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In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By lauraillodo
Words 16941
Pages 68
9 Stress and Health

Key: Answer, Page, Type, Learning Objective, Level

Type
A=Applied
C=Conceptual
F=Factual
Level
(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult

LO=Learning Objective
AP=AP* Learning Objective p=page MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____________ psychology is the field of study devoted to understanding the relationship between physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships and overall health and rates of illness. a) Physiological
Incorrect. Physiological psychology may be interested in these topics, but health psychology explores these relationships from approaches other than the physiological perspective. b) Developmental c) Health
Correct. This is the correct definition of health psychology. d) Medicinal e) Adjustment
ANS: c, p. 344, C, LO=Prologue, AP VIII.5, (2)

2. Kirima has her doctorate in health psychology. Which of the following research questions might she be most likely to investigate? a) Why are college students more prone to doing drugs when they take harder classes?
Correct. Health psychologists are interested in the factors that lead us to lead healthy lives, so the relationship between classes and the tendency to take drugs would be an appropriate topic for Kirima to research. b) What is the relationship between one’s ethnicity and their political affiliation?
Incorrect. The effects of a social category like ethnicity would be more applicable to experts from other fields, which might include sociology, political science, or social psychology. c) Are men or women better drivers? d) What is the relationship between a person’s age and the number of years it takes them to get an undergraduate degree? e) How do parents and children adjust to differences in temperament?
Ans: a, p. 344, A, LO=Prologue, AP VIII.5, (1)

Stress and Stressors

Learning Objective 9.1 - How do psychologists define stress?

3. _________ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging. a) Euphoria b) Burnout c) Dysphoria d) Distress
Incorrect. Distress is the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors. e) Stress
Correct. Stress is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.
ANS: e, p. 346, F, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (1)

4. Which of the following are considered emotional, as opposed to mental, symptoms of stress? a) sleeping irregularity, frequent colds, nausea b) depression, fear, anger
Correct. Depression, fear, and anger are emotional symptoms of stress. c) difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, difficulty concentrating on tasks
Incorrect. Difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, and difficulty concentrating on tasks are mental/cognitive, not emotional, symptoms of stress. d) eating too much, smoking or drinking more than usual, hitting people or throwing things e) sleeping irregularity, eating too much, loss of sense humor
ANS: b, p. 346, F, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (2)

5. Which of the following are considered mental symptoms of stress? a) sleeping irregularity, frequent colds, anger b) depression, fear, irritability
Incorrect. Depression, fear, and irritability are emotional symptoms of stress. c) difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, difficulty concentrating
Correct. Difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, and difficulty concentrating are all mental symptoms of stress. d) chest pains, nausea, memory loss e) frequent colds, irritability, memory loss
ANS: c, p. 346, F, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (2)

6. Events that cause a stress reaction are referred to as _____________. a) hassles
Incorrect. Hassles may indeed cause stress, but sometimes stress is caused by factors that would not be described as hassles. b) catastrophies c) eustresses d) problems e) stressors
Correct. Stressors are defined as events that cause a stress reaction.
ANS: e, p. 346, C, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (1)

7. _________ occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors. a) Acute stress b) Eustress
Incorrect. Eustress results from positive events. c) Distress
Correct. Distress occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors. d) Catastrophic stress e) Strain
ANS: c, p. 347, F, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (1)

8. _________ is the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being. a) Acute stress b) Eustress
Correct. Eustress is the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being. c) Distress
Incorrect. Distress results from unpleasant events. d) Catastrophic stress e) Beneficial stress
ANS: b, p. 347, F, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (1)

9. Professor Willoughby assigns his class a term paper that is to make up 30% of their final grade. The students are given clear guidelines about what is expected in this assignment, and are given two months to complete the assignment. Because students know that this paper is important but not the only thing upon which their grades will be based, this assignment would be likely to cause _____________. a) frustration
Incorrect. Students might indeed feel frustrated at the need for a term paper to be written, but eustress is the best answer. b) distress c) aggression d) eustress
Correct. Because this paper is important, it will motivate the students’ best work without becoming destructive to their ability to get the job done. e) catastrophic stress
ANS: d, p. 347, A, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5, (1)

Learning Objective 9.2 - What kinds of external events can cause stress?

10. Which of the following is the term used to describe unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat? a) major life events
Incorrect. Major life events are important personal events that are both positive and negative, such as marriage, job loss, or the loss of a spouse. b) catastrophes
Correct. Unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat are called catastrophes. c) hassles d) eustress e) distress
ANS: b, p. 347, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

11. A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month is called_________. a) acute stress disorder
Incorrect. Acute stress disorder is temporary, lasting less than one month. b) external locus of control c) catastrophic stress d) a major hassle e) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Correct. Post-traumatic stress disorder results from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month.
ANS: e, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

12. Ali, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. Ali is most likely suffering from _______________. a) acute stress disorder
Incorrect. Acute stress disorder is temporary, lasting less than one month. b) external locus of control c) catastrophic stress d) a major hassle e) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Correct. Nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks that continue for more than a month after a trauma indicate that a person is suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

ANS: e, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

13. Linda’s house was flooded in a hurricane. Upon losing her home, she had nightmares, disturbed sleep, and anxiety that lasted about two weeks. Linda most likely suffered from ______________. a) acute stress disorder
Correct. Acute stress disorder is temporary, lasting less than one month. b) external locus of control c) catastrophic stress d) a major hassle e) post-traumatic stress disorder
Incorrect. Post-traumatic stress disorder would be the diagnosis if symptoms persisted for more than one month.
ANS: a, p. 348, A, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

14. Which of the following statements correctly describes the rate of PTSD among combat-exposed military personnel since 2001? a) PTSD has remained stable since 2001, since there have been no new combat experiences for soldiers since 2001. b) Since PTSD is more fully understood, PTSD has declined in soldiers due to better medications.
Incorrect. PTSD has increased significantly since 2001 and medication is only one of several strategies used to treat its symptoms. c) The rate of PTSD has tripled since 2001.
Correct. PTSD is increasing over the past several years and there is no indication that PTSD is going away soon. d) PTSD has increased in combat-exposed women but not in combat-exposed men since 2001. e) PTSD has increased in combat-exposed men but not in combat-exposed women since 2001.
ANS: c, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

15. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the research on post-traumatic stress disorder? a) Women seem to be more vulnerable than men.
Incorrect. The statement is true because women are more vulnerable than men to post-traumatic stress disorder. b) Men seem to be more vulnerable than women.
Correct. The statement is not true because women are more vulnerable than men to post-traumatic stress disorder. c) Likelihood of the disorder increases if the traumatic experience took place before a woman was 15 years old. d) Children suffer from PTSD, but their symptoms are different than those of adults. e) The likelihood of the disorder increases if the traumatic experience took place after a woman was 15 years old.
ANS: b, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (3)

16. An assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person’s life resulting from major life events over one year is called the __________. a) secondary appraisal b) primary appraisal c) Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Correct. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale is an assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person’s life resulting from major life events over one year. d) College Undergraduate Stress Scale
Incorrect. The College Undergraduate Stress Scale measures the amount of stress in a college student’s life. e) Capacity for Readjustment Rating Scale
ANS: c, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

17. Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure change due to _________. a) natural disasters b) major life events
Correct. Holmes and Rahe developed the SRRS to measure change due to major life events, both positive and negative, that are associated with stress. c) social difficulties d) negative life events
Incorrect. Holmes and Rahe developed the SRRS to measure change due to life events that were both positive and negative. e) physical disorders
ANS: b, p. 348, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (1)

18. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures stress related to _________. a) positive and negative life events
Correct. The SRRS measures both positive and negative events associated with stress. b) only negative life events
Incorrect. The SRRS measures stress related to both positive and negative events. c) only positive life events d) internal stressors e) external stressors
ANS: a, p. 348 F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

19. Which of the following life events is not found in the list of major life events that cause a significant amount of stress according to the social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)? a) pregnancy b) marriage c) going on vacation
Incorrect. While going on vacation may seem like a stress-free event, many report that a vacation actually causes them stress. d) All of the above are found on the SRRS.
Correct. Each of these three events, although generally happy and positive events, can cause a significant amount of stress. e) None of the above is found on the SRRS.
ANS: d, p. 349, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

20. According to Holmes and Rahe, a person who scores over 300 on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is more likely than are people with lower scores to have what kind of experience in the near future? a) more frequent changes of job b) a divorce
Incorrect. Divorce does cause stress, but it is not likely to be the result of stress. c) commission of a crime d) being fired e) a higher chance of becoming ill or having an accident
Correct. A score of over 300 suggests a high level of stress and, therefore, the possibility of experiencing more health problems than usual or an accident.
ANS: e, p. 349, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (3)

21. Which major life event on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale has the highest number of life change units? a) divorce
Incorrect. Divorce is associated with 75 units, whereas the death of a spouse is associated with 100. b) marriage c) death of a spouse
Correct. Death of a spouse is perceived to require the most adjustment. d) damage to the home e) changing jobs
ANS: c, p. 349, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

22. __________ measures the amount of stress in a college student’s life over a one-year period resulting from major life events. a) University Students Stress Assessment (USSA) b) College Students New Experiences Assessment Scale (CSNEAS) c) Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
Incorrect. This assessment may not include the most common life events of a college student. d) College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS)
Correct. The CUSS is a scale that measures stressors in a student’s life. e) College Experience Stress Rating (CESR) ANS: d, p. 350, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

