Free Essay

Ethics

In: Business and Management

Submitted By akshah2
Words 2952
Pages 12
In international business theory there are a number of useful models for the external environment analysis of specific countries. These methods can be applied by companies that aim to internationalise and so to define the right location(s) abroad in terms of institutional as well as cultural fit and success opportunities. Correspondingly, concepts like this also provide insightful information for explaining the location choices which organisations have already made. One such framework is the so called Diamond Model introduced by Michael Porter in 1990. This essay tries to determine its advantages and disadvantages as a tool for the examination of firm‟s home and host location decisions by focusing on two major MNEs: the world‟s second-largest high-street retailer –French Carrefour and UK‟s famous Marks & Spencer Porter s Diamond Model(1990: 73) argues that “nation‟s competitiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade” and therefore is determined by a nation‟s level of productivity. From an organisational perspective this means that national competitive advantage depends on the nations ability to provide a home base for companies to sustainably improve their products and services in terms of quality, features, technology and so to successfully compete in highly productive industries internationally. Hence, the advantage of the framework is that it identifies four important, interrelated factors that create and illustrate the essential national environment where companies are born, grow and build sustainable competitive

advantages (Porter, 1990: 78). The concept is then quite useful for companies to perform the necessary research and identify which countries would be most suitable for internationalisation.
The first determinant, factor conditions, are the factors of production such as land, raw materials, capital, infrastructure etc., that are not inherited, but developed and improved by a nation e.g. skilled labour (Porter, 1990: 79). Thus, sustaining competitive advantage depends on the factor creation ability. For instance, Carrefour was originally family-owned but when it decided to internationalise, a high amount of capital was needed so it went public in 1970 to support itself financially (Shiue, Horngand Yeh, 2006: 2).The second driver is demand conditions, i.e. the existence of sophisticated anddemanding customers that pressure companies to create new products to meetgrowing buyers‟ needs
(Porter, 1990: 82). Thus, organisations discover new trendsand exceed customer expectations by innovating. This is indeed the case of Carrefour when pioneering in 1963 the hypermarket concept creating an entirely newway of shopping where customers can buy everything from groceries and clothing toelectronics under one roof (Verdict, 2010). Furthermore, mature demand andsaturated markets should rather be an incentive to innovate. Again in Carrefour‟s case, because of the growing number of single households and smaller families, which results into a “smaller shopping basket” and a reduced relianc e onhypermarkets, the retailer has now introduced its new stores –
Carrefour Planet
3
,(Verdict, 2010: 4).Related and supporting industries are the next factor, which represents the presenceof e.g. capable suppliers, also competitive on a global scale (Porter, 1990: 82).Establishing good relationships with partners within highly developed clusters of industries provides companies with some significant mutual benefits such as better and faster information and communication, cooperation and support, know-how andexchange of ideas. Those industries are very much dependent on each other throughout the whole supply chain for mutual profit realisation. For instance, due tostrong competition, M&S has recently pressed suppliers to a 1.25% turnover

