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Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential Via Probabilistic Methods Based on Shear Wave Velocity

In: Science

Submitted By xavierh86
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˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ˜‹ƒ ”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• ƒ•‡† ‘ Š‡ƒ” ƒ˜‡ ‡Ž‘…‹–› –”‘†—…–‹‘ Š‡ …‘˜‡–‹‘ƒŽ ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‰ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ •—•…‡’–‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ ‰‹˜‡ •‘‹Ž •‹–‡ †‡’‡† ‘ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•–• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•–  ‹–”‘†—…‡† „› ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹•• ƒ† –Š‡ …‘‡ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•–  ‹–”‘†—…‡† „› ‘„‡”–•‘ ƒ† ƒ’ƒ‡ŽŽƒ Š‡  „ƒ•‡† ‡–Š‘† ‹• ƒ†‘’–‡† ƒ• –Š‡ ‘•– ™‹†‡•’”‡ƒ† ‡–Š‘† —•‡† –Š”‘—‰Š‘—– ‘”–Š ‡”‹…ƒ ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡  „ƒ•‡† ‡–Š‘† ‰ƒ‹‹‰ …‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡ ”‡…‘‰‹–‹‘ ‘™‡˜‡” •–—†‹‡• †‘‡ „› –‘‘‡ ƒ† †”—• Šƒ˜‡ ”‡˜‡ƒŽ‡† –Š‡ •—……‡•• ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• „ƒ•‡† ‘ •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› Š‡ –Š”‡‡ ‡–Š‘†• ƒ† ƒ”‡ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ Ž‹‹– •–ƒ–‡• ƒ† Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ …ƒŽŽ‡† †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• Š‡ ƒ‹ ‹••—‡ ™‹–Š †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• ‹• –Š‡‹” ˆƒ‹Ž—”‡ –‘ ƒ††”‡•• —…‡”–ƒ‹–‹‡• ‹†—…‡† –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ’”‘…‡•• ‘ ƒ††”‡•• –Š‡ ‹••—‡
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ Šƒ˜‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ƒ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… ˆ”ƒ‡™‘” ˆ‘” Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• „ƒ•‡† ‘ •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› –ƒ†ƒ”† ‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‡•– Š‡  „ƒ•‡† ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ˆ‘” †‡–‡”‹‹‰ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž• ‹• ˆ‹”•– ‹–”‘†—…‡† „› ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹•• ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹•• †‡ˆ‹‡ –Š‡ Ž‘ƒ†‹‰ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡† „› ƒ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ƒ• –Š‡ ‹ Š‡ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ •‘‹Ž ƒ• –Š‡ …›…Ž‹… ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• •–ƒ–‡† ƒ• ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹••

‹‹–‹ƒŽ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ‘˜‡”„—”†‡ •–”‡•• ƒ– –Š‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹‡† †‡’–Š –‘–ƒŽ ‘˜‡”„—”†‡ •–”‡•• ™Š‡”‡ ƒ– –Š‡ •ƒ‡ †‡’–Š ’‡ƒ Š‘”‹œ‘–ƒŽ ‰”‘—† •—”ˆƒ…‡ ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ……‡Ž‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‰”ƒ˜‹–› ƒ† •Š‡ƒ” •–”‡•• ”‡†—…–‹‘ ˆƒ…–‘” –‘ …‘’‡•ƒ–‡ ˆ‘” ˆŽ‡š‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž ’”‘ˆ‹Ž‡ •ƒˆ‡–› ˆƒ…–‘” ‹• ‡š’”‡••‡† ƒ• ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹••

‹ ™Š‹…Š ˜ƒŽ—‡• Ž‡•• –Šƒ ‘‡ •—‰‰‡•– ƒ Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹ƒ„Ž‡ …ƒ•‡ ƒ† ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‰”‡ƒ–‡” –Šƒ ‘‡ •—‰‰‡•– ƒ ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹ƒ„Ž‡ …ƒ•‡ ‹…‡ ‹–• ‹–”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡  „ƒ•‡† ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ‹• ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† ƒ† —’†ƒ–‡† –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ‹‹ ‡‡† ‡– ƒŽ ”‡‹–‡”’”‡– ƒ† ’Ž‘–  ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‹‹‹ ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‡† ™‹–Š ˆ‹‡Ž† ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡™ •–ƒ†ƒ”† ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …—”˜‡• ƒ”‡ …”‡ƒ–‡† ˆ‘” •ƒ†• ™‹–Š ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ˜ƒŽ—‡• ƒ† ™‹–Š ˜ƒ”‹‘—• ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡–• Š‡ …—”˜‡• ˆ‘” …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ†• ƒ† •‹Ž–› •ƒ†• ƒ”‡ •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡• ƒ† ”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž›

‹‰—”‡ ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ –”‡•• ƒ–‹‘• ƒ—•‹‰ ‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† ƒŽ—‡• ˆ‘” Ž‡ƒ ƒ†• ˆ‘” ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡• ‹‰—”‡• ƒ†

‹‰—”‡ ‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ –”‡•• ƒ–‹‘• ƒ—•‹‰ ‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† ƒŽ—‡• ˆ‘” Ž‡ƒ ƒ†• ˆ‘” ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡• ˆ”‘ ‡‡† ‡– ƒŽ

