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European Classical Literature

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(Three Year Full Time Programme)

(Effective from the Academic Year 2011-2012 onwards)
DELHI - 110007


Course: B.A. (Hons.) English

Semester I

Paper 1: English Literature 4(i)
Paper 2: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(i)
Paper 3: Concurrent – Qualifying Language
Paper 4: English Literature 4(ii)

Semester II

Paper 5: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(ii)
Paper 6: English Literature 1(i)
Paper 7: Concurrent – Credit Language
Paper 8: English Literature 1(ii)

Semester III

Paper 9: English Literature 2(i)
Paper 10:
Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(i)
Option B: Classical Literature (i)
Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (i)
Paper 11: Concurrent – Interdisciplinary

Semester IV

Semester V

Paper 12: English Literature 2(ii)
Paper 13: English Literature 3(i)
Paper 14:
Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(ii)
Option B: Classical Literature (ii)
Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (ii)
Paper 15: Concurrent – Discipline Centered I
Paper 16: English Literature 3(ii)
Paper 17: English Literature 5(i)
Paper 18: Contemporary Literature(i)
Paper 19:
Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(i)
Option B: Literary Theory (i)
Option C: Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries (i)
Option D: Modern European Drama (i)
Paper 20: English Literature 5(ii)

Semester VI

Paper 21: Contemporary Literature(ii)
Paper 22:
Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii)
Option B: Literary Theory (ii)
Option C: Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries (ii)
Option D: Modern European Drama (ii)
Paper 23: Concurrent – Discipline Centered II

Distribution of Marks & Teaching Hours
The Semester-wise distribution of papers for the B.A. (Honours), B.Com.
(Honours), B. Com., B.Sc. (Honours) Statistics and B.Sc. (Honours) Computer
Science will be as follows:
Type of Paper

Max. Marks



Teaching per week

Main Papers




5 Lectures
1 Tutorial





4 Lectures
1 Tutorial

Credit Courses for B.Sc.(Hons.)




4 Lectures
1 Tutorial

Size of the Tutorial Group will be in accordance with the existing norms.

The existing syllabi of all Concurrent/Credit Courses shall remain unchanged. 

The existing criteria for opting for the Concurrent /Credit Courses shall also remain unchanged.


Main Discipline Course: English
Detailed Courses of Reading

Paper 1: English Literature 4 (i)

Jane Austen
Pride and Prejudice
Charles Dickens
Hard Times
Background Prose Readings and Topics


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Selections from A Reader in Marxist
Philosophy ed. Sels and Martel (New York. I 963). Pp. 186-8, I 90-1, 199201.


Charles Darwin, Selections from The Descent of Man (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, 3rd edn., vol. 2) pp. 1647-52.


John Stuart Mill, Selections from The Subjection of Women (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, Vol. 2) pp. 1647-52.


Matthew Arnold, Selections from Culture and Anarchy (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, Vol. 2) pp. 1403-12.


The Novel Form in Nineteenth-Century England; Faith and Doubt; The
Writer and Society; Fiction and its Readers.


Paper 2:

Twentieth Century Indian Writing (i)


Rabindranath Tagore


R.K. Narayan
Vaikom Muhammad Basheer

The Home and the World tr. Surendranath Tagore
‘The Holy Panchayat’
‘The ‘M.C.C.’
‘The Card-Sharper’s
‘Toba Tek Singh’
‘Lihaf’ (The Quilt)

Saadat Hasan Manto
Ismat Chughtai


Background Prose Readings and Topics

Rabindranath Tagore, Nationalism (Delhi : Rupa, 1992), Chapter 1 and 3.
Namvar Singh, ‘Decolonising the Indian Mind’, Indian Literature, no. 151
(Sept/Oct. 1992).
U.R. Ananthamurthy, ‘Being a Writer in India’, from Tender Ironies, ed.
Dilip Chitre et. al., pp. 127-46.
Topics :
Nationalism; The Theme of the Partition; Language and Audience; in
Modern India; Tradition and Experiment in Modern Indian Theatre; The
Individual and Society in Modern Indian Literature.

Note: Texts prescribed in Unit 2 are available in an anthology prepared and published by the Department of English, University of Delhi, Modern Indian Literature: Poems and
Short Stories. Oxford University Press, 1999.





Paper 4

English Literature-4 (ii)
Charlotte Bronte
George Eliot
Alfred Tennyson

Jane Eyre
The Mill on the Floss
‘The Lady of Shalott’, ‘Ulysses’, ‘Crossing the Bar’, ‘The Defence of Lucknow’

Robert Browning

‘My Last Duchess’.’The Last Ride Together’,
‘Porphyria’s Lover’, ‘Fra Lippo Lippi’

Christina Rossetti

‘The Goblin Market’


Paper 5

Twentieth Century Indian Writing(ii)


Jibanananda Das

‘Before Dying’, Windy Night’
‘I Shall return to this Bengal’
‘Forward March’
From Some People Laugh,
Some People Cry.

Sri Sri

G.M. Muktibodh
Nissim Ezekiel

Jayanta Mahapatra


‘Hunger’, ‘Dhauli’, ‘Grandfather’,
‘A Country’

Vijay Tendulkar
Mohan Rakesh


‘The Void’, ‘So Very Far’
‘Enterprise’, ‘The Night of the
‘Goodbye Party for
Miss Pushpa .S.’

