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European Classical Literature

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(Three Year Full Time Programme)

(Effective from the Academic Year 2011-2012 onwards)
DELHI - 110007


Course: B.A. (Hons.) English

Semester I

Paper 1: English Literature 4(i)
Paper 2: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(i)
Paper 3: Concurrent – Qualifying Language
Paper 4: English Literature 4(ii)

Semester II

Paper 5: Twentieth Century Indian Writing(ii)
Paper 6: English Literature 1(i)
Paper 7: Concurrent – Credit Language
Paper 8: English Literature 1(ii)

Semester III

Paper 9: English Literature 2(i)
Paper 10:
Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(i)
Option B: Classical Literature (i)
Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (i)
Paper 11: Concurrent – Interdisciplinary

Semester IV

Semester V

Paper 12: English Literature 2(ii)
Paper 13: English Literature 3(i)
Paper 14:
Option A: Nineteenth Century European Realism(ii)
Option B: Classical Literature (ii)
Option C: Forms of Popular Fiction (ii)
Paper 15: Concurrent – Discipline Centered I
Paper 16: English Literature 3(ii)
Paper 17: English Literature 5(i)
Paper 18: Contemporary Literature(i)
Paper 19:
Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(i)
Option B: Literary Theory (i)
Option C: Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries (i)
Option D: Modern European Drama (i)
Paper 20: English Literature 5(ii)

Semester VI

Paper 21: Contemporary Literature(ii)
Paper 22:
Option A: Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii)
Option B: Literary Theory (ii)
Option C: Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries (ii)
Option D: Modern European Drama (ii)
Paper 23: Concurrent – Discipline Centered II

Distribution of Marks & Teaching Hours
The Semester-wise distribution of papers for the B.A. (Honours), B.Com.
(Honours), B. Com., B.Sc. (Honours) Statistics and B.Sc. (Honours) Computer
Science will be as follows:
Type of Paper

Max. Marks



Teaching per week

Main Papers




5 Lectures
1 Tutorial





4 Lectures
1 Tutorial

Credit Courses for B.Sc.(Hons.)




4 Lectures
1 Tutorial

Size of the Tutorial Group will be in accordance with the existing norms.

The existing syllabi of all Concurrent/Credit Courses shall remain unchanged. 

The existing criteria for opting for the Concurrent /Credit Courses shall also remain unchanged.


Main Discipline Course: English
Detailed Courses of Reading

Paper 1: English Literature 4 (i)

Jane Austen
Pride and Prejudice
Charles Dickens
Hard Times
Background Prose Readings and Topics


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Selections from A Reader in Marxist
Philosophy ed. Sels and Martel (New York. I 963). Pp. 186-8, I 90-1, 199201.


Charles Darwin, Selections from The Descent of Man (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, 3rd edn., vol. 2) pp. 1647-52.


John Stuart Mill, Selections from The Subjection of Women (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, Vol. 2) pp. 1647-52.


Matthew Arnold, Selections from Culture and Anarchy (in the Norton
Anthology of English Literature, Vol. 2) pp. 1403-12.


The Novel Form in Nineteenth-Century England; Faith and Doubt; The
Writer and Society; Fiction and its Readers.


Paper 2:

Twentieth Century Indian Writing (i)


Rabindranath Tagore


R.K. Narayan
Vaikom Muhammad Basheer

The Home and the World tr. Surendranath Tagore
‘The Holy Panchayat’
‘The ‘M.C.C.’
‘The Card-Sharper’s
‘Toba Tek Singh’
‘Lihaf’ (The Quilt)

Saadat Hasan Manto
Ismat Chughtai


Background Prose Readings and Topics

Rabindranath Tagore, Nationalism (Delhi : Rupa, 1992), Chapter 1 and 3.
Namvar Singh, ‘Decolonising the Indian Mind’, Indian Literature, no. 151
(Sept/Oct. 1992).
U.R. Ananthamurthy, ‘Being a Writer in India’, from Tender Ironies, ed.
Dilip Chitre et. al., pp. 127-46.
Topics :
Nationalism; The Theme of the Partition; Language and Audience; in
Modern India; Tradition and Experiment in Modern Indian Theatre; The
Individual and Society in Modern Indian Literature.

Note: Texts prescribed in Unit 2 are available in an anthology prepared and published by the Department of English, University of Delhi, Modern Indian Literature: Poems and
Short Stories. Oxford University Press, 1999.





Paper 4

English Literature-4 (ii)
Charlotte Bronte
George Eliot
Alfred Tennyson

Jane Eyre
The Mill on the Floss
‘The Lady of Shalott’, ‘Ulysses’, ‘Crossing the Bar’, ‘The Defence of Lucknow’

Robert Browning

‘My Last Duchess’.’The Last Ride Together’,
‘Porphyria’s Lover’, ‘Fra Lippo Lippi’

Christina Rossetti

‘The Goblin Market’


Paper 5

Twentieth Century Indian Writing(ii)


Jibanananda Das

‘Before Dying’, Windy Night’
‘I Shall return to this Bengal’
‘Forward March’
From Some People Laugh,
Some People Cry.