3 contribution with the group claiming that their growth mainly depends on retail salesand so suppliers do not really have a choice but to accept those terms (FinancialTimes, 2011). Or, when M&S switched to low-cost providers in the late 1990s andbasically destroyed its long-term relationships with previous suppliers, it damaged itsreputation enormously (Mellahi, Jackson and Sparks, 2002: 23). Another example that illustrates the importance of related industries is Carrefour‟s failure in the US because it was unable to get favourable prices from suppliers and to keep its low-cost margin (Shiue, Y., Horngand Yeh, 2006: 5).The last part of the diamond is firm strategy, structure and rivalry, i.e. the choice of organisational structure and management style and the nature of domesticcompetition (Porter, 1990: 82). In the internationalisation process this determinantindicates if companies have found a fit between their own characteristics and those of the industry they have entered. Here
Carrefour‟s winning international strategy isnamely decentralisation by letting store managers to make their own decisionsaccording to local markets and traditions (Cambra-Fierro and Ruiz-Benítez, 2011:151).
In the late 1990s M&S‟ s EU expansion failed because the company wasimplementing its tried and tested in the UK strategy with a strong emphasis on aBritish brand and no localisation (Free Case Study, 2011). Further, rivalry is arguablythe most important factor in the creation of competitive advantage, because astronger competition has powerful stimulating and learning effects for innovations.Hence, rivalry is seen as positive, because it pushes organisations to anticipatetrends and satisfy non-existing needs yet as well as to seek new internationalopportunities. A go od example here is Apple‟s iPhone, iPod and iPad.In addition, the model puts emphasis on how home locations affect companies togrow and develop competitive advantages, i.e. how the own nation „prepares‟ them for internationalisation. Hence, the diamond helps to identify home-basedadvantages and then to exploit them abroad. Some may also need to redefine,rediscover their core competences at home as it is in the example of M&S, thatwithdrew all its EU and US stores in the beginning of the new millennium to focus onits core market, the UK, but has recently started an expansion again (Collier, 2007).France as a home base has proved to be a very good place to prepare Carrefour toexpand in similar markets such as Brazil, Spain etc. This might explain the fact thatnew or differentiated products are usually introduced and tested first at home. For

4 instance, Carrefour Discount brand was originally developed for the French market,but now successfully expands to Belgium, Italy and Spain (Verdict, 2010: 19).On the other hand, the diamond does not include the influence of governments andchance even though they are discussed in Porter‟s book
. Nevertheless, governmentscan influence all other factors through e.g. regulations, trade barriers, incentives etc.For example, in many European countries government legislation for smaller storesvery much affected Carrefour
‟s
EU expansion so that it had to come up with a newstore format (Verdict, 2010: 4). Especially in emerging economies nowadaysgovernments play a significant role in factor creation (e.g. infrastructure, health care,education) and can influence the internationalisation process of organisations. For instance, this factor was certainly considered by both M&S and Carrefour in Chinabecause for its nation‟s business protection the government hardly allows wholly-owned subsidiaries, but MNEs must rather form a joint venture with a Chinesecompany, which is basically the only way of entering the Chinese market.Furthermore, chance events such as wars are a considerable factor too because theycannot be controlled by companies. Another current unpredicted event is the debtcrisis in Europe and the rather weak European Union which now has an enormousimpact on businesses. For instance, after years of non-presence in the Frenchmarket because of past failure, M&S opened a store in Paris this November withrather disappointing results (Peacock, 2011). This could be due to the currentproblems of the EU. So, it is questionable whether M&S has chosen the right momentto internationalise, but also the right location.Moreover, the framework does not really consider culture as a driver. Culture thoughis probably one of the most important factors that define a nation and its way of doingbusiness. Demand conditions and customer needs are very much impacted byculture such as for example food habits (e.g. fast food in the US). Culturalimplications and differences need to be considered when going abroad to see if thereis a possibility of transferring identified needs at home or if localisation is needed. For the understanding of cultural impacts
, Hofstede‟s dimensions
4
could be used. An example here would be Carrefour‟s deci sion to first expand into culturally similar
4
www.geert-hofstede.com

5 locations such as Belgium, Spain and Brazil (Frynas and Mellahi, 2011) which according to Hofstede‟s dimensions have very similar scores.
Consequently I think that for the understanding and choice of home and host locationthe model should only be a starting point of the environmental analysis, i.e. aresearch on a macro level, but it should then be followed by a more thoroughresearch on a meso (e.g. competitor analysis
, Porter‟s Five Forces
) and micro (e.g.value chain analysis, cultural analysis) level (Hollensen, 2011: 104). Even thoughsuch researches are very costly and time-consuming, they are necessary for makingthe right decision because location is crucial for international success. If not, a failurebecause of a wrong location would be even more costly as in the case of M&S whenit closed all its stores in the US. That is why additional models should be used togather more in-depth and purposeful information on exact needs and industrycharacteristics in order to explain what is behind organisational location decisions.In conclusion, no model can be perfect and in fact, no model actually is simplybecause countries and companies differ fundamentally and no generalisation ispossible. All environmental analysis frameworks have missing considerations. What matters from a company‟s perspective however is the combination of the right modelsthat best fit to its own needs and capabilities for sufficient results.
Porter‟s Diamond
Model alone is not enough for fully making or explaining the decision where tointernationalise. It is however an excellent starting point because it provides the basicselection criteria for understanding home and host locations and how to build andexploit competitive advantages.