Ghasiram Kotwal tr. Jayant
Karve and Eleanor Zelliot
Half-way House tr. Bindu Batra

Amitav Ghosh

The Shadow Lines


Paper 6: English Literature 1 (i)

Christopher Marlowe
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare

Doctor Faustus
As You Like It.





Paper 8: English Literature 1 (ii)

Geoffrey Chaucer
Philip Sidney
Edmund Spenser

John Donne


‘The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale’
Selection from Astrophel and Stella :
Sonnets 1, 15, 27, 34, 41, 45
Selections from Amoretti :
Sonnets XXXIV and LXVII
Elegie : ‘On His Mistress Going to Bed’,
‘The Sunne Rising’, ‘The Canonisation’,
‘A Hymn to God My God in My Sicknesse’,
‘Batter My Heart’, ‘Death be not Proud’.

Background Prose Readings and Topics:


Pico della Mirandola, Excerpts from the Oration on the Dignity of Man in
The Renaissance Portable Reader, pp. 476-9.


John Calvin on Predestination and Free Will, in The Renaissance Portable
Reader. pp. 704-11.


Baldassare Castiglione, Excerpts from Book 4 of The Courtier on the courtier, love and beauty (from the Penguin edition, pp. 324-8, pp. 330-5).


Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry, ed. Forrest G. Robinson (BobbsMerrill, 1970) pp.13-18.


The Development of English Drama; Ideas of Love and Marriage in the
Middle Ages and the Renaissance; Control and Censorship of Drama; The
Poet in Society; Renaissance Humanism.


Paper 9: English Literature 2 (i)

William Shakespeare

Antony and Cleopatra


John Webster

The Duchess of Malfi


Background Prose Readings and Topics:


The Holy Bible, ‘Genesis’, chapters 1-4 (Adam and Eve. Cain and Abel) :
‘Luke’, chapters 1-7 and 22-24 (the Nativity, the Miracles and the Passion of Christ).


Niccolo Machiavelli 2Xi from The Prince, chapters 15 (How not to be virtuous), 16 (Generosity), 18 (Princes need not honour their word) and 25
(On fortune).


Francis Bacon. ‘Of Marriage and Single Life’. ‘Of Truth” and ‘Of Studies’
(Norton Edition, Vol 1, pp. 1563-8)


Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan, Part I, Selections from chapters 8,11 and
13 (Penguin edition. pp. 134-137, 160-161 and 185-186).


John Dryden, from ‘A Discourse Concerning the Origin and Progress of
Satire’ (Norton vol.1, pp. 1767-8).


Topics :
Religion in the Seventeenth Century; Attitude to Women in the
Seventeenth Century : The Beginnings of Secular Thought; Epic and
Mock-epic; Comedy and Satire.


Paper 10: Any one of the following.
Students opting for Part (i) of a given option will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option in Paper 11

Option A. Nineteenth-Century European Realism (i)

Ivan Turgenev
Fathers and Sons
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Crime and Punishment
Background Prose Readings and Topics :


Honore de Balzac, ‘Society as Historical Organism’, Preface to the The
Human Comedy, in Ellmann and Feidelson, eds., The Modern Tradition. pp.246-254. b.

Leo Tolstoy, ‘Man as the Creature of History,’ from War and Peace, in
Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 265-7.
Gustav Flaubert, ‘Heroic Honesty,’ letter on Madame Bovary, Ellmann and
Feidelson, pp. 242-3.
Emile Zola, ‘The Novel as Social Science,’ Ellmann and Feidelson, pp.
Georg Lukacs, Studies in European Realism, chapter 3 : ‘Balzac and
Stendhal’ (London, 1972), pp. 65-85.


f. Topics:
Contemporary Politics and the Russian Novel; The Realist Novel and its
Relationship with History; The Realist Novel and the Middle Class; Changing
Forms of the Novel.

Option B. Classical Literature(i)


The Illiad (Penguin)



Lysistrata (Penguin)

Background Prose Readings:
a. Aristotle, Poetics, chapter 6-17, 23, 24 and 26 (Penguin).
b. Plato, The Republic, Book X (Penguin).
c. Bharata, Natyashastra, tr. Manomohan Ghosh, chapter 6: ‘Sentiments,’ revd.
2nd edn. (Calcutta: Granthalaya, 1967), vol. I, pp 100-18.

d. Iravati Karve, ‘Draupadi’ in Yuganta : The End of an Epoch (Disha, 1991), pp.79-105. e. C. Rajagopalachari, The Mahabharata, 2nd edn. (Bombay : Bhartiya Vidya
Bhavan, 1972).
f. Topics :
Notions of the Epic; Comedy and Tragedy in Greek and Indian Drama;
Drama in the Athenian City State; Catharsis; Rasa; the Heroic and Dharma.

Option C. Forms of Popular Fiction (i)
Unit -3.

Agatha Christie
The Murder of Roger Ackroyd
Ian Fleming
From Russia with Love
Background Prose Readings :

a. Christopher Pawling, ‘Popular Fiction : Ideology or Utopia?’ Popular Fiction and Social Change, ed. Christopher Pawling (London : Macmillan, 1984).
b. Ymberto Eco. ‘Narrative Structure in Fleming’, in The Study of Popular Culture
: A Sourcebook ed. Bob Ashley (London : Pinter, 1989). pp. 124-34.
c. Darko Suvin, ‘On Teaching SF Critically’, from Positions and Presuppositions in Science Fiction (London : Macmillan), pp. 86-96.
d. Felicity Hughes, ‘Children’s Literature : Theory and Practice’, ELH, 45 (1978), pp.542-62. e. Topics :
What Sells and Why; Bestseller and Other Media of Mass Culture; Morality and
Education in Children’s Literature : Popular Literature and Fantasy.





