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Evaluation of Factors Affecting Maintenance of Mosque Buildings in Osogbo, Osun State

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By rhymeshomes
Words 2650
Pages 11

JUNE, 2012

Poor maintenance practices have become a critical issue not only to government properties as it is often perceived by users but also to mosque buildings. This paper examined various factors affecting maintenance of mosque buildings in Osogbo, Osun state. To achieve the set objectives, research survey method was adopted. A total ten (10) central mosques representing 55% of the total number of central mosque buildings were selected in Osogbo. Questionnaires were used to collate opinions of custodians and users of these mosques. A succinct review of related literatures and field observations were also carried out. The analysis was carried out on the data collected from the administered questionnaires through a descriptive approach. Findings revealed that the maintenance management found in most mosques in Osun state were grossly inadequate while in some cases, were not in place. The paper concluded that mosque buildings maintenance were surrounded by lack of good management policy, use of poor quality materials and construction methods and incessant inflation rate as it affect the cost of repairs of any defective part(s). Recommendations were however given in order to alleviate the ravaging problems constantly caused by poor maintenance and these include introduction of a maintenance committee or officers which will help to ensure quick repair of defective components, provision of adequate funding and review of existing management policy.
Keywords: Mosque Buildings, Maintenance, Building Performance, Osogbo

Ọṣun State is an inland state in south-western Nigeria. Its capital is Osogbo. It is bounded in the north by Kwara state; in the east partly by Ekiti and Ondo states; in the south and west by Ogun and Oyo states respectively. Osun state is popularly known for its cultural heritage and as the ancestral origin for the Yorubas. The inhabitants of Osun state are predominantly Muslims. In Osun state, there are a set of mosques built in memory of prominent individuals and others built by communities to enable them perform their obligatory five-time salat prayers. While some of these mosques maintain their initial aesthetics and finishing, some are in a deplorable state. This is as a result of decline in maintenance practice due to various factors among which is lack of fund (Adenuga et al., 2007). This can be seen in the way most properties ranging from government to private deteriorate as a result of neglect. Mosques buildings are not left out of this poor maintenance practice. According to Turrel (1997), recognisable requirements for practicing good maintenance of building stock have been established and this has not been embraced universally. Iyagba, (2005) opined that it is practically impossible to produce maintenance free buildings but the maintenance aspect of any building can be achieved through a good design and skilled workmanship using good quality methods and materials.

In most mosques, the head of maintenance section or committee is called waliyy (guardian). He takes care of the mosque and gives directives to members of his group t ensure that the mosque is cleaned always (Ali, M.M. 1986). This is done by ensuring that there is adequate supply of water for ritual bath and ablution; maintenance of all sanitary wares and makes corrections to any defective part of the building. Absence of waliyy in mosque is mostly felt in the manner in which mosque maintenance is kept. Most mosque with exception of few such as national mosque where government take absolute responsibility for their requirement, do not consider having waliyy. Maintenance of mosques is however, left for anyone that wishes to do the work for Allah’s sake.
According to Quraishi, M.T (1984), there are many legally permissible ways by which funds can be generated for the maintenance of the mosque in Islam. One of such ways, which Islam duly recognized is Waqf, an endowment of property for the maintenance of the mosque. As an example, Ibn Tulūn was said to have constituted a large number of houses as endowment for his mosque and hospital. This endowment covered those for the salaries of mosque officials, for teachers' quarters, for the support of visitors, and for feeding, among others. Another method is the direct maintenance of the mosque by wealthy men who in most cases are builders of such mosque. In an Islamic state, some mosques may be under the patronage of the government and put under the care of a special ministry (Yusuf, T & Abdur Rahim, L. 2004). In this part of the world, special donations and periodic contributions are the means by which many mosques are being maintained. Launching programmes, appeal funds and other collections from occasions are other means of generating money for the maintenance of the mosque.
Today, there are so many problems responsible for deterioration in mosque buildings. According to Aradeon (1996), he enlisted some of these problems responsible for lack of maintenance to include unskilled professionals and lack of dedication on the part of the users. The two major problems revealed by this study are finance and lack of dedication. The repair costs for defective parts of mosques are often beyond available fund. Some of the characteristics of a deteriorating mosque are; * Maintenance problems resulting from paint peeling and cracks in walls; * Dampness on ground floor slab and lower wall due to poor construction methods and materials; * Drainage and grading problems due to the installation of new roof gutter; * Structural defects such as cracks in columns and beams * Poorly installed plumbing works.