* 1. Threat of New Entrants
An example is web design, as there are independents in every location. This is an easy market to enter with few requirements, other than skills, initiative and relevant hardware and software. This does mean there are many new entrants! * 2 . Buyer Power
An example is the grocery sector since supermarkets tend to retain power over suppliers due to volume and price of contracts. They dictate terms, set prices and can possibly end agreements at any time. * 3. Threat of Substitution
The substitute to all services is DIY. For example hairdressing or writing a will. Focus is on expertise, customer service or added value. * 4. Supplier power
Some sectors have monopolistic (one) or oligopolistic (few) suppliers, such as utility companies. Sometimes customers have little choice i.e. where to buy domestic water suppliers though this is changing.
In the jewellery sector, diamond suppliers often hold the power and can set prices, withhold supply and restrict sales. * 5. Competitive rivalry
These include Estate agents, web design and office stationary. Many competitors often buy on price.
What to watch for?
Sometimes not all the information is available and you may need to make assumptions, which should be shared. For example it’s difficult getting specific market information on parts of the Middle East and China.
Our free models guide gives more details on how the Internet has affected this balance of power.
Original Sources
Porter, M. (1979). How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review. (Vol 57, March – April). p.86-93.

The concepts like international success, national environment and the competitiveness are the concepts who have references of several parameters. Although to understand these kinds of parameters, the theory of flexibility is useful but somehow Porter’s Diamond Theory also suggests about these parameters. The research showed data about the shrimp industry of India with their business environments.

Find out more from UK Essays here: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/analyse-porters-diamond-theory-business-essay.php#ixzz3LM8VmaBW

Ever since Michael Porter came up with his work of competitive advantage along with the ‘diamond’, many authors and school of thought have criticized his theory as they find it vague , dangerous or incomplete in its explanation. This criticism resolves around a number of assumptions that underlie it. As described by Krugman (1994a), the main risk with respect to the belief that countries compete is the misunderstanding that countries, like companies, are somehow in competition with one another. More important, the abuse by special interest groups, the potential role of predatory trade policies and the budget constraint still apply. Furthermore, the welfare effects of trade intervention based on external economies are far more ambiguous than the effects of comparative advantage and internal economies of scale, and may lead to a distortion of specialisation patterns for a specific country (Krugman & Obstfeld 2003). Criticism of the ‘Diamond Theory’ comes from two perspectives: from within the management school (Rugman 1991; Dunning 1992, 1993; Cartwright 1993; Rugman & Verbeke 1993; Bellak & Weiss 1993; Rugman & D’Cruz 1993) and from the economic school (Waverman 1995; Jegers 1995; Davies & Ellis 2000; Boltho 1996).

Find out more from UK Essays here: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/evaluating-porters-concept-of-the-diamond-economics-essay.php#ixzz3LM9m2300
Criticism from the management school - suggests that the home diamond focus of Porter does not take the attributes of the home country’s largest trading partner into account (Rugman 1990), is not applicable to most of the world’s smaller nations (Bellak & Weiss 1993; Cartwright 1993) and ignores the role of multinational organisations in influencing the competitive success of nations (Dunning 1992, 1993. At the same time, the economic school states that the diamond is so general that by trying to explain all aspects of trade and competition, it ends up explaining nothing (Waverman (1995). As well, Porter (2004) has shifted his focus to productivity at locations that will improve the competiveness of companies located in those specific locations. Thus, if through these location, firms can increase their productivity, it will be good for that country, due to the fact that higher productivity always leads to higher levels of welfare. However, this does not mean, that the country thus becomes internationally competitive, even if the companies located there are internationally competitive. This is because productivity is purely a domestic matter and has nothing to do with the international competitiveness of a country (Krugman 1998).