Sri Sri

G.M. Muktibodh
Nissim Ezekiel

Jayanta Mahapatra


‘Hunger’, ‘Dhauli’, ‘Grandfather’,
‘A Country’

Vijay Tendulkar
Mohan Rakesh


‘The Void’, ‘So Very Far’
‘Enterprise’, ‘The Night of the
‘Goodbye Party for
Miss Pushpa .S.’

Ghasiram Kotwal tr. Jayant
Karve and Eleanor Zelliot
Half-way House tr. Bindu Batra

Amitav Ghosh

The Shadow Lines


Paper 6: English Literature 1 (i)

Christopher Marlowe
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare

Doctor Faustus
As You Like It.





Paper 8: English Literature 1 (ii)

Geoffrey Chaucer
Philip Sidney
Edmund Spenser

John Donne


‘The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale’
Selection from Astrophel and Stella :
Sonnets 1, 15, 27, 34, 41, 45
Selections from Amoretti :
Sonnets XXXIV and LXVII
Elegie : ‘On His Mistress Going to Bed’,
‘The Sunne Rising’, ‘The Canonisation’,
‘A Hymn to God My God in My Sicknesse’,
‘Batter My Heart’, ‘Death be not Proud’.

Background Prose Readings and Topics:


Pico della Mirandola, Excerpts from the Oration on the Dignity of Man in
The Renaissance Portable Reader, pp. 476-9.


John Calvin on Predestination and Free Will, in The Renaissance Portable
Reader. pp. 704-11.


Baldassare Castiglione, Excerpts from Book 4 of The Courtier on the courtier, love and beauty (from the Penguin edition, pp. 324-8, pp. 330-5).


Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry, ed. Forrest G. Robinson (BobbsMerrill, 1970) pp.13-18.


The Development of English Drama; Ideas of Love and Marriage in the
Middle Ages and the Renaissance; Control and Censorship of Drama; The
Poet in Society; Renaissance Humanism.


Paper 9: English Literature 2 (i)

William Shakespeare

Antony and Cleopatra


John Webster

The Duchess of Malfi


Background Prose Readings and Topics:


The Holy Bible, ‘Genesis’, chapters 1-4 (Adam and Eve. Cain and Abel) :
‘Luke’, chapters 1-7 and 22-24 (the Nativity, the Miracles and the Passion of Christ).


Niccolo Machiavelli 2Xi from The Prince, chapters 15 (How not to be virtuous), 16 (Generosity), 18 (Princes need not honour their word) and 25
(On fortune).


Francis Bacon. ‘Of Marriage and Single Life’. ‘Of Truth” and ‘Of Studies’
(Norton Edition, Vol 1, pp. 1563-8)


Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan, Part I, Selections from chapters 8,11 and
13 (Penguin edition. pp. 134-137, 160-161 and 185-186).


John Dryden, from ‘A Discourse Concerning the Origin and Progress of
Satire’ (Norton vol.1, pp. 1767-8).


Topics :
Religion in the Seventeenth Century; Attitude to Women in the
Seventeenth Century : The Beginnings of Secular Thought; Epic and
Mock-epic; Comedy and Satire.


Paper 10: Any one of the following.
Students opting for Part (i) of a given option will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option in Paper 11

Option A. Nineteenth-Century European Realism (i)

Ivan Turgenev
Fathers and Sons
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Crime and Punishment
Background Prose Readings and Topics :


Honore de Balzac, ‘Society as Historical Organism’, Preface to the The
Human Comedy, in Ellmann and Feidelson, eds., The Modern Tradition. pp.246-254. b.

Leo Tolstoy, ‘Man as the Creature of History,’ from War and Peace, in
Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 265-7.
Gustav Flaubert, ‘Heroic Honesty,’ letter on Madame Bovary, Ellmann and
Feidelson, pp. 242-3.
Emile Zola, ‘The Novel as Social Science,’ Ellmann and Feidelson, pp.
Georg Lukacs, Studies in European Realism, chapter 3 : ‘Balzac and
Stendhal’ (London, 1972), pp. 65-85.


f. Topics:
Contemporary Politics and the Russian Novel; The Realist Novel and its
Relationship with History; The Realist Novel and the Middle Class; Changing
Forms of the Novel.

Option B. Classical Literature(i)


The Illiad (Penguin)



Lysistrata (Penguin)

Background Prose Readings:
a. Aristotle, Poetics, chapter 6-17, 23, 24 and 26 (Penguin).
b. Plato, The Republic, Book X (Penguin).
c. Bharata, Natyashastra, tr. Manomohan Ghosh, chapter 6: ‘Sentiments,’ revd.
2nd edn. (Calcutta: Granthalaya, 1967), vol. I, pp 100-18.

d. Iravati Karve, ‘Draupadi’ in Yuganta : The End of an Epoch (Disha, 1991), pp.79-105. e. C. Rajagopalachari, The Mahabharata, 2nd edn. (Bombay : Bhartiya Vidya
Bhavan, 1972).
f. Topics :
Notions of the Epic; Comedy and Tragedy in Greek and Indian Drama;
Drama in the Athenian City State; Catharsis; Rasa; the Heroic and Dharma.