Paper 12: English Literature 2 (ii)

John Milton
Aphra Behn
John Dryden
Alexander Pope

Paradise Lost- Book1 lines 1-26 and Book IX
The Rover
The Rape of the Lock


Paper 13: English Literature 3 (i)

Jonathan Swift
Samuel Johnson
Oliver Goldsmith
Thomas Gray


Gulliver’s Travels
‘London’, ‘The Vanity of Human Wishes’
Selections from the The Deserted Village. lines 35-84. 195-238, 267-339.
‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’,
‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat’

Background Prose Readings and Topics:
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Daniel Defoe ‘The Complete English Tradesman’ (Letter XXII),
‘The Great Law of Subordination Considered’ (Letter IV), and ‘The
Complete English Gentleman’, in Literature and Social Order in
Eighteenth-Century England. ed. Stephen Copley (London. 984).
Samuel Johnson. The Rambler. Essay 156 (on Literary Rules);
Rasselas Chapter 10 (on the Business of the Poet); on Genius (from
‘The Life of Pope,’ Norton Edition, Vol. 1. pp. 2306; 2308-9).
Mary Wollstonecraft, from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, chapter 2 (Penguin, 1975), pp. 100-5, 106-9, 111-113) (on Milton’s
Adam and Eve, Rousseau, and Fathers of daughters).
William Wordsworth from ‘Preface to Lyrical Ballads’, in Norton
Edition, vol. 2, pp. 127-9, 130-7, 138-9.
John Keats, Letter to George and Thomas Keats, 22 December 1817;
Letter to Richard Woodhouse, 27 October, 1818.
g. Topics:
Science and Literature; Neoclassicism; The Country and the City;
Concepts of Nature; Concept of Imagination; The Rise of the Gothic.


Paper 14: Any one of the following.
Students who have opted for Part (i) of a given option in Paper 8 will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option here.

Option A.

Nineteenth-Century European Realism(ii)

Unit- 2.
Unit- 3.

Honore de Balzac
Gustav Flaubert
Emile Zola

Option B.

Classical Literature(ii)





Old Goriot
Madame Bovary
Therese Raquin

Medea (Penguin)
1. ‘The Dicing’ and
‘The Sequel to Dicing, 2. ‘The Book of the
Assembly Hall’ from The Mahabharata : tr. and ed. J.A.B.van Buitenen (Chicago, 1975), pp. 10669.
Abhijnana Shakuntalam, tr. Chandra Rajan, in Kalidas:. The Loom of Time (Penguin, 1989).

Option C. Forms of Popular Fiction (ii)

Isaac Asimov


Lewis Carroll

Through the Looking Glass.

Margaret Mitchell

Gone with the Wind






Paper 16: English Literature 3 (ii)

William Blake

‘The Lamb’, ‘The Garden of Love’, ‘The Chimney
Sweeper’ (from both The Songs of
Innocence and The Songs of Experience),
‘The Little Black Boy’ (The Songs of
‘The Tyger’ (The Songs of Experience),
‘London’ (The Songs of Experience).

William Wordsworth
‘Tintern Abbey’, ‘Ode: Intimations of
Immortality’, ‘Lines Composed upon Westminster
Samuel Taylor

‘Kubla Khan’, ‘Dejection : An Ode’


Lord Byron

from ‘Childe Harold’ : Canto III. verses 36-45
(Lines 316-405); Canto IV, verses 178-186
(Lines 1594-1674)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
‘Ode to the West Wind’, ‘Ode to Liberty’,
‘Hymn to Intellectual Beauty’.
John Keats


‘Ode to a Nightingale’, ‘To Autumn’, ‘La Belle
Dame Sans Merci’, ‘On First Looking into
Chapman’s Homer’.

Mary Shelley



Paper 17.

English Literature 5 (i)

Unit 1.
W.B. Yeats

T.S. Eliot

‘Leda and the Swan’, ‘The Second Coming’, ‘No Second
Troy’, ‘Sailing to Byzantium’, ‘Among School Children’.
‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’, ‘Gerontion’,
‘Sweeney Among the Nightingales’, ‘The Hollow
Men’, ‘Marina’.

Unit 2.
Samuel Beckett
John Osborne

Waiting for Godot
Look Back in Anger

Unit 3.
Background Prose Readings and Topics:

Sigmund Freud, ‘Theory of Dreams’, ‘Oedipus Complex’ and ‘The Structure of the
Unconscious’, from The Modern Tradition, eds. Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 571,
578-81, 559-63.


T. S. Eliot. ‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’, Norton Edition, vol. 2, pp. 21982205


Albert Camus, ‘Absurdity and Suicide’ and ‘The Myth of Sisyphus,’ from The Myth of Sisyphus (Penguin), pp.11- 17, 107-111.


E. M. Forster, ‘Art for Art’s Sake.’ from Two Cheers for Democracy, in Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 198-202.


“Raymond Williams, ‘Introduction’ in The English Novel from Dickens to Lawrence
(London: Hogarth, 1984), pp. 9-27.


Topics :
The Theatre of the Absurd ; Modernism; The Uses of Myth; The Stream of
Consciousness; The Women’s Movement in the Early Twentieth Century.


Paper 18.