Find out more from UK Essays here: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/evaluating-porters-concept-of-the-diamond-economics-essay.php#ixzz3LM9ZuGjL

* 4. Apple Porter’s 5 forces Model 2 Rivalry •The Company •Competing companies 1 Threats of new Entrants 5 Buyer Power 3 Threats of Subtitutes Products or Services 4 Supplier Power * 5. • Apple dominates consumer electronics industry • Put relentless efforts on R&D • Each of the company’s products is unique • Threat of new entrants is very low due to apple is continously differentiate its products from its rivals. • Apple has wide spread production that it can produce at a lower cost due to Threats of new Entrants * 6. • Not a threat to apple due to introduction of iphone and ipad. • The rivals put the relentless effort such as R&D to introduce new product to ensure that they will be always the first and difference, but again apple has no issue with differences. They always be number 1 to introduce products like iphone(touch screen concept), ipad(the tablet) etc. Rivals * 7. • Examples of Subtitutes : • Ipod samsung mp3 player / Sony MP3 player • Ipad samsung tab • Iphonesamsung galaxy note / sony ericcson / nokia • Apple achieves economies of scales, enabling it to produce in lower cost • Apple market better than the competitor • Apple brand is well known and recognised brand Threats of Substitutes Products or Services * 8. • The supplier has some power due to they have the ability to supply the unique material to apple in the way for apple to produce the unique products Supplier Power * 9. • Not a threat to apple. • Apple has millions of buyers (individual and large corporations) • They have the ability to increase its prices of some products due to unique and well differentiated. • Apple need to ensure that the price increase is not too drastic Buyer Power * * * References: http://lloyd7160.blogspot.com/2013/02/apple-and-five-forces-model.html * 11. - Components generally obtained from multiple sources. - Hardware products are manufactured by outsourcing partner primary in Asia e.g. Foxconn. - Delegate raw materials acquisition : Works with its OEM partners to delegate the raw materials acquisition process but provides some supervision for quality control purpose - Automated receiving systems : Implemented sophisticated automated receiving systems to speed up the receiving process and reduce facility foot printand storage space requirement Inbound Logistic * 12. - Elimination of toxic substances in Apple products. Every product is free of BFRsand other harmful toxins, Apple have also qualified thousands of components to be free of elemental bromine and chlorine. - Products are designed highly recyclable aluminum enclosure. - Utilize original equipment manufacturers (OEM) ’s economies of scale - Apple outsources production to third party OEM partners to utilize their economies of scale while removing the burden of production management from the firm. Operations * 13. - Apple used variety of direct and indirect distribution channel, such as retail stores, online stores, 3rd party cellular network carriers, whole salers, retailers and value added resellers. - Continue to expand and improve its distribution capacities by expanding the number of its own retail stores worldwide in order to ensure a high quality buying experience for its product - Economical packing : Employed teams of design and engineering experts who develop product packaging that’s slim and light yet protective. Efficient packaging design not only reduces materials and waste, it also helps reduce the emissions produced during transportation. Outbound Logistic * 14. • Reasonable Pricing : Introduce their product with reasonable price • Brand Loyalty : Always make it as a different products compared to others • Retail Outlets : Allow the customer easy to obtain the products. Sales and Marketing