23. Which of the following major life events on the College Undergraduate Stress Scale has the highest number of life change units? a) death of a close friend
Correct. The death of a close friend is associated with 97 units. b) falling asleep in class c) final exam week
Incorrect. Final exam week is associated with 90 units, while the death of a close friend scored 97 units. d) getting straight As e) failing a course
ANS: c, p. 350, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

24. The term hassles refers to__________. a) minor health problems that cause a person to miss at least one day of work
Incorrect. Hassles are minor annoyances in our everyday lives. b) personal limitations that make it impossible for someone to pursue a desired goal c) the necessity to interact with persons we dislike in order to obtain our goals d) boring routines encountered in everyday living e) minor annoyances of everyday life
Correct. Hassles are minor annoyances of everyday life.
ANS: e, p. 351, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

25. Burning your toast, having trouble opening an e-mail attachment, breaking a glass, and running late for an appointment are all examples of ___________. a) uplifts b) hassles
Correct. Burning toast and breaking a glass are considered hassles, which are daily annoyances in everyday life. c) downturns d) distress
Incorrect. Distress is the effect of stress, whereas hassles are a cause of stress. e) eustress
ANS: b, p. 351, A, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

26. Researchers have found an association between daily hassles and ___________. a) colds and headaches
Correct. The stress caused by lots of hassles is associated with minor, short-term illnesses. b) cancer and heart disease c) hypertension and obesity
Incorrect. The more serious conditions of hypertension and obesity are associated with major life events, not with mere hassles. d) heart disease and schizophrenia e) generalized anxiety and cancer
ANS: a, p. 351, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (3)

27. According to Lazarus, hassles _______________. a) do not arise from major life events
Incorrect. According to Lazarus, hassles arise from major life events. b) arise from major life events
Correct. According to Lazarus, hassles arise from major life events. c) nullify the stress that arises from major life events d) are unrelated to stress e) are due to the absence of eustress
ANS: b, p. 351, C, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

28. Researchers found that the __________ of daily hassles was a better predictor of headaches than were scores on a life events scale. a) number
Incorrect. Researchers found that it was not the number of daily hassles but their perceived severity that was a better predictor of headaches than were scores on a life events scale. b) type c) negative quality d) timing e) perceived severity
Correct. Researchers found that the perceived severity of daily hassles was a better predictor of headaches than were scores on a life events scale.
ANS: e, p. 351, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

29. According to a recent study, what is the biggest hassle reported by children between the ages of 11 and 15? a) feeling pressure to use drugs
Correct. This was the biggest hassle reported by survey participants in this age range. b) not having the clothing styles they want c) fear of new school situations d) fear of getting into trouble at school
Incorrect. This hassle was reported most by older adolescents, age 16-22. e) fear of getting into trouble at home
ANS: a, p. 351, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (1)

30. Min-Jee is currently very concerned about a recent increase in fighting among her family members. When talking with her therapist, she notes that this has been her biggest concern lately. According to the research into the severity of different hassles, which of the following statements is probably true about Min-Jee’s age? a) Min-Jee is 4 years old b) Min-Jee is 36 years old
Correct. Research suggests that fighting among family members is the greatest source of stress for adults. c) Min-Jee is 12 years old d) Min-Jee is 16 years old e) Min-Jee is 86 years old
Incorrect. The biggest hassle for the elderly has been found to be financial worries, not fighting among family members.
ANS: b, p. 351, A, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

31. Which of the following statements is NOT true about hassles at different developmental stages? a) Elderly people are more strongly affected by hassles such as going shopping, doctor’s appointments, and bad weather than are children and younger adults. b) Younger adults are more strongly affected by hassles such as going shopping, doctor’s appointments, and bad weather than are elderly people.
Correct. The statement is not true because elderly people are more affected than young people by the hassles of going shopping, doctor’s appointments, and bad weather. c) For children ages 3 to 5, the biggest hassle is getting teased.
Incorrect. The statement is true because children ages 3 to 5 reported their biggest hassle is getting teased. d) Youth 11 to 15 years old report feeling pressure to use drugs. e) Children 6 to 10 years old report feeling pressure to get good grades.
ANS: b, p. 351-352, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (3)

32. Which of the following is NOT a proposed reason to explain why older adults may find the idea of going shopping to be threatening? a) Physically, they are less able to get to a place to shop, and they may rely on others for assistance.
Incorrect. Many elderly adults do have physical limitations that limit their independence, but the other options are also equally correct, so (e) is the best answer. b) Mentally, shopping may be threatening because of a lack of financial resources. c) The need to make decisions when shopping might be perceived as threatening. d) The possibility that they may have to socialize when shopping might be perceived as threatening. e) none of the above
Correct. All three reasons may explain some of why the elderly feel threatened by the idea of going shopping.
ANS: e, p. 352, F, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5, (2)

Learning Objective 9.3 - What are some psychological factors in stress?

33. An urgent demand or expectation for our behavior that comes from an outside source is called ________. a) anxiety
Incorrect. A feeling of anxiety is perhaps the result of an urgent demand or expectation for our behavior that comes from an outside source. b) pressure
Correct. An urgent demand or expectation for our behavior that comes from an outside source is called pressure. c) overload d) cognitive dissonance e) a hassle
ANS: b, p. 353, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

34. Gloria is a tax accountant who is very busy from January to April 15, which is the tax return filing deadline. She feels that she must work very long hours during this time to meet the April 15 deadline for all of her clients. Gloria is experiencing _______. a) anxiety
Incorrect. Anxiety may be a result of pressure. Gloria is experiencing pressure as a result of her need to work longer hours to meet a deadline. b) pressure
Correct. Gloria is experiencing pressure as a result of her need to meet a deadline. c) frustration d) cognitive dissonance e) a hassle
ANS: b, p. 353, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

35. Jacob’s father has always wanted him to be a lawyer. He has encouraged him to get good grades, graduate college earlier than his peers, and work as hard as he can. Jacob does not care about going to law school, but he does so to please his father. Jacob is responding to ______. a) anxiety
Incorrect. Jacob is responding to his father’s expectations, which are causing him to feel pressure. b) pressure
Correct. Jacob is responding to pressure, or expectations for his behavior from an outside source—in this case, his father. c) overload d) cognitive dissonance e) a hassle
ANS: b, p. 353, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (3)

36. Research by Teresa Amabile shows that time pressure has ________ impact on one’s ability to be creative. a) no b) a positive
Incorrect. Amabile found that creativity and innovation decrease when time pressure is applied. c) a negative
Correct. Amabile found that creativity and innovation decrease when time pressure is applied. d) some e) a great
ANS: c, p. 353, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (3)

37. The _______ control one has, the _______ the degree of stress. a) more; greater b) less; greater
Correct. The less control one has, the greater the degree of stress. c) less; lower d) more; lower e) Control has nothing to do with stress.
Incorrect. The less control one has, the greater the degree of stress.
ANS: b, p. 353, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

38. ______ occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need. a) Uncontrollability
Incorrect. Uncontrollability refers specifically to lack of control over events rather than to the general problem of being blocked from achieving a goal. However, lack of control might be the cause of a person’s inability to achieve a goal. b) Conflict c) Pressure d) Anxiety e) Frustration
Correct. Frustration occurs when a person is prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.
ANS: e, p. 353, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

39. Which of the following is NOT an example of an external frustration? a) uncontrollability
Correct. Uncontrollability is a factor that contributes to a person’s level of stress, but it is not an example of frustration. b) losses c) rejections d) delays
Incorrect. Delays are a classic example of external frustration, in which external factors are blocking an individual from achieving a goal. e) failures
ANS: a, p. 353, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (3)

40. Desiring to purchase a book and finding it is out of stock is an example of a(n) ________. a) external frustration
Correct. External frustrations come from blockage by an outside source. b) internal conflict c) external conflict d) internal frustration
Incorrect. The unavailability of the book is a frustration that is coming from an outside source. e) normal frustration
ANS: a, p. 353, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

41. All of the following are sources of stress EXCEPT ______. a) pressure b) frustration
Incorrect. Frustration is a source of stress. c) uncontrollability d) displacement e) aggression
Correct. Aggression may be a reaction to the stress of frustration but is not a source of stress.
ANS: e, p. 353-354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

42. Frustration that occurs when a goal or need cannot be attained due to personal characteristics is called _________. a) external frustration
Incorrect. External frustration comes from blockage by an outside source. b) internal conflict c) a hassle d) personal frustration
Correct. Internal, also known as personal, frustration is due to personal characteristics. e) a failure
ANS: d, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

43. Bettina is 6 feet tall and desires to become a ballerina. Unfortunately, she is having difficulty being accepted into a ballet troupe because of her height. Bettina is experiencing __________. a) external frustration
Incorrect. External frustration comes from blockage by an outside source. b) internal conflict c) external conflict d) internal frustration
Correct. Bettina’s frustration is not due to an outside source but rather to a personal characteristic—her height. e) situational frustration
ANS: d, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

44. The first response that people typically make to frustration is _________. a) persistence
Correct. Persistence is the first response people make to frustration. b) increasing efforts c) varying efforts d) reducing efforts e) aggression
Incorrect. People tend to resort to aggression only if persistence does not pay off.
ANS: a, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

45. Joey put a quarter in the gumball machine only to find that the machine was not working. He continued to turn the dial on the machine in the hope that he would retrieve a gumball. Joey’s behavior is called ____________. a) persistence
Correct. Persistence is the continuation of efforts to get what is wanted. In this case, Joey continued to turn the dial. b) increasing efforts c) varying efforts d) reducing efforts e) aggression
Incorrect. Aggression is the commission of acts meant to harm or destroy.
ANS: a, p. 354, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

