Evaluate the Literature Which Attempt to Explain the Causality of Two Emotional Disorders and Explain How Our Body Responds to the Stress Response.

In: Other Topics

Submitted By maloeo
Words 1836
Pages 8
This essay will discuss the causes of two emotional disorders and explain how the human body responds to the stress response. Two causes of emotional disorders, stress and phobia will be discuss. It will also evaluate the theories and literature used to explaining the disorders.
According to Eysenck (2008) Emotional disorders affect human behaviour in relation to the cells, muscles, blood, hormones and the nervous system. The biological and psychological approaches allow psychologists and other health professionals’ to accessed deeper understanding of the disorders and its impact on human behaviour.
Stress which is one of the emotional disorders can be seen as a physical or psychological response to a threatening event. The causes of stress (the threatening event or the demands of a situation) for instance, exams or being redundant, are referred as stressor (Woods 1997).
Selye (1956, cited in Woods 1997) suggested that the human body respond to stress in three different patterns known as “the general adaptation syndrome” which is identified in three stages, firstly is the alarm response; this involves the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system to prepare the body for ‘fight, flight or frolic’. The hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to trigger the release of stress hormones like the adrenaline and noradrenaline to cause changes in the physiological activity such as, fighting inflammation and breathing difficulties. Secondly is the resistance, this is when the alarm response decreases but the stressor continues and the body continues to produce large amount of adrenaline in order for the body to cope with the stressor (the individual may look tense or jumpy). Lastly is exhaustion, this is when the body starts to indicate the effects of prolonged resistance to the stressor. Muscles become exhausted, the kidneys may become impaired and stores of…...

Similar Documents

Explain and Evaluate the Models of Abnormailty.

...Q(a): Explain in your own words what is meant by a 'model of abnormality'?[2] A: Models of abnormality each offers a different explanation for the origins of mental disorders. They are basically the conceptual models, each research and treatment adopted according to it. (b): Describe models of abnormality. [8] A: There are four type of models: Medical model (or Biological method), Psychodynamic model, Behavioral model and the Cognitive model. Medical model (or Biological model) is a view of abnormality that sees mental disorders as being caused by abnormal physiological processes such as genetics, brain damage and chemical imbalance. Abnormality according to this model is seen as an illness or disease. They treat mental disorders with the help of chemotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and psycho surgery. According to Psychodynamic model, abnormal behavior is caused by underlying psychological forces of which the individuals is probably unaware. It focuses on unconscious mind primarily and according to Sigmund Freud, if a child does not successfully complete any of the psychosexual stages, it will cause abnormality. It is treated by talk therapies and test like the rorshack and free-word association. The Behavioral model has a view that abnormal behavior are maladaptive, learned responses in the environment which can be replaced by more adapted behaviors. These disorders emerge due to classical conditioning, operant conditioning or social learning. It can be...

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military

...receive their disability rating and that time can increase with these additional claims; and (c) Providing medical care and disability compensation benefits to the Soldiers returning from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan can cost anywhere from $400 - $900 billion depending on the type of care required, how quickly they file their claims, and the growth rate of those benefits. The recommendations that need to be considered include: increasing the staff as well as the budget for Veterans Medical Centers especially those that specialize in mental health treatment; restructure the claims process and increase staffing to help speed the process to get Veterans claims to them more expeditiously. Cost/ Benefit Analysis of Providing Medical Care to Soldiers Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan-PTSD and TBI MSA 685 Project Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Science in Administration (Concentration in General Administration) By Ronnie E. Heare Student ID# 284890 Project Instructor Dr. Robert Weltzer April 17, 2009 CHAPTER I DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, and Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI have become an ever increasing problem in the military since the inception of the Global War on Terrorism. All too often Soldiers are misdiagnosed, given medication for depression and sent back for multiple tours to Iraq and Afghanistan. According to VA statistics,......

Words: 5865 - Pages: 24

How Can We Explain Conformity?

...How can we explain conformity? Draw on at least two examples Scott and Marshall (2005) explain conformity with people’s attempts on complying with other’s norms and rules in order to fulfill their expectations. But is it really that simple? Conformity is one of these terms in sociology that have too much different tones and shades, and thus requires deep examination. This essay looks at in detail at a number of classical studies on the subject of conformity as well as it analyzes a particular type of conformity, i.e. gender conformity. Examples and case studies given from both academic experiments and everyday life help this essay in arguing that conformity is a complex process happening to all of us most of the time even without our knowledge. Moreover, this essay provides information about why people actually conform. Every person is an individual. However, every person belongs to a group. The nationality of a person, their sex, their age, the colour of their skin, and even their hobbies are all different kinds of groups to which this person belongs to. Group membership helps building a type of social identity, while applying its norms and rules upon the individual (Brown 2000). Moreover, even in cases in which a clear hierarchy and roles are absent because of the instant development of the group, social influence remains existent. Social influence definition given by Allport (1968) is as it follows, ‘an attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling,......