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/EthicsCached - SimilarShare Shared on Google+. View the post. You +1'd this publicly. Undo Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong ... Business ethics - Professional ethics - Medical ethics - Deontological ethicsEthics | Define Ethics at Dictionary.comdictionary.reference.com/browse/ethicsCached - SimilarShare Shared on Google+. View the post. You +1'd this publicly. Undo (used with a singular or plural verb) a system of moral principles: the ethics of a culture. 2. the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of ... Bioethics - Metaethics - Situation ethics - Ethics of the fathersEthics Resource Centerwww.ethics.org/Cached - SimilarShare Shared on Google+. View the post. You +1'd this publicly. Undo A nonprofit organization working to be a catalyst in fostering ethical practices in individuals and institutions through programs and publications in business and ... What is Ethics?www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.htmlCached - SimilarShare Shared on Google+. View the post. You +1'd this publicly. Undo A discussion of both what ethics is and what ethics is not. Ethics Updates Home Page. Moral theory; relativism; pluralism ...ethics.sandiego.edu/Cached - SimilarShare Shared on Google+. View the post. You +1'd this publicly. Undo Ethics Updates......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Kathleen F. Brochu Manage Principles Dr. M. Miller Research Paper “Ethics” Should Ethics be taught in the Corporate Environment? By Kathleen Brochu Table of Contents Cover Page Title: “Ethics” Should ethics be taught in the corporate environment? By: Kathleen Brochu Introduction What is Ethics? Can ethics be taught? Whose responsibility is it? Body Meaning of Ethics How one learns ethics How to promote ethics in the work place Conclusion Higher production rates Caring Employees Improved Companies relationships Today’s business environment is not only fast-paced, but also highly competitive. In order to keep pace and stay ahead, possession of several key work ethics is a plus for achieving a successful career. Holding key traits such as attendance, character, teamwork, appearance, and attitude add value to both you as a person and your company. Successful careers come in many flavors, but work ethics are a main ingredient in most recipes for success. Ethics are not born in a vacuum. Ethics are more like a jigsaw puzzle that is thrown together over time, that when complete makes up who you are and what you believe. From our earliest days of life, we start to learn from those around us. These learned behaviors add to the traits that we are already born with and help to shape us into the person we will become. As part of this learning process, we develop what will become our norms. Norms are our......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ethics

...Running head: Ethics and the College Student 1 The Ethics and College Student Title Page: BY MAURICE M. OWENS ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to see the college students’ view of ethics. There was enough evidence to say that college students’ perceive ethics instruction, and those who teach it, to be relevant and beneficial in shaping their own ethical behaviors. Students’ attitudes towards cheating is measured by their perception of cheating in high school, college, and non-major classes. The use of technology has an impact on college ethics since it is easier to cheat in online/hybrid classes and when some kind of technology is used in a course. College students believe that they are living in an ethical campus environment, where their faculty members are mostly ethical in nature and that it is never to late to learn about ethics in college. The Ethics and College Student Title Page: 2 Ethics is truly and important asset within today’s society, there are so many ways you can define ethics. I will say that to me ethics is about your upbringing, starting from the day you were born. Ethics will keep together and organization or it will dismantle and organization, you must enforce structure and guidelines. There are three strong principles when we talk about students and ethics. I call this (R, A, O) Responsibility, Accountability and Ownership. Students must be Responsible and withhold the obligations and the integrity of the school in......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics Essay ETH/316 May 21, 2014 University of Phoenix Ethics Essay This week's reading assignment covered many aspects of ethics. In this written assignment, we are asked to compare the similarities and differences between three types of ethical behavior, virtue, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. To understand the three separate ethic behaviors, I must first define them. Virtue ethics deals with a person’s character, their inward behavior. If a person’s character is good, then so are his or her choices and actions. A person should always strive for excellence in everything that they do. Virtue ethics is not team-based; it’s all about the good of a particular person and how he or she think and act on a daily basis. An example of virtue ethics is, me being in line at the grocery store, the person ahead of me does not have enough money to complete his purchase, so I pay the difference to help him out. Utilitarianism ethics is different from virtue ethics because it promotes the greatest amount of good to a group. Utilitarianism is not individually based, it is more people based. Best described when a person sacrifices a little, in order to get more in return. A personal example of utilitarianism could be the time I was babysitting my niece and two nephews. Instead of me watching basketball on the television, I allowed them to watch a children’s movie in order to gain peace and quiet throughout the house. I gave up the television for the greater...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethics

..."Building a code of ethics to make a strong organization has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued."-Vivek Wadhwa. One main concept an organization needs to have to drive its success is a code of ethics. Having a code of ethics will manage an organization throughout its expansion and outset. The code of ethics will guide and teach the organization stay on board to its vision, plans, and goals but doing it in a manner or alignment that will protect the organization and its employees. Serving in the military, working in human resource, has introduced and taught a code of ethics for its organization which has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued. Working for the military has ethical fundamentals that help address or solve issues and situations that happen. Being in the military there is a certain look that soldiers must represent; this includes the proper uniform attire, attitude, and behaviors. If a soldier goes against what is expected of him or her there are different approaches and regulations that must be considered. For instance, when a soldier violates the law in his or her workplace like lying on documents or stealing, the outcome is an article15 and chances of getting promoted. The code of ethics for the military offers information on reporting suspected violations in reference to enforcement of the provisions of joint ethics. Having a code of ethics in the military keeps soldiers, as well as their families,......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Computer Ethics By Brenda B. Covert |    | | 1     Ethics is a short, two-syllable word of six letters that affects every segment of our lives. Ethics is a moral code involving a clear understanding of right and wrong. Another word for ethics is values. When people talk about ethics, they may be focused on one specific area, such as business, medical, political, environmental, religious, or personal ethics. Today we are going to focus on another important area of ethics: computer ethics.   2     If you have good computer ethics, you won't try to harass or hurt people with your computer, and you won't commit crimes such as information theft or virus creation. The problem that often arises when some of us are on a computer is that we don't see the harm in snooping in another person's private information or trying to figure out their passwords. It seems smart to copy and paste information into a school report and pretend that we wrote it. (Even if the information were public property --which most of it isn't-- that would be dishonest.) The crimes committed with hacking or gaming scams may not seem harmful because the victims lack faces. Flaming (aiming abusive, insulting messages at another person online) seems risk-free since we are anonymous. Indulging in obscenities and other offensive behavior online might feel empowering simply because no one knows who we really are. No one is going to come knocking on the door and demand a physical confrontation. However, every one of......

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...to make the decision themselves. g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. * 3. Develop your own workplace example that fits with each system. Present each workplace scenario in a substantial paragraph of approximately 40 words. Although the table field will expand to accommodate your workplace examples, you may list them at the end of the table; make a note in the table to see the attached examples, however, so your facilitator knows to look for scenarios below the table. 4. Format references according to APA standards and include them after the table. Ethical Theory or System | Brief Definition | Other Names for Theory | Real-world Example | Workplace Example | Duty-based Ethics | Regardless of consequences, certain moral principles are binding, focusing on duty rather than results or moral obligation over what the...

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics is a very big issue that involves diverse views and beliefs. Ethics has become more widespread with the public in today’s business world. There are three main theories of ethics. The first is the virtue theory which is all based around good quality ethics and sometimes simplified into being character based ethics. The next theory is the utilitarianism theory which is best described as the group theory. The third theory is the deontological theory. These are the three basic ethics theories of today. Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral instrument as a source of power for ethical behavior. A person's character is the entirety of their personality. Character qualities can be good, bad or somewhere in between. They can be commendable or not. The worthy characteristics are called virtues. Utilitarianism is an ethical way of life in which the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society is considered the maximum good. According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined by its resulting outcome. There is debate over how much thought should be given to actual consequences, potential consequences and planned consequences. Deontological ethics is an approach that focuses on the right or wrong of an action itself contrasting the rightness or wrongness of the penalty of those actions. These three ethical theories address ethics and morality with some similarities and some differences. One of the major differences between virtue theory...