46. Actions meant to harm or destroy are referred to as __________. a) persistence b) displacement
Incorrect. Displacement refers to taking out one’s feelings on someone less threatening than the person or people who are the sources of frustration. c) varying efforts d) reducing efforts e) aggression
Correct. Aggression is action meant to harm or destroy.
ANS: e, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

47. Joey put a quarter in the gumball machine only to find that the machine was not working. He continued to turn the dial on the machine in hope that he would retrieve a gumball. Unfortunately, after several minutes of forcefully turning the dial he still did not retrieve a gumball. As a result, he kicked the machine several times. Kicking the machine is an example of ____________. a) persistence
Incorrect. Persistence is the continuation of efforts to get what is wanted. Kicking the machine is not a serious effort to achieve a goal; it is just a form of aggression. b) increasing efforts c) varying efforts d) reducing efforts d) reducing efforts e) aggression
Correct. Kicking the machine is an act meant to harm or destroy and is, therefore, a form of aggression.
ANS: e, p. 354, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

48. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement regarding Berkowitz’s frustration-aggression hypothesis? a) Frustration creates an internal readiness to aggress. b) Aggression will not follow frustration unless certain internal cues are present. c) Aggression will not follow frustration unless certain external cues are present. d) Frustration does not always lead to aggression.
Incorrect. It is true that frustration does not always lead to aggression. e) Frustration always leads to aggression.
Correct. The statement that frustration always leads to aggression is not accurate. Aggression is seldom the first response to aggression.
ANS: e, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

49. Jordan is very frustrated because another patron at the bar is talking to the woman with whom Jordan was just dancing. According to Berkowitz’s reformulation of the frustration-aggression hypothesis, which of the following factors makes Jordan unlikely to lash out in a physically aggressive manner? a) Jordan already has a criminal charge for assault.
Incorrect. While Jordan might think twice about getting into a fight given his criminal history, Berkowitz’s work did not address this factor. b) The other man is much larger and stronger than Jordan.
Correct. Berkowitz noted that if a human source of frustration is larger and stronger then the frustrated person, aggression is an unlikely outcome. c) The woman makes it clear that she is not interested in Jordan. d) Jordan is alone and has no friends to back him up. e) Jordan’s friends talk him out of picking a fight with the other man.
ANS: b, p. 354, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (1)

50. _________ are habitual targets of displaced aggression. a) Scapegoats
Correct. Scapegoats typically are seen as having less power and, therefore, easier to attack. b) Internal conflicts c) Relationships d) Bullies
Incorrect. Bullies are usually the ones who displace their aggression. Their targets are the scapegoats. e) External conflicts
ANS: a, p. 354, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

51. After weeks of being taunted by her so-called “friends” at school and asking them to stop taunting her, Alyssa begins to actively avoid them whenever possible. Her reaction to this frustration is best described as ______. a) confrontation b) compromise
Incorrect. A compromise would mean there was some sort of discussion and agreement, but Alyssa chose to avoid, or withdraw from, her friends. c) withdrawal
Correct. Alyssa chose to escape, or withdraw from, her stressor. d) rationalization e) internalization
ANS: c, p. 355, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (3)

52. The most extreme form of escape or withdrawal from frustration is ________. a) suicide
Correct. Suicide is the most extreme because it is permanent. b) anhedonia
Incorrect. Anhedonia is the inability to feel pleasure or enjoyment, whereas suicide is the most extreme form of escape from frustration. c) leaving the country d) divorce e) internalization
ANS: a, p. 355, C, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

53. Which of the following is the most common mental disorder associated with suicide? a) anhedonia
Incorrect. Anhedonia is a symptom of depression. b) anxiety c) delusions d) externalization e) depression
Correct. Depression is the most common mental disorder associated with suicide.
ANS: e, p. 355, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

54. People who are depressed and may be suicidal often suffer from _____, a condition in which the person has lost the ability to experience pleasure. a) irritability
Incorrect. The term used to describe a person who has lost the ability to experience pleasure is anhedonia. b) anhedonia
Correct. Anhedonia is a loss in the ability to experience pleasure. c) neural numbness d) learned helplessness e) externalization
ANS: b, p. 355, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

55. Which of the following is a fact about suicide? a) Men attempt suicide more than women. b) More people die from suicide than from homicide.
Correct. More people do die from suicide than from homicide. c) The most common method of committing suicide is with pills. d) Suicide is a spontaneous act.
Incorrect. Suicide is usually a premeditated act. e) More people die from homicide than from suicide.
ANS: b, p. 355, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (3)

56. Which of the following is the most common method of committing suicide? a) jumping from heights b) hanging c) overdose
Incorrect. The most common method of suicide is by firearm. d) slashing e) firearm
Correct. The most common method of suicide is by firearm.
ANS: e, p. 355, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

57. Which of the following is a myth about suicide? a) People who intend to commit suicide usually talk about it.
Incorrect. It is true that people who intend to commit suicide usually talk about it. b) People who intend to commit suicide may clear out desks and lockers and settle their finances. c) People who talk about committing suicide won’t actually do it—they just want attention.
Correct. It is a myth that people who talk about committing suicide won’t actually do it; in fact, talking about suicide is a kind of “dress rehearsal.” d) People who intend to commit suicide may seem to be in good spirits because they have made the decision to take their life and are looking forward to the escape. e) A person who tries to prevent a suicide should feel guilty if a person succeeds in committing suicide.
ANS: c, p. 355-356, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

58. In a(n) __________ conflict, a person must choose between two desirable goals. a) approach-avoidance
Incorrect. Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when only one goal or event is involved and that goal or event has both positive and negative attributes. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach
Correct. Approach-approach conflicts occur when a person must choose between two desirable goals. d) double approach-avoidance e) multiple approach-avoidance
ANS: c, p. 356, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

59. For someone who likes both movies and concerts, choosing between going to one or the other represents an ______ conflict. a) approach-avoidance
Incorrect. In an approach-avoidance conflict, there is only one goal or event, which has both positive and negative attributes. In this case, there are two events and both have only positive attributes. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach
Correct. In an approach-approach conflict, there are two goals or events, the routes to the goals are easy, and both goals have only positive attributes. d) double approach-avoidance e) multiple approach-avoidance
ANS: c, p. 356, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

60. A conflict in which a person must choose between two undesirable routes to a goal or goals is called __________. a) approach-avoidance
Incorrect. Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when only one goal or event is involved and that goal or event has both positive and negative attributes. b) avoidance-avoidance
Correct. Avoidance-avoidance is a conflict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable routes to a goal or goals. c) approach-approach d) double approach-avoidance e) multiple approach-avoidance
ANS: b, p. 356, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

61. Which of the following is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict? a) A person who enjoys the ocean has to choose between retiring in the Bahamas or in Tahiti.
Incorrect. A choice between two desirable alternatives is called an approach-approach conflict. b) A person has to choose between wanting to eat some cake but not wanting the calories. c) A person who loves chocolate must choose between eating chocolate cake or chocolate ice cream. d) A person who must choose between going to a party or a concert. e) A student has to decide whether to turn in an unfinished paper and receive a failing grade or hand it in late and lose many points.
Correct. An avoidance-avoidance conflict involves having to choose between two undesirable alternatives.
ANS: e, p. 356, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

62. Which of the following is the type of conflict that occurs when a person must choose or not choose one goal or event that has both positive and negative aspects? a) approach-avoidance
Correct. Approach-avoidance is the term for a conflict in which a person must choose or not choose one goal or event that has both positive and negative aspects. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach d) double approach-avoidance e) multiple approach-avoidance
Incorrect. A multiple approach-avoidance conflict involves more than two goals or events.
ANS: a, p. 356, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

63. Which of the following is the most stressful of all conflicts, causing many people to go back and forth between one decision and the other, or be unable to decide for or against the event? a) approach-avoidance
Correct. An approach-avoidance conflict has both positive and negative attributes, causing people to continually rethink the situation. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach
Incorrect. An approach-approach conflict is the least stressful of all conflicts since both choices have only positive attributes. d) incompatible demands e) internal vs. external demands
ANS: a, p. 356, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

64. Ken wants to go to law school because he believes being a lawyer will bring him prestige and a good income. However, he is not sure he should attend because he is very concerned about the hard work law school will involve and the money it will cost. Ken is faced with a(n) ______ conflict. a) approach-approach b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-avoidance
Correct. Ken is faced with one goal—attending law school—with both positive and negative attributes. d) double approach-avoidance
Incorrect. In a double approach-avoidance conflict there are two goals or events, but in Ken’s case there is only one—attending law school. e) multiple approach-avoidance
ANS: c, p. 356, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

65. When faced with an approach-avoidance conflict, some people tend to go back and forth with their choice because they cannot decide for or against the goal or event. This mind-changing behavior is called _____________. a) vacillating
Correct. To vacillate is to go back and forth between one decision and another. b) alternating c) dichotomizing d) avoiding
Incorrect. The failure to make a decision may, in fact, be a form of avoidance, but vacillating is the best answer. e) switching
ANS: a, p. 357, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

66. Which of the following is the type of conflict that occurs when a person must choose between two goals that have both positive and negative aspects? a) approach-avoidance
Incorrect. Approach-avoidance conflicts involve only one goal. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach d) double approach-avoidance
Correct. Double approach-avoidance conflicts arise due to the need to choose between two goals that have both positive and negative aspects. e) multiple approach-avoidance
ANS: d, p. 357, F, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (1)

67. Lizzie is a freshman in college who needs to declare her major. She is interested in history, psychology, medicine, and law. As she thinks about each of these potential majors, she considers both the positive and negative aspects of each, which cause her to go back and forth in her decision. Lizzie is experiencing a(n)__________ conflict. a) double approach-avoidance
Incorrect. A double approach-avoidance conflict involves two choices. Lizzie is considering more than two majors. b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-approach d) approach-avoidance e) multiple approach-avoidance
Correct. Lizzie is considering several major options, all of which have positive and negative attributes.
ANS: e, p. 357, A, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5, (2)

Physiological Factors: Stress and Health

Learning Objective 9.4 - How does stress affect the physical functioning of the body and its immune system?