Option C. Forms of Popular Fiction (i)
Unit -3.

Agatha Christie
The Murder of Roger Ackroyd
Ian Fleming
From Russia with Love
Background Prose Readings :

a. Christopher Pawling, ‘Popular Fiction : Ideology or Utopia?’ Popular Fiction and Social Change, ed. Christopher Pawling (London : Macmillan, 1984).
b. Ymberto Eco. ‘Narrative Structure in Fleming’, in The Study of Popular Culture
: A Sourcebook ed. Bob Ashley (London : Pinter, 1989). pp. 124-34.
c. Darko Suvin, ‘On Teaching SF Critically’, from Positions and Presuppositions in Science Fiction (London : Macmillan), pp. 86-96.
d. Felicity Hughes, ‘Children’s Literature : Theory and Practice’, ELH, 45 (1978), pp.542-62. e. Topics :
What Sells and Why; Bestseller and Other Media of Mass Culture; Morality and
Education in Children’s Literature : Popular Literature and Fantasy.





Paper 12: English Literature 2 (ii)

John Milton
Aphra Behn
John Dryden
Alexander Pope

Paradise Lost- Book1 lines 1-26 and Book IX
The Rover
The Rape of the Lock


Paper 13: English Literature 3 (i)

Jonathan Swift
Samuel Johnson
Oliver Goldsmith
Thomas Gray


Gulliver’s Travels
‘London’, ‘The Vanity of Human Wishes’
Selections from the The Deserted Village. lines 35-84. 195-238, 267-339.
‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’,
‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat’

Background Prose Readings and Topics:
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Daniel Defoe ‘The Complete English Tradesman’ (Letter XXII),
‘The Great Law of Subordination Considered’ (Letter IV), and ‘The
Complete English Gentleman’, in Literature and Social Order in
Eighteenth-Century England. ed. Stephen Copley (London. 984).
Samuel Johnson. The Rambler. Essay 156 (on Literary Rules);
Rasselas Chapter 10 (on the Business of the Poet); on Genius (from
‘The Life of Pope,’ Norton Edition, Vol. 1. pp. 2306; 2308-9).
Mary Wollstonecraft, from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, chapter 2 (Penguin, 1975), pp. 100-5, 106-9, 111-113) (on Milton’s
Adam and Eve, Rousseau, and Fathers of daughters).
William Wordsworth from ‘Preface to Lyrical Ballads’, in Norton
Edition, vol. 2, pp. 127-9, 130-7, 138-9.
John Keats, Letter to George and Thomas Keats, 22 December 1817;
Letter to Richard Woodhouse, 27 October, 1818.
g. Topics:
Science and Literature; Neoclassicism; The Country and the City;
Concepts of Nature; Concept of Imagination; The Rise of the Gothic.


Paper 14: Any one of the following.
Students who have opted for Part (i) of a given option in Paper 8 will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option here.

Option A.

Nineteenth-Century European Realism(ii)

Unit- 2.
Unit- 3.

Honore de Balzac
Gustav Flaubert
Emile Zola

Option B.

Classical Literature(ii)





Old Goriot
Madame Bovary
Therese Raquin

Medea (Penguin)
1. ‘The Dicing’ and
‘The Sequel to Dicing, 2. ‘The Book of the
Assembly Hall’ from The Mahabharata : tr. and ed. J.A.B.van Buitenen (Chicago, 1975), pp. 10669.
Abhijnana Shakuntalam, tr. Chandra Rajan, in Kalidas:. The Loom of Time (Penguin, 1989).

Option C. Forms of Popular Fiction (ii)

Isaac Asimov


Lewis Carroll

Through the Looking Glass.

Margaret Mitchell

Gone with the Wind






Paper 16: English Literature 3 (ii)

William Blake

‘The Lamb’, ‘The Garden of Love’, ‘The Chimney
Sweeper’ (from both The Songs of
Innocence and The Songs of Experience),
‘The Little Black Boy’ (The Songs of
‘The Tyger’ (The Songs of Experience),
‘London’ (The Songs of Experience).

William Wordsworth
‘Tintern Abbey’, ‘Ode: Intimations of
Immortality’, ‘Lines Composed upon Westminster
Samuel Taylor

‘Kubla Khan’, ‘Dejection : An Ode’


Lord Byron

from ‘Childe Harold’ : Canto III. verses 36-45
(Lines 316-405); Canto IV, verses 178-186
(Lines 1594-1674)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
‘Ode to the West Wind’, ‘Ode to Liberty’,
‘Hymn to Intellectual Beauty’.
John Keats


‘Ode to a Nightingale’, ‘To Autumn’, ‘La Belle
Dame Sans Merci’, ‘On First Looking into
Chapman’s Homer’.

Mary Shelley



Paper 17.

English Literature 5 (i)

Unit 1.
W.B. Yeats

T.S. Eliot

‘Leda and the Swan’, ‘The Second Coming’, ‘No Second
Troy’, ‘Sailing to Byzantium’, ‘Among School Children’.
‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’, ‘Gerontion’,
‘Sweeney Among the Nightingales’, ‘The Hollow
Men’, ‘Marina’.

