Evaluating Success and Failures of Monusco Peacekeeping Body in Congo
Submitted By masindeannet
MONUSCO’S FAILURES AND REASONS FOR THE FAILURES
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From 1990, United Nations implemented its peacekeeping role in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to the internal wars among the Congo people. MONUSCO is the biggest peacekeeping mission in the world. The presence of the UN peacekeeping body is to provide peace, protection in addition to security to the civilians. However, the peacekeeping agency has faced criticisms due to its failure to provide peace in Congo. In my evaluation, MONUSCO has failed in containing the political and ethnic conflicts among others. Therefore, this paper dwells on discussing failures and achievements of MONUSCO in Congo.
The following are the achievements of MONUSCO. MONUSCO has played a significant role in ensuring that the elections in Congo are held peacefully and democratically. Secondly, MONUSCO has created peacekeeping missions and projects such as educating women in HIV/AIDS prevention in Sange area in Congo. Thirdly, the agency is holding peacekeeping talks between the Congolese government and the MG23 which has helped reduce the tension between the two parties.
Despite the achievements of MONUSCO, it has failed in implementing its roles effectively. For example it failed in preventing rape and the violation of the human rights in eastern Congo in Burundi village. Mass rape of around 240 women in eastern Congo was carried out by Maï-Maï Sheka rebels and the Rwanda’s FDLR group in the period of July 30th to 4th August 2010 alone. The crimes took place within a few miles of the UN’s peacekeeping body (Mulumba, 2010).
Some other examples of its failure are: First, in its attempt to contain war in DRC, it achieved little in the cease-fire agreement it set up between Congo and other countries notably, Rwanda, Uganda, and Namibia. Approximately, 5000 women are sheltering at Goma camp while other citizens approximately millions have run away from their homes under the presence of the biggest UN peacekeeping body. MONUSCO has done little in helping end the war in eastern Congo.
In the eastern region of DRC, in the Goma area, civil war is still going on. In 2013, the United Nations Human Rights Commission gave a report indicating that more than 2.2 million DRC civilians were internally displaced, 70,000 people had flown to the neighboring countries such as Rwanda due to conflicts in their country (UNHCR, 2013). Secondly, in the North Kivu camps, many people were displaced and therefore decided to leave their homes as they are not secured by the Congo situation. For example, the recent fights that erupted in 2013 left many people displaced which added to the already displaced persons. Also, the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, made up of Hutus, attacked civilians in South Kivu in January 2012 which led to the killing of around 26 people. Additionally, the FDLR is reported to be recruiting child soldiers. According to the Human Rights Watch, it notes that between April 2012 and May 2013, FDLR has been involved in murdering around three hundred and fourteen civilians through various attacks.
The reasons for MONUSCO’s failure are such as the following. The MONUSCO’s army lacks a legal mandate to help achieve a common understanding and get immediate involvement in Congo issues. Secondly, MONUSCO does not have a conceptual framework to provide peace as it is unable to understand the issues facing Congo people especially ethnic and political issues that the people face hence it proves challenging in solving the issues in totality. MONUSCO’s success is due to the financial support it receives from international communities. Secondly, it has a high number of troops to help in the fight against rebels. Thirdly, the presence of UN brigade has further boosted its efforts in
Mulumba, A. (2010). The UN's Congo Disaster.
UNHCR. (2013). Democratic Republic of Congo.