68. Which part of the nervous system reacts when the human body is subjected to stress? a) parasympathetic
Incorrect. The parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to normal after a stressful period. b) somatic c) sympathetic
Correct. The sympathetic nervous system causes heart rate to increase, digestion to slow down, and energy to be sent to the muscles to help deal with whatever action the stressful situation requires. d) central e) neuropathetic
ANS: c, p. 358, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

69. The _________ nervous system returns the body to normal, day-to-day functioning after a stressful period. a) parasympathetic
Correct. The parasympathetic system returns the body to normal functioning after a stressful period. b) somatic c) sympathetic
Incorrect. The sympathetic nervous system causes the heart rate to increase, digestion to slow down, and energy to be sent to the muscles to help deal with whatever action the stressful situation requires. d) central e) autonomic
ANS: a, p. 358, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

70. Which parts of the nervous system are associated with the general adaptation syndrome? a) somatic and parasympathetic
Incorrect. The somatic nervous system does not play a role in stress reactions. b) autonomic and sympathetic c) sympathetic and parasympathetic
Correct. The sympathetic nervous and the parasympathetic systems are associated with the general adaptation syndrome. d) central and somatic e) parasympathetic and central
ANS: c, p. 358, C, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

71. When the teacher was handing out this test, you noticed that your respiration rate and heartbeat increased, your palms got sweaty, and your hand shook a little. Your pretest behaviors were triggered by the __________. Upon completion of the exam, your body returned to its normal state by way of the _________. a) parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system
Incorrect. The parasympathetic nervous system works to bring the body back to a normal state and the sympathetic nervous system becomes activated during times of stress. b) sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
Correct. The sympathetic nervous system becomes activated during times of stress, and once the stressful period has ended, the parasympathetic system works to bring the body back to a normal state. c) somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system d) autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system e) central nervous system; autonomic nervous system
ANS: b, p. 358, A, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (2)

72. Which psychologist is credited with proposing the general adaptation syndrome? a) Hans Selye
Correct. Hans Selye proposed the general adaptation syndrome. b) Berkowitz c) Holmes and Rahe
Incorrect. Holmes and Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Selye proposed the general adaptation syndrome. d) Lazarus e) Festinger
ANS: a, p. 358, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (1)

73. During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, _________. a) the central and somatic systems are activated b) synaptic activity and the somatic nervous system activate to send messages from the CNS to muscles c) the sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenal glands release hormones
Correct. During the alarm stage, the sympathetic nervous system becomes activated. d) neurotransmitter levels and the central nervous system are activated
Incorrect. The sympathetic nervous system is activated during the alarm stage. e) neurotransmitter levels and the parasympathetic nervous system are activated
ANS: c, p. 358, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (2)

74. During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, all of the following EXCEPT _______________ are reactions that can be seen. a) headaches b) nausea c) vomiting d) fever
Incorrect. The stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system can induce a fever. e) hemorrhaging
Correct. The stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system can cause headaches, nausea, or fevers, but hemorrhaging is not an associated physical response.
ANS: e, p. 358, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

75. Adelaida hears a rattling sound as she hikes through the desert. Her muscles tense and her blood pressure rises. According to Hans Selye, she is in the ___________. a) chronic stress phase b) alarm phase
Correct. In the alarm phase, the sympathetic nervous system responds to the threatening sound by activating and causing the adrenal glands to release hormones that increase heart rate and blood pressure. c) exhaustion phase d) resistance phase
Incorrect. The resistance phase would follow the alarm phase, which is the initial response to the threatening sound. e) temporary stress phase
ANS: b, p. 358, A, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

76. A person in the _________________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome may feel better even though he or she continues to secrete hormones to help the body fight a stressor. a) alarm b) resistance
Correct. During the resistance stage, a person may feel better even though he or she continues to secrete hormones to help the body fight a stressor. c) exhaustion
Incorrect. During the exhaustion stage, the body’s resources are so depleted that stress-related disease can develop. d) termination e) end
ANS: b, p. 359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

77. What is the correct sequence of stages in the general adaptation syndrome? a) resistance, alarm, exhaustion
Incorrect. The alarm stage comes before the resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome. b) exhaustion, resistance, alarm c) alarm, exhaustion, resistance d) resistance, exhaustion, alarm e) alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Correct. The correct sequence of stages in the general adaptation syndrome is alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
ANS: e, p. 358-359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

78. In which stage of the general adaptation syndrome has the body reached the limits of its ability to adapt to stress, which may result in the development of stress-related diseases? a) alarm b) collapse c) exhaustion
Correct. During the exhaustion stage, the body has reached its limit. d) resistance Incorrect. During the resistance stage, the body fights off the stressor until its resources give out. e) termination
ANS: c, p. 359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

79. According to Selye, some people may develop illnesses such as high blood pressure or a weakened immune system during the ______ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. a) alarm b) collapse c) exhaustion
Correct. During the exhaustion stage, the body’s resources are so depleted that stress-related diseases can develop. d) resistance Incorrect. During the resistance stage, the body uses its resources to fight off the stressor. It is not until the next stage, exhaustion, that bodily resources are so depleted that stress-related diseases can develop. e) termination
ANS: c, p. 359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (1)

80. For the past six months, Dahlia’s job has been extremely stressful, but she doesn’t feel that she can quit because she needs the money for tuition. Dahlia has been having chronic headaches and is behind in all of her classes. According to Hans Selye, Dahlia is in the ______ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. a) alarm b) collapse c) exhaustion
Correct. Dahlia has experienced prolonged stress, and her bodily resources are so depleted that stress-related diseases, such as chronic headaches, can develop. d) resistance
Incorrect. During the resistance stage, the body uses its resources to fight off the stressor. It is not until the next stage, exhaustion, that bodily resources are so depleted that stress-related diseases, such as chronic headaches, can develop. e) termination
ANS: c, p. 359, A, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (3)

81. According to Hans Selye, resistance to stress is lowest at the _____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. a) alarm b) resistance c) exhaustion
Correct. The third stage of the general adaptation syndrome is exhaustion, during which our resistance to stress is lowest. d) collapse
Incorrect. This is not a stage of the general adaptation syndrome model. e) termination
ANS: c, p. 359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

82. One of the most startling implications of Selye’s theory is that ________. a) psychological stress may cause diseases such as ulcers and high blood pressure
Correct. Selye believed that psychological stress may cause diseases such as ulcers and high blood pressure. b) most people are able to effectively cope with long-term stress
Incorrect. It was not startling that most people manage to cope with long-term stress. c) sensitivity to stress is genetically programmed d) self-actualization tendencies lead to severe stress e) stress decreases the activity of the immune system
ANS: a, p. 359, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

83. The system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases and injuries is called the ________. a) immune system
Correct. The immune system is defined as the system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases, infections, and injuries. b) endocrine system
Incorrect. The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete chemicals; it is not involved in the immune response. c) sympathetic nervous system d) respiratory system e) circulatory system
ANS: a, p. 360, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

84. The field of ______ studies the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system. a) social psychology
Incorrect. Social psychology is concerned with how the presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals. b) organic medicine c) interactive psychology d) psychobioimmunology e) psychoneuroimmunology
Correct. Psychoneuroimmunology is concerned with the effects of stress on the immune system.
ANS: e, p. 360, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

85. People living under stressful conditions tend to get sick more often than they would otherwise. How do researchers in psychoneuroimmunology explain this phenomenon? a) The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.
Correct. Researchers in psychoneuroimmunology believe that the stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases. b) The stress response in the long run leads to a lowering of the heart rate, which makes the heart inefficient. c) The stress response makes muscles stronger, which places a greater burden on the heart and respiratory system. d) The body tends to adapt to the constant call for the stress response and, thus, future responses are not as strong as before.
Incorrect. The body’s future responses to stress tend to be just as strong as past ones. e) The stress response in the long run leads to an increase in the average heart rate, which makes the heart weaker.
ANS: a, p. 360, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (2)

86. Researchers conducted a study to determine the effects of stress on the immune system by measuring immune system chemicals. To accomplish this goal, they compared college students who were undergoing a stressful series of exams to a group of similar students relaxing during a time of no classes and no exams. Results of this study indicate_____________. a) the exam group tested higher for immune system chemicals b) the exam group tested lower for immune system chemicals
Correct. Researchers found that the exam group tested lower for immune system chemicals, meaning that their immune systems were suppressed. c) the relaxed group tested lower for immune system chemicals
Incorrect. Researchers found that the relaxed group tested higher for immune system chemicals. d) the exam group showed no change over the course of the study e) the relaxed group showed no change over the course of the study
ANS: b, p. 360, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (3)

