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Evaluation of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By tondeee
Words 825
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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent
Solubility is defined as the ability of one substance to dissolve within another substance.

What Affects Solubility?
One of the factors that has a profound impact on solubility is temperature. Temperature, a measure of the available thermal energy, can increase the solubility of solids in liquids. This phenomenon can be observed in the creation of supersaturated solutions, or mixtures that contain far more of the solid dissolved in a liquid than would be possible under room temperature conditions. One application of supersaturated solutions can be seen in the production of rock candy where high-temperature sugar solutions readily form sugar crystals on the surface of objects placed in the solution. For gases that are dissolved in liquids, however, the trend is just the opposite. Cooler temperatures increase the solubility of gases in liquids, and higher temperatures decrease the solubility of gases. An example of the effect of temperature on dissolved gases can be found in the loss of dissolved oxygen in lakes or streams during extremely hot weather, a condition that results in the death of fish.

In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of it will appear as a separate phase (as a precipitate if solid or as effervescence or inclusion if gaseous).

Factors Affecting Saturation
· The solubilities of ionic solutions increase with an increase in temperature, with the exceptions of compounds containing anions.
· Finely divided solids have greater solubilities.
· In contrast to the solubility rate, which depends primarily on temperature, the rate of crystallization depends on the concentration of the solute at the crystal surface.
· In a still solution, concentration builds at the solute surface causing higher crystallization; therefore, stirring the solution prevents the build up, maximizing the net dissolving rate.
· The net dissolving rate is defined as the dissolving rate minus the crystallization rate.
· If the rates of solubility and crystallization are the same, the solution is saturated, and dynamic equilibrium is reached.
Le Chatelier's principle predicts the responses when an equilibrium system is subjected to change in temperature, pressure or concentration. This principle states the following: · For an increase of temperature, solubility increases which causes an endothermic reactions. · For an decrease of temperature, solubility decreases which causes an exothermic reactions. · Adding an inert gas to a constant-volume equilibrium mixture has no effect on the equilibrium. · An increase in the external pressure causes a decrease in reaction volume and shifts equilibrium to the right.

Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. It can also refer to a vapor of a compound that has a higher (partial) pressure than the vapor pressure of that compound.
Defining Supersaturated
The term supersaturated means that a solution contains more of a dissolved material than it could typically dissolve under normal circumstances. In other words, it means that a solution is more highly-concentrated than is normally possible. It can also refer to a vapor that exceeds the normal saturation vapor pressure at a given temperature. This means a vapor that contains more liquid than it would typically be able to hold without creating condensation.
Crystallisation is a separation technique[->0] that is used to separate a solid[->1] that has dissolved[->2] in a liquid[->3] and made a solution[->4]
The solution is warmed in an open container, allowing the solvent[->5] to evaporate, leaving a saturated solution.
A solution that has as much solid dissolved in it as it can possibly contain is called a saturated solution[->6].
As the saturated solution is allowed to cool[->7], the solid will come out of the solution and crystals will start to grow.
The crystals can then be collected and allowed to dry
EQUILIBRIUM LAW
In a chemical reaction[->8], chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations[->9] which have no further tendency to change with time.[1] Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction[->10]. The reaction rates[->11] of the forward and backward reactions are generally not zero, but equal. Thus, there are no net changes in the concentrations of the reactant(s) and product(s). Such a state is known as dynamic equilibrium[->12]

[->0] - e-separation-physical-methods.htm
[->1] - e11-distance-between-particles-solid-liquid-gas.htm
[->2] - e-solution-solvent-solute.htm
[->3] - e11-distance-between-particles-solid-liquid-gas.htm
[->4] - e-solution-solvent-solute.htm
[->5] - e-solution-solvent-solute.htm
[->6] - f10.htm
[->7] - f10.htm
[->8] - /wiki/Chemical_reaction
[->9] - /wiki/Concentration
[->10] - /wiki/Reversible_reaction
[->11] - /wiki/Reaction_rate
[->12] - /wiki/Dynamic_equilibrium

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