Contemporary Literature (i)


Chinua Achebe

Things Fall Apart


Nadine Gordimer

My Son’s Story

Unit-3 .

Background Prose Readings and Topics:
Franz Fanon, (on colour prejudice) from Black Skin, White Masks (Paladin edition, 1970), pp. 21-99.
Ngugi wa Thiongo, from ‘The Language of African Literature’, in
Decolonising the Mind, Chapter 1, sections 4-6.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech, in Gabriel
Garcia Marquez : New Readings, eds. Bernard McGuirk and Richard
Cardwell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
V.S. Naipaul, ‘East Indian’, in The Overcrowded Barracoon (Penguin,
1976), pp. 32-41.
Magic Realism; Literature and Revolution; Literature and Cultural Identity;
Writing for the New World Audience




Paper 19:

Any one of the following.

Students opting for Part (i) of a given option will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option in Paper 18

Option A. Anglo-American Writing from 1930 (i)
Unit 1.

Graham Greene

The Power and the Glory


William Faulkner
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ernest Hemingway
Somerset Maugham
John Updike
John Cheever
Salman Rushdie

‘Dry September’
‘The Crack-up’
‘A Clean Well-Lighted Place’
‘The Door of Opportunity’
‘Density and Doubt’
‘The Swimmer’
‘The Courter’

Unit 3. Background Prose Readings and Topics :
Salman Rushdie, ‘Imaginary Homelands’, from Imaginary
George Orwell, ‘Politics and the English Language.’


Seamus Heaney, ‘The Redress of Poetry’, from the The Redress of Poetry (London : Faber, 1995).


Adrienne Rich, ‘When We Dead Awaken : Writing as Revision’, from Adrienne Rich’s Poetry (Norton Critical Edition).
Denys Thompson and E.R. Leavis, ‘Advertising Types of Appeal’, from Culture and Environment.
Topics: Social Realism land the Contemporary Novel; Folklore and the Contemporary Novel; Black Women’s Writing; Identity in
Contemporary Poetry; Tragicomedy in Contemporary Theatre.


Option B. Literary Theory (i)
1. Marxism:
Antonio Gramsci. ‘The Formation of the Intellectuals’ and
‘Hegemony (Civil Society) and Separation of Powers,’ Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Novell
Smith (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1971), pp. 5, and 245-6. ii. Bertolt Brecht, ‘A Short Organum to the Theatre,’ in John Willet, ed.
Brecht on Theatre, pp. 179-205. iii. Georg Lukacs, ‘Critical Realism and Socialist Realism,’ from The
Meaning of Contemporary Realism.



Louis Althusser, ‘Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,’ from
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays.

2. Feminism:
Elaine Showalter, ‘Introduction’ in A Literature of Their Own:
British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing (1977). ii. iii.

Juliet Mitchell, ‘Femininity, Narrative and Psychoanalysis’, in
Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, ed. David Lodge (London:
Longman, 1988), pp. 426-30.
Michele Barrett, ‘The Cultural Production of Gender’.


Luce Irigaray, ‘When the Goods Get Together’ (from This Sex
Which is Not One), in New French Feminisms, eds. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (New York: Schocken Books, 1981), pp.
3. Post-Colonial Studies:

Edward Said, Orientalism. (Hamondsworth: Penguin, 1978). chapter
Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Colonial
Discourse and Postcolonial Theory: A Reader, eds. Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993).


Gauri Vishwanathan, ‘The Beginnings of English Literary Study in
British India’, Oxford Literary Review.


Aijaz Ahmad, ‘“Indian Literature”: Notes towards the Definition of a Category’ from In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures (London:
Verso, 1992).

Option C. Women’s Writing in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (i)

Elizabeth Barett Browning Aurora Leigh. Book V lines 1-447
Emily Dickinson

Sylvia Plath

Marge Piercy

‘Because I Could not Stop for
Death’, ‘Elysium is as Far as to’,
‘I had no Time to Hate’, ‘I Felt a
Funeral in My Brain’, ‘I Heard a
Fly Buzz’, ‘The Soul Selects Her
Own Society’.
‘Daddy’, ‘Lady Lazarus’,
‘Soliloquy of a Solipsist’,
‘Rape Poem’, ‘The Consumer’,
‘For shoshana Rihn - Pat Swinton’,
‘Right to Life’.

Unit 2.

Kate Chopin
Katherine Mansfield
Charlotte P. Gilman
Walla Cather
Mahasweta Devi

Unit 3.

‘The Story of an Hour’
‘The Yellow Wallpaper’
‘Coming Aphrodite’
‘Draupadi’, in Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak,
In Other Worlds, pp. 179-96.

Background Prose Readings and Topics

a. Virginia Woolf. Chapter 1 and selections from Chapter 3 of A Room of One’s Own
(New York : Harvest HGJ, 1957), pp. 3-24 and 48-59.

Simone de Beauvoir, ‘Introduction’ in the The Second Sex in New French
Feminisms. eds. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (New York : Schocken
Books, 1981), pp. 41-56.

c. Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Chapter 2: ‘The Infected Sentence : Women’s
Authorship and the Anxiety of Influence’ from The Madwoman in the Attic
(Yale Univ. Press, 1979), pp. 45-92.

Cora Caplan ‘Women and Language’, in Deborah Cameron, ed., Feminist
Linguistics, A Reader :

e. Sigmund Freud, ‘Female Sexuality’, in The Collected Works of Sigmund Treud, vol. 5 (London : Hogarth Press, 1957), pp. 252-272.
f. Topics :
Redefining the male dominated lyric tradition; Sexual politics in the construction of the self in modernist women’s writing; The confessional mode in women’s writing; Social reform movements and their impact on gender relations in India;
The correlation between Aesthetics and Activism in women’s writing

Option D.

