Premium Essay

European Union Influence over Tourism Employment. Tourism

In: Other Topics

Submitted By EllisonR
Words 4605
Pages 19
This is the pre-published version – For final version see:

Andriotis, K. (2004). European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 52(3): 277-284.

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the role of the European Union (EU) in influencing employment in the tourism industry of its member states. Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are directly employed in tourism. The figure of persons directly employed in tourism varies from 1.7 to 7.8 depending on the member state. Due to the potential of EU tourism for generating jobs in this paper undertakes a review over the problems related to tourism employment in member states and analyses the formation and development of EU policies and initiatives towards tourism employment. Finally, this paper discusses the implications of the findings for tourism employment in EU and provides the conclusions of the study.

Keywords: Tourism, employment, European Union, policies.

INTRODUCTION
The greatest diversity and density of tourist attractions has made Europe the most visited destination worldwide and tourism among the leading growth industries in the European Union (EU). Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are employed in enterprises such as hotels, catering establishments, travel agencies, car rentals, and various tourist attractions and leisure outlets. However, tourism employment patterns vary considerably between the different member states (Table 1). Spain, with approximately 1.3 million persons employed directly in tourism, is the EU member state with the largest percentage of direct employment in tourism (7.8%). In Portugal, tourism is the dominant economic sector, with 311,915 persons or 6.3% of total workforce directly employed in tourism. On the other hand, Ireland has the lowest...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

British Culture

...Cách 1: Brexit stands for an act of leaving by Britain from the European Union (short for "British exit") Cách 2: Brexit means the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, short for “British exit” * British should stay in The EU Union. Here are some main reasons: 1. Jobs Around 3.5 million British jobs are directly linked to British membership of the European Union’s single market – 1 in 10 British jobs. 2. Exports & investment The EU buys over 50 percent of UK exports (54 per cent of goods, 40 per cent of services). Over 300,000 British companies and 74 per cent of British exporters operate in other EU markets. American and Asian EU firms build factories in Britain because it is in the single market. 3. Trade The EU negotiates trade agreements with the rest of the world. Outside the EU Britain would have to renegotiate trade deals alone. While the EU is the world’s largest market, a UK outside the EU would not be a high priority for other counties to negotiate a trade deal. 4. Freedom to work and study abroad – and easy travel 1.4 million British people live abroad in the EU. More than 14,500 UK students took part in the European Union’s Erasmus student exchange scheme in 2012-13. Driving licences issued in the UK are valid throughout the EU. 5....

Words: 1139 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Globalisation

...FORMS OF GLOBALISATION: ECONOMIC: under both the GATT and its successor WTO, world trade has expanded rapidly; TNCs have increased economic interdependence and several generations of NICs have emerged CULTURAL: western culture diffused to all parts of the world through media POLITICAL: influence of nation states diminished in many areas as more and more countries organised themselves into trade blocs; influence of Western democracies on developing countries has also been strong GLOBALISATION CAN BE SEEN IN TERMS OF: URBAN: hierarchy of global cities emerged to act as centres for global economy DEMOGRAPHIC: growth of international migration + rise of cultural societies LINGUISTIC: emergence of English as working language of the ‘global village’ ENVRIONMENTAL: impact of activity in one country has clear impact in others (e.g. pollution) PROCESSES OF GLOBALISATION: DEVELOPMENT CONINNUM CONT’ [GLOBAL ECONOMIC GROUPINGS]: DEVELOPED: highly developed countries who have high living standards DEVELOPING: countries at lower...

Words: 4730 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S....

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Free Essay

Tourism Industry: Ict Adoption and E-Business Activity

...Sector Report No. 8 / 2006 ICT and e-Business in the Tourism Industry ICT adoption and e-business activity in 2006 European Commission Tourism About e-Business W@tch and this report The European Commission, Enterprise & Industry Directorate General, launched the e-Business W@tch to monitor the growing maturity of electronic business across different sectors of the economy in the enlarged European Union, EEA and Accession countries. Since January 2002, the e-Business W@tch has analysed e-business developments and impacts in manufacturing, construction, financial and service sectors. All results are available on the internet and can be accessed or ordered via the Europa server or directly at the e-Business W@tch website (http://ec.europa.eu/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/watch/index.htm, www.ebusiness-watch.org). This document is a sector study by e-Business W@tch, focusing on the tourism industry. Its objective is to describe how companies in this industry use ICT for conducting business, to assess the impact of this development for firms and for the industry as a whole, and to indicate possible implications for policy. Analysis is based on literature, interviews, case studies and a survey among decision-makers in European enterprises from the tourism industry about the ICT use of their company....