Unit 2.
Samuel Beckett
John Osborne

Waiting for Godot
Look Back in Anger

Unit 3.
Background Prose Readings and Topics:

Sigmund Freud, ‘Theory of Dreams’, ‘Oedipus Complex’ and ‘The Structure of the
Unconscious’, from The Modern Tradition, eds. Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 571,
578-81, 559-63.


T. S. Eliot. ‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’, Norton Edition, vol. 2, pp. 21982205


Albert Camus, ‘Absurdity and Suicide’ and ‘The Myth of Sisyphus,’ from The Myth of Sisyphus (Penguin), pp.11- 17, 107-111.


E. M. Forster, ‘Art for Art’s Sake.’ from Two Cheers for Democracy, in Ellmann and Feidelson, pp. 198-202.


“Raymond Williams, ‘Introduction’ in The English Novel from Dickens to Lawrence
(London: Hogarth, 1984), pp. 9-27.


Topics :
The Theatre of the Absurd ; Modernism; The Uses of Myth; The Stream of
Consciousness; The Women’s Movement in the Early Twentieth Century.


Paper 18.

Contemporary Literature (i)


Chinua Achebe

Things Fall Apart


Nadine Gordimer

My Son’s Story

Unit-3 .

Background Prose Readings and Topics:
Franz Fanon, (on colour prejudice) from Black Skin, White Masks (Paladin edition, 1970), pp. 21-99.
Ngugi wa Thiongo, from ‘The Language of African Literature’, in
Decolonising the Mind, Chapter 1, sections 4-6.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech, in Gabriel
Garcia Marquez : New Readings, eds. Bernard McGuirk and Richard
Cardwell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
V.S. Naipaul, ‘East Indian’, in The Overcrowded Barracoon (Penguin,
1976), pp. 32-41.
Magic Realism; Literature and Revolution; Literature and Cultural Identity;
Writing for the New World Audience




Paper 19:

Any one of the following.

Students opting for Part (i) of a given option will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option in Paper 18

Option A. Anglo-American Writing from 1930 (i)
Unit 1.

Graham Greene

The Power and the Glory


William Faulkner
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ernest Hemingway
Somerset Maugham
John Updike
John Cheever
Salman Rushdie

‘Dry September’
‘The Crack-up’
‘A Clean Well-Lighted Place’
‘The Door of Opportunity’
‘Density and Doubt’
‘The Swimmer’
‘The Courter’

Unit 3. Background Prose Readings and Topics :
Salman Rushdie, ‘Imaginary Homelands’, from Imaginary
George Orwell, ‘Politics and the English Language.’


Seamus Heaney, ‘The Redress of Poetry’, from the The Redress of Poetry (London : Faber, 1995).


Adrienne Rich, ‘When We Dead Awaken : Writing as Revision’, from Adrienne Rich’s Poetry (Norton Critical Edition).
Denys Thompson and E.R. Leavis, ‘Advertising Types of Appeal’, from Culture and Environment.
Topics: Social Realism land the Contemporary Novel; Folklore and the Contemporary Novel; Black Women’s Writing; Identity in
Contemporary Poetry; Tragicomedy in Contemporary Theatre.


Option B. Literary Theory (i)
1. Marxism:
Antonio Gramsci. ‘The Formation of the Intellectuals’ and
‘Hegemony (Civil Society) and Separation of Powers,’ Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Novell
Smith (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1971), pp. 5, and 245-6. ii. Bertolt Brecht, ‘A Short Organum to the Theatre,’ in John Willet, ed.
Brecht on Theatre, pp. 179-205. iii. Georg Lukacs, ‘Critical Realism and Socialist Realism,’ from The
Meaning of Contemporary Realism.



Louis Althusser, ‘Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,’ from
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays.

2. Feminism:
Elaine Showalter, ‘Introduction’ in A Literature of Their Own:
British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing (1977). ii. iii.

Juliet Mitchell, ‘Femininity, Narrative and Psychoanalysis’, in
Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, ed. David Lodge (London:
Longman, 1988), pp. 426-30.
Michele Barrett, ‘The Cultural Production of Gender’.


Luce Irigaray, ‘When the Goods Get Together’ (from This Sex
Which is Not One), in New French Feminisms, eds. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (New York: Schocken Books, 1981), pp.
3. Post-Colonial Studies:

Edward Said, Orientalism. (Hamondsworth: Penguin, 1978). chapter
Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Colonial
Discourse and Postcolonial Theory: A Reader, eds. Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993).


Gauri Vishwanathan, ‘The Beginnings of English Literary Study in
British India’, Oxford Literary Review.


Aijaz Ahmad, ‘“Indian Literature”: Notes towards the Definition of a Category’ from In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures (London:
Verso, 1992).