Modern European Drama (i)


Henrik Ibsen

Ghosts (Penguin)


August Strindberg

Miss Julie (Methuen)


Background Prose Readings and Topics :


Stanislavski, An Actor Prepares (Penguin) Chapter 8. "Faith and the
Sense of Truth,", sections 1,2,7,8, 9 (pp. 121--5, 137--46).


Raymond Williams, Tragedy and Revolution in Modern
Tragedy, revised edition (London,: Verso, 1979) pp. 61--84.


Bertolt Brecht, ‘The Street Scene’ (pp. 121-8), ‘Theatre for Pleasure or
Theatre for Instruction’ (pp. 68-76) and ‘Dramatic Theatre vs. Epic
Theatre’ (chart)- (p.31) from Brecht on Theatre. The Development of an
Aesthetic, ed. John Willet (London : Methuen, 1992).


Antonin Artaud, ‘No More Masterpieces’, from The Theatre and its Double
(London : Calder and Boyars, 1970), pp. 55.63.


George Steiner, ‘On Modern Tragedy’, from The Death of Tragedy
(London : Faber), pp. 303-24.


Jean Genet, Reflections on Theatre (London: Faber), chapter 2: ‘The
Strange Word Urb…’ pp.63-74.


Topics :
Naturalism, expressionism in theatre; Forms of realism in European drama;
Politics, social change and theatre,; Performance and text; Avant Garde drama; Tragedy and notion of heroism in post-war European drama.


Paper 20: English Literature 5 (ii)

Joseph Conrad
D.H. Lawrence
Virginia Woolf

Heart of Darkness
Sons and Lovers
Mrs. Dalloway


Paper 21:

Contemporary Literature (ii)


Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Chronicle of a Death Foretold


Dario Fo
Ngugi wa Thiongo

Accidental Death of an Anarchist
The Trial of Dedan Kimatby


Pablo Neruda

‘Poetry’, ‘Tonight I can Write’,
‘The Way Spain Was’, ‘Ars Poetica’,
‘Discoverers of Chile’, ‘Ode to a

Derek Walcott

‘A Far Cry from Africa’, ‘Goats and Monkeys’,
‘Names’, ‘The Sea is History’

Margaret Atwood

‘Spelling’, ‘This is a Photograph of Me’,
‘Procedures for Underground’, ‘The Animals in that Country’, ‘The Landlady’.


Paper 22: Any one of the following
Students who have opted for Part (i) of a given option in Paper 15 will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option here.

Option A. Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii)

Arthur Miller
Tom Stoppard
Toni Morrison

Unit- 3.

Adrienne Rich

The Crucible
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead
‘Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers’, ‘Necessities of Life’.
‘Diving into the Wreck’, ‘Snapshots For a
Daughter-in-law’, ‘A Valediction Forbidding

Philip Larkin ‘Whitsun Weddings’, ‘Annus Mirabilis’,
‘Dublinesque’, ‘Homage to a Government’,
‘Toads’, ‘The Explosion’
Seamus Heaney

‘Bogland’, ‘Traditions’, ‘Punishment’, ‘An
Ulster Twilight’, ‘The Railway Children’,
‘From the Frontier of Writing’.

Option B. Literary Theory (ii)
Unit 1.

Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Post-Modernism:
Jacques Derrida, ‘Structure, SIgn and Play in the DIscourse of the
Human Science in Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, ed.
David Lodge (London: Longman, 1988), pp. 108-23. ii. Michel Foucault, ‘Truth and Power,’ from PowerlKnowledge (New
York: Pantheon, 1977). iii. Jean-Francois Lyotard, ‘Answering the Question: What is
Postmodernism?,’ from The Postmodern Condition: A Report on
Knowledge (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1984).

Unit 2.

Cultural Studies:
Raymond Williams, from ‘Forms,’ in Culture (London: Fontana.
1981), pp. 154-80. ii. Stephen Greenblatt, ‘Introduction’ in Renaissance Self -Fashioning
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 1-9. iii. Alan Sinfield and Jonathan Dollimore, ‘Foreword’ and
‘Introduction’ in Political Shakespeare. New Essays in Cultural
Materialism (Ithaca: Cornell, 1985), pp. vii-viii, 2·17.



Roland Barthes, from Mythologies (New York: Noonday Press.
1972): ‘The World of Wrestling: ‘Novels and Children’, ‘Toys;
‘Striptease’, ‘Photography and Electoral Appeal’, ‘The Lost
Continent; Plastic; and ‘The Great Family of Man’; pp. 15-25,505,84-7 and 91-102.

Background Prose Readings:
Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction. 2nd edn. (Oxford:

Option C. Women’s Writing the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (ii)

Alice Walker The Colour Purple


Doris Lessing

The Golden Notebook


Rassundari Debi

Excerpts from Amar Jiban in Susie Tharu and K. Lalita, ed., Women’s Writing in India
(Delhi : Oxford, 1989),
Vol. 1, pp. 191-202.

Pandita Ramabai

Excerpts from Tharu and Lalita ed. Women’s Writing in India vol. 1, pp. 247-53.