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethic

...value system or what could be called their personal ethics structure. One’s personal values, or ethics structure, are developed over a lifetime and is ever evolving. There are many factors that come into play during the development of one’s ethics structure. The process begins at childhood. The people that a person comes into contact with, influences inside the home such as parents, siblings, and neighbors. As one grows older and ventures out into the world outside the home teachers, friends and even enemies all help to shape one’s value system. Any type of communication with anyone that we come in contact with has the potential to shape our value system or our ethics structure. Good. Ethics Development One’s beliefs, values or ethics begin forming at an early age and continues throughout one’s life. Most often, those values learned early on are the ones that stay with you in some form or another throughout one’s life. My development started at an early age. I grew up in a very close community. My neighborhood was an extension of my family. Family togetherness, education and sports were very influential aspects that helped shape my ethics structure and continue to guide my actions to this day. Over time, my various experiences have continued to help evolve and shape my value structure. Both positive and negative experiences have played a large role in my value system. Good. Defining Ethics What are ethics? Ethics are the principles, norms, and standards......

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ethics

...overview of organizational ethic policies Forbes magazine raised the issue in an article entitled, “Not Qualified for Obamacare’s Subsidies? Just Lie-Govt. To use ‘Honor System’ Without Verifying Your Eligibility” (2013, p.1). With the recent debates on whether or not Obama care is a critical component to ensure that individuals will receive health benefits, the ethical conversation must be debated throughout the United States of America amongst corporations and educational institutions which will be affected. According to Johnson, “The job of the leader, then, is to foster ethical accountability, to encourage followers to live up to their moral responsibilities to the rest of the group, (2012, p. 278. The author’s intent within is paper is to create of code of ethics that will demonstrate the significance of having an ethical and cultural competence in acceptance, understanding and sensitivity; both as an educational goal, and as a fundamental aspect of exemplifying responsibility and accountability. Rationale for the design of your code of ethics The motivation for designing a code of ethics stems from the author’s doctoral course on ethical dilemmas and stewardship. For this author, it opened the gateway to research for meaning and purpose to understand the importance on why educational, corporate and religious organizations must have a code of ethics that is grounded with integrity, authenticity and accountability. In order for a code of ethics to be in alignment......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Shanice Naidoo 212538675 Ethics 101: Essay African ethics and its characteristics This essay seeks to explain what African ethics is as well as its characteristics. In order for that to be done, we must first explain what African ethics is and the foundations upon which it is built. African ethics refers to the values, codes of conduct and laws that govern the moral conduct of people within a given society. African ethics as a whole tends to place its focus on mankind. In this essay paper, we will also seek to explain the concept of Ubuntu, which is a concept that is strongly embedded in African ethics. African ethics is founded on three main concepts, firstly, God; followed by the community and lastly human dignity. According to the norms of African ethics, God is the pivotal focus in one’s life. Africans believe that God is the only one that can judge man because he has created it. They believe that humans should behave in a loving and forgiving manner because God loves and forgives them. It is held that any troubles that people encounter, such as, bad health; natural disasters etc., are not of God but rather of the devil or evil spirits ‘Satan’. Community in African ethics refers to the society as a whole or a certain group of people that one belongs to. The central focus here is the welfare and interests of each member of the community rather than that of the individual. They hold the view that being a member of the community by nature; the individual is......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...deed, word, and thought throughout our lifetime” Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. There are many philosophies on ethics, no matter which one we choose, the decisions we make do have consequences. Those consequences while small or unnoticed will eventually catch up to us. Our core values play a major role on how we deal with moral/ethical situations and while religion may have influenced some of our morals, one does not need to be religious parse to live a morally fruitful life.   Our morals are subject to change because our core values are subject to change and we must always be conscience about the decision we make and the impact that those decision will have on the rest of our lives. When I completed my completed my ethical lens inventory I found out some things about myself. My preferred lens is the rights and responsibilities lens, I believe that everyone should fulfill their duties fairly and tend to think to a problem carefully and research options to find the one that will allow you to fulfill your duties, seeking guidance from to the experts on the subject, to find the best solution for a problem. My goal is to make a fully informed decision and to meet the needs of the community, without harming the least advantaged. Unless we are mindful and work on becoming ever more ethically mature, we will create a crisis in our lives where we have to take stock of ourselves and our ethics. If we are lucky, we will handle the crisis without public embarrassment or having to wear an......