Option C. Women’s Writing in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (i)

Elizabeth Barett Browning Aurora Leigh. Book V lines 1-447
Emily Dickinson

Sylvia Plath

Marge Piercy

‘Because I Could not Stop for
Death’, ‘Elysium is as Far as to’,
‘I had no Time to Hate’, ‘I Felt a
Funeral in My Brain’, ‘I Heard a
Fly Buzz’, ‘The Soul Selects Her
Own Society’.
‘Daddy’, ‘Lady Lazarus’,
‘Soliloquy of a Solipsist’,
‘Rape Poem’, ‘The Consumer’,
‘For shoshana Rihn - Pat Swinton’,
‘Right to Life’.

Unit 2.

Kate Chopin
Katherine Mansfield
Charlotte P. Gilman
Walla Cather
Mahasweta Devi

Unit 3.

‘The Story of an Hour’
‘The Yellow Wallpaper’
‘Coming Aphrodite’
‘Draupadi’, in Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak,
In Other Worlds, pp. 179-96.

Background Prose Readings and Topics

a. Virginia Woolf. Chapter 1 and selections from Chapter 3 of A Room of One’s Own
(New York : Harvest HGJ, 1957), pp. 3-24 and 48-59.

Simone de Beauvoir, ‘Introduction’ in the The Second Sex in New French
Feminisms. eds. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (New York : Schocken
Books, 1981), pp. 41-56.

c. Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Chapter 2: ‘The Infected Sentence : Women’s
Authorship and the Anxiety of Influence’ from The Madwoman in the Attic
(Yale Univ. Press, 1979), pp. 45-92.

Cora Caplan ‘Women and Language’, in Deborah Cameron, ed., Feminist
Linguistics, A Reader :

e. Sigmund Freud, ‘Female Sexuality’, in The Collected Works of Sigmund Treud, vol. 5 (London : Hogarth Press, 1957), pp. 252-272.
f. Topics :
Redefining the male dominated lyric tradition; Sexual politics in the construction of the self in modernist women’s writing; The confessional mode in women’s writing; Social reform movements and their impact on gender relations in India;
The correlation between Aesthetics and Activism in women’s writing

Option D.

Modern European Drama (i)


Henrik Ibsen

Ghosts (Penguin)


August Strindberg

Miss Julie (Methuen)


Background Prose Readings and Topics :


Stanislavski, An Actor Prepares (Penguin) Chapter 8. "Faith and the
Sense of Truth,", sections 1,2,7,8, 9 (pp. 121--5, 137--46).


Raymond Williams, Tragedy and Revolution in Modern
Tragedy, revised edition (London,: Verso, 1979) pp. 61--84.


Bertolt Brecht, ‘The Street Scene’ (pp. 121-8), ‘Theatre for Pleasure or
Theatre for Instruction’ (pp. 68-76) and ‘Dramatic Theatre vs. Epic
Theatre’ (chart)- (p.31) from Brecht on Theatre. The Development of an
Aesthetic, ed. John Willet (London : Methuen, 1992).


Antonin Artaud, ‘No More Masterpieces’, from The Theatre and its Double
(London : Calder and Boyars, 1970), pp. 55.63.


George Steiner, ‘On Modern Tragedy’, from The Death of Tragedy
(London : Faber), pp. 303-24.


Jean Genet, Reflections on Theatre (London: Faber), chapter 2: ‘The
Strange Word Urb…’ pp.63-74.


Topics :
Naturalism, expressionism in theatre; Forms of realism in European drama;
Politics, social change and theatre,; Performance and text; Avant Garde drama; Tragedy and notion of heroism in post-war European drama.


Paper 20: English Literature 5 (ii)

Joseph Conrad
D.H. Lawrence
Virginia Woolf

Heart of Darkness
Sons and Lovers
Mrs. Dalloway


Paper 21:

Contemporary Literature (ii)


Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Chronicle of a Death Foretold


Dario Fo
Ngugi wa Thiongo

Accidental Death of an Anarchist
The Trial of Dedan Kimatby


Pablo Neruda

‘Poetry’, ‘Tonight I can Write’,
‘The Way Spain Was’, ‘Ars Poetica’,
‘Discoverers of Chile’, ‘Ode to a

Derek Walcott

‘A Far Cry from Africa’, ‘Goats and Monkeys’,
‘Names’, ‘The Sea is History’

Margaret Atwood

‘Spelling’, ‘This is a Photograph of Me’,
‘Procedures for Underground’, ‘The Animals in that Country’, ‘The Landlady’.


Paper 22: Any one of the following
Students who have opted for Part (i) of a given option in Paper 15 will be required to opt for Part (ii) of the same option here.

Option A. Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii)

Arthur Miller
Tom Stoppard
Toni Morrison

Unit- 3.

Adrienne Rich

The Crucible
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead
‘Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers’, ‘Necessities of Life’.
‘Diving into the Wreck’, ‘Snapshots For a
Daughter-in-law’, ‘A Valediction Forbidding

Philip Larkin ‘Whitsun Weddings’, ‘Annus Mirabilis’,
‘Dublinesque’, ‘Homage to a Government’,
‘Toads’, ‘The Explosion’
Seamus Heaney

‘Bogland’, ‘Traditions’, ‘Punishment’, ‘An
Ulster Twilight’, ‘The Railway Children’,
‘From the Frontier of Writing’.