Florence Nightingale Cassandra
Harriet Jacob
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Option D. Modern European Drama (ii)

Bertolt Brecht

The Good Woman of Szechuan (Methuen)


Jean Genet

The Balcony (Faber)


Eugene Ionesco

Rhinoceros (Penguin)




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... Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Theory? 1 What is Literature and Does it Matter? 18 Literature and Cultural Studies 42 55 Language, Meaning, and Interpretation Rhetoric, Poetics, and Poetry Narrative 82 94 69 Performative Language Identity, Identification, and the Subject 108 Appendix: Theoretical Schools and Movements 121 References 133 139 Further Reading Index 145 Chapter 1 What is theory? In literary and cultural studies these days there is a lot of talk about theory – not theory of literature, mind you; just plain ‘theory’. To anyone outside the field, this usage must seem very odd. ‘Theory of what?’ you want to ask. It’s surprisingly hard to say. It is not the theory of anything in particular, nor a comprehensive theory of things in general. Sometimes theory seems less an account of anything than an activity – something you do or don’t do. You can be involved with theory; you can teach or study theory; you can hate theory or be afraid of it. None of this, though, helps much to understand what theory is. ‘Theory’, we are told, has radically changed the nature of literary studies, but people who say this do not mean literary theory, the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods for analysing it. When people complain that there is too much theory in literary studies these days, they don’t mean too much systematic reflection on the nature of literature or debate about the distinctive qualities of literary language,......

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How Did the Influence of the European Settlers Affect Literature in the Americas

...How did the influence of the European settlers affect literature in the Americas? Before the settlers came the native language was based on the myths that the Native Americans made up to explain the causes of the earth. Anne Bradstreet was one of the most important influences on literature. Influence by Shakespeare, Anne Bradstreet might be the first American poet. Europeans settlers affected the language of the Native Americans. At that time the Native American’s literature was based on myths. European literature was different theirs was more based on facts and reasoning. Thanks to the European settlers the literature in the Americas started to be written down rather than being told or lectured. Settlers started to write poems that focused on the same thing as the stories of the Native Americans which were on the views of life and the earth. Compared to Anne Bradstreet’s style of writing, the Native Americans’ was more oral. They would be telling stories to their kids rather than writing them down. Anne Bradstreet had a different type of writing though; hers was based more on her religious views. Both were very similar because like the Native Americans, Anne Bradstreet’s writing was about her experiences and on life. Influenced by Shakespeare, she found in him a source of inspiration and technique that would one day run like threads of gold through the fabric of her own work.” Knowing this helps me understand American Literature much better. Now I know that Anne......

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...Poetry, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels are concepts that first came to my mind when I think in the question “What is literature?” The definition of literature has change over time. The only thing that is certain about the meaning of literature is that the definition will change. The concepts about what is literature about also change over time. In order to get a clear understanding of exactly what literature is, first we need to know its definition. According to the Merriam-Webster, literature is defined by “the body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age; the body of writings on a particular subject: printed matter.”  Literature has to do with letters, but some people often think that literature is only one thing, not knowing that it is composed by several elements that we use every day. These important elements include poems, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels. Poetry is created from the soul. It comes from your emotions and it needs every piece of creativity inside you. It has been called the art of “saying the unsayable” because trough this you can express your feelings with no limit, and nobody can tell you that is wrong. If you make a poem and you think it is not good enough, well it is no good. You as the author or the reader, can only judge if it is good or but for you but maybe for some one else it is the opposite as it is for you. A good place to start when looking back at how......

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Classical and Neoclassical

...Classical and Neoclassical The classical art period is thought of as a time which expressed itself in architecture, art, music and literature. (Miriam-Webster, 2015) The ancient Greek and Roman cultures embraced order and predictability. During the 15th and 16th centuries classicism spread throughout Europe in many forms, depicting rigorous discipline and training. This art period even promoted the formation of schools of art and music. The Neoclassic art movement began in Europe during the late 1700’s and continued until the early 1800’s. This movement’s goal was to revive ancient Greek and Roman or Classic style in European art. The Neoclassical style highlighted tradition, valor, sacrifice and nationalism which mirrors the style of the classic period The Neoclassic art movement spread through most of Europe, but the French and English artists embraced neoclassical art even more. There were several reasons for the inception of neoclassicism. One of the well-known reasons was the discovery at the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Ancient artifacts of Classical works were located at these locations. It was noted on Arteducation .com (2015) that German art historian Johann J. Winckelmann commented about classic art. He stated that “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” were the most important aspects. And since the current art movement was the extremely ostentatious baroque and rococo art styles, many artists chose to return to the classic style. In...

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...Tyree Snorgrass Mrs. Urbina AP Literature 1 October 2013 MacBeth Research William Shakespeare, the creator of the tragic story “MacBeth” uses a diverse set of allusions symbols, and figurative language examples throughout the work to enhance the different themes that are throughout the play. In, “MacBeth” there is many themes that are directed, one would be tragedy, and also, tyranny. From beginning to end, Shakespeare develops the meaning of the work by taking the reader through different scenarios and tossing allusions into the piece that help the plot and central theme of the story reveal. The world calls “MacBeth” one of Shakespeare’s grand plays and have been recognized internationally, the play contains symbols like blood, to further identify the massacres and the murders that MacBeth has been continuing to commit throughout the play. The meaning of the work is developed more intensely with this symbol because blood is viewed as gory and horror, and that is what the play eventually moves to. Moving into the act 2, while the tragic hero Macbeth suffers from a flaw that has been growing and growing immensely within himself, a personal and also a self-oriented error that is purely the fault and mistake of the character, Macbeth is now the victim of an external force. The external force is fate, a fate that has been introduced by the prophecy, supported by the weird and demanding sisters, and reinforced urgently by Lady Macbeth. The 3 Witches' prophecy that has been......