‘‡ ‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ‡•– ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡  ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ‘„‡”–•‘ ƒ† ƒ’ƒ‡ŽŽƒ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ƒ  „ƒ•‡† Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ –‡…Š‹“—‡  ”‡•—Ž–• ƒ”‡ –›’‹…ƒŽŽ› ‘”‡ †‡’‡†ƒ„Ž‡ –Šƒ ‘–Š‡” ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•–• ”‡•—Ž–• ‹…Ž—†‹‰  ƒ†  ‡…‡” ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•– ‹˜ —‡ –‘ ‹–• …‘–‹—‘—• ”ƒ’‹† ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ‘ˆ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡  ‹• ’”‘˜‡ –‘ „‡ –Š‡ ‘•– ”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡ –‘‘Ž ˆ‘” •–”ƒ–‹‰”ƒ’Š‹… ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘ ˜ ‘„‡”–•‘ ƒ† ƒ’ƒ‡ŽŽƒ †‡”‹˜‡ …‘””‡Žƒ–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ …ƒ’ƒ„Ž‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† …‘‡ „‡ƒ”‹‰ ˆ‘” •ƒ†• ƒ† •‹Ž–• ‘„‡”–•‘ ƒ† ”‹†‡ …”‡ƒ–‡ …—”˜‡• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ˆ‘” †‡–‡”‹‹‰  ˆ‘” …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ†• Š‡ …—”˜‡• ™‡”‡ …”‡ƒ–‡† „ƒ•‡† ‘  …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”› †ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ –ƒ” ƒ† Ž•‘ ƒ† —œ—‹ ‡– ƒŽ Š‡ ’”‘…‡†—”‡ ”‡“—‹”‡• ‘”ƒŽ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‹’ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‡š’”‡••‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ‘—† ‡– ƒŽ ™Š‡”‡ ‘”ƒŽ‹œ‹‰ ˆƒ…–‘” ˆ‘” …‘‡ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ ’”‡••—”‡ ‹ –Š‡ •ƒ‡ —‹–• —•‡† ˆ‘” ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ‘˜‡”„—”†‡ ’”‡••—”‡ ‡š’‘‡– ”ƒ‰‹‰ ˆ”‘ –‘ „ƒ•‡† ‘ •‘‹Ž …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ƒ† ˆ‹‡Ž† …‘‡ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡† ƒ– –Š‡ –‹’ ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› –Š‡ …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ† „ƒ•‡ …—”˜‡ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ …ƒ „‡ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† „› ‘„‡”– ƒ† ”‹†‡ ™Š‡”‡ …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ† …‘‡ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘”ƒŽ‹œ‡† –‘ ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž›

‹‰—”‡ —”˜‡ ‡…‘‡†‡† ˆ‘” ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ  ˆ”‘  ƒ–ƒ ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š ’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ–ƒ ˆ”‘ ‘’‹Ž‡† ƒ•‡ ‹•–‘”‹‡• ‡’”‘†—…‡† ˆ”‘ ‘„‡”–•‘ ƒ† ”‹†‡ ‹‰—”‡ ˆ”‘ ‘—† ‡– ƒŽ

Š‡ƒ” ƒ˜‡ ‡Ž‘…‹–› ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ••‡••‡– —•‹‰ •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ”‡“—‹”‡• †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š”‡‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘˜‡”„—”†‡ •–”‡•• …‘””‡…–‡† ƒ† …›…Ž‹… ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ Š‡ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ …ƒ „‡ †‡–‡”‹‡† ˆ”‘ ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹•• ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› –‡•–• ‹†‹…ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‰ •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ †‡’‡†• ‘ ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ •–”‡••‡• ‹ –Š‡ †‹”‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™ƒ˜‡ ’”‘’ƒ‰ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ ‘–‹‘ ˜‹ Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‹ –Š‡ ˜‡”–‹…ƒŽ †‹”‡…–‹‘ ƒ”‡ †‡ˆ‹‡† „› –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡

™Š‡”‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡” ™Š‹…Š †‡’‡†• ‘ •‘‹Ž •–”—…–—”‡ ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ ˜‡”–‹…ƒŽ •–”‡•• ƒ– –Š‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹‡† †‡’–Š ‹‹–‹ƒŽ ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡ Š‘”‹œ‘–ƒŽ •–”‡•• ƒ– –Š‡ •ƒ‡ †‡’–Š ƒ† •–”‡•• ‡š’‘‡– ™‹–Š ƒ ˜ƒŽ—‡ ƒ”‘—†  ƒ††‹–‹‘ –Š‡ •–”‡•• …‘””‡…–‡† •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› …ƒ „‡ †‡ˆ‹‡† „› ›‘”ƒ ‘„‡”–•‘ ‡– ƒŽ

™Š‡”‡ ‘˜‡”„—”†‡ •–”‡•• …‘””‡…–‡† ƒ† ‘ˆ ’”‡••—”‡ ”‹‰‹ƒŽŽ› ’”‘’‘•‡† „› ‘„”› –Š‡ …›…Ž‹… ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ‹• „ƒ•‡† ‘ ƒ ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ™Š‹…Š ‹• –Š‡ …‘•–ƒ– ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ …›…Ž‹… •Š‡ƒ” •–”ƒ‹ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† ‘„”› • ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ –‘