Option B. Literary Theory (ii)
Unit 1.

Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Post-Modernism:
Jacques Derrida, ‘Structure, SIgn and Play in the DIscourse of the
Human Science in Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, ed.
David Lodge (London: Longman, 1988), pp. 108-23. ii. Michel Foucault, ‘Truth and Power,’ from PowerlKnowledge (New
York: Pantheon, 1977). iii. Jean-Francois Lyotard, ‘Answering the Question: What is
Postmodernism?,’ from The Postmodern Condition: A Report on
Knowledge (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1984).

Unit 2.

Cultural Studies:
Raymond Williams, from ‘Forms,’ in Culture (London: Fontana.
1981), pp. 154-80. ii. Stephen Greenblatt, ‘Introduction’ in Renaissance Self -Fashioning
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 1-9. iii. Alan Sinfield and Jonathan Dollimore, ‘Foreword’ and
‘Introduction’ in Political Shakespeare. New Essays in Cultural
Materialism (Ithaca: Cornell, 1985), pp. vii-viii, 2·17.



Roland Barthes, from Mythologies (New York: Noonday Press.
1972): ‘The World of Wrestling: ‘Novels and Children’, ‘Toys;
‘Striptease’, ‘Photography and Electoral Appeal’, ‘The Lost
Continent; Plastic; and ‘The Great Family of Man’; pp. 15-25,505,84-7 and 91-102.

Background Prose Readings:
Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction. 2nd edn. (Oxford:

Option C. Women’s Writing the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (ii)

Alice Walker The Colour Purple


Doris Lessing

The Golden Notebook


Rassundari Debi

Excerpts from Amar Jiban in Susie Tharu and K. Lalita, ed., Women’s Writing in India
(Delhi : Oxford, 1989),
Vol. 1, pp. 191-202.

Pandita Ramabai

Excerpts from Tharu and Lalita ed. Women’s Writing in India vol. 1, pp. 247-53.

Florence Nightingale Cassandra
Harriet Jacob
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Option D. Modern European Drama (ii)

Bertolt Brecht

The Good Woman of Szechuan (Methuen)


Jean Genet

The Balcony (Faber)


Eugene Ionesco

Rhinoceros (Penguin)




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...Historical Art Periods Neoclassical: Neoclassical is also referred to as Neoclassicism; a name used to describe the western association in the attractive and illustrative arts, writing, drama, composition and architecture. In the 18th century, neoclassical art retorted to the distinguished immoderation of the contemporary Rocco style, with an enormous moderation in symphony and relentlessness of line. Neoclassical architecture, imitated mutually classical and renaissance arrangements, accentuating order and simplicity. Neoclassical architecture as well as literature was motivated by the importance on aggressive bravery witnessed in the Latin and Greek grand. Neoclassicism deduces the subsistence of classical rule of commendable mythical and artistic invention. Neoclassical artists, by desirable qualities of acquaintance with the rule attempt to produce and widen the rule in every piece of their work. Although they evade sheer imitation of classical subject and designs, the artists try to place their work in the circumstance of a recognized custom and exhibit their mastery of the canons of the genre. Since Neoclassicism is divergent to modernization, its articulacy and creativeness are considered as merits. Neoclassicism in every art implies a specific rule of traditional replica. Other cultures have supplementary rules of classics, and a habitual strain of neoclassicism materializes as the expected appearance of cultures that are positive of their conventional traditions,...

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Indian Forms of Dialect

...language families namely Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic (Austric) and Sino-Tibetan. Majority of India's population are using Indo-European and Dravidian languages. The former are spoken mainly in northern and central regions and the latter in southern India. Some ethnic groups in Assam and other parts of eastern India speak Austric languages. People in the northern Himalayan region and near the Burmese border speak Sino-Tibetan languages. The written forms of language or scripts come from an ancient Indian script called Brahmi.  India has 22 officially recognised languages. But around 33 different languages and 2000 dialects have been identified in India. Hindi, in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Federal government of India. English is an associate official language. Sanskrit, the classical language of India, represents the highest achievement of the Indo-Aryan Languages. The beginning of Sanskrit literature may be traced back to Rig Vedic period.  It is the oldest literary language of India, which is more than 5,000 years old and the basis of many modern Indian languages including Hindi and Urdu. Its earliest dialect form, Vedic was spoken by the Aryans. All the classical literature and the Indian epics have been written in Sanskrit. Evolution of Hindi from “Boli” dialect to “Rashtra-bhasha” or “Raj-bhasha” (National Official Language) Hindi is a modern Indo-Aryan language (belonging to the family of greater Indo-European languages) and......