87. Research on the effects of stress on the immune system suggests which of the following? a) The immune system is not affected by stress. b) Only certain types of stressors affect the immune system. c) Suppression of immune system functioning by stress always ends immediately after the stressful period ends.
Incorrect. Suppression can continue even as long as 14 days after the stressful period has ended. d) Suppression of immune system functioning by stress usually ends immediately after the stressful period ends. e) Suppression of immune system functioning by stress can apparently continue even after the stress itself is over.
Correct. Research reveals that immune system suppression can continue after the stress has subsided.
ANS: e, p. 360, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (3)

88. Which of the following statements best encapsulates the relationship between stress and physical illness according to psychoneuroimmunologists? a) Stress compromises the body’s immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to illness.
Correct. While stress has not been found to directly cause illness, it does appear to rob the body of its ability to fight illness effectively. b) Stress increases the production of natural killer cells, which causes cell death and leads to illness.
Incorrect. Stress reduces the production of natural killer cells, which your body needs to fight off viruses and tumor cells. c) Stress causes high blood pressure, heart disease, and but not cancer. d) Stress causes high blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer. e) Stress has no direct relationship to physical illness, though physicians tell us that these things are relate so that we will be more willing to take unnecessary medications.
ANS: a, p. 360-362, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (3)

89. Which part of the body filters fat and cholesterol from the bloodstream, preventing clogged arteries and reducing the likelihood of heart attacks and strokes? a) the pancreas
Incorrect. The pancreas is not responsible for these functions. b) the spleen c) the liver
Correct. The liver may be deactivated by the parasympathetic nervous system during the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome, increasing the chance of heart attacks and strokes. d) the colon e) the stomach
ANS: c, p. 361, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

90. In a recent study, researchers questioned middle-aged men about stress, diet, and lifestyle factors. They were also examined for four biological risk factors for heart disease including obesity, high blood sugar, high triglycerides, and low levels of HDL. As a result of this study, which of the following were strongly linked to the four biological risk factors? a) The more stress these men were exposed to, the more likely they were to have these risk factors.
Correct. Stress contributes to obesity, high blood sugar, high triglycerides, and low levels of HDL. b) The less stress these men were exposed to, the more likely they were to have these risk factors.
Incorrect. Stress contributes to obesity, high blood sugar, high triglycerides, and low levels of HDL. c) The more stress these men were exposed to, the less likely they were to have these risk factors. d) The less stress these men were exposed to, the less likely they were to have these risk factors. e) The more stress these men were exposed to, the more likely they were to have these risk factors, but only if the men were unmarried. Married men did not develop these risk factors at all.
ANS: a, p. 361, F, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (2)

91. Stress has been shown to put people at a higher risk for ________. a) unplanned pregnancy b) heart attack and stroke
Correct. Stress is linked with risk for heart attacks and stroke. c) promotions at work d) demotions at work e) schizophrenia
Incorrect. Stress is linked with risk for heart attack and stroke but not for schizophrenia.
ANS: b, p. 361, C, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (1)

92. Prolonged stress has been shown to ______ cancer. a) decrease vulnerability to b) be unrelated to one’s vulnerability to c) increase vulnerability to
Correct. Stress has been shown to depress the release of natural killer cells, making unchecked growth for cancer more likely. d) cause
Incorrect. Stress has been shown to depress the release of natural killer cells, making unchecked growth for cancer more likely. e) accelerate the growth of
ANS: c, p. 361-362, C, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5, (2)

Learning Objective 9.5 - How do cognitive factors and personality differences affect the experience of stress?

93. According to Lazarus, our first task when faced with a potential stressor is to estimate its severity and to determine whether it is a challenge or threat. This evaluation is referred to as ______________. a) primary appraisal
Correct. Primary appraisal is the first step we take when facing a potential threat; it involves estimating its severity and determining whether it is a challenge or a threat. b) secondary appraisal
Incorrect. Secondary appraisal is the second step we take when facing a potential threat; it involves estimating the resources available for coping with a stressor. c) stress-related decision d) hassle-related decision e) unrealistic decision
ANS: a, p. 362, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5 & VIII.8, (2)

94. Mary just received a traffic ticket but decided it is not worth being upset about. Mary just made a ___________. a) primary appraisal
Correct. A primary appraisal involves evaluating the level of stress or threat in a situation. In this case, Mary decided the ticket was not very important. b) secondary appraisal
Incorrect. A secondary appraisal involves estimating the resources available for coping with a stressor. c) stress-related decision d) hassle-related decision e) unrealistic decision
ANS: a, p. 362, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

95. Imagine that you have just flunked a class. You evaluate this situation and decide that flunking a class is stressful and important enough to be upset about. Next, you decide to repeat the class in summer school. You have made __________. a) a primary appraisal only
Incorrect. You have made both a primary appraisal (the decision that flunking the class is important) and a secondary appraisal (to deal with it by repeating the class). b) both a primary and a secondary appraisal
Correct. You have made both a primary appraisal (the decision that flunking the class is important) and a secondary appraisal (to deal with it by repeating the class). c) a stress-related decision d) a hassle-related decision e) an unrealistic decision
ANS: b, p. 362-363, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

96. After we have decided that a certain event is a stressor, we must decide how we will deal with it and what resources are available for coping with the stressor. This process is called ________. a) primary appraisal
Incorrect. Primary appraisal is the first step we take when facing a potential threat; it involves estimating its severity and determining whether it is a challenge or a threat. b) secondary appraisal
Correct. Secondary appraisal involves deciding how to deal with a stressor and estimating the resources available for coping with it. c) tertiary appraisal d) distress-eustress dichotomy e) unrealistic decision-making
ANS: b, p. 363, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

97. Which of the following traits is associated with people who live to be very old? a) aggressiveness
Incorrect. Aggressiveness is associated with not living as long as the average life expectancy. b) inflexibility c) tenseness d) incactivity e) being easygoing
Correct. Being easygoing is associated with living to old age.
ANS: e, p. 364, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

98. ______________ people typically do not live as long as the average life expectancy. a) Aggressive
Correct. Aggressive people tend not to live to the average life expectancy. b) Easygoing c) Cheerful d) Relaxed e) Active
Incorrect. Being active is associated with living a longer life.
ANS: a, p. 364, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

99. A person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, easily annoyed, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger is said to be exhibiting a ______ personality. a) Type A
Correct. The Type A personality is described as one who is ambitious, hardworking, and is easily annoyed. b) Type B
Incorrect. A Type B personality is relaxed and laid back, less driven and competitive, and slower to anger than a Type A. c) Type C d) Type X e) Type Y
ANS: a, p. 364, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

100. People who respond to life events with a laid back, relaxed, easygoing attitude, and are slow to anger are said to have a ____________ personality. a) Type A
Incorrect. Type A personality is characterized by hostility, competitiveness, ambitiousness, and being easily annoyed. b) Type B
Correct. Type B personality is characterized as laid back and relaxed. c) Type C d) Type X e) Type Y
ANS: b, p. 364-365, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

101. Levon has a Type B personality. Which of the following is most likely? a) Levon is determined to achieve. b) Levon is competitive.
Incorrect. Individuals with a Type B personality are not necessarily competitive or driven. c) Levon gets easily upset. b) Levon is aggressive. e) Levon is slow to anger.
Correct. Slow to anger is a characteristic of a Type B personality.
ANS: e, p. 364-365, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

102. The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ________. a) mental illness b) coronary heart disease
Correct. Studies show that people with Type A behavior patterns have an increased risk of coronary heart disease. c) cancer
Incorrect. The Type A behavior pattern is a main predictor of coronary heart disease in both men and women, whereas Type C behavior is a predictor of cancer. d) respiratory illnesses e) musculoskeletal diseases
ANS: b, p. 365, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

103. The Framingham Heart Study found that the risk of coronary heart disease ____________. a) for women who work and are also Type A is four times that of Type B women who work
Correct. The study found that the risk of coronary heart disease is four times greater for Type A women who work than for Type B women who work. b) for women who work and are also Type A is no greater than that of Type B working women c) is four times greater for Type B women who work than Type A women who work d) is greater for Type B women who do not work than for Type A women who do work e) is greater for Type A women who do not work than for Type B women who do work
Incorrect. The study compared women who work.
ANS: a, p. 365, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (3)

104. Which Type A personality characteristic is the key trait that is linked to heart disease? a) hostility
Correct. Hostility is the most significant factor linked to hardening of the arteries to the heart. b) compulsiveness c) competitiveness
Incorrect. Competitiveness is a characteristic of Type A personalities, but hostility is the most significant factor linked to heart disease. d) chronic irritability e) anxiety
ANS: a, p. 365, F, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

105. The Type C behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ______. a) mental illness b) coronary heart disease
Incorrect. Type A behavior patterns have an increased risk of coronary heart disease. c) cancer
Correct. Type C behavior pattern is a main predictor of cancer due to the internalized negative emotions that may increase the levels of harmful stress hormones and weaken the immune system. d) respiratory illnesses e) hypertension
ANS: c, p. 365, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

106. Seira is very pleasant and likes to keep the peace. She finds it difficult to express emotions and internalizes her anger. She has few friends and spends a lot of time alone. According to research, Seira ________. a) is at high risk for coronary heart disease
Incorrect. Seira is a Type C personality, which is associated with cancer, not heart disease. b) is a hardy personality c) is an expressive personality d) is a Type B personality e) is a Type C personality
Correct. Seira’s traits are characteristic of a Type C behavior pattern.
ANS: e, p. 365, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

107. A person who thrives on stress but lacks the anger and hostility typical of some others who have the Type A personality is said to have a _________ personality. a) Type C b) Type B
Incorrect. Type B personality does not thrive on stress. c) hardy
Correct. A hardy personality thrives on stress but lacks anger and hostility. d) optimistic e) pessimistic
ANS: c, p. 366, AFA, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