™Š‡”‡ Ž‹‹–‹‰ —’’‡” ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‘” …›…Ž‹… Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ† …—”˜‡ ˆ‹––‹‰ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ƒ† ƒ‰‹–—†‡ •…ƒŽ‹‰ ˆƒ…–‘” –‘ ƒ††”‡•• –Š‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…– ‘ˆ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ƒ‰‹–—†‡ ‘”‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒŽŽ›  …ƒ „‡ †‡ˆ‹‡† „› ‘—† ‡– ƒŽ

™Š‡”‡ ‘‡– ƒ‰‹–—†‡ ƒ† ‡š’‘‡– ™‹–Š ƒ ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‘” ƒ† ƒ ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‘” Š‡ ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …—”˜‡ ˆ‹––‹‰ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ƒ† ƒ”‡ †‡’‡†‡– ‘ –Š”‡‡ ˆƒ…–‘”• –Š‡ ‡–Š‘† —•‡† ˆ‘” …‘’—–‹‰ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ –Š‡ ™ƒ›  ‹• †‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ† –Š‡ †ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡ ‘ˆ ˆ‹‡Ž† ’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘• ˜‹‹ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ •–ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ƒ••—’–‹‘ ˆ‘” ƒ Ž‹‹–‹‰ —’’‡” ˜ƒŽ—‡ ‘ˆ ‹• ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—• –‘ –Š‡ ƒ••—’–‹‘ ‹  ƒ†  „ƒ•‡† ‡–Š‘†• ‹ ™Š‹…Š ˜‹‹‹ ƒ† ƒ …‘””‡…–‡† –‹’ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‹• †‡‡‡† ‘– ˆ‡ƒ•‹„Ž‡ ƒ„‘˜‡ ƒ …‘””‡…–‡† „Ž‘™ …‘—– ‘ˆ ‹š ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ †˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ” ƒ˜‡ ‡Ž‘…‹–› ‹• ’”‘˜‡ –‘ „‡ ƒ ˜ƒŽ—ƒ„Ž‡ •—„•–‹–—–‡ –‘ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ „ƒ•‡† ‡–Š‘†• Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ˜‡ –Š‘—‰Š ‹• ƒ ‡š–”‡‡Ž› •ƒŽŽ •–”ƒ‹ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ƒ† Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ •—ˆˆ‹…‹‡–Ž› Žƒ”‰‡ •–”ƒ‹ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– š „‘–Š ƒ”‡ ‹ˆŽ—‡…‡† „› –Š‡ •ƒ‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ˜‘‹† ”ƒ–‹‘ •–ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ •–”‡•• •–”‡•• Š‹•–‘”› ƒ† ‰‡‘Ž‘‰‹… ƒ‰‡ š‹ ……‘”†‹‰ –‘ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ –Š‡ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ˜‹ƒ Šƒ• —‡”‘—• ƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡• ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‹ •‘‹Ž• ™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡ †‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž– –‘ •ƒ’Ž‡ •—…Š ƒ• ‰”ƒ˜‡ŽŽ› •‘‹Ž• ™Š‡”‡ ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ –‡•–• ƒ› „‡ ‡””‘‡‘—• ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‘ •ƒŽŽ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› •’‡…‹‡• ’‡”‹––‹‰ †‹”‡…– …‘’ƒ”‹•‘• „‡–™‡‡ Žƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ƒ† ˆ‹‡Ž† „‡Šƒ˜‹‘” …ƒ „‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡† „› –Š‡ •’‡…–”ƒŽ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ •—”ˆƒ…‡ ™ƒ˜‡•   ƒ– •‹–‡• ™Š‡”‡ „‘”‹‰• ƒ”‡ ‘– ’‡”‹••‹„Ž‡ •—…Š ƒ• Žƒ†ˆ‹ŽŽ• ƒ† ’”‘„Ž‡ƒ–‹… •ƒ’Ž‡ •‹–‡• …‘•‹•–‹‰ ‘ˆ …‘„„Ž‡• ƒ† „‘—Ž†‡”• ‹• ƒ „ƒ•‹… ‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ ’”‘’‡”–› ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž …‘•–‹–—‡–• ”‡Žƒ–‡† –‘ •ƒŽŽ •–”ƒ‹ •Š‡ƒ” ‘†—Ž—• „› ‘” ƒ”‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ› ”‡“—‹”‡† ˆ‘” ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ •‹–‡ ”‡•’‘•‡ ƒ† •‘‹Ž •–”—…–—”‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ Š‡ƒ” ƒ˜‡ ‡Ž‘…‹–› ƒ•‡ ‹•–‘”› ƒ–ƒ

†”—• ‡– ƒŽ —–‹Ž‹œ‡ ƒ †ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡ …‘’‘•‡† ‘ˆ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡• ƒ† –‡•– ƒ””ƒ›• –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ƒ •‡– ‘ˆ …—”˜‡• –‡•– ƒ””ƒ› ‹• †‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ• …”‘•• Š‘Ž‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• †‘™ Š‘Ž‡ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• •‡‹•‹… ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• •—•’‡•‹‘ Ž‘‰‰‹‰ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‘”   ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• š‹‹ Š‡ …‘„‹ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ‰‹˜‡ ‡ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ƒ† –‡•– ƒ””ƒ› ˆ‘”• ƒ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”› ˆ –Š‡ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ‹–‡”’”‡–‡† ƒ”‡ ˆ‘” Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡ƒ‹‹‰ ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› ‡ƒ”Ž› –Š”‡‡ ˆ‘—”–Š• ‘ˆ ƒŽŽ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ƒ”‡ ˆ‘” ƒ–—”ƒŽ