Words: 1056 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Email: College and Semester: TESC, February 2014 Course Code: PHI-384-GS004 Course Name: Ethics & Business Professional Assignment 1 Questions for Thought Answer each of the following items thoroughly. Each numbered item should require no more than one page (250 words) as a response. 1. What does the term ethics mean to you? Do you see a difference between ethics and morality? Explain your answer. The term ethics to me can be very in-depth but very simply, elaborates on what is right and what is wrong. I consider myself as having ethics because I know right from wrong and because it was instilled upon me at a young age. Very simply, my values guide me along the right paths, eliminating possible gray areas. Both ethics and morality are about doing the right thing in everyday life to better the world but there are some differences even though they very much coincide. Ethics displays rules and guidelines over all, in hopes that these guidelines will become the social norm. Ethics permeates every facet of our life, whether it be at our home or workplace. It sets many different ways to look at situations and helps justify what is good and what is bad. Morality is more of a focus on what we do as individuals, in hopes of promoting the greater good. Ethics tells us that if someone needs help we should help them. Morality is shown when a person decides to hone in on the ethics that they know and step up to the plate and help that person. Morality is also deciding......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethical Theories Essay Charlotte McGuffey ETH/316 October 28, 2013 Philip Reynolds Ethical Theories Essay There are three normative approaches to ethics; Utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue theory. These three approaches have similarities and differences. This paper will go over those similarities and differences. This paper will also include how each theory details ethics, morality and will illustrate a personal experience that shows that correlation between moral, values, and virtue as they relate to these three theories of ethics. Utilitarianism relies on the predictability of the consequences of an action for the good of the many. “Utilitarianism is a theory that suggests that an action is morally right when that action produces mare total utility for the group than any other alternative” (Boylan, 2009). Another word, utilitarianism does not, in any way, relate to morality or ethics because the action is taken for the most usefulness, no matter what the outcome. Without knowing the end result of an action we cannot ascertain if it is ethical or not. Deontological theory judges the morality of any action dependent on the action’s devotion to rules, obligations, or duty. Deontology is based on whether the action taken is right or wrong. This theory is practical in places where adherence to rules or duty are to be followed; such as the military or religion. The principle of deontology judges the activity and whether that activity sticks with the guidelines or...

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Critical Thinking and Ethics Aliya Johnson GEN/201 April 28th, 2015 Critical Thinking and Ethics Critical thinking and ethics are concepts that are very important to use in order to be successful either academically and/or professionally. When it comes to critical thinking and ethics both are very universal; and allow for creative views and ideas to collaborate. In order to get better understandings of how critical thinking and ethics can affect your career both professionally and academically we must first analyze these skills. Critical Thinking One analysis I would like to make is how critical thinking and ethics can impact our lives; which means that we have to first understand the definition of critical thinking. According to D.C. Phillips, “critical thinking is referred to generalized standards and principles of reasoning on which reasons for judgements could be based.” (Norris.S, 2014) In other words, people usually base their judgements on what they believe are generally right. Critical thinking allows us to be able to determine whether or not something is ethically right or wrong or maybe in between. There are six steps one can take towards critical thinking. The first step to critical thinking is being able to remember all events that may have taken place. Then, you have to understand the situation that’s going on around you. For example, you may want to “ask yourself if you can explain the situation in your own word.”......

Words: 898 - Pages: 4