Most mosque buildings in Nigeria lack adequate maintenance upkeep. Muslims generally are quick to erect mosques without giving adequate attention to its continuous maintenance. As a result, most mosques ended up becoming deteriorating over time with poor finishing, cracking walls and failing decorations among others. This however, cannot be ignored and hence the need to evaluate the factors affecting maintenance of mosque building in Osun state using appropriate with a probable solutions to prevent poor maintenance practice.
To find out the factors affecting maintenance of mosque buildings in Osogbo, Osun state with a view to identifying major maintenance problems and seeking appropriate solutions to them. This is achieved by examining the physical state of mosque buildings, and by determining various factors affecting maintenance of mosque buildings in Osogbo, Osun state.
In order to examine the lack of maintenance of mosque buildings in Osogbo, a list of both the public and private central mosques were surveyed. Simple random sampling method was adopted to allow for equal chances among all the mosques selected. Study population for this research comprises of mosque executive committees and users. Two sets of questionnaires were – Category A and Category B were structured for both the mosque executive committees and users respectively to obtain relevant primary data. A total of 10 out of 18 central mosques were selected for this research work. Each selected mosque received a total of 8 questionnaires; four (4) questionnaires were directed to executive committees and four (4) to mosque users in each mosque under study making a total of 80 questionnaires. However, a total of 40 questionnaires were completed and are used for data analysis. The secondary data were oral interviews and discussions, internet findings, journals, related books and photographs.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 shows the categories of questionnaire distribution among the executive committees and users of the mosques under study with high response level from the executive committee members.
Table 1: Number and response rate by Executive Committee and Users Category | Questionnaire | Responses | Percentage (%) of Response | Maintenance Executive | 40 | 28 | 70 | Users | 40 | 12 | 30 | Total | 80 | 40 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012 Table 2 presents the names and locations of the 10 central mosques surveyed.
Table 2: Mosque name and address (Executive Committees and Users) S/N | Mosque name | Number of Questionnaires sent out/Executive Committee and Users | Percentage of Response | 1 | Salaudeen Oladele Memorial Central Mosque, Africa, Osogbo | 4 | 4 | 6 | 2 | Oduwoye Central Mosque, Gbodofon, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 5 | 3 | Total Central Mosque, Oja Oba, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 3 | 4 | Ansarudeen Central Mosque, Sabo, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | Allahu Lateef Central Mosque, Road Safety Area, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Ajagbemokeferi Central Mosque, Onward, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 2 | 7 | Arademi Central Mosque Okefia, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 3 | 8 | Humani Adisa Central Mosque, Heritage Area, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 5 | 9 | Anabi Lonigba Central Mosque, Woleola, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 3 | 10 | Kosemani Central Mosque, Omo-west, Osogbo. | 4 | 4 | 4 | Total | 40 | 40 | 40 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012

Table 3: Age of mosques surveyed Description | Frequency | Percentage (%) | Less than 20 | 4 | 40 | 21-40 years | 6 | 60 | Above -40 years | Nil | 0 | Total | 20 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012

Table 4: Amount of money allocated for mosque maintenance annually Amount | Frequency | Percentage (%) | Less than N50,000 | 12 | 30 | N50,000 – N200,000 | 18 | 45 | N200,000 – N500,000 | 6 | 15 | Above N500,000 | 4 | 10 | Total | 40 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012

Table 5 Mosque maintenance employees Response | Frequency | Percentage (%) | Yes | 4 | 10 | No | 36 | 90 | Total | 40 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012

Table 6: Frequency of maintenance Degree of Response to defects | Number | Percentage (%) | 1-2 month after | 2 | 5 | 3-5 months after | 4 | 10 | 6-9 months after | 6 | 15 | Until when money is available | 28 | 70 | Total | 40 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012

Table 7: Fund generation Description | Frequency | Percentage (%) | Congregation | 32 | 80 | Community | 2 | 5 | Individual | 5 | 13 | Grants | 1 | 2 | Total | 40 | 100 |
Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012. Table 3 presents the age of mosques surveyed. 60% of the buildings are over 20years while the remaining 40% are below 20years. This shows that majority of the buildings are in a deplorable state as a result of their long existence without a periodic maintenance to keep the building fabrics in good condition. Table 4 shows the amount of money allocated for mosque maintenance annually is grossly inadequate to make good any major defective part such as cracks in the walls, dampness through the floor slab and leakage in roof. The implication is that only minor corrective maintenance works such as floor patching and tiles replacement can be done through a year thereby leaving a major defect to the mercy of volunteer among the congregation. Table 5 shows that 90% of the mosques surveyed have no maintenance officers that are employed to ensure continuous maintenance works in the building. The upkeep of the mosques where there are no maintenance officers are left to individuals who come to observe prayers in the mosques. This explains why the buildings are mostly in deplorable states as no report is made of any defective part until it becomes deteriorated. Table 6 shows the degree of response to defects in the building. 70% of the mosques under survey respond to defects only when money is available. While 15% respond within 6-9 months after failure occurred, 5% respond within 1-2 months and10% respond within 3-5 months they noticed the defect. The implication of this is that majority of the mosques are left to further deteriorate and this end up shortening the life span of the building. Table 7 presents how fund is generated for building maintenance. 80% of the mosque surveyed relied on their congregation; 5% of the respondents generate money through community intervention; 13% generates their fund through prominent people in the society and 2% from grants. This explains why most of the mosques surveyed are incapable of carrying out a major maintenance work as the contribution from congregation is usually of little amount. And in some days, the mosque might not even receive any contribution.