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Worldwide Literature

...World Literature Students Name: Course Title: Institution: Professor’s Name: Date of Submission: Show how Li Bo’s “Drinking Alone with the Moon” answers the definition of a lyric by citing evidence in it of the lyric features of subjectivity, emotion, imagination. You should not include brevity and musicality. Damrosch, et al (2009) argued that it is examined that emotional intelligence and self-esteem are mediators of the relationship between adult and generally the young attachment orientations and subjective well-being. Damrosch, et al (2009) stated that Bootstrap mediation analysis revealed that both emotional intelligence and self-esteem acted as mediators of the relationship brought about through messages in lyrical form. In addition, a serial mediating role of emotional intelligence via self-esteem is found. Considering this in lyrical form it is used mystically to converse the reality of feelings among human beings. This can further be transformed in diverse form so as to suit the message across any compositions that is majorly lyrical. The different ways these imaginations are rationalized is through blending in the diverse methodologies that try to sensitize the messages that are entailed in lyrically modified means. In what way does Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 130: My mistress’s eyes are nothing like the sun” satirize Petrarchan conventions and in what way does it uphold them? Paterson, et al (2010) argued that every aspect of the Sonnet form lends itself to...

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Athens Classical

...Student’s Name Instructor Course Date Similarities and differences of ideal classical Athens and reality classical Athens Many domains of literature are usually interested in classical Athens. The Athens in reference is usually the Greek city-state of Athens that existed in the period 480 BC to 404 BC. After a collaboration of Greek city-states destroyed the Persian invasion in 478 BC, an alliance of these independent city-states created the Athenian empire. The inception of the Athenian empire introduced the Golden age of Athens which was characterized by economic, cultural, and political flourishing. This period of Greek dominance is often regarded as one of the primary sources of western values and standards. Many aspects of the modern society are modeled in the image of the “Golden Age” of classical Athens; from modern literature to modern architecture for example the US state capitols are modeled to imitate the Greek Parthenon and other Athens buildings. However, there were several similarities and differences on how Athens was realistically and the ideal in which Athenians wanted their city to be depicted. (Merry E. Weisne-Hanks, Andrew Evans, William Bruce Wheeler, Julius Ruff) The ideal classical Athens was a place of liberty and freedom incorporated with pleasure and abundant knowledge. One of the main demonstrators of classical Athens is the speech given by Pericles during the funeral of soldiers who fell victim to the Peloponnesian war. In the speech......

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Classical Realism

...Thucydides’ classic account of the Peloponnesian War in the fifth-century B.C. It would however take nearly 2,500 years before the study of international politics became an institutionalized academic discipline and for the first classical realists in the newly established field to emerge. Amongst them the German-Jewish émigré to the United States, Hans Morgenthau, came to have the largest impact on the field. In his magnum opus from 1948, Politics among Nations, Morgenthau formulated an account of political realism that dominated the studies of international politics for over two generations. Classical realism states that it is fundamentally the nature of man that pushes states and individuals to act in a way that places interests over ideologies. Classical realism is an ideology defined as the view that the "drive for power and the will to dominate that are held to be fundamental aspects of human nature". Realism is the philosophy the regards the universe as composed of beings existing independently by related and forming a hierarchical structure called cosmos or totality. Classical Realism refers to the philosophy that originates in ancient Greece and was heavily influenced by the thoughts of Aristotle and Plato; Aristotle’s mentor. Classical Realism distinguishes a person from other living substance as endowed with two nature animals and rational. The animal nature with its various appetites and sensual desires is perfected by the practice of the habits......

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...CLASSICAL PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMEnt English 215 November 9, 2015 Scientists say that Arguments Intelligence in today’s society is changing in different forms of software such as machines, computers, and vision. Scientists express their opinion about the future technology, using ethos, pathos, and logos to get their audience attention. Steven B. Harris uses an authority voice and vision when addressing issues in his article. He expresses his tone to make improvement in technology in the world. Harris is a medical Doctor that's interested in medical resources. He's a part of the Biosphere II projects and the best known for discussing artificial intelligence research. He had major discussions thread on the internet. In his article, he explains how several authors express their opinion on a variety of technology. Harris ethos in this report, argues how the technology will change throughout the future. From his writing, he appears to have the knowledge about how a computer will become advance and how it will affect humankind in the future. Harris states how machines are used in moving making. He describes how a movie in 1950’s are made with the Krell machines and ultimate machines. By 1986, they were using microscopic construction-machines. Harris argues that software is now popular and is used in movies, whether than machines. Harris said that certain machine is still being used from time to time, but the computer has full control. In the article, Harris uses......

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...Beso, Luiz Miguel B. BSE EN 2-1 Literature Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story, novel, or play was written. To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons. Your essay should point out the author’s choices and attempt to explain their significance. Another way to look at a literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, you can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms) listed below. You’ll just need to use the original text to defend and explain your argument to the reader. Allegory - narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and theme. William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily- the decline of the Old South Robert Louis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- man’s struggle to contain his inner primal instincts District 9- South African Apartheid X Men- the evils of prejudice Harry Potter- the dangers of seeking “racial purity” Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human......