Words: 2995 - Pages: 12

Acute Stress Response

...Abstract There are a compilation of many years of empirical evidence that has sought to diagnosis and treat stress and the extreme forms it. The evidence which has, persistently, perplexed scientists are the common stress reactions that are experience by normal functioning people and by those who are, actually, diagnosed with stress disorders. This research will examine acute stress response as it relates to all people who experience trauma or emotional events. The evidence brought forth by this research will define acute stress reaction and acute stress disorder, list the symptoms, and describe the differences between the two. The diagnosing criteria as described by the DSM-IV will be described, as well the history of its inclusion. This study will, also, compare and contrast different available treatments for acute stress disorder and the prevention of the disorder. Finally, a look into the necessary components needed to help people cope with the effects of trauma, will be examined from a professional and spiritual perspective. Keywords: Stress, acute-stress reaction, acute-stress disorder, trauma, treatment, prevention. Acute Stress Response: The Reaction and Disorder When people experience traumatic or emotionally taxing events, there is much to be said concerning what happens when people aren’t treated for the short term and long term effects of these traumatic circumstances. However, in more recent years, evidence points to a series of normal......

Words: 3621 - Pages: 15

Acute Stress Disorder

...Acute Stress Disorder Brett D. Klawitter Liberty University Abstract Acute Stress Disorder or ASD is a phenomenon that happens during or shortly after a traumatic event. It can affect people in many different ways but it is usually debilitating for up to one month. There has been controversy and stigma attached to the diagnosis of ASD since it was first added to the DSM-IV. This paper will illustrate the definition of ASD, the diagnostic guidelines, the difference between ASD and Acute Stress Reaction (ASR), symptoms and effective treatments, the impact of ASD and the coping skills needed to successfully get through it, and a biblical story and perspective about stress disorders. What is ASD and is it an appropriate response to trauma? Key words: Acute Stress Disorder, Acute Stress Response, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, DSM-IV, DSM-V, Symptoms, Treatment, God Acute Stress Disorder Introduction Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was introduced in the DSM-IV as a way to describe reactions a short time after a traumatic event, usually within the first month and possible precursor to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). ASD is the official diagnosis to evaluate the Acute Stress Response (ASR) but there are some differences. ASD is defined as symptoms that manifest during the time period of two days to four weeks after a traumatic event. There has been some changes to ASD as the DSM has been updated in the past year to DSM-V. Also it is important to mention that ASD......

Words: 3183 - Pages: 13

How Do the Theories of Emotion, Motivation and Development Explain the Events and Public Response to the James Bulger Case of 1993?

...How do the Theories of Emotion, Motivation and Development explain the events and public response to the James Bulger case of 1993? Theories allow people to see the world in a clear manner and allow them to perform actions based on what is rational. There are many theories that have evolved over the past century in Western cultures that attempt to explain how personalities develop, why people behave in certain ways, the type of environmental conditions that motivate them into acting in specific ways, and how these factors are interrelated. Some of the theories base their explanations on the social and emotional circumstances in the early years of an individual. This Essay aims to analyse the theories of emotion, motivation, and development and apply them to the events and public response to the James Bulger case of 1993. “ ‘I can never forgive Thompson and Venables for the horrendous, calculated, cold blooded murder of James.’ Said Denise Fergus the mother of the boy.” (Day. 2008). In an act that shocked the world, two ten year old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson kidnapped and murdered James Bulger aged just two. The murder of James Patrick Bulger took place in Kirkby, Merseyside, England, on the 12 of February 1993. Bulger was a victim of abduction, torture and murder by two 10-year-old boys, named Robert Thompson (born 23rd August 1982) and the other one named Jon Venables (born 13th August 1982). It started with Bulger's disappearance on the 12 of February......

Words: 2960 - Pages: 12

Explain the Importance of Homeostasis in Maintaining the Healthy Functioning of the Body

...D2: Explain the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body Temperature regulation of fall and rise above normal ranges The hypothalamus in the brain behaves as a thermostat and changes in the blood temperature. When the temperature of the blood comes the hypothalamus falls, this delivers impulses to organs in the body setting the heat reduced less. The opposite happens when the temperature of the blood enters the hypothalamus rises. The hypothalamus tends to activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase he heart rate when the body gets hot. The thermo-receptors point out an increase in the body temperature delivering messages to the brain. The body faces hypothermia is the body temperature falls or rises above their normal ranges. When the body temperature gets too cold or too hot, messages are mailed from the thermo-regulation in the skin or from the blood to the brain and the hypothalamus. The change that is senses by the brain allows a person to change in their attitude for example, when a person feels cold they may close a window. During Hypothermia when the body temperature falls below the normal temperature of the body can be dangerous as the heat energy is lost from the body than it is produced. Brain is the first feature affected making the person clumsy and slow. Hypothermia Hypothermia is a state where the body's normal body temperature of 37°C (98.6°F) drops below 35° (95°F). When the body is exposed to cold the......