108. Tad seems to thrive when faced with difficult challenges and usually feels in control of his life. He would probably be labeled a ________ personality. a) stressed
Incorrect. Tad is thriving on the challenges in his life rather than being stressed by them. b) Type B c) Type C d) pessimistic e) hardy
Correct. Hardy personalities thrive on challenge and feel in control.
ANS: e, p. 366, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

109. Which of the following are the three terms used to describe the way in which hardy people differ from many other Type A people and others who suffer more ill effects due to stress?

a) commitment, control, challenge
Correct. Commitment, control, and challenge are traits of hardy individuals. b) commitment, control, competitiveness
Incorrect. Competitiveness is a trait common to Type A people and others who suffer more ill effects due to stress. c) competitiveness, control, compassion d) compassion, challenge, commitment e) control, challenge, competitiveness
ANS: a, p. 366, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

110. When looking at a glass that is neither completely full nor completely empty, a(n) __________ might say “That glass is half full,” while a(n) ____________ might say “No, that glass is half empty!” a) pessimist; optimist
Incorrect. A pessimist views things negatively, while an optimist views things positively. b) realist; pessimist c) optimist; realist d) pessimist; realist e) optimist; pessimist
Correct. An optimist views things positively, while a pessimist views things negatively.
ANS: e, p. 366, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

111. Which of the following is NOT one of the methods that people should use to keep a positive outlook? a) alternative thinking b) downward social comparison
Incorrect. Downward social comparison is a method used to maintain a positive outlook by comparing one’s performance to that of less competent others. c) scapegoating
Correct. Scapegoating is an undesirable aggressive technique used by frustrated individuals who displace their anger. d) relaxation e) These are all methods that people should use to keep a positive outlook.
ANS: c, p. 367, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (1)

112. Matthew compares his performance at work with that of a co-worker who is less competent than himself. When he engages in this behavior, he feels better and experiences a boost to his self-esteem. Matthew is using ______ to maintain an optimistic outlook. a) alternative thinking b) downward social comparison
Correct. Downward social comparison is a method used to maintain a positive outlook by comparing one’s performance to that of less competent others. c) scapegoating
Incorrect. Scapegoating is an undesirable aggressive technique used by frustrated individuals who displace their anger. d) relaxation e) minimization and maximization
ANS: b, p. 367, A, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (3)

113. Optimists tend to use alternative thinking to __________. a) come up with explanations that do not reflect badly on them personally for why undesirable events occur
Correct. Coming up with explanations that do not reflect badly on themselves enables optimists to take things that happen less personally. b) make themselves feel better by comparing their performance to that of less competent others
Incorrect. Making oneself feel better by comparing one’s performance to that of less competent others is called downward social comparison, not alternative thinking. c) find a scapegoat d) improve their cognitive abilities e) improve their moods
ANS: a, p. 367, C, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5, (2)

Learning Objective 9.6 - What social factors influence stress reactions?

114. One contributing factor for the increasing rise of road rage is ____________. a) acculturation b) overcrowding
Correct. Overcrowding may be one contributing factor for the increasing rise in road rage. c) assimilating
Incorrect. Although assimilating can cause stress, it is not considered a reason for the increasing rise of road rage. d) integration e) disintegration
ANS: b, p. 369, C, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (2)

115. _______ is the term used to describe the excessive anger exhibited by drivers in response to ordinary traffic frustration. a) Road rage
Correct. Road rage is the term for excessive anger over ordinary traffic frustration. b) Conflict c) Driving stress
Incorrect. Driving stress may be what a person with road rage feels, but road rage is the term for excessive anger exhibited by some drivers over ordinary traffic frustration. d) Frustration e) Generalized anxiety
ANS: a, p. 369, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (1)

116. Which of the following is one reason why living in poverty is stressful? a) lack of meaningfulness of work
Incorrect. Lack of meaningfulness of work is associated with job stress. b) too many hours of unpleasant shift work c) increased rates of disabilities due to poor prenatal care
Correct. Poverty is associated with lack of prenatal care, which places a child more at risk for being born with disabilities. d) difficulty assimilating to the majority culture’s ways e) too few hours of work to live well
ANS: c, p. 370, C, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (2)

117. It is time for a game of Jeopardy. The category is “Social Factors That Contribute to Stress.” The revealed answer is “Lack of variety or meaningfulness of work.” What will you say right before the buzzer sounds? a) “What is one cause of job stress?”
Correct. Lack of variety or meaningfulness of work is a source of job stress. b) “What is one cause of poverty?”
Incorrect. Lack of variety or meaningfulness of work is a source of job stress but is not a cause of poverty. c) “What is road rage?” d) “What is overcrowding?” e) “What is separation?”
ANS: a, p. 370, C, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (2)

118. The negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration are called __________. a) eustress
Incorrect. Eustress is a kind of stress that results from positive events. b) burnout
Correct. Burnout is defined as changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration. c) dysphoria d) epidemiology e) acculturation
ANS: b p. 370, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (1)

119. Sasha is experiencing stress in her workplace that is causing her to feel dissatisfied and pessimistic. As a result, she has a desire to quit her job. Sasha is experiencing ________. a) road rage b) eustress
Incorrect. Eustress is a kind of stress that results from positive events. c) poverty-related stress d) acculturation e) burnout
Correct. Some symptoms of burnout include dissatisfaction, pessimism, and a desire to quit.
ANS: e, p. 370, C, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (2)

120. The stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant, or majority, culture is called ___________. a) acculturative stress
Correct. Acculturative stress is stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant, or majority, culture. b) acculturation
Incorrect. Acculturation is the process of adapting to a new or different culture. c) integration d) assimilation e) segregation
ANS: a, p. 370, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (1)

121. Which individual is most likely to experience acculturative stress? a) Joie, who has moved from New York to Boston
Incorrect. Acculturative stress occurs when someone must adapt to a dominant or majority culture different from one’s own. There is not much difference between the cultures of New York and Boston. b) Oladipo, who has moved from Nigeria to the United States
Correct. Acculturative stress occurs when someone must adapt to a dominant or majority culture different from one’s own. c) Mary, who is switching jobs from manufacturing to the service industry d) Min-Shek, who is leaving home for the first time to attend the state college 100 miles away e) John, who is returning to college after working for five years
ANS: b, p. 370-371, C, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

122. Pepe moved from Argentina to France. He chose not to learn to speak and write French, continues to maintain his old culture’s styles of dress and customs, and lives in a neighborhood where only people from Argentina live. Pepe has used which method of entering the majority culture? a) integration b) assimilation
Incorrect. Assimilation occurs when a person completely gives up his or her old cultural identity and adopts the majority culture’s ways. c) separation
Correct. Separation occurs when a person tries to maintain his or her original cultural identity. d) marginalization e) segregation
ANS: c, p. 371, A, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

123. The method in which the minority person tries to maintain a sense of original cultural identity while also trying to form a positive relationship with members of the dominant culture is called _____________. a) integration
Correct. Integration involves maintaining one’s original culture while adopting characteristics of the majority culture. b) assimilation
Incorrect. Assimilation occurs when a person completely gives up his or her old cultural identity and adopts the majority culture’s ways. c) separation d) marginalization e) segregation
ANS: a, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

124. Which of the following methods of acculturation will most likely result in the lowest degree of acculturative stress? a) completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture
Incorrect. Completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture, or assimilation, tends to result in a higher level of acculturative stress than does integration. b) living a life that does not depend on adopting any set of values and customs c) rejecting the majority culture’s ways and maintaining one’s original cultural identity d) developing a new set of values that is a compromise between the old and the new cultures
Correct. Developing a new set of values that is a compromise between the old and the new cultures, or integration, tends to be the least stressful method of acculturation. e) accepting the majority culture’s ways in public, but maintaining the old cultural attitudes in private
ANS: d, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

125. Which of the following methods of acculturation will likely result in a moderate degree of acculturative stress? a) completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture
Correct. Completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture, or assimilation, tends to result in moderate levels of stress. b) living a life that does not depend on adopting any set of values and customs c) rejecting the majority culture’s ways and maintaining one’s original cultural identity d) developing a new set of values that is a compromise between the old and the new cultures.
Incorrect. Developing a new set of values that is a compromise between the old and the new cultures, or integration, tends to result in the lowest level of stress compared to separation and assimilation. e) accepting the majority culture’s ways in public, but maintaining the old cultural attitudes in private
ANS: a, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

126. Which of the following methods of acculturation will most likely result in the highest degree of acculturative stress? a) completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture
Incorrect. Completely adopting the values and customs of the new culture, or assimilation, tends to result in less stress than does separation. b) living a life that does not depend on adopting any set of values and customs c) rejecting the majority culture’s ways and maintaining one’s original cultural identity
Correct. Rejecting the majority culture’s ways and maintaining one’s original cultural identity, or separation, tends to result in the highest degree of stress, compared to assimilation and integration. d) developing a new set of values that is a compromise between the old and the new cultures e) accepting the majority culture’s ways in public, but maintaining the old cultural attitudes in private
ANS: c, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

127. Individuals who choose to neither maintain contact with their original culture nor join the majority culture are considered ________. a) separated
Incorrect. Separated individuals reject the majority culture’s ways and try to maintain their original culture’s identity. b) acculturated c) integrated d) marginalized
Correct. Marginalized individuals choose to neither maintain contact with their original culture nor join the majority culture. e) segregated
ANS: d, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (1)

128. What is the term for the network of friends, family members, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer help to a person in need? a) friendship b) camaraderie
Incorrect. Camaraderie is defined as a feeling of close friendship and trust among a particular group of people. c) peer counseling d) social support system
Correct. A social support system is defined as the network of friends, family members, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer help to a person in need. e) self-help group
ANS: d, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (1)

129. Research has consistently shown that having a good _________ is of critical importance in a person’s ability to cope with stressors. a) friendship
Incorrect. People need more than just one friendship to cope with stressors. Research has focused on the entire social support system. b) camaraderie c) therapist d) peer support system e) social support system
Correct. Having a good social support system is correlated with a person’s ability to cope.
ANS: e, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

130. People with a good _________ are less likely to die from illness or injuries than those without it. a) occupation
Incorrect. An occupation is not enough; an entire supportive network of people from many aspects of life is correlated with good health. b) camaraderie c) income d) peer support system e) social support system
Correct. Having a good social support system is correlated with good health.
ANS: e, p. 371, F, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5, (3)

Coping with Stress

Learning Objective 9.7 - What are some ways in which people cope with stress reactions?