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Persian Literature

...Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی‎) is one of the world's oldest literatures. It spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Irap and the Caucasus, as well as regions of Central Asia wherethe Persian Language has historically been the national language. For instance, Molana (Rumi), one of Iran's best-loved poets, born in Balkh or Vakhsh (in what is now Afganistan or Tajikistan), wrote in Persian, and lived in Konya, then the capital of the Seljuks. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus,Turkey, western parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia. Not all this literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians. Particularly, Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures. Described as one of the great literatures of mankind, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE (the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription...

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English Literature

...1. Literature of the 17th century. John Milton. “Paradise Lost”. John Bunyan. “Pilgrim’s Progress”. The peculiarities of the English literature of the 17th century are determined by the events of the Engl. Bourgeois Revolution, which took place in 1640-60. King Charles I was beheaded in 1649& General Oliver Cromwell became the leader of the new government. In 1660, shortly after Cro-ll’s death, the dynasty of the Stuarts was restored. The establishment of new social&eco-ic relations, the change from feudal to bourgeois ownership, escalating class-struggle, liberation movement and contradictions of the bourgeois society found their reflection in lit-re. The main representatives of this period is: John Milton: was born in London&educated at Christ’s College. He lived a pure life believing that he had a great purpose to complete. At college he was known as the The Lady of Christ’s. he Got master’s degree at Cambridge. It’s convenient to consider his works in 3 divisions. At first he wrote his short poems at Horton. (The Passion, Song on May Morning, L’Allegro). Then he wrote mainly prose. His 3 greatest poems belong to his last group. At the age of 23 he had still done little in life&he admits this in one of his sonnets. (On his 23d B-day) In his another sonnet he wrote on his own blindness. (On his Blindness) Milton wrote diff. kinds of works. His prose works were mainly concerned with church, affairs, divorce & freedom. The English civil war between......

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...worshipped ancient fertility goddesses probably related to Ishtar, Aphrodite, even Athena and Hera, and appear to have lived a rather peaceable, agricultural lifestyle (we assume this because archeological digs show these pre-Mycenaean people lived without military weapons or fortifications...until they were invaded by the Mycanaeans). In contrast to "the locals", the Greek legends we read celebrate war; this is the literature of military conquerors, so the Mycenaean people had as much in common with, say, the later Vikings as with the later philosophical, "civilized" Greeks: this is a culture of raiders, of looters and pillagers. From this perspective, The Iliad is a work of military propaganda that justifies Mycenaen control of the most valuable sea passage of age (the Bosporus), and The Odyssey justifies colonizing Italy and Sicily to the West. So, like the Hebrew scriptures -- or our own "Westerns" (cowboys/us vs. Indians/them) -- these Greek legends justify the invasion and domination of earlier "native" inhabitants. These Ancient (and even Classical) Greeks are best viewed as a culture rather than as a unified people or "nation". When we speak of "the Ancient Greeks" it's the same way we view “Western Culture” as referring to Europe, Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia. Achilles is a king in his own right, as is Odysseus, Menaleaus, Agamemnon etc., and Achilles goes to great lengths to point out that Agamemnon is not his king; Agamemnon is simply the......

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...Classical Conditioning Paper Nicole Young PSY/390 January 23,2012 Dr. Steve Lazarre Classical Conditioning Paper In the mind of B. F. Skinner learning is considered to be a relatively permanent change in an individual or animals behavior due to practice and experience. Classical condition is a type of learning generated by a response from one stimulus to another unlearned stimulus. This form of classical conditioning was founded by Ivan Pavlov and he is most famous for his experiment with dogs and the bell. In Pavlov’s experiment with classical conditioning it involved the salivary glands of canines. The scenario for this paper will teach a dog to not chew on furniture, using classical conditioning and, vinegar in a spray bottle. Classical conditioning was discovered accidentally by Ivan Pavlov, who was a Russian physiologist. Pavlov discovered this form of learning while researching digestion. Pavlov’s classical conditioning is a form of learning through acquired experiences. Classical conditioning is where an earlier or previously neutral stimulus causes a reaction or reflex to a physical response (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). As he observed dogs beginning to drool when food was shown Pavlov could then begin to predict the other forms of stimulation. As Pavlov further researched the response from the canine, Pavlov found that when he presented a bell to the animal he could then reproduce the animals’ reaction to salivating with just the sound of the bell......

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Classical Management

...Introduction Classical theorists strived to develop one all encompassing theory that would improve management’s effectiveness within an organization and methods for dealing with the challenges they faced (Hartman, n.d.). There are three primary “classical” theories: Scientific Management, Bureaucratic Management / Autocratic management, and Administrative Management. This paper will discuss the three primary management theories as well as discuss several other theories relating to some of the primaries, and some that were slight precursors to the classical movement such as Change Management and Autocratic Management (Sridhar, n.d.). Classical Perspective The oldest of the "formal" viewpoints of management emerged during the late nineteenth and came to be known as the classical perspective. The classical perspective roots in management occurred rapidly through expanding manufacturing organizations that typified U.S and European industrialization. Early contributions were made by management practitioners and theorist from several corners of the world (Eastern, n.d.). The classical perspective consists of three main subfields: 1. Scientific Management (by Frederick Taylor) 2. Bureaucracy Management (by Max Weber) 3. Administrative Management (by Henry Fayol) Scientific Management Theory In the 19th century machinery was changing the means of production, and managers needed to find more efficient ways of production. Traditional methods of production, where a......

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