Words: 3092 - Pages: 13

Emotional Response to Stress

...Personality and Individual Differences 34 (2003) 971–982 www.elsevier.com/locate/paid Stress and illness in American and Russian college students Dmitri Poltavski, F. R. Ferraro* Department of Psychology, University of North Dakota, Box 8380, Grand Forks, ND 58202-8380, USA Received 15 June 2001; received in revised form 24 January 2002; accepted 24 March 2002 Abstract The differences in perceptions of potentially stressful events among 139 college students from Russia and USA were investigated in relation to somatic illness. Individual interpretations were assessed using the Life Events Survey. The instrument was administered in conjunction with the State-Trait Anxiety Index. Results indicated more perceived stress by the Russian student sample but more frequent incidence of reported illness in the American student sample. American female college students showed greater anxiety levels and more perceived stress in comparison to male students. Females also reported a greater number of illness occurrences. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Stress; Illness; Cross-cultural; Russia; College students 1. Introduction For centuries, the maintenance of the internal physiological equilibrium has been considered vital for the well-being of any living organism. Having subsumed both emotional and physiological states of equilibrium under the term ‘‘homeostasis’’ Cannon (1932) thus brought psychology into the realm of physiology. Selye (1976)...

Words: 2992 - Pages: 12

Biplor Disorder

...responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: · University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. · Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Carpenter, S., & Huffman, K. (2010). Visualizing psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. All electronic materials are available on the student website. Week One: Introduction to Psychology Details Due Points Objectives 1.1 Describe the development of the discipline of psychology. 1.2 Compare and contrast research methods used to examine psychological phenomena. 1.3 Explain biological influences on the human brain. Readings Read Ch. 1 & 2 of Visualizing Psychology. Review this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. Participation Participate in class discussion. 1 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. 1 Individual Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet Complete the Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet located on the student web page. 10 Week Two: Awareness and Learning Details Due Points Objectives 2.1 Identify......

Words: 2233 - Pages: 9

Explain How Economic Systems Attempt to Allocate Resources Effectively

...relationships, responsibilities and authorities through which specific objectives are achieved an organization is a formal structure of relationships, responsibilities and authorities through which specific objectives are achieved 'A work organization is a social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals' (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004) The Profit & Nonprofit organizations in our society, there is a lot of profit and non-profit organizations that seek to serve all members of the community either through the sale of products or the provision of services. And there's an example of a profit organizations that provide services (Royal Jordanian Airlines) Growth in Size and Reputation Royal Jordanian’s role as Jordan’s national carrier has now long been established since 1963. Now under the guidance of His Majesty King Abdullah II, we have ascended from humble beginnings with three aircraft and four regional destinations, to become one of the elite members of a global alliance, a fleet comprising more than 25 aircraft, and a destination network of 54 global stops. Not only have we grown in size, our reputation has been cemented in the public eye through our full membership in one world since 2007. Centrally Located strategically located in Amman, Royal Jordanian's central hub provides the ideal location through which Europe, Asia, Africa, and anywhere in the Middle East can be easily reached. Our Amman City Terminal at 7th Circle provides a......

Words: 1166 - Pages: 5

Explain and Evaluate the Impact of the Ways in Which Agriculture Has Increased Net Productivity.

...Explain and evaluate the impact of the ways in which agriculture has increased net productivity. Agricultural ecosystems are made up of largely domesticated animals and plants to be used as food for mankind. There are considerable losses of energy at each trophic level of a food chain and since humans are often at the third or fourth trophic level, the energy we receive is only a small proportion available from the sun at the start of the food chain. Agriculture tries to ensure that as much of the available energy from the sun is transferred to human by increasing the productivity of a food chain. Productivity is defined as: the rate at which something is produced e.g. Plants are called producers because they produce chemical energy. The rate at which plants assimilate this chemical energy is called gross productivity. Gross productivity is measured for a given area during a given period of time, usually in kJm-2 year-1. Typically around 20% of this chemical energy is used by the plant for respiration. The remainder is known as net productivity which is available to the primary consumer in the food chain Net productivity: Net productivity = Gross productivity - Respiratory losses. There are two main factors affecting net productivity: - Efficiency of the crop carrying out photosynthesis: efficiency is improved if all the necessary conditions are supplied and there are no limiting factors. - Area of ground covered by leaves of the crop. In a natural......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