Figure 1: The approach view of the Kosemani Central Mosque, Omo-west, Osogbo -Deteriorating wall finish.
(Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012)
Figure 2: Ajagbemokeferi Central Mosque, Onward, Osogbo – Discolouration on walls.
(Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012)

Figure 3: Ablution room- Dampness and cracks on wall with algae due to poor maintenance and construction work.
(Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012)
Figure 4: Deplorable well with broken cover .
(Source: Author’s fieldwork 2012)

All buildings irrespective of the type require maintenance if it must stand the test of time and also contribute meaningfully to economic development. Mosque buildings are not left out of this. The study revealed that the major factors causing poor maintenance in mosques surveyed are lack of funds and dedication on the part of its custodians. Majority of the mosques provide budget for maintenance works but are often found grossly inadequate. And where money is found adequate it is mostly mismanaged. This unpardonable attitude affects all aspects of our national endeavours .The study also revealed that the absence of maintenance officer(s) waliyy contributes greatly to poor maintenance practice found in mosques surveyed. Relying on congregation who only comes in when it is salat period to make good any defective part of the building is not a good practice.

The following recommendations are proposed to improve on the maintenance of mosque buildings. * Maintenance officers are to be employed to ensure no defect in the building is left unattended to. * Proactive approach to maintenance practice should be adopted for a speedy improvement. * Proper consideration should be given when electing or selecting the executive committees to ensure that they are not only religious but also dedicated to the cause of Islam.

Adenuga, O.A & Iyagba, R.O.A (2005) Strategic Approach to Maintenance Practices for Public Buildings in Lagos State, Journal of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos 5(1).
Adenuga, O. A. (2008), ‘Evaluation of maintenance management practice in public hospital buildings in South-West, Nigeria’, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Department of Building, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Ali M.M. (1986). The Religion of Islam, Delhi: Taj Company.
Aradeon, D . (1996) Case Study of Historic City, Ile-Ife, Nigeria . Bamako, Mali. Regional Seminar on Protection of Cultural Heritage within Urban Environment in Sub-Sahara Adrice.
Iyagba, R.O.A (2005) The Menace of Sick Buildings: A Challenge to all for its Prevention and Treatment, An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at the University of Lagos.
Turrell, P (1997) Small is Different: A Strategy of Effective Management of Maintenance in Nonprofit- making Organization, The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, pp 1- 3.
Quraishi, M. T. (1984). Islam: A Way of Life and a Movement, Indianapolis: American Trust Publications.
Yusuf, T. & Abdul Rahim, L. (2004). The Mosque: Basics and Management, Lagos: Salsabil Associates.

APPENDIX I: Questionnaire on maintenance of mosque building in Osogbo, Osun state. Category A: For Mosques Executive Committee. *

Gender: Male Female * Are you residence in this community? Yes No *

Age of Mosque: Less than 20years 21-40years Above 40years *

Amount of money allocated for mosque maintenance annually? Less than N50,000
N50, 000 –N200, 000 N200, 000 –N500, 000 Above N500, 000 *

Is there any mosque maintenance employee(s)? Yes No *

How often do you carryout maintenance works? 1-2months after 3-5months after
6-9months after Until when money is available * How you generate fund for mosque maintenance? Congregation Community
Individual Grants * What is the mosque capacity? Less than 50 51-150 151-500 Above 500

APPENDIX II: Questionnaire on maintenance of mosque building in Osogbo, Osun state. Category B: For Mosque Users. *

Gender: Male Female * Are you residence in this community? Yes No *

Do you participate in general sanitation of the mosque? Yes No *

Do you contribute every day after each prayer observed in the mosque? Yes No *

Are you satisfied with the condition of the mosque? Yes No *

How often do you observe salat in this mosque? Once in a day Twice in a day Thrice daily Four times daily Five times daily

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