ƒŽŽ—˜‹ƒŽ •‘‹Ž• ƒ† –Š‡ ”‡ƒ‹‹‰ ‘‡ ˆ‘—”–Š ˆ‘” Š›†”ƒ—Ž‹… ‘” †—’ ˆ‹ŽŽ• ‡•—Ž–• •Š‘™ –Š‡ Žƒ›‡” ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‰”‡ƒ–‡•– ’”‡†‹…–‹‘ ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‘” –Š‡ …”‹–‹…ƒŽ Žƒ›‡” ‹• –Š‡ Žƒ›‡” ‘ˆ ‘ ’Žƒ•–‹… •‘‹Ž ƒ† ’‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ƒ”‡ –›’‹…ƒŽŽ› –Š‡ „‡Ž‘™ –Š‡ ‰”‘—†™ƒ–‡” –ƒ„Ž‡ ™Š‡”‡ ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ •ƒŽŽ‡•– ƒ† ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ –‘ ‹• –Š‡ Žƒ”‰‡•– š‹‹‹ Š‡ †‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ ‘‡– ƒ‰‹–—†‡ •‘‹Ž –›’‡ ƒ† ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡– ƒ”‡ †‡’‹…–‡† „› ‹‰—”‡ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ ƒ† ˆ‘” •ƒ†• ™‹–Š ˆ‹‡ …‘–‡–• „‡Ž‘™ Š‡ ƒƒŽ›œ‡† ƒ …‘””‡Žƒ–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ ™ƒ• ’Ž‘––‡† ™‹–Š ƒ „‡•– ˆ‹– ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‘ˆ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡

ƒ† ™Š‡”‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ ƒ •‡”‹‡• ‘ˆ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” —’’‡”

• ƒ †‹”‡…– ”‡•—Ž– †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡– †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡

™Š‡”‡ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡– ‹ ƒ•• ’‡”…‡– Š‡ ”‡…‘‡†‡† ‹‰—”‡ ˆ‘” ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ ƒ† ƒ”‡ †‡ˆ‹‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› ˆ‘” ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ƒ† ˆ‘” ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ‘—† ‡– ƒŽ

…—”˜‡• •Š‘™ ‹ ƒ† „ƒ•‡† ‘

‹‰—”‡ ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ•‡ ‹•–‘”‹‡• ƒ•‡† ‘ ‹‡Ž† ‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ ƒ† ‹‡• ‘–‡– ˆ‘” ‹ˆˆ‡”‡– ƒ”–Š“—ƒ‡ ƒ‰‹–—†‡• ‹‰—”‡• ƒ† ˆ”‘ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡

‹‰—”‡ —”˜‡• ‡…‘‡†‡† ˆ‘” ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ  ˆ”‘ ‡ƒ•—”‡‡–• ‹ ƒ†• ƒ†
”ƒ˜‡Ž• ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š ƒ•‡ ‹•–‘”› ƒ–ƒ ƒ•‡† ‘ ‘™‡” ‘—† ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ  ˆ‘” ƒ‰‡ ‡…‘‡†‡† „›   ‘”•Š‘’ ‘—† ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† „› ‡‡† ƒ† †”‹•• ‡– ƒŽ ƒ†

••—‡• ™‹–Š ‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• „› ƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ —•‹‰ –Š‡ ’”‡˜‹‘—• –Š”‡‡ ‡–Š‘†•   ƒ† †‡–‡”‹‹‰ ƒ† …‘’—–‹‰ ƒ”‡ …ƒŽŽ‡† †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• Š‡•‡ –Š”‡‡ ‡–Š‘†• ”‡Ž› ‘ Ž‹‹– •–ƒ–‡• ™Š‹…Š †‹•–‹‰—‹•Š Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡• ˆ”‘ ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ Š‡ Ž‹‹– •–ƒ–‡• ƒ”‡ …‘‘Ž› ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡† ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽŽ› ƒ† ™‹–Š ƒ „—‹Ž– ‹ …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹• „ƒ•‡† ‘ ˆ‹‡Ž† ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž ’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ ƒ‰ƒ‹•– Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ š‹˜ Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• †‘ ‘– …‘•‹†‡” ‡š’Ž‹…‹–Ž› –Š‡ —…‡”–ƒ‹–‹‡• ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‡† ™‹–Š ‹’—– †ƒ–ƒ ƒ† ‘” ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ‘†‡Ž• ƒ’’Ž‹‡† š˜ Š‡ ƒ’’Ž›‹‰ –Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ƒ ‡‰‹‡‡” „ƒ•‡• Š‹• Š‡” †‡…‹•‹‘ ‘ ƒ …‘’—–‡† Š‡ —‹Ž†‹‰ ‡‹•‹… ƒˆ‡–› ‘—…‹Ž ”‡…‘‡†• ƒ ‘ˆ ˆ‘” †‡•‹‰ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ‡‡† ‡– ƒŽ ‡–Š‘† –‘ …‘’‡•ƒ–‡ ˆ‘” —…‡”–ƒ‹–‹‡• ‘ ƒ’’Ž› –Š‡ ’”‡˜‹‘—• ”‡…‘‡†ƒ–‹‘ ƒ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘† —•– „‡ •Š‘™ –‘ „‡ ƒ• …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ• –Š‡ ‡‡– ‡– ƒŽ ‡–Š‘† ‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ –Š‡ ”‡…‘‡†‡† „› –Š‡ —‹Ž†‹‰ ‡‹•‹… ƒˆ‡–› ‘—…‹Ž ƒ› „‡ ‹˜ƒŽ‹† ƒ† ƒ ƒ†Œ—•–‡– ƒ› „‡ ™ƒ””ƒ–‡† š˜‹ ……‘”†‹‰ –‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ –Š‡ •‘Ž—–‹‘ –‘ –Š‹• ‹••—‡ ƒ› „‡ ”‡•‘Ž˜‡† „› —•‹‰ ƒ ‘”‡ …‘•‹•–‡– ‡ƒ•—”‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‹–‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹… ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ƒ› „‡ ‹–‡”’”‡–‡† „› Ž‘‰‹•–‹… ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ‘” ƒ›‡•‹ƒ ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š š˜‹‹ ”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘” ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘”•