‘Explain How the Teleological Argument Attempts to Prove the Existence of God’

...The teleological argument also known as the design argument is a posteriori basing stuff primarily on knowledge gained from external experience. The idea being that basically due to the intricacies of the world there must be a designer. The word telos from teleological means purpose and purpose links in with Aristotle’s ideas of causality. The argument has two sides one being Aquinas’s on an argument to design and Paley’s being an argument from design. Aquinas 1224-1274 argument comes from the fifth of his five ways which is him pointing out the fact that there is evidence in the world around us of the existence of God therefore showing his Empirical knowledge. Furthermore Aquinas holds the belief that humans are always working towards something, such as knowledge (act for an end), as we strive to achieve the best outcome; meaning we do not achieve that end or outcome intentionally, instead it is for a reason. Aquinas reinforced the view that something which lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless guided by a being ‘endowed with knowledge and intelligence’, therefore, this shows that there must be some intelligent being that exists, pushing humans towards a goal or an end. Aquinas concluded that this being is God. Much like Aquinas William Paley made the argument about the existence of God through an argument from design. Paley, a theologian thought of the analogy through the use of a stone and a watch. He said that if you came across a stone never having seen......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Explain the Physiology of Two Named Body Systems in Relation to Energy Metabolism in the Body.

...In plant cells there's a thin lining, whereas in animal cells most of the cell is cytoplasm. | Plant and animal cells | Nucleus | Controls what happens inside the cell. Carries genetic information.In exams don't call the nucleus the 'brain' of the cell. That is not a good description and will not get you marks. | Plant and animal cells | Chloroplast | Where photosynthesis happens – chloroplasts contain a green substance called chlorophyll. | Plant cells only | Vacuole | Contains a liquid called cell sap, which keeps the cell firm. | Plant cells only | Cell wall | Made of a tough substance called cellulose, which supports the cell. | Plant cells only | “Animal cells are of various sizes and have irregular shapes. Most of the cells size range between 1 and 100 micrometers and are visible only with help of microscope. Trillions of cells are found in the human body. There are many different types of cells, approximately 210 distinct cell types in adult human body.” http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/animal-cell.html “Humans are multi-cellular animals. That means we are made of lots of cells, not just one cell. The cells in many multi-cellular animals and plants are specialised, so that they can share out the processes of life. They work together like a team to support the different processes in an organism.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/cells_systems/revision/4/...

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Observed in Literature

...sense of rigidity seem to overshadowing characters in literature explored herein with a glance at their own mental angst. These psychosomatic effects caused by extremely stressful conditions were often seen in these novels, but in hindsight they’re hardly ever described or labeled as the mental disorders they likely are. Such examples of psychological trauma are used to set the stage for describing the individuals involved without much thought to the consequence of naming such disorders or what the diagnosis entail, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. While Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has remained, by and large, an accompanying evil byproduct of war it is not solely reserved for the soldiers who fight in battle; PTSD can be observed condition in any human being that has ever experienced disturbing events like those seen during war and armed conflict. In the books A Long Way Gone, Novel Without a Name, and Slaughter House Five there are clear undertones and powerful warning sign of post-traumatic stress disorder revealed in the characters during the course of the novels even if the condition was unnamed. In the book A Long Way Gone by Ishmael Beah, the principal character in a story and author of this novel clearly pronounces his own battles with post-traumatic stress disorder. Beah speaks of the war violating the peaceful and happy ways of life in his home, Sierra Leone while he was only 10 years old and of how he was force onto an expedition to find his......

Words: 1814 - Pages: 8

How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims

...How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims Abstract How Therapists Deal with Painful Memories of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder Victims On March 3, 2006, Sergeant Blaire Smith was discharged from the Navy after spending eighteen months in Iraq. While Sergeant Smith was serving time in his deployed location, he was captured and a near death experienced occurred when he was threatened with beheading by his captors. Years later he began seeing flying horses and reported hearing voices from the television that were in a foreign dialogue. It was recommended he see a psychiatrist when family members realized that the foreign dialogue he heard came from the television when it was not turned on. The symptoms that Blaire had were similar to what many other veterans of wars experienced. The doctors treating Sgt. Blaire Smith were familiar with the different types of symptoms he was experiencing and they immediately diagnosed him with Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder (also known as PTSD). PTSD is a common anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a terrifying event in which a deadly physical harm occurred (Pastorino & Doyle- Portillo, 2010, P. 585). History of PTSD After many years of dealing with the various symptoms of Post – Traumatic Stress Disorder clinicians and psychologist have worked together to develop treatments that help reduced the symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms include depression, anxiety,......

Words: 6125 - Pages: 25