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Iwt1 Humanities

...has been around since the beginning of time and has branched off into many sectors. Works of art vary from genres and time periods to specific types. I chose to compare the Romanticism Period and the Neoclassicism Period. The term Neoclassicism refers to the classical revival in European art, architecture, and interior design that lasted from the mid-eighteenth to the early nineteenth century. This period gave rebirth to the art of ancient Rome and Greece and the Renaissance as an opposition to the ostentatious Baroque and Rococo art that preceded the movement. Neoclassicism emphasized courage, sacrifice, nationalism and tradition. Neoclassical artists incorporated classical styles and subjects, including columns, pediments, friezes, and other ornamental schemes into their work. They were inspired by the works of Homer and Plutarch and John Flaxmann’s illustrations for the Illiad and Odyssey. Also, the discovery of ancient artifacts at the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii also contributed as a big inspiration to neoclassicism. Neoclassical painters took extra care to depict the costumes, settings, and details of classical subject matter with as much accuracy as possible. Much of the subject matter originated from classical history and mythology. The movement emphasized line quality over...

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...------------------------------------------------- Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore, also written Ravīndranātha Thākura[1] (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941),[b]sobriquet Gurudev,[c] was a Bengali polymath[3] who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse",[4] he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913.[5] In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal.[6]Sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal",[7] Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of the modern Indian subcontinent. A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old.[8] At the age of sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics.[9][10] By 1877 he graduated to his first short stories and dramas, published under his real name. As a humanist,......

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...A renewed interest in classical art and literature in the 14th century led to the greatest European cultural movement and great innovations within the fields of science, art and literature. The Renaissance art finds its roots mostly in Classical Greek and Roman art. Early renaissance art was created in parallel with late Medieval art and it was also greatly influenced by Gothic arts, an older art style that was developed in the 12th century and during late middle ages. Although religious topics and events remained very popular which reflected the influence of medieval art, but more emphasis was placed on the meaning and the realistic qualities of the artwork by renaissance artists. As the political and social domination of church started to diminish and the humanist movement grew in popularity, the renaissance art took a different direction and distinctive characteristics started to develop in different areas. The artists started to separate themselves from their Middle Ages heritage by going against the religious traditionalism. To keep up with the humanist movement the renaissance artists started to portray more life-like and more realistic human forms, and they broke from medieval traditions in painting, sculpture and architecture. The decline of Church absolutism also altered people’s religious views and produced a different view of life. The renaissance patrons demanded art that showed joy in human beauty and life's pleasures. The renaissance artists had to produce arts...

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...Compare and Contrast Nature in The Task and Windsor Forest Both Windsor Forest and The Task use nature in their poems to as a means of portraying a wider political idea. However the opposing poetic princlipals behind both poets works are echoed in their potrayls. Pope celebrates the groomed, contrived garden of Windsor forest as a means to show admiration for Queen Annes rule; under her reign the garden has been ordered meticulously to reveal its true potential, a metaphor for society. In the Task Cowper celebrates pure organic nature, that has not been infiltrated by the influence of man. The untarnished countryside is illustared to be superior to the man made city, as it is closer to god; God was the creator of the country and the man made cities are threatening to undermine the entire realm. The titles of the two poems make the differences in content more explicit. Pope’s piece is primarily a quixotic descriptive piece about Windsor Forest, elevated by combing the descriptions of external nature with feelings accordant to the actual state of society. The Task is a much more unromantic, logical and sober as its title reflects. Didacticism is present in its great descriptions of natural scenery. Cowper saw clearly the actual reality of organic nature, and ignored the pruned gardens dealt with by Pope; he presents an argumentative verse rather than a panegyric like Windsor Forest. Nature for Cowper was an assertion of God and the poem seems to echo the creation story,...

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...The Classical and Renaissance art periods are two of the most important and celebrated art periods in our history. The two periods were alike in many ways with only a few differences setting them apart. In the end, the Renaissance was a “rebirth” of the Classical art style, architecture and beliefs. The Classical period was a time of spectacular architecture, philosophical pondering, and human development; taking place between 500 – 323 BC, Ancient Greece enjoyed wealth and power. The arts, literature, and drama thrived. The Classical Period made world changing discoveries in medicine, mathematics, physics, and astronomy. The city of Athens, one of the most powerful and influential cities in the Classical period introduced the world to Democracy and has shaped today’s western governments. Some of the philosophers of the Classical Period have become the most well known philosophers know to man today and have had influence on Western thought and civilization. To this day the teachings of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle are still pondered today. Classical art focused mainly on five forms: architecture, sculpture, pottery, painting, and music. Ancient Greece was dominated by religion. This resulted in the temples being big and beautiful. The Classical period brought change in the style of sculptures. The Greeks believed in humanism and their art displayed this. The Greeks took great pride in the importance of the individual in society in the forms of art, philosophy and......

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Renaissance North vs. South

...Developing Europe into a powerhouse, the Renaissance marked complete cultural transition of Europe out of the Middle Ages and identified a societal change of values and ideas reflected in the art and literature of the time period; the “rebirth” in Southern Europe, however, differed from Northern Europe. As both the North and South had access to newly printed materials courtesy the printing press, they did share commonality of thought- both supplied predominant Christian artistic themes, had an artistic ‘center’, and provided systems of guilds and patrons. The Southern, or Italian, Renaissance began during the 14th century and “inevitably, trade and commerce brought Italian ideas northward, where they influenced the artistic traditions” beginning the 16th century Northern Renaissance (Benton and DiYanni 53). The South focused on a return to the concept of humanism and revival of idealist, classic Greek and Roman values, but the North focused on the common man and daily realities of life. Centered around Florence then later Rome, aided by the patronage of the Medici family in the Early Renaissance and Popes in the High Renaissance, and inspired by Greek and Roman mythology, the Southern Renaissance movement emphasized humans (their capacities, values and worth). Italian artists made the viewer delve into the inner working of the human mind and their subject matter primarily consisted of gods and goddesses displayed with symmetry, balance, and linear perspective. Known for his......