—……‡‡†‹‰ †”—• ƒ† –‘‘‡ • †‡”‹˜‡† ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” Š‡ ƒ†
—ƒ‰ ƒ† Š‡ †‡”‹˜‡† ƒ ‡™ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” „ƒ•‡† ‘ ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘”• ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘”• ƒ”‡ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡••‹‰ •›•–‡• ™Š‘•‡ ƒ”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡• ‡••‡–‹ƒŽŽ› ‹‹… –Š‡ „‹‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ •›•–‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ „”ƒ‹ š˜‹‹‹  ƒ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ‹˜‘Ž˜‡• –Š”‡‡ •–‡’• †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‘ˆ ƒ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ™Š‹…Š …ƒ ƒ……—”ƒ–‡Ž› ’”‡†‹…– –Š‡ ‘……—””‡…‡ ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ˆ‘” ˆ‹‡Ž† …ƒ•‡• ‹ †ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡ —–‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” –‘ ˆ‹† ’‘‹–• ‘ —‘™ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ƒ† …”‡ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” –Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ š‹š ƒŒ‘” †”ƒ™„ƒ… ‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‘”‡” ‘†‡Ž ’”‘’‘•‡† „› Š‡ ‹• ‹–• ‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ „‡ †‹”‡…–Ž› …‘’ƒ”‡† ™‹–Š ƒ …‘˜‡–‹‘ƒŽ ‡–Š‘† •—…Š ƒ• †”—• ‡– ƒŽ ‘”‡ •’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒŽŽ› Š‡ • ‡–Š‘† ”‡“—‹”‡† ƒ ‡š…‡••‹˜‡ —„‡” ‘ˆ ‘†‡Ž ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ƒ† ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡† ’Ž‘–• ƒ‹‰ ƒ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ™‹–Š ƒ …‘˜‡–‹‘ƒŽ ‡–Š‘† ˜‹”–—ƒŽŽ› ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡ ‘ ƒ††”‡•• –Š‡ †‹”‡…– …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ Ž‹‹–ƒ–‹‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ”‡˜‹•‡† Š‡ • ‘†‡Ž „› —’†ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡ †ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡ ƒ† ”‡†—…‹‰ ‘†‡Ž ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”•
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ —•‡† –Š‡ •ƒ‡ •‡– ‘ˆ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ƒ• —•‡† „› †”—• ‡– ƒŽ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ •–‡’ ‘‡ ƒ„‘˜‡ –Š‡ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† „›
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ˆ‘”ƒ–
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ƒ†Š‡”‡• –‘

Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‹†‡š ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡– ‹†‡š Š‡ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• ƒ† ‹• ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ –‡” ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡ ˆ‘” ‡š’”‡••‡† „›

™Š‡”‡

ˆ‘” Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ ˆ‘” ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ ƒ† ˆ‘” ˆ‘” ˆ‘” ƒ”‡ †‡ˆ‹‡† ’”‡˜‹‘—•Ž› ‹ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† ™Š‡”‡  Š‡ •—……‡•• ”ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ™ƒ• †—”‹‰ –”ƒ‹‹‰ ’Šƒ•‡ †—”‹‰ –‡•–‹‰ ’Šƒ•‡

ƒ† ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽ Šƒ• ƒ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• šš

•—……‡•• ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒ–‹‰ Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹ƒ„Ž‡ ˜‡”•—• ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹ƒ„Ž‡ •‹–—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘” –Š‡

‘” •–‡’ –™‘ –Š‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” „‡‰‹• –‘ •‡ƒ”…Š ˆ‘” ’‘‹–• ‘ –Š‡ —‘™ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ –Š‡ ’”‘…‡•• ‹• •Š‘™ …‘…‡’–—ƒŽŽ› ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ˆ –Š‡ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ‘†‡Ž ‘—–’—–• Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ –Š‡ •‡ƒ”…Š ˆ‘” ’‘‹–• ‘ –Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ƒ› ‹…Ž—†‡ ƒ šš‹ †‡…”‡ƒ•‡ ‘ˆ •‡‹•‹… Ž‘ƒ† ’ƒ–Š ‘” ƒ ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ ‹ ‘”ƒŽ‹œ‡† •‘‹Ž •–”‡‰–Š ’ƒ–Š  …‘–”ƒ•– ‹ˆ –Š‡ ‘†‡Ž ‘—–’—–• ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ –Š‡ •‡ƒ”…Š ˆ‘” ’‘‹–• ‘ –Š‡ šš‹‹ ’ƒ–Š ‘” ƒ †‡…”‡ƒ•‡ ‹ ’ƒ–Š „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ƒ› ‹…Ž—†‡ ƒ ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ ‹ •—……‡••ˆ—Ž •‡ƒ”…Š Ž‡ƒ†• –‘ ƒ —Ž–‹†‹‡•‹‘ƒŽ †ƒ–ƒ ’‘‹– …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹œ‡† „› ƒ† ‘ –Š‡ —‘™ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ‘‹–• ™Š‹…Š ˆƒŽŽ ‘ –Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ™‹ŽŽ Šƒ˜‡ ƒ …›…Ž‹… ”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ”ƒ–‹‘ ‡“—ƒŽ –‘ …›…Ž‹… •–”‡•• ”ƒ–‹‘ ˆ ƒ •—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽ —„‡” ‘ˆ †ƒ–ƒ ’‘‹–• Ž‹‡ ‘ –Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡  …ƒ „‡ ‡š’”‡••‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ™Š‹…Š ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹‡• ƒ –™‘ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡” ‘†‡Ž ˜‡” †ƒ–ƒ ’‘‹–• ƒ”‡ ’Ž‘––‡† ˆ‘” ˜‡”•—• ˆ‘” –Š‡ –Š”‡‡ …Žƒ••‡• ‘ˆ •‘‹Ž• †‡–‡”‹‡† „› Š‡ ’Ž‘–• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ‹†‹…ƒ–‡ ƒ ™‡ŽŽ †‡ˆ‹‡† „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ˆ‘” •‘‹Ž• ™‹–Š „—– ˆ‘” •‘‹Ž• ™‹–Š –Š‡ „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ™ƒ• ‘– ƒ• …Ž‡ƒ”Ž› †‡Ž‹‡ƒ–‡† šš‹‹‹ • ƒ ”‡•—Ž–
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ …‘…Ž—†‡ ƒ –™‘ ’ƒ”ƒ‡–‡” ‘†‡Ž ƒ› ‘– „‡ ƒ• ’”‡…‹•‡ ‹ †‡ˆ‹‹‰ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ –‘Ž‡”ƒ…‡ ‘ˆ •‹Ž–› •ƒ†• …Žƒ›‡› •ƒ†• ƒ† ‰”ƒ˜‡Ž•

‹‰—”‡ ‘…‡’–—ƒŽ ‘†‡Ž ˆ‘” ‡ƒ”…Š‹‰ ‘‹–• ‘ ‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‘—†ƒ”› —”˜‡ ˆ–‡”
—ƒ‰ ƒ† Š‡ ‹‰—”‡• ˆ”‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

‹‰—”‡

‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† ‘—†ƒ”› —”˜‡• ƒ•‡† ‘
‡‡”ƒ–‡† ƒ–ƒ ‘‹–• ƒ ‹‰—”‡ ˆ”‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

„

…

‘” –Š‡ –Š‹”† •–‡’ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘” ‘†‡Ž ‡’‹”‹…ƒŽ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘• ˆ‘”  ™‡”‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† „ƒ•‡† ‘ ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘” –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ‹• ‡š’”‡••‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ‘” –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ‹• ‡š’”‡••‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ‘” –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ‹• ‡š’”‡••‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡• –Š‡ ‘•– •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ– ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ™Š‡”‡ƒ• –Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” ‹• Ž‡•• •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ– „‡…ƒ—•‡ ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ ™‹ŽŽ ˆƒ” ‡š…‡‡† –Š‡ Ž‘™‡” „‘—† ‘ˆ Š‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” ‹• ‘•– ƒ……—”ƒ–‡ ˆ‘” Š‘™‡˜‡” ˆ‘” ‘–Š‡” ˜ƒŽ—‡• ™‹–Š‹ ”ƒ‰‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ …ƒ „‡ ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† –‘ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ™Š‡”‡ ƒ† ƒ”‡ ‹‰—”‡ •Š‘™• …—”˜‡• ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡† „›
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ˆ‘” …‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–• †‡ˆ‹‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ˜ƒŽ—‡• ‘ˆ ƒ† ’Ž‘––‡† ‹ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ …—”˜‡• ‰‡‡”ƒ–‡† „› †”—• ‡– ƒŽ •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ’”‡˜‹‘—•Ž› Š‡ –™‘ •‡–• ‘ˆ …—”˜‡• ƒ”‡ ‡ƒ”Ž› ‹†‡–‹…ƒŽ ˆ‘” ƒ† –Š‡ ƒ‹ †‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡• ƒ’’‡ƒ” ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ Ž‹‹–‹‰ —’’‡” ˜ƒŽ—‡• ƒ† Ž‘™‡” ˜ƒŽ—‡• ™Š‡”‡ šš‹˜ Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ† ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡– ‹• ˆ‹”•– –Š‡”‡ ‡š‹•–• ƒ Žƒ… ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ’”‘’‘•‡† „› –Š‡   ™‘”•Š‘’ Š‡ ‘ˆ ƒ •‹Ž–› •ƒ† …Žƒ›‡› •ƒ† ‘” ‰”ƒ˜‡Ž ™‹ŽŽ „‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”‡† ‹–‘ ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡– …‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ –‘ ƒ …Ž‡ƒ •ƒ† Š‡ …Ž‡ƒ •‘‹Ž ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡…‡ ‘ˆ †‡‘–‡† ƒ• …ƒ „‡ ‡š’”‡••‡† ƒ•
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