131. Coping strategies can be either __________-focused or ________-focused in nature. a) problem; emotion
Correct. Coping strategies can be either problem-focused or emotion-focused. b) distress; eustress
Incorrect. Distress and eustress are not forms of coping with stress. c) physiological; spiritual d) internally; externally e) personally; socially ANS: a, p. 373, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

132. Working a second job to pay off credit cards is an example of __________. a) problem-focused coping
Correct. Problem-focused coping is aimed at reducing the impact of a stressor, as in the case of the example of credit card bills. b) emotion-focused coping
Incorrect. Emotion-focused coping involves changing the way a person emotionally reacts to a stressor. c) distraction d) reappraisal e) alternative thinking
ANS: a, p. 373, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (2)

133. Vanna’s mother is ill and Vanna is feeling overwhelmed and sad. To cope with this stress of her mother’s illness, Vanna has been writing her feelings down in a journal. Vanna is using ___________. a) problem-focused coping
Incorrect. Problem-focused coping is aimed at eliminating the stressor. Writing in the journal cannot eliminate Vanna’s mother’s illness. b) emotion-focused coping
Correct. Emotion-focused coping involves changing the way a person emotionally reacts to a stressor. Writing in the journal helps Vanna cope with her mother’s illness. c) distraction d) reappraisal e) alternative thinking
ANS: b, p. 373, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (2)

134. Edgar is learning deep-breathing techniques to reduce anxiety about having been robbed at knifepoint. This is an example of __________________. a) problem-focused coping
Incorrect. Problem-focused coping is aimed at eliminating the stressor. Deep breathing cannot change what happened to Edgar. b) emotion-focused coping
Correct. Emotion-focused coping involves changing the way a person emotionally reacts to a stressor. Deep breathing helps Edgar feel less stressed about his bad experience. c) avoidance d) reappraisal e) alternative thinking ANS: b, p. 373, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (3)

135. The coping method that involves changing the way you feel or emotionally react to a stressor is known as _________. a) a defense mechanism b) problem-focused coping
Incorrect. Problem-focused coping involves eliminating or reducing the source of stress. c) self-focused coping d) alternative thinking e) emotion-focused coping
Correct. Emotion-focused coping involves changing the way a person emotionally reacts to a stressor.
ANS: e, p. 373, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

136. Unconscious distortions of perception of reality are called ____________. a) emotion-focused coping strategies b) problem-focused coping strategies c) psychological defense mechanisms
Correct. Psychological defense mechanisms are unconscious distortions of the perception of reality. d) psychological distortions
Incorrect. Unconscious distortions of the perception of reality are known as psychological defense mechanisms. e) psychological illusions
ANS: c, p. 374, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

137. Which of the following is a mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trance-like state of consciousness? a) meditation
Correct. Meditation is defined as a mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trance-like state of consciousness. b) biofeedback c) relaxation response d) progressive relaxation
Incorrect. There is no such term as progressive relaxation. e) progressive muscle relaxation
ANS: a, p. 374, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

138. Research shows that ____________ lowers blood pressure in adolescents and adults. a) sensory deprivation b) concentrative meditation
Correct. Concentrative meditation places one in a state of relaxation and lowers blood pressure. c) sublimation d) implosive meditation
Incorrect. There is no such term as implosive meditation. e) alternative thinking
ANS: b, p. 374-375, C, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (3)

139. Refusing to acknowledge a threatening situation is a defense mechanism called ______. a) repression b) denial
Correct. Denial is a defense mechanism that involves the refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. c) projection d) rationalization
Incorrect. Rationalization is a defense mechanism that involves finding excuses for a behavior that is unacceptable. e) sublimation
ANS: b, p. 375, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

140. A student who is failing but does not study because she refuses to believe that the instructor will really assign her an “F” at the end of the term is using the psychological defense mechanism of ______. a) repression b) denial
Correct. Denial is the refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. c) projection d) rationalization
Incorrect. Rationalization is the defense mechanism that involves finding excuses for a behavior that is unacceptable. e) sublimation
ANS: b, p. 375, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (2)

141. The defense mechanism that involves forgetting threatening or conflicting events or situations, resulting in complete absence of those events or situations from conscious memory, is called ______. a) repression
Correct. Repression is defined as a defense mechanism that involves forgetting threatening or conflicting events or situations, resulting in complete absence of those events or situations from conscious memory. b) denial
Incorrect. Denial is the refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. c) projection d) displacement e) sublimation
ANS: a, p. 375, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

142. Soldiers who break down in the battlefield often cope with their situation by blocking out all memories of their behavior and their situation. This phenomenon is an example of ______. a) repression
Correct. Repression is a defense mechanism that involves forgetting threatening events, such as war, resulting in a complete absence of those events from conscious memory. b) denial
Incorrect. Denial is a defense mechanism that involves the refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation. c) projection d) displacement e) regression
ANS: a, p. 375, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (2)

143. Placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself, is called ______. a) repression b) denial c) projection
Correct. Projection is a defense mechanism that involves placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself. d) displacement
Incorrect. Displacement occurs when the expression of negative feelings toward a particular person would be too threatening, so those feelings are instead expressed toward a target that is safer. e) regression
ANS: c, p. 375, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

144. The psychological defense mechanism someone uses when trying to become like someone else in order to deal with anxiety is called __________. a) identification
Correct. Identification is the defense mechanism that involves trying to become like someone else in order to deal with anxiety. b) projection
Incorrect. Projection is a defense mechanism that involves placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself. c) reaction formation d) sublimation e) projection
ANS: a, p. 375, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

145. A teenage boy is stressed by his mother’s anxieties, so he starts acting like his father, using the same mannerisms, tone of voice, and expressions. Freud would see this as a form of ______. a) identification
Correct. The boy is trying to become more like his father as a means of dealing with his mother’s anxieties. b) projection
Incorrect. If the boy was placing his own unacceptable thoughts onto his father, he would be engaging in projection. However, in the above scenario, he is acting more like his father or engaging in identification. c) reaction formation d) sublimation e) regression
ANS: a, p. 375, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (3)

146. Maria is unconsciously attracted to her best friend, Lydia, but she constantly talks about how much she hates homosexuals. According to Freud’s theory of psychological defense mechanisms, Maria is demonstrating _____________. a) rationalization
Incorrect. Rationalization occurs when someone makes up excuses for unacceptable behaviors. Maria is not demonstrating rationalization. b) repression c) displacement d) regression e) reaction formation
Correct. A reaction formation occurs when someone’s outward behaviors are the opposite of their underlying thoughts or impulses.
ANS: e, p. 375, C, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (3)

147. Research suggests that as little as _____ minutes of meditation can produce lowered blood pressure in those with hypertension. a) 10 b) 20
Correct. 20 minutes of meditation can lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. c) 30 d) 45 e) 60
Incorrect. The desired effects can be achieved in one third of this amount of time.
ANS: b, p. 376, F, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (1)

148. If Drew is practicing a relaxation technique called receptive meditation, he is most likely _______. a) trying to expand his consciousness outward
Correct. Receptive meditation involves trying to expand consciousness outward. b) using biofeedback equipment c) focusing on the sound of his breathing
Incorrect. The technique that involves focusing on the sound of some repetitive stimulus, such as one’s breathing, is called concentrative meditation. d) sleeping e) relaxing his muscles from his head to his feet
ANS: a, p. 376, A, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5, (3)

Learning Objective 9.8 - How is coping with stress affected by culture and religion?