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Humanism During the Renaissance

...the Roman Empire and the dark days of the Middle Ages, a great time of reform and education was on the brink of exploding onto the scene. This was the beginning of what we now know as the Renaissance the ‘Rebirth’ and the new way of thinking would later be referred to as Humanism. The Renaissance was one of the great intellectual ages of European culture at its height during the 15th and 16th century there were many amazing new developments amongst many areas including painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, education medicine science including many more of mans intellectual and educated pursuits, the main center of this revolution was classical Italy although later spreading throughout Europe to infiltrate all facets of European culture The Renaissance saw creation of different attitudes towards life and different ways of thinking. After spending hundreds of years in the depths of the Middle ages a time when human progress and achievement slowed to a trickle, Western Civilization blurred and there was a great period of cultural decline, society wanted some sort of freedom from the grips of an extremely religious European way of life and so began the drift away from these catholic driven ideals and into the new age, The age of the Humanist. Humanism refers to the study of the ‘Umanista’ or ‘Humanist’ which described the group of people whose subject was an area called the Studia Humanitatis. Although the term humanism is widely...

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Dark Ages

...Nicole Henson Intro to Humanities January 18, 2015 DeVry University Professor Clarke-Peterson Outline/Proposal on Dark Ages I. Introduction and Thesis The Dark Ages refer to the medieval period in the studies of humanity. The general duration of the early Dark Ages is considered to be from 450-1000 century (CE). It is believed that the fall of Roman Empire brought about an age of “barbarism and religion” (Gibbon 18th CE). This era, compared to both the pre-dark ages and the post-dark ages, Renaissance, witnessed no significant scientific innovations, no great art produced, and no valiant emperors or leaders ruling the early medieval Europe (Middle Ages, n.d.). These are the major factors which led to the coining of the phrase Dark Ages by Petrarch, the great Italian scholar, in the 14th CE (Wikipedia). This proposal is about the vital role of flourishing Irish social order, in the Dark Ages, in the re-conversion of Europe to Christianity. II. In the Dark Ages, when the entire Europe was reeling under barbarism, the Irish social order was flourishing. * The Romans had never invaded Ireland, and thus it remained unaffected by the downfall deteriorating the social order of rest of Europe (Eaton & McCaffrey, 2002). * While the entire Europe was victimized by the Dark Ages, the Irish monks were the torch-bearers of luminous beam of civilization (O’Connor & Steves, 2014). * In the Dark Ages, religion was one binding force that kept the hopes of people...

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Sining at Kultura

...Introduction to Chinese Literature China possesses one of the world's major literary traditions. Its texts have been preserved for over 3,000 years. Reverence for the past has influenced the preservation of these cultural sources, and may have influenced the invention of woodblock printing in the 9th century and moveable type printing in the 12th century. The practice of collecting and reproducing libraries has also played a major role in the transmission of literary tradition. Most important, China can boast an unbroken cultural tradition based on the Chinese script as a language — a written medium — independent of spoken dialectic difference. As literary language became increasingly removed from spoken language, it became less vital and literature took a natural turn toward imitation. Indeed, after the formative classical period that began with Confucius, the literary history of China becomes one of imitation-with-variations of different models. Literature also thus becomes more elitist, for an understanding or appreciation of a text may require familiarity with the models being alluded to. The principal genre of Chinese literature is poetry; early folk songs established the shi (shih) form that crystallized during the Han dynasty and dominated for the next 1,200 years. Beginning with the simple complaints and longings expressed in rhymed couplets of folk songs, this form gradually became more and more complex, or "regulated," until it took years of study to master its......

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...the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages. It relates mostly to the growth of artistic and intellectual creativity which is also used by artists and thinkers to recover and apply the ancient learning and standards of Greece and Rome. The Renaissance was basically an intellectual and also cultural movement that imparted some sort of intellectual quality which made it one of the most important events in universal history. This movement was carried on between the fourteenth century and the sixteenth century. The Renaissance was believed to be restricted to Italy somewhere during the late 15th century. This great movement made a huge and advance difference in the world today and also back in the days. It brought major contrasts with civilization in Europe during this time period. This has become of my interest not only because it is one of the world’s most known events, but also because it is a movement that benefited and contributed intellectual developments in most parts of the world today. It is most commonly known that one of the reasons the Renaissance period took place was because theology was rejected by the Middle Ages and was taken over by science. The outlook and institutions of the Middle Ages disintegrated and conspicuous modern forms, like science, emerged. Because of the different levels in society during the time of this intellectual movement, all the different kinds of level of society could be seen clearly in the European......

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Zxc Sakiudhi

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