™Š‡”‡

ˆ‹‡• …‘–‡– ƒ†Œ—•–‡– ˆƒ…–‘” ‡š’”‡••‡† ƒ•

‹‡™‹•‡ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘

‹• ‘†‹ˆ‹‡† ƒ† ™”‹––‡ ƒ• –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

‹‰—”‡ ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ ‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† —”˜‡• „–ƒ‹‡† ‹
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ™‹–Š –Š‘•‡ „› †”—• ‡– ƒŽ ‹‰—”‡• ƒ†

‹‰—”‡ ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‡† ƒ…–‘” ‘ˆ ƒˆ‡–› ƒ ‹“—‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ•‡• „ ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹‡† ƒ•‡• ˆ”‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• ˆ‘”

ƒ’’‹‰ —…–‹‘

—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ „ ƒ’’Ž‹‡† ”‡Ž‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ƒƒŽ›•‹• ƒ† ƒ›‡• –Š‡‘”‡ –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ –Š‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ Š‡ ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š —•‡• ƒ ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ™Š‹…Š …‘””‡Žƒ–‡• ”‡Ž‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹†‡š ƒ† ‘” ˆƒ…–‘” ‘ˆ •ƒˆ‡–› –‘ –Š‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ „ƒ•‡† ‘ ˆ‹‡Ž† ’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ †ƒ–ƒ šš˜ Š‡ ˆƒ…–‘” ‘ˆ •ƒˆ‡–› •Š‘—Ž† „‡ …ƒŽ‹„”ƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ –‘ šš˜‹ ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ƒ›‡• –Š‡‘”‡
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡† ƒ ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ ƒ Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ †‡•‹‰ †‡…‹•‹‘ ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ‹ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡ …‘†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ •‹–‡ ‹ ƒ ‰‹˜‡ ˆ—–—”‡ •‡‹•‹… ‡˜‡– ‹• †‡†—…‡† ˆ”‘ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ ‹ –Š‡ ‡š‹•–‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ„ƒ•‡ ‡š’”‡••‡† ƒ•
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ „

™Š‡”‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ˆ‘” ƒ ‰‹˜‡ •ƒˆ‡–› ‡ƒ•—”‡‡– ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› †‡•‹–› ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹‡† …ƒ•‡• ƒ† ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› †‡•‹–› ˆ—…–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Ž‹“—‡ˆ‹‡† …ƒ•‡• ’’Ž›‹‰ –Š‡ ‡–Š‘† –‘ –Š‡ …ƒ•‡ Š‹•–‘”‹‡• ‹• …‘’—–‡† ƒŽ‘‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡ …‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› †‡•‹–› ˆ—…–‹‘• ƒ† •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ —„•‡“—‡–Ž› —•‹‰ †ƒ–ƒ ’ƒ‹”• ‘ˆ
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ –Š‡ ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ –Š”‘—‰Š ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹•

‹‰—”‡ ‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ —…–‹‘• ‹‰—”‡ Š‡ƒ” ƒ˜‡ ‡Ž‘…‹–› ƒ•‡† ”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› —”˜‡• ‘’ƒ”‡† ™‹–Š ‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… —”˜‡ ‹‰—”‡• ƒ† ˆ”‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ

ƒ†

„ƒ•‡† ƒ’’‹‰

‹‰—”‡ •Š‘™• –Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ”‡’”‡•‡–‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ ’Ž‘––‡† ‹ …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‡–Š‘† ‹ ™Š‹…Š ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• ƒ”‡ ’Ž‘––‡† ˆ‘” šš˜‹‹ ˜ƒ”‹‘—• Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… „‘—†ƒ”› …—”˜‡ ”‡’”‡•‡–‡† „› ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ Šƒ• ƒ ‹–‘ ‡“—ƒ–‹‘ …‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ™Š‹…Š …ƒ „‡ •Š‘™ „› •—„•–‹–—–‹‰ • ƒ ”‡•—Ž– –Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… „ƒ•‡† ‡–Š‘† ‹• ƒ• …‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒ• –Š‡  „ƒ•‡† •‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† ‡–Š‘† „› ‡‡† ‡– ƒŽ ™Š‹…Š ™ƒ• “—ƒ–‹ˆ‹‡† „› ƒ ƒ˜‡”ƒ‰‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ƒ• †‡–‡”‹‡† šš˜‹‹‹ ˜‹ƒ Ž‘‰‹•–‹… ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ’‡”ˆ‘”‡† „› ‹ƒ‘ ‡– ƒŽ ƒ† ‘—† ƒ† ‘„Ž‡ ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› Š‡ ƒ†
—ƒ‰ …”‡ƒ–‡ ƒ ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ˆ‘” ‡‡† ‡– ƒŽ  „ƒ•‡† •‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† ‡–Š‘† ”‡•—Ž–• •Š‘™‡† ƒ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ˆ‘” –Š‡  „ƒ•‡† •‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡† ‡–Š‘† …‘’ƒ”‹•‘ ‘ˆ –Š‡  „ƒ•‡† ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ˆ”‘ Š‡ ƒ†
—ƒ‰ ƒ† –Š‡ „ƒ•‡† ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘ ˆ”‘
—ƒ‰ ‡– ƒŽ ‹• •Š‘™ ‹ ‹‰—”‡ ‘…Ž—•‹‘  –‡”• ‘ˆ –Š‡ –Š”‡‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘†• ƒ† –Š‡ •Š‡ƒ” ™ƒ˜‡ ˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ‹• ˆƒ˜‘”ƒ„Ž‡ ‘ –Š‡ „ƒ•‹• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ„‹Ž‹–› –‘ ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‡ •‹–‡• ™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡ †‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž– –‘ •ƒ’Ž‡ ƒ† –Š‡ †‹”‡…– ”‡Žƒ–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ† •ƒŽŽ •–”ƒ‹ •Š‡ƒ” ‘†—Ž—• ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ› „› ƒ’’Ž›‹‰ ƒ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹… ƒƒŽ›•‹• –‘ –Š‡ †‡–‡”‹‹•–‹… ‡–Š‘† ƒ †”ƒ•–‹…ƒŽŽ› ‹’”‘˜‡† Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ ’”‘…‡•• ‹• †‡”‹˜‡† › —•‹‰ ”–‹ˆ‹…‹ƒŽ ‡—”ƒŽ ‡–™‘”• ƒ† ƒ’’‹‰ ˆ—…–‹‘• –‘ •’‡…‹ˆ› ƒ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹“—‡ˆƒ…–‹‘ ‘……—””‡…‡ ƒ ”‡Ž‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–› „ƒ•‡† ”‡…‘‡†ƒ–‹‘ …ƒ „‡ •–ƒ–‡† ‹ –‡”• ‘ˆ ƒ ˆƒ…–‘” ‘ˆ •ƒˆ‡–›

References i Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 670. ii Zhang, Lianyang. “A Simple Method for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential from Shear Wave Velocity.” Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China. Vol 4, Issue 2. (2010): 178. iii Seed, H.B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L.F. and Chung, Riley M. “Influence of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol 111, No 12. (1985): 1441. iv Youd, T.L., et al. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 10. (2001): 821. v Robertson, Peter K. and Campanella, Richard G. “Liquefaction Potential of Soils Using the CPT.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol 111, No 3. (1985): 385. vi Andrus, Ronald D. and Stokoe, Kenneth H. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils from Shear-Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 126, No 11. (2000): 1016. vii Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 671. viii Seed, H.B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L.F. and Chung, Riley M. “Influence of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol 111, No 12. (1985): 1441. ix Robertson, P.K. and Wride, C.E. “Evaluating Cyclic Liquefaction Potential using the Cone Penetration Test.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Vol 13, Issue 3. (1998) 459. x Zhang, Lianyang. “A Simple Method for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential from Shear Wave Velocity.” Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China. Vol 4, Issue 2. (2010): 178. xi Andrus, Ronald D. and Stokoe, Kenneth H. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils from Shear-Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 126, No 11. (2000): 1015. xii Andrus, Ronald D. and Stokoe, Kenneth H. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils from Shear-Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 126, No 11. (2000): 1017. xiii Andrus, Ronald D. and Stokoe, Kenneth H. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils from Shear-Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 126, No 11. (2000): 1018. xiv Juang, C. H., Rosowsky, David V., and Tang, Wilson H. “Reliability-based Method for Assessing Liquefaction Potential of Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 125, No 8. (1999): 684. xv Juang, C.H., Jiang, Tao, and Andrus, Ronald D. “Assessing Probability-based Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 128, No 7. (2002): 582. xvi Juang, C.H., Jiang, Tao, and Andrus, Ronald D. “Assessing Probability-based Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 128, No 7. (2002): 582.

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Juang, C.H., Jiang, Tao, and Andrus, Ronald D. “Assessing Probability-based Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 128, No 7. (2002): 582. xviii Gob, Andrew T.C. “Seismic Liquefaction Potential Assessed by Neural Networks.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol 120, No 9. (1994): 1468. xix Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 671. xx Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 672. xxi Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 672. xxii Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 672. xxiii Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 672. xxiv Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001):674. xxv Juang, C.H., Jiang, Tao, and Andrus, Ronald D. “Assessing Probability-based Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 128, No 7. (2002): 581. xxvi Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 675. xxvii Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 675. xxviii Juang, C. H., Chen, Caroline J., and Jiang, Tao. “Probabilistic Framework for Liquefaction Potential by Shear Wave Velocity.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol 127, No 8. (2001): 676.

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