Words: 80447 - Pages: 322

Premium Essay

Examination of the Economic Governance Mechanism in London and Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Economic Sustainability

...This will be achieved by focusing on the impact of (i) global (ii) European and (iii) the London regions economic governance mechanisms and their impact on London’s capacity to achieve sustainable and competitive economic development. The economic governance mechanism used in London is complex and multi-faceted. Economic development of the London region is driven by many contributors mainly the thirty three boroughs which make up the geographical landscape, Greater London Authority, Background London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and is made up of thirty three boroughs. The spatial structure of London is the city of London which is a square mile in the centre of the area and Greater London are the surrounding areas. London is unique as it houses the main seat of government and is: the most populated urban region Six London boroughs: Hackney, Newham, Tower Hamlets, Islington, Waltham Forest and Barking and Dagenham are in the top ten most deprived Boroughs in England. The green economy such as solar power and wind power is one of the fastest growing sectors with in London despite the economic downturn with 9000 businesses offering employment to 160000 in a sector worth 23-27 billion pounds London is responsible for 24% of the total value of the United Kingdom’s exports At the 2011 censors London population was 8.17 million making it the most...

Words: 2850 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Global Bunsiness Cultural Analysis for Croatia

...Croatia will become a part of the European Union on 1 July 2013, which will help significantly with balancing their trade and economy. The United States has also come to their rescue in helping them regain their strength to become a major part of the global trading. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR ELEMENTS AND DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE IN CROATIA? Croatian History. The Croatian history has shaped their society, specifically the most recent civil war 1991-1995. On 25 June 1991 Croatia was able to claim its independence from Yugoslavia. The problem was that their independence caused a destructive response from the Croatian federal military triggering a full out war that went until 14 December 1995. Due to the war Croatia’s economy suffered immensely causing them to fall behind on the investment possibilities specifically entrance into the Central Locations and Eastern Europe. Croatia had a steady GDP growth of about 4% and 6% from 2000-2007 from credit-driven consumer spending and the increase of tourism. Another factor that aided in the growth was that the Kuna, (their currency) and the inflation rate remained stable during the 2000-2007 period. In 2008 Croatia had an unexpected decrease in the economy which has yet to recover. Croatian economist believes the problem lies within the growing trade deficit, obdurately high unemployment rate, uneven regional development and a challenging investment climate. (Economy – overview) Other...

Words: 4994 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Ukraine on the World Tourist Market

...Characteristic of tourist activity and its influence on economy of Ukraine 7 1.2. Tourist resources and infrastructure - the main components of development of tourism at Ukraine 16 Section 2. A place of Ukraine in development of the international tourism 20 2.1. Development of the Ukrainian travel business and its role in the international tourism 20 2.2. Modernization of tourist and recreational capacity of regions of Ukraine 24 Section 3. A condition and prospects of development of tourism and travel business in Ukraine 30 Conclusions 37 The list of the used sources 41 Introduction Background. Development of recreation and tourism sector in many countries is today one of the main...

Words: 12452 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Sasa

...PEST Analysis for a Company in the Tourism Industry  The Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the  world. The World Travel and Tourism Council estimates that in 2004  Travel and tourism is expected to generate  * US$ 5,490.4 billion of economic activity  * 10.4% of total GDP  * 214,697,000 jobs or 8.1% of total employment  * 12.2% of total exports [1]  My task is to conduct a PEST analysis for a company within the Tourism  industry.  Within the tourism industry, I have to select one area of interest  like transportation, accommodation and transportation etc. and then  one company doing business with these sectors related with the  tourism.  According to Leiper “Transportation is the only link between the  tourist-generating region and destination region”[2]So, transportation  was a more interesting sector to discuss in the report but I tried to  find a company which is related with all these main sub-sectors  discussed above in the report. ...

Words: 2452 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Spain Economic Report

...POLITICAL CONDITIONS AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS A member of the European Union, Spain, officially known as the Kingdom of Spain, is a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary form of democratic government. The head of state is King Juan Carlos 1 in whose reign Spain transitioned successfully to democracy in 1978. Spain is highly regarded for its measures to address gender equality and is...