149. You are a psychologist working with a new client, an immigrant from China, who is experiencing adjustment problems due to stress. Which of the following are you first going to consider when assessing your client’s ability to cope? a) meditative strategies b) psychological defense mechanisms
Incorrect. Psychological defense mechanisms are significant but would not be as important in your initial assessment as would cultural background, especially since the client is from a country with a very different culture. c) ability to use biofeedback equipment d) cultural background
Correct. Cultural background is an important factor regarding the kinds of coping strategies a person may adopt. e) educational background
ANS: d, p. 376, A, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (2)

150. Coping with stress in the Vietnamese culture typically includes which of the following? a) eating certain foods
Correct. The Vietnamese do advocate eating certain foods to cope with stress. b) using biofeedback c) exercising d) engaging in a hobby
Incorrect. Engaging in a hobby is more typical of Western cultures than Eastern ones. e) getting more sleep
ANS: a, p. 376, C, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (2)

151. Kim is Vietnamese. Currently she is experiencing stress due to juggling many roles, such as taking care of her children, working full-time, coping with financial difficulties, and attending night school. Kim’s culture suggests which of the following to help cope with these many stressors? a) consulting a fortune-teller
Correct. The Vietnamese culture advocates visiting fortune-tellers to cope with stress. b) using biofeedback
Incorrect. The Vietnamese culture advocates visiting fortune-tellers to cope with stress. c) exercising d) engaging in a hobby e) getting more sleep
ANS: a, p. 376, A, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (3)

152. Membership in a religious organization and regular attendance at religious functions ________________. a) can be a vital part of a person’s social support system
Correct. Membership in a religious organization makes a person feel less alone and provides a support system to cope with life’s struggles. b) will definitely extend one’s life expectancy
Incorrect. Although there is some correlation between religiosity and longer life expectancy, this does not mean that one causes the other or that any individual will live longer by participating in a religion. c) are a psychological defense mechanism d) promote one’s cognitive abilities e) help displace aggression appropriately
ANS: a, p. 376-377, F, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (2)

153. According to studies, people who are involved in a religion and attend services regularly are more likely to ________. a) live a shorter life than are those who do not have religious beliefs
Incorrect. Some researchers suggest that people with religious commitments live longer than those who have no such beliefs. b) lack a social support system c) live longer than do those who do not have religious beliefs
Correct. Some researchers suggest that people with religious commitments live longer than those who have no such beliefs. d) feel alone with their struggles e) be better able to displace aggression appropriately
ANS: c, p. 377, A, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (2)

154. Which of the following is one of the ways in which religion helps people reduce or cope with stress? a) Religion can provide a strong social support system.
Correct. Membership in a religious organization assists in not feeling alone with one’s struggles. b) Religion includes rituals that get people to dwell on their failings. c) Most religions promote psychological defense mechanisms. d) Religion isolates people from those who are different.
Incorrect. Isolation from people who are different is not a means of reducing stress. e) Religion can help people use compensation more effectively.
ANS: a, p. 377, F, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5, (2)

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Focus on Wellness

Learning Objective 9.9 - What are some ways to promote wellness?

155. The practice of behaviors and lifestyle choices that promote both physical and mental health is called ________. a) religious beliefs b) meditation c) wellness
Correct. Wellness is the practice of behaviors and lifestyle choices that promote both physical and mental health. d) health
Incorrect. Wellness is the practice of behaviors and lifestyle choices that promote both physical and mental health. e) biosocial effectiveness
ANS: c, p. 378, F, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5, (1)

156. Iram made a New Year’s resolution to promote wellness in his life. Which of the following are ways in which he can begin to incorporate wellness into his life? a) exercise regularly
Correct. Exercise is associated with health and wellness. b) eat fatty foods c) take on more responsibility at work d) spend more time alone
Incorrect. Spending a lot of time alone is not associated with wellness. e) sleep less to accomplish more
ANS: a, p. 378-379, A, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5, (1)

157. Eating a healthy breakfast __________. a) has been shown to increase the risk of obesity
Incorrect. Eating a healthy breakfast has been shown to decrease the risk of obesity. b) has been shown to decrease the ability to concentrate c) has been shown to decrease the risk of obesity
Correct. Eating a healthy breakfast has been shown to decrease the risk of obesity. d) has been shown to increase the need for a morning nap e) reduce the need for exercise
ANS: c, p. 379, C, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5, (2)

158. Lupe works 50 hours each week. However, she plays tennis twice a week and attends a book group every Tuesday night. By engaging in fun activities each week, Lupe is_________. a) a type A personality b) going to experience burnout
Incorrect. Engaging in fun activities is one way to prevent burnout. c) a workaholic d) increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease e) helping herself avoid burnout
Correct. Having fun helps prevent burnout.
ANS: e, p. 379, A, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5, (2)

TRUE OR FALSE

159. The primary concern of a health psychologist is focusing on how various factors, including physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships, affect our overall health and rate of illnesses.
ANS: T, p. 344, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

160. Stress is the process of responding physically, emotionally, cognitively, and behaviorally to events that are perceived to be threatening or challenging.
ANS: T, p. 346, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

161. Research in health psychology finds that most people live stress-free on a regular basis, and those who encounter daily stress are more likely to develop medical and psychological problems.
ANS: F, p. 346, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

162. Research into the amount of stress that people generally experience suggests that even small amounts of stress inhibit our best performance, and that zero stress is optimal for promoting health and well-being.
ANS: F, p. 347, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

163. Hurricane Katrina and its various effects on the cities near the Gulf of Mexico are classic examples of what Selye calls “hassles.”
ANS: F, p. 347, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

164. According to Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale, going on vacation is about as stressful as changing to a different line of work.
ANS: F, p. 349, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

165. Studies conducted on the relationship between stress and accidents in the workplace have shown that people under a lot of stress tend to be more distracted, less cautious, and, therefore, place themselves at a greater risk for having an accident.
ANS: T, p. 350, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

166. Hassles are correlated with increased short-term illnesses such as colds, flu, and headaches.
ANS: T, p. 351, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

167. An unpredictable situation is one that is not controllable, which may at least partially explain the stress it causes.
ANS: T, p. 353, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

168. Traffic jams are an example of an internal source of frustration.
ANS: F, p. 353-354, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

169. After a particularly rough day at work during which she got screamed at by her boss, Anja came home and started yelling at her daughter for not putting her laundry away. This is an example of displaced aggression.
ANS: T, p. 354, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

170. Dropping out of school, engaging in fantasy, and using drugs are all examples of withdrawal from frustration.
ANS: T, p. 355, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

171. People who intend to commit suicide may seem to be in good spirits because they have made the decision to take their life and are looking forward to the escape.
ANS: T, p. 356, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

172. Once seated at his favorite restaurant, Malik was torn between ordering a turkey sandwich and ordering a plate of lasagna. He loves both equally, and is struggling to make a choice. Malik is experiencing an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
ANS: F, p. 356, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

173. When the body’s resources are gone, the parasympathetic nervous system activates and the individual is in the resistance stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
ANS: F, p. 358-359, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

174. Research reveals that there is a relationship between prolonged stress and certain diseases of adaptation such as high blood pressure and ulcers.
ANS: T, p. 359, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

175. The field of psychoneuroimmunology studies the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thinking, and behavior on the immune system.
ANS: T, p. 360, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

176. Because AIDS is caused by a virus (HIV), psychoneuroimmunologists have determined that there is no relationship between stress and AIDS.
ANS: F, p. 362, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

177. Secondary appraisal involves classifying the stressor as a threat or challenge.
ANS: F, p. 363, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

178. Type B personality is characterized by competitiveness, high ambition, hostility, and irritability.
ANS: F, p. 364-365, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

179. Because Markita has difficulty expressing her emotions, even when they are really bothering her, she would be described as having a Type C personality.
ANS: T, p. 365, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

180. Research has found that something as simple as reading a good book can help individuals to keep a positive and optimistic outlook.
ANS: T, p. 367, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

181. One of the more serious effects of workplace stress is a condition called burnout.
ANS: T, p. 370, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5

182. Guillermo has recently moved to the United States, but has decided to live in a part of Chicago that is very similar to his native Philippines. He does not embrace or involve himself in American culture any more than is absolutely necessary. Guillermo is experiencing marginalization from the majority culture of his new home.
ANS: F, p. 371, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5

183. Displacement is a technique that involves transforming repressed motives or feelings into more socially acceptable forms.
ANS: F, p. 375, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5

184. Concentrative meditation emphasizes focusing on a spot on the wall as a means of clearing the mind and relaxing the body.
ANS: T, p. 375, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5

185. Religion helps people cope through the practice of rituals and rites that help them feel better about personal weaknesses, failures, or feelings of inadequacy.
ANS: T, p. 377, LO=9.8, AP VIII.5

186. Crying has been shown to increase stress.
ANS: F, p. 379, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5

SHORT ANSWER

187. How does health psychology differ from medicine?
p. 344, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

188. Give an example of at least two of each of the following symptoms of stress: Physical, behavioral, emotional, and mental symptoms.
p. 346, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

189. Define two types of stressors. Give two examples for each type of stressor.
p. 347, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

190. Describe the differences between the terms distress and eustress.
p. 347, LO=9.1, AP VIII.5

191. What is the difference between acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder?
p. 348, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

192. List four of the top ten major life events that are at the top of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
p. 349, LO=9.2, AP VIII.5

193. Define the term frustration and describe two types of frustration. Provide one example of each type of frustration.
p. 353-354, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

194. List and explain five things you might do to help if you thought a friend was going to commit suicide.
p. 356, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

195. Identify and define two types of conflicts. Give one example for each conflict.
p. 356-357, LO=9.3, AP VIII.5

196. What are the two parts of the nervous system that are activated during the general adaptation syndrome? Which part is activated during each of the three stages?
p. 358-359, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

197. List three types of physical illnesses that can be exacerbated by the presence of chronically elevated stress.
p. 360-362, LO=9.4, AP VIII.5

198. List and explain the three qualities that make up a hardy personality.
p. 366, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

199. What are the major differences between optimists and pessimists?
p. 366-367, LO=9.5, AP VIII.5

200. Identify and describe three sources of stress in the workplace.
p. 370, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5

201. What are three positive benefits of social support?
p. 371-372, LO=9.6, AP VIII.5

202. Identify, define, and discuss at least three psychological defense mechanisms. Give at least one example for each defense mechanism presented.
p. 375, LO=9.7, AP VIII.5

203. Describe four ways to promote wellness in one’s life. Give one example for each way discussed.
p. 378-379, LO=9.9, AP VIII.5

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