks to explain what African ethics is as well as its characteristics. In order for that to be done, we must first explain what African ethics is and the foundations upon which it is built. African ethics refers to the values, codes of conduct and laws that govern the moral conduct of people within a given society. African ethics as a whole tends to place its focus on mankind. In this essay paper, we will also seek to explain the concept of Ubuntu, which is a concept that is strongly embedded in African ethics. African ethics is founded on three main concepts, firstly, God; followed by the community and lastly human dignity. According to the norms of African ethics, God is the pivotal focus in one’s life. Africans believe that God is the only one that can judge man because he has created it. They believe that humans should behave in a loving and forgiving manner because God loves and forgives them. It is held that any troubles that people encounter, such as, bad health; natural disasters etc., are not of God but rather of the devil or evil spirits ‘Satan’. Community in African ethics refers to the society as a whole or a certain group of people that one belongs to. The central focus here is the welfare and interests of each member of the community rather than that of the individual. They hold the view that being a member of the community by nature; the individual is......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ethics

...Running head: Ethics and the College Student 1 The Ethics and College Student Title Page: BY MAURICE M. OWENS ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to see the college students’ view of ethics. There was enough evidence to say that college students’ perceive ethics instruction, and those who teach it, to be relevant and beneficial in shaping their own ethical behaviors. Students’ attitudes towards cheating is measured by their perception of cheating in high school, college, and non-major classes. The use of technology has an impact on college ethics since it is easier to cheat in online/hybrid classes and when some kind of technology is used in a course. College students believe that they are living in an ethical campus environment, where their faculty members are mostly ethical in nature and that it is never to late to learn about ethics in college. The Ethics and College Student Title Page: 2 Ethics is truly and important asset within today’s society, there are so many ways you can define ethics. I will say that to me ethics is about your upbringing, starting from the day you were born. Ethics will keep together and organization or it will dismantle and organization, you must enforce structure and guidelines. There are three strong principles when we talk about students and ethics. I call this (R, A, O) Responsibility, Accountability and Ownership. Students must be Responsible and withhold the obligations and the integrity of the school in......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...ETHICS IN JAPANESE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Romanian Economic and Business Review – Vol. 2, No. 2 Caraiani Gheorghe, Maduţa Gyongyver Gheorghe Caraiani is Professor of International Business at the Romanian American University in Bucharest. Maduta Gyongyver is Assistant Professor of English Language at the Romanian American University in Bucharest. Abstract At first sight it is easy to understand that “ethics in business” is a field which aims at explaining problems of moral aspect which come up currently in the activity of economic agents from a market economy. Considering the cultural variety of moral values and principles lengthwise and crosswise the planet and, since the adopted policies led to many unacceptable effects, the idea of drawing up international ethic codes appeared more and more substantial through the explicit agreement of some governmental and non-governmental associations in which the big transnational corporations have the main role. The company system in Japan is so strict that it is quite hard, sometimes even impossible for a company to do business with another company with which it does not have personal, tight and previously established relations. The Japanese philosophy is that only the company in which the human relations are good will succeed in while the one with bad human relations will go bankrupt. In order to understand a Japanese company and to be able to cooperate with it, it is really useful for one to see it as an exclusive club, a......

Words: 3419 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Kathleen F. Brochu Manage Principles Dr. M. Miller Research Paper “Ethics” Should Ethics be taught in the Corporate Environment? By Kathleen Brochu Table of Contents Cover Page Title: “Ethics” Should ethics be taught in the corporate environment? By: Kathleen Brochu Introduction What is Ethics? Can ethics be taught? Whose responsibility is it? Body Meaning of Ethics How one learns ethics How to promote ethics in the work place Conclusion Higher production rates Caring Employees Improved Companies relationships Today’s business environment is not only fast-paced, but also highly competitive. In order to keep pace and stay ahead, possession of several key work ethics is a plus for achieving a successful career. Holding key traits such as attendance, character, teamwork, appearance, and attitude add value to both you as a person and your company. Successful careers come in many flavors, but work ethics are a main ingredient in most recipes for success. Ethics are not born in a vacuum. Ethics are more like a jigsaw puzzle that is thrown together over time, that when complete makes up who you are and what you believe. From our earliest days of life, we start to learn from those around us. These learned behaviors add to the traits that we are already born with and help to shape us into the person we will become. As part of this learning process, we develop what will become our norms. Norms are our......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics Essay ETH/316 May 21, 2014 University of Phoenix Ethics Essay This week's reading assignment covered many aspects of ethics. In this written assignment, we are asked to compare the similarities and differences between three types of ethical behavior, virtue, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. To understand the three separate ethic behaviors, I must first define them. Virtue ethics deals with a person’s character, their inward behavior. If a person’s character is good, then so are his or her choices and actions. A person should always strive for excellence in everything that they do. Virtue ethics is not team-based; it’s all about the good of a particular person and how he or she think and act on a daily basis. An example of virtue ethics is, me being in line at the grocery store, the person ahead of me does not have enough money to complete his purchase, so I pay the difference to help him out. Utilitarianism ethics is different from virtue ethics because it promotes the greatest amount of good to a group. Utilitarianism is not individually based, it is more people based. Best described when a person sacrifices a little, in order to get more in return. A personal example of utilitarianism could be the time I was babysitting my niece and two nephews. Instead of me watching basketball on the television, I allowed them to watch a children’s movie in order to gain peace and quiet throughout the house. I gave up the television for the greater...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics Kellie Jackson Arthur Murphy Ethics Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome—the ends justify the means. Utility — the good to be maximized — has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), though preference utilitarian’s like Peter Singer define it as the satisfaction of preferences. (David 2008) Deontology - Deontological ethics or deontology meaning 'obligation' or 'duty') is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. It is sometimes described as "duty" or "obligation" based ethics, because deontologists believe that ethical rules "bind you to your duty". (Kant 1785) Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted with consequentialist or teleological ethical theories, according to which the rightness of an action is determined by its consequences. Virtue Ethics - Virtue ethics is a branch of moral philosophy that emphasizes character, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking. In the West virtue ethics was the prevailing approach to ethical thinking in the ancient and medieval periods. The tradition suffered an eclipse during the early modern......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Running Head: Business Ethics Main Title: The Cultural Dimensions of Business Ethic Monroe College Contents Rationale 3 Introduction 3 Some Factors which may Influence Business Ethics 3 How Peoples Action can Affect Business Ethics 4 How Structure Affects Business ethics 4 How Culture, Norms and Laws Affect Business Ethics 5 Unethical Practices and How They May Affect a Business 5 Recommendations 7 Conclusion 8 Sources 10 Rationale The purpose of this paper is to discuss and address cultural aspects of business ethics. It will also examine how these cultural aspects may affect businesses and shape societies view on these organizations. Recommendations will also be made for example, on the aspect of setting companies policy while taking morals and ethical matters into consideration. Introduction Ethics is a huge area of interest, study and debate. According to Dictionary.com, Ethics is a body of moral principles or values governing or distinctive of a particular culture or group. Business ethics can be described as the behavior that a business adheres to in its daily interactions with society .The ethical standards of a business can be examined by looking into the firm’s human rights policy, its regulations of bribery and corruption, and its execution and compliance of its codes of ethics. The ethical standards of business can vary significantly depending on the country it is headquartered in. These standards apply not......

Words: 2043 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ethics

..."Building a code of ethics to make a strong organization has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued."-Vivek Wadhwa. One main concept an organization needs to have to drive its success is a code of ethics. Having a code of ethics will manage an organization throughout its expansion and outset. The code of ethics will guide and teach the organization stay on board to its vision, plans, and goals but doing it in a manner or alignment that will protect the organization and its employees. Serving in the military, working in human resource, has introduced and taught a code of ethics for its organization which has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued. Working for the military has ethical fundamentals that help address or solve issues and situations that happen. Being in the military there is a certain look that soldiers must represent; this includes the proper uniform attire, attitude, and behaviors. If a soldier goes against what is expected of him or her there are different approaches and regulations that must be considered. For instance, when a soldier violates the law in his or her workplace like lying on documents or stealing, the outcome is an article15 and chances of getting promoted. The code of ethics for the military offers information on reporting suspected violations in reference to enforcement of the provisions of joint ethics. Having a code of ethics in the military keeps soldiers, as well as their families,......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

... Computer Ethics By Brenda B. Covert |    | | 1     Ethics is a short, two-syllable word of six letters that affects every segment of our lives. Ethics is a moral code involving a clear understanding of right and wrong. Another word for ethics is values. When people talk about ethics, they may be focused on one specific area, such as business, medical, political, environmental, religious, or personal ethics. Today we are going to focus on another important area of ethics: computer ethics.   2     If you have good computer ethics, you won't try to harass or hurt people with your computer, and you won't commit crimes such as information theft or virus creation. The problem that often arises when some of us are on a computer is that we don't see the harm in snooping in another person's private information or trying to figure out their passwords. It seems smart to copy and paste information into a school report and pretend that we wrote it. (Even if the information were public property --which most of it isn't-- that would be dishonest.) The crimes committed with hacking or gaming scams may not seem harmful because the victims lack faces. Flaming (aiming abusive, insulting messages at another person online) seems risk-free since we are anonymous. Indulging in obscenities and other offensive behavior online might feel empowering simply because no one knows who we really are. No one is going to come knocking on the door and demand a physical confrontation. However, every one of...

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethic

...value system or what could be called their personal ethics structure. One’s personal values, or ethics structure, are developed over a lifetime and is ever evolving. There are many factors that come into play during the development of one’s ethics structure. The process begins at childhood. The people that a person comes into contact with, influences inside the home such as parents, siblings, and neighbors. As one grows older and ventures out into the world outside the home teachers, friends and even enemies all help to shape one’s value system. Any type of communication with anyone that we come in contact with has the potential to shape our value system or our ethics structure. Good. Ethics Development One’s beliefs, values or ethics begin forming at an early age and continues throughout one’s life. Most often, those values learned early on are the ones that stay with you in some form or another throughout one’s life. My development started at an early age. I grew up in a very close community. My neighborhood was an extension of my family. Family togetherness, education and sports were very influential aspects that helped shape my ethics structure and continue to guide my actions to this day. Over time, my various experiences have continued to help evolve and shape my value structure. Both positive and negative experiences have played a large role in my value system. Good. Defining Ethics What are ethics? Ethics are the principles, norms, and standards......

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6