Words: 3941 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Greece and Brazil: a Comparison of the Costs and Benefits Associated with Free Trade Policies and Restrictive Trade Policies

...Greece became a member of the European Union in the 1980’s and participated in the free trade environment that was and is a representation of the EU. Brazil, on the other hand, practices protectionism which also had both a negative and positive impact on the country. This paper looks at both the positive and the negative impacts of each country’s trade policies and practices. Historical Insight A Brief History of Greece Greece (The Hellenic Republic) is located on the far south of the Balkan Peninsula, and consists of over 1400 islands, the largest of which is Crete, and the capital is Athens. Greece has a population of around 11 million people as at 2013, according to the World Bank. Its GDP is 242.2, GDP growth -3.3% and inflation is -0.9% as also confirmed by the World Bank in 2013, see Table 1. Greece has a parliamentary democratic system, the main political parties are Table 1 | | | 2005 | 2012 | 2013 | Greece | GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) | 24,850.0 | 25,160.0 | 25,750.0 | 25,700.0 | Greece | Population, total (in millions) | 11.1 | 11.1 | 11.1 | 11.0 | Greece | GDP (current US$) (in millions) | 239,659.0 | 247,665.8 | 249,525.4 | 242,230.3 | Greece | GDP growth (annual %) | 5.0 | 0.9 | -6.6 | -3.3 | Greece | Life...

Words: 4170 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Inside the European Parliament

...Strasbourg centre Source: European Parliament (2014) 14 Figure 4. Brussels Centre Source: European...

Words: 12462 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Cuba - International Marketing

...ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STUDENTS: ICHIMOAEI VICTOR-DRAGOS MIHAI MINODORA-ELENA GROUP 133, SERIES A PROJECT THEME: CUBA TABLE OF CONTENT: 1. HISTORY 2. GOVERNMENT 3. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 3.1. LOCATION 3.2. CLIMATE 3.3. RESOURCES 4. RELIGION AND LAW 5. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION 6. CULTURE 6.1. MUSIC 6.2. SPORTS 7. ECONOMY AND MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 8. CURRENCY 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. HISTORY Cuba was discovered in the 15th century by Christopher Columbus and his conquistadors on the journey to discover a new route to East Asia through the west. He coasted in Santiago de Cuba and the city became the capital of the colony and remained such till the capital was relocated to Havana. On 2 December 1956 a party of 82 people on the yacht Granma landed in Cuba. They landed a week later, off course and under attack from Batista's forces, who had been anticipating their arrival. Fewer than 20 of the men on the ship survived. Batista's men claimed to have killed Castro yet could not produce a body. Months later New York Times reporter Herbert Matthews would publish the first in a series of articles that proved Castro was very much alive and made him a legend: "Fidel Castro, the rebel leader of Cuba's youth, is alive and fighting hard and successfully in the rugged, almost impenetrable fastness of the......

Words: 2900 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Pestle Analysis of Hilton Hotel

...The political approaches can influence the number visitors, both, tourists and business travellers’ visits to a nation. It may a concern for many people those who are visiting Northern Ireland because of the ongoing very delicate political situation. Moreover, Hilton’s performance is directly affected by consumer protection and employment laws in UK, as well as, the nature of competitive regulation, and risks of military invasion in the country.   ECONOMIC FACTORS National macroeconomic situation and factors and events impacting the situation are major factors affecting Hilton Hotels & Resorts business in the UK. For example, during the Olympic times in the UK most of the hotels were occupied and booked fully for the whole period. However, the situation was completely different once the Olympic Games were over. Additional economic factors that affect Hilton may include the extent of expected and real economic growth in the UK, national taxation policies, and seasonality and weather problems.   SOCIAL FACTORS The Hilton brand is very well known amongst international visitors and the UK is one of the popular destinations for the tourists and shopping lovers. A wide range of social factors impacting Hilton Hotels & Resorts include emerging trends in consumer lifestyle, consumer demographic variables, the impact of role models in consumer decision making, and growth rate of population. For...

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rural Tourism Development for the Prefecture of Lassithi in Crete

...In addition there is a demand for tourism and recreation activities in the countryside that is different than that of traditional resorts and mass tourism destinations (Page et al., 1997). The motivation behind of this project is based on the fact that during the last few decades the growth of Greek tourist industry has been dramatic. Traditional tourism development, concentrated in coastal and mountain resorts, urban and cultural centers, has proven that tourism...

Words: 3432 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Business Strategy

...ICT as such doesn’t directly increase the firm’s profitability, yet there is an indirect positive impact of factor ICT on a firm’s financial performance that emerges through other competitiveness factors, such as differentiation, qulity or image, which helps firms to stay competitive on the tourism markets. Key words: Information and communication technology (ICT), ICT implementation, competitiveness, strategy, small hotel industry, transition, Slovenia. JEL Classification: L8; M15; D24 1. INTRODUCTION In a global market economy service companies must identify the key resources that can possibly generate a competitive advantage. They should also explore how they can...

Words: 10